Abstract Correlational is a kind of quantitative research to discover relationships between two or more variables. The research guide to understand related events, conditions, and behaviors and to make predictions of how one variable might predict another. The research has four chacacteristics; it is suitable if the variables are complicated or can not be researched by experimental method or can not be manipulated;it is enable in measuring some variables and the relations in advanced for its real condition; the output of the research is a level or the high and low of relation and not the presence or absence of those relation;the researh may predict certain variables based on independent variable. Fields of Correlational Research are Relation Research; Predictive Research; Multivaried Correlation Correlational Research Design are Bivariate correlation; Regression and Prediction;multiple regression;factor analysis; Correlational design to draw a causal conclusion;and system analysis. The research required the main design of problem determination; problem review or literary review; research design or research method; data collecting;data analysis and conclusion. The advantage of the research are; able to investigate the relation among variables simultaneously; and give the information of its level or strength of relation among variables researched; able to investigate some variables intensively and able to do prediction analysis without mass sample. The disadvantage of the research are; the result is just to identify as the way it is and not showing any causalty relation; correlational research is less strict rules since the minority of controlling independent variables; the research oftenly used as short gun approach. I. Introduction Research is a science activity based on problem that needs right solution. In our daily life there are always problem to solve though not all of them will be solved through research. The basic components of a reserch are problem and research purpose thus we may find the right method to solve the problem. In general, research may differ in some aspects; purpose aspect, method aspect, study aspect. According to Gay ( in Sukardi, 2004:13) Purpose aspect consist of basic research and extend. Method aspect consist of descriptive, history research, survey research, ex-postfacto research, and experimental research whereas study aspect as the fields of research consist of educational research and non-educational research (Sukardi, 2004:13-16). Research matter may divide into certain fields like education, health, social, economics, etc. one of the field that need special treatment is education research. Generally there are two kinds of problem solving method in education, they are qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative method collect the data by direct interaction with the research object and the result is not drawn by statistics procedure. Quantitative research collect the data by research instrument that is population and sample hence the result drawn by statistics
Furthermore. mainly caused by correlational research is describing a recent condition. 2009:25). the material with the evaluation etc. a correlational study is a quantitative method of research in which we have 2 or more quantitative variables from the same group of subjects. The research is commonly involve statistics or level of relation that is called correlation (Mc Millan dan Schumacher.
Correlational research is one of quantitative research and is useful as well
important in research in education. Correlational research is a research to find out the relation and stage of relation between two variables or more without any attempt to influence or manipulate those variable. midterm scores and number of body piercings as long as we have scores on these variables from the same participants. researcher may develop them suitable with the purpose of the research. (Faenkel and Wallen 2008:328). and we are trying to determine if there is a relationship or covariation between the 2 variables a similarity between them. those correlation may detect scientific and statistically by correlational
. Nevertheless. A correlational research describe how the variables are correlate. however. In the field of education there are many variables that are correlate each other like teacher and student. Correlational research uses an instrument to decide whether and in which level the relation between two variable or more may be quantitatified. The presence of correlation and level of variable is important since by knowing the level of correlation. According to Gay (1981:183) correlational research may treated as descriptive research. they are outstandingly different from self description or observation study. Correlational Research In general. any 2 quantitative variables can be correlated for example. According to Gay in Sukardi (2004:166) correlation research is one of ex-postfacto research since researcher is usually dismanipulate the variable existed and directly finding out the relation and level of variable that is reflected in correlation coefficient.procedure. it is probably a waste of time to collect and analyze data when there is little reason to think these two variables would be related to each other. II. Theoretically. research method. in Syamsuddin dan Vismaia. not a difference between their means. Fraenkel and Wallen (2008:329) stated that correlation research is included in descriptive research since the research describe the recent condition in quantitative context that is reflected in variable. teacher and the curriculum.
2010) is to detect how far the variations in certain factor relate to variations in one or more other factor based on correlation coefficient. Correlation research is right when the variables are complex and it is impossible to the researcher manipulate and control the variable as in experimental research.Correlational reseaarch limited to the interpretation relation between variables and not to the casuality. The research may used for the next research such an experimtal research (Emzir. The Characteristic of Correlational Research 1. 2009:38). C. 2. they are : 1. Relation Study Relation research. Fields of Correlational Study 1. A. 4. The research is aimed to determine the level or level of relation in a couple of variable or bivariate. relation or plain correlation may use to investigate the relation among the measurement result to two different variable at the same time. or to make it as a prediction. Furthermore the
. It is possible that the researcher may discover significant association level. 2. The research enable in measuring some variables and the relations in advanced for its real condition 3. correlational research is aimed to determine the relation among variables. It is possible that the variable may scaled intensively in the real setting. Correlational study commonly seek some variables that is trusted to have a relation with certain major variable. The researh may predict certain variables based on independent variable. Whereas according to Gay in Emzir (2009:38). 3. According to Sukardi (2004:166) correlation research has three kinds of important characteristics related to the researcher. B. The purpose of Correlational Research The purpose of correlational research according to Suryabrata (in Abidin. The research is suitable if the variables are complicated or can not be researched by experimental method or can not be manipulated. The output of the research is a level or the high and low of relation and not the presence or absence of those relation.
2. In relational research. in the other word. or experience that both is possibly correlated.
. researcher is assuming that such variable may emerge earlier that the other.research is commonly become part of other research as a preliminary to other complex research. For example the multivaried correlation that investigate some variable relation simultaneously is always started by simple relation research to observe how those each variable is related to each other in pairs. asumption. Thus. and other variable that is predicted in correlated with the criteria or the predicator. In predictive research.00 until +1. In this plain correlation research.00 by certain statistics technique based on character from each data variable. Hence both variable is measured in a series. The sorting of both variable must be based on theory. the relation research design is quite plain. or one way relation. researcher just want to research whether or not the variables are correlated. that is the predicted variable or criteria. Hence in doing this research researcher must first determine a pair of variable to be investigated its level of relation. the relation among variable is indicated by the correlation coefficient value. researcher assume that the relation in both
variable is happening in two ways. The research involve correlation calculation among complex attitude. The main difference between relational and predictive lies on the asumption of the variable relation researched. previous research. Predictive Research
Predictive research is focussing in measuring one variable or more that is used to predict things in the future or other variable ((Borg & Gall dalam Abidin. that is by collect two variable score from the same subject group and calculate the coefficient correlation. The coefficient value varied from -1. The value of coefficient correlation is a statistics device to help researcher in understanding the level of relation. Basically. The technique used to determine the level of prediction in both variable is regression analysis that produce regression coefficient value and is signed by R. 2010). other than investigating the relation between two variable. the predictor variable is measured before the criteria variable emerge. without assuming that either variable emerge is earlier than the other. both variable are usually measured in the same time.
the closer the value is to 1. Multiple regression. A medical researcher may want to study the relationship of various risk factors to the development of a group of symptoms. Predicting a complex phenomena by only one factor like predictor variable is producing non accurate result. Multivaried Correlation A Technique to measure and investigate the level of relation among combination of three variables or more is called multivaried correlation technique. this analysis allows us to investigate the relationship between two sets of variables. D. Correlational Research Design Kinds of correlational research design according to Shaughnessy dan Zechmeinter are: 1. The relationship can be positive or negative. and Canonical Correlation would be the appropriate method of analysis. as one value increases. Canonical Correlation is an additional procedure for assessing the relationship between variables. In the negative relationship. For example. the researcher is interested in the relationship between two sets of variables. the more information obtained the better of accuracy can be made. Bivariate correlation Bivariate correlation is a measure of the relationship between the two variables. with actual subsequent social mobility as measured by four different indicators. another value increases with it.3. Hence the increasing of predictor will raise the accuration of criteria prediction. which can range from absolute value 1 to 0. The stronger the relationship. an educational researcher may want to compute the (simultaneous) relationship between three measures of scholastic ability with five measures of success in school. Multivaried correlation has some techniques and two of them are multiple regresion and canonical correlation. In all of these cases. in positive relationship. A sociologist may want to investigate the relationship between two predictors of social mobility based on interviews. the prediction to criteria variable will be more accurate than using each variable independently. it measures the strength of their relationship. the other one decreases. Specifically.
. as one value increases. 2010) by using two combination or more predictor variable. In certain things. (Mc Millan & Schumaker in Abidin.
When no more variables are left that explain a significant amount of variance in the dependent variable.
.2. Which combination of risk taking behaviors [amount of alcohol use.. Regression refer to how well we may raise a prediction.00 or +1. Regression and Prediction When therre are correlation between two variable and we observe the score in one variable. sexual activity.00. Factor analysis
This statistic procedure identifies the presence of variable pattern. a sequential multiple regression selects independent variables. the relationship between the group of predictors and the dependent variables is reassessed. As in coefficient correlation either -1. 3. drug use. and violence—IVs] best predicts the amount of suicide behavior [DV] among adolescents?). one at a time. then the regression model is complete. Consequently it is used when there are several independent quantitative variables and one dependent quantitative variable (e. 5. To produce the best combination of predictors of the dependent variable. As a variable is selected and entered into the group of predictors. Multiple Regresion
Multiple regression identifies the best combination of predictors (IVs) of the dependent variable.g. Most of the variable correlated and the presence of high correlation indicated that a factor is generally important. our prediction may raise better. 4. by their ability to account for the most variance in the dependent variable. the other score of variable may either be predicted. path analysis design is used to determine which line connecting one variable to other variable whereas cross-lagged panel design is measuring two variables in both panel in advanced. Correlational design to draw a causal conclusion There are two design to make statement about cause and effect of using correlational method. They are path analysis design and cross-lagged panel design.
result of a research. The chacacteristic of researchable problem is having a contribution or advantage for some parties. the chosen problem must have a valuable point in complex phenomenon attitude that needs an understanding. problem review or literary study. Problem review or Literary Review
After determining the problem. In preliminary action researcher must determine the problem of the research to be focussed on the study. Problem Determination
Stated that problem in research is a gap between hopes and reality or the objectives that targetted by the researcher. E. the important thing to do in research is literary review that will be base in obtaining theoritical base. reports.
. The researcher may obtain the literary review from various sources like journal. relevant books. newspaper. Despite. logically.
The analysis system design involve complicated mathematics procedure to determine dynamic process as in simulatneous change. hypothesis. is supported by empirical data and suitable with the ability and researcher desire (Sukardi. allocating. research design and research methodology. 2. This may obtained by the previous research. elements and relation trend. the variable involved in the research must consider certain things like theoritically. framework and a temporary assumption determination thus researcher may see. According to Mc Milan and
Achumaker (2003) the stages cover problem determination. the conclusion of seminars or another sources. nevertheless the target has not been reached. In correlational research. article. Main Design of Correlational Research Mainly the correlational research involve a correlation calculation among complex variable with other variable that is taken as predictor variable.6. 1. feedback loop. data collecting. 2004:27-28). organizing. data analysing and conclusion. science magazine. and that the variable has certain relation.
In correlational research. The value of (-) show a negative correlation in variables that is contradictory each other and the value of (+) show a positive correlation in variables that is approaching the same direction (Syamsudin and Vismaia 2009:25)
. Data collecting
Many various instrument is used to measure and collect data in each variable. The result of the analsis is usually reported in coefficient correlation value or regression coefficient as well for the significance level and the variant proporsion of independent variable to dependent variable. Data Analysis
Basically. In correlational research. tes. interview guiance. Whereas in predictive. The subject involved in the research must be meausred in variables that become the research focus. If there are only two variable a regular correlation analysis is used. 5. predictor variable have to be measured a while before the criteria variable emerge to produce a meaningfull criteria prediction. and observation guidance as they’re needed. in example questionnaire. 4. variable
measuring is doing in the same time whereas in predictive research. the technique use is regression analysis to determine the level of predictive ability of predictor variable to criteria variable. if there are more than two variables multiple regression or canonical analysis is used. The data collected by those instrument must be in numbers. Research Design or Research Method In this stage researcher determine the subject of the research and determine how to calculate the data.3. the analysis in correlational research is done by dorrelating the resulat of one variable measurement with another result of variable measurement. bivariate correlation technique based on its data is used to calculate the level of relation among variables. The subject should be homogenous in external factors of variable that is investigated that may influence dependent variable. Those variable relation valued in -1 until +1. The data interpretation in correlational research is when two variable correlated and resulted coefficient correlation with the (r) symbol.
Advantage and Disadvantage of Correlational Research The advantage of correlational research are : its ability to investigate the relation among variables simultaneously. 2010). that is to input data with no tight selection. the correlational is less strict rules since the minority of controlling independent variables. the research is able to investigate some variables intensively and able to do prediction analysis without mass sample.6. and give the information of its level or strength of relation among variables researched (Abidin. 2010). it oftenly used as short gun approach.
. (Abidin. F. Furthermore. compare to experimental.
The conclusion define about the result of descriptive analysis and discus about the matter researched in plain and brief sentence so that easily understood by the reader. The
disadvantage of the research are : the result is just to identify as the way it is and not showing any causalty relation.
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