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A Thesis presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Missouri – Columbia

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science

by

**MARK ANDREW MCCLENDON
**

Dr. Hani Salim, Thesis Supervisor

DECEMBER 2007

The undersigned, as appointed by the Dean of the Graduate School, have entitled the thesis entitled

BLAST RESISTANT DESIGN FOR ROOF SYSTEMS

Presented by Mark A McClendon a candidate for the degree of Master of Science in Civil Engineering and hereby certify that in their opinion it is worthy of acceptance.

________________________________________________ Dr. Hani Salim

________________________________________________ Dr. Sam Kiger

________________________________________________ Dr. Craig Kluever

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Hani Salim, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia. His guidance has been invaluable during the course of this study. His good nature, patience, frankness, and technical expertise had a profound impact on my academic experience and personal goals. I would also like to thank Dr. Sam Kiger, C.W. La Pierre Distinguished Professor and Director of the Center for Explosion Resistant Design, University of MissouriColumbia. His enthusiasm and technical knowledge helped guide this investigation. A special thanks is given to Dr. Perry Green, Technical Director, Steel Joist Institute and especially Tim Holtermann from Canam Steel for donating testing materials and continuous design input. Gratitude is extended to my fellow students, Aaron Saucier, Rhett Johnson, John Hoemann, Tyler Oesch, and others whose efforts were in my favor. Without their hard work and dedication, testing would have been overwhelming. Furthermore, I would like to thank all the members at the University of Missouri who have provided assistance. Finally, I extend my sincerest thanks to my friends who have kept me sane throughout my academic experience, and my family, especially my mother Verna and my aunt Wilhelmina.

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.............................................................................................14 Resistance Functions.....3 2 Review of Literature 2....9 2.......................................................................................4.................2 1.........................................................................8 2...............................................................................16 iii ......................................................ii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS...............2 Single-Degree of Freedom Models...........................................................3 Effects on Structures...................................4 2........3 Thesis Overview........................1 Introduction...............1 Problem Statement.........................................................................................14 2..........5 Roof Systems....2 Equivalent Blast Load...........................5....xiii 1 Introduction 1........2 Types of Blast Loads......1 2...............................................................4.......................................................................................10 CONWEP....2 Thesis Objective..................................4 Blast Resistant Design............................TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.................................................1 2.........14 2.............1 1..................................................................................................vi LIST OF TABLES.......................................5......................................................................................xii ABSTRACT.....................................4 2.....

........1 Introduction................21 3........................3....................................4 Preprocessing............................3 3...........35 3....3...........43 Results (Positive Phase Only) .5 Blast Load Simulations...............3.......4...............................................................................60 3..73 4..72 4 Static Resistance Function of Open Web Steel Joists 4........3 3..........4 Preprocessing.....................................1 3..............................................4 Dynamic Load Simulations...............5......74 iv ...............................32 Loading and Solution...........7 Summary.............................................................................................24 Post Processing........................................................................................................................2 Review of ANSYS LS-DYNA.................................3 Verification of Equivalent Blast Load Procedure 3..............................................................3 3...3.......24 Results...................2 3..............3 Static Load Simulations....................1 3..............22 Loading and Solution..............................19 3.....4.......................................51 Equivalent Blast Loading...................................5.......55 3..................4 Application of Blast Loads........................................................................4.........................1 3...............45 Results (Positive and Negative Phase) .........6 Field Test....................................5.1 Introduction..4..............................2 3.............................2 Analytical Resistance Function................................20 3....5..................................24 3.........................................................................2 3....34 Post Processing..31 3..................35 Results..................................................43 3......................

......3......4......107 REFERENCES..................................................3.........................4 Summary............2 26K5 Joist Test.......86 4......................................................104 5 Conclusion and Recommendations 5.........................................................3....................................4 Testing Samples..................................................1 Conclusions..............78 4..................................................................3.4................................................86 4...................................3 4.4...........2 4...............4..............3..........1 16K5 Joist Test..........................................3......................................................................78 Test Set-Up........................108 v ..105 5...........................2 Recommendations....................................................3.............................1 4..85 Results...3 Experimental Verification.....................80 Testing Apparatus..3 32LH06 Joist Test......99 4................................................93 4.......................

...........................................................................................................................28 Figure 3-6: Static Load #5............................33 Figure 3-10: Dynamic Pulse Load #1.....................................................................................LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 2-1: Generalized Blast Pressure History...........................26 Figure 3-4: Static Load #3..........................................15 Figure 2-7: DAHS Equivalent Loading Technique.......................................................................................6 Figure 2-2: Blast Loading on Structure.. Maximum Load = 375 lb/ft.........27 Figure 3-5: Static Load #4.......................10 Figure 2-4: Idealized Dynamic Response Curves for Triangular Loading...........16 Figure 3-1: BEAM 4 – ANSYS element..............................................................................................................39 vi ................ Maximum loading = 375 lb/ft.........................................16 Figure 2-8: DAHS Equivalent Load...................................................23 Figure 3-2: Static Loading #1............................................................................13 Figure 2-6: Equivalent Load Factor and Blast Wave Location Ratio..................................................8 Figure 2-3: Damped.............. Maximum Loading = 375 lbs/ft..................................................................................................................................................... Single-Degree-of-Freedom System.............................................30 Figure 3-8: Percentage of Error of Max Deflection Location........................................................31 Figure 3-9: BEAM 161 – ANSYS LS-DYNA element.........25 Figure 3-3: Static Load #2............29 Figure 3-7: Percentage Error of Maximum Deflection.......12 Figure 2-5: Equivalent SDOF System...................38 Figure 3-12: Dynamic Load #3.................37 Figure 3-11: Dynamic Load #2...................................................................................................

.......................48 Figure 3-23: Impulse Comparison................46 Figure 3-20: Impulse Comparison..............41 Figure 3-15: Percentage Error in Response Period........50 Figure 3-25: Dynamic Response for Loading Scenario #2.................................................................51 Figure 3-26: Actual Blast Load – Positive and Negative Phase..55 Figure 3-32: TM-855 Equivalent Blast Load............54 Figure 3-31: Response Comparison of Positive Only and Pos..................................................53 Figure 3-30: Response of Scenario #2 – Positive and Negative Phase...................................47 Figure 3-22: Loading Scenario #3....57 vii ....................................................................................................Figure 3-13: Percentage Error in Maximum Response...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................40 Figure 3-14: Percentage Error in Time of Maximum Response........................................................................44 Figure 3-17: Blast Pressure Distribution............52 Figure 3-28: Loading Scenario #2 – Positive and Negative Phase...............................................................................................................................................49 Figure 3-24a: Response Comparison of Loading Scenarios using LS-DYNA...........53 Figure 3-29: Negative Impulse Comparison....................................49 Figure 3-24b: Response Comparison of Loading Scenarios using LS-DYNA (without Scen........................................... #1).....46 Figure 3-19: Loading Scenario #1......... & Negative Data for Loading Scenario #2................................44 Figure 3-18: Actual Blast Loading.....................................52 Figure 3-27: Loading Scenario #1 – Positive and Negative Phase..........................47 Figure 3-21: Loading Scenario #2.........................................................................................................42 Figure 3-16: Locations of CONWEP measurements........................................

..........67 Figure 3-44: Deflection of R1 panel at near quarter-point.........69 Figure 3-46: Deflection of R1 panel at midpoint........................................................72 Figure 4-1: Resistance Function for 16K5 Joist........Figure 3-33: Verification of Equivalent Load Response.....................................................................................63 Figure 3-38: Pressure-time history at 35 ft...............................................................75 Figure 4-2: Resistance Function for 26K5 Joist............................................................................................................66 Figure 3-42: Pressure-time history at 55 ft..........................................................................59 Figure 3-35: FRP Panel Test..........81 viii ..58 Figure 3-34: Comparison of Dynamic Response................................70 Figure 3-47: Deflection of R2 Panel at near quarter-point.................76 Figure 4-4: Maximum deflection of elasto-plastic.....................................................................60 Figure 3-36: Static Resistance Function for FRP Panels.............................................................67 Figure 3-43: Impulse-time history at 55 ft................66 Figure 3-41: Impulse-time history at 45 ft......................68 Figure 3-45: Deflection of R1 panel at far quarter-point..................71 Figure 3-48: Deflection of R2 Panel at far quarter-point....................................64 Figure 3-39: Impulse-time history at 35 ft..............71 Figure 3-49: Deflection of R2 Panel at midpoint.....................................75 Figure 4-3: Resistance Function for 32LH06 Joist..........................................................61 Figure 3-37: Roof Panel Schematic....................................................................................................................................................... one-degree-of-freedom system for triangular pulse load...................................................................................................................................................77 Figure 4-5: Bearing seat plates for 16K5 and 26K5 Joists......................................................................................................................................65 Figure 3-40: Pressure-time history at 45 ft................................................................................................

..........89 Figure 4-17: 16K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 4 of 5 – Continued out-of-plane bending....94 Figure 4-22: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 1 of 5 – Deformation of Tension Chord.................................................................................................................................87 Figure 4-13: 16K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 1 of 5 – Initial bending.........................94 ix ................84 Figure 4-11: 16-Point Loading Tree....................................89 Figure 4-16: 16K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 3 of 5 – Failure of horizontal bridging...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................82 Figure 4-7: Steel Joist Institute Specifications for horizontal bridging................92 Figure 4-21: 26K5 Joist System prior to test................................Figure 4-6: Bearing Seat Plates for 32LH06 Joist......................................................................................................................................86 Figure 4-12: 16K5 trusses prior to testing........................................................................................................................................................................82 Figure 4-8: Lateral bracing – welded to strong floor....90 Figure 4-19: Static Response for 26K5 Joist System..................................................................................................................83 Figure 4-9: Lateral bracing – placement................................................................................................88 Figure 4-14: 16K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 2a of 5 – Failure of lateral bracing....................90 Figure 4-18: 16K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 5 of 5 – Failure of bearing seat weld..............................................88 Figure 4-15: 16K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 2b of 5 – Failure of lateral bracing.............................................................91 Figure 4-20: Midpoint Static Response for an individual 16K5 joist compared to existing methods.84 Figure 4-10: String Potentiometer....

.................................................101 Figure 4-35: 32LH06 Joist – Failure Sequence 1b of 1 – Buckling of Secondary Web Member.........................................................................................................................100 Figure 4-33: 32LH06 Joist System prior to test..................................................Figure 4-23: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 2a of 5 – Failure of End Tension Member..............................96 Figure 4-27: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 4b of 5 – Failure of End Tension Member.........................................................97 Figure 4-29: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 5b of 5 – Connection Plate Failure....95 Figure 4-24: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 2b of 5 – Failure of End Tension Member............................................................................................................................................................95 Figure 4-25: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 3 of 5 – Failure of Secondary Web Member.................96 Figure 4-26: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 4a of 5 – Failure of End Tension Member...97 Figure 4-28: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 5a of 5 – Connection Plate Failure.....................................................................98 Figure 4-30: Static Response for 26K5 Joist System......................101 Figure 4-34: 32LH06 Joist – Failure Sequence 1a of 1 – Compression Web Member Buckling..................99 Figure 4-32: Initial Deformation of 32LH06 Joist....................................................................................................................................................................................................................102 x ...................................................................................................................................................................................102 Figure 4-36: 32LH06 Joist – Failure Sequence 1c of 1 – Continued Buckling and Bending of Tension Chord.......................................................................................................98 Figure 4-31: Midpoint Static Response for an individual 26K5 joist compared to existing methods...........................

..........................................................................Figure 4-37: Static Response of 32LH06 Joist System...............................103 Figure 4-38: Midpoint Static Response of individual 32LH06 Joist comparing existing methods..................................103 xi ...

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Range.............36 Table 3-2: Aspect Ratio............78 xii ...........................................................................44 Table 3-4: CONWEP Blast Data..36 Table 3-3: Peak Pressure vs..77 Table 4-2: Resistance Data from SBEDS Calculations.................................................LIST OF TABLES Table 3-1: Minimum Time Steps by Element Size.......56 Table 4-1: Resistance Data from Engineering Calculations.............................................

a common roof component. This research uses finite element analysis to evaluate the responses from numerically calculated blast loads and compares them to the equivalent loading response. xiii . a procedure has been developed to devise a uniform dynamic load on a roof that matches the response from blast loads. impulsive and non-simultaneous over the length of a roof. This research focuses on the design techniques for the loading on roof structures and the resistance of open web steel joists. Different structural members. such as walls. While the responses from finite element modeling matched the experimental responses. The objective of this research is to test this procedure and compare its results to the deflections from blast loads.ABSTRACT The design of structures to resist explosive loads has become more of a concern to the engineering community. the equivalent loading procedure did not adequately predict the initial peak deflection or the maximum deflection. Blast loads are dynamic. To design against explosions. have been thoroughly evaluated under blast loads. 1992) and the Single-degree-of-freedom Blast Effects Design Spreadsheet (SBEDS) from the Army Corps of Engineers Protection Design Center. The numerical pressures are calculated using the Conventional Weapons Effects Program (CONWEP) (Hyde. the response of experimentally measured roof blast pressures is compared to the equivalent loading response. Also.

are well documented and understood. It is also recommended that an analytical resistance function for OWSJ be clearly defined. and current methods extrapolate techniques used in the design and analysis of hot-rolled steel beams and reinforced concrete. The resistance function currently used for these members are linear elastic and perfectly plastic after the elastic deflection limit. xiv . It is recommended that additional research is to be done on the prediction of blast pressures on roofs and on the development of an equivalent uniform dynamic load.The response of several structural members used in roof construction. Open web steel joists (OWSJ) are other types of common roof components. It is believed that the failure mechanisms of OWSJ significantly are not accurately being taken into account. The resistance function is computed from these results and compared to current methodologies. The current resistance methods calculate larger maximum loads than the experimental values and the assumption of a perfect plastic post-peak response ignores the buckling failure of web members. Three tests consisting of different steel joist pairs are performed. Their responses under loading are not clearly defined. such as hot-rolled steel beams and reinforced concrete slabs. which includes all failure limit states.

1 Problem Statement Many research has been performed on the design of structures under explosive threats. the resistance. and the load. 1967). The analysis of any system with dynamic loads. However. can be generalized with an equation of motion as shown in Eqn. && + R = F (t ) My where M = mass R = resistance F(t) = applied load (1. The design and response for a wall system subjected to blast loading and its components are very well known. 1.1) 1 . such as blast pressure due to a bomb. there is a gap in the knowledge for the roof system component under explosive loads. This equation can be solved by various numerical procedures to calculate the dynamic response (Biggs.1. The parameters in this equation are the mass.Chapter 1 Introduction 1.

open web steel joists are also common roof components. 1992). To achieve this goal. It is believed that such truss systems exhibit different failure modes than those currently used in design. there is a need to explore and validate the methods and results this technique uses. Explosive loads are highly impulsive. Therefore. 1. and they are in a high demand of use due to their low weight and relatively high resistance. as far as the author is aware. the blast pressures are mostly uniform on the entire face of the wall. For walls. pure plastic load-deflection curve. There is currently a loading procedure developed by the Army Corps of Engineers that equate the response from a blast load to the response from an equivalent uniform dynamic load that is more suited to design (UFC. non-simultaneous. However. Current techniques used in design assume a linear elastic. this procedure has not been verified using experimental or numerical data. The resistance of many structural systems used in construction of roof slabs is known. and they can be accurately estimated using available codes such as CONWEP (Hyde. Due to their high use in military and commercial buildings. the resistance and load are more complex. In roof systems.2 Thesis Objective The overall objective of this research is to develop an analysis and design procedure for open web steel joist roof system under blast loading. 2002). current design practices should be researched. and nonuniform. the following two specific tasks are realized: 2 . these loading pressures change with respect to time and with respect to distance.While the mass of any system can be easily calculated. In addition to concrete and hot-rolled steel members.

the equivalent blast loading procedure is compared to field test data of a roof subjected to explosive loads. In Chapter 4. 2002) and compare its validity using numerical simulation and field test data. The equivalent blast load procedure is discussed. the static testing procedure for open web steel joist samples is presented. Chapter 5 summarizes the analysis of the research and presents recommendations for future work. Also.• Analyze the roof loading procedure specified by the United Facilities Criteria (UFC 3-340-01. • Analyze and compare current methods of developing the resistance function for open web steel joists with experimental data using static tests. In Chapter 3 the ANSYS LS-DYNA program is verified for static and dynamic loads before using the program to develop responses for roof models subjected to blast loads. 3 . Finally. This chapter includes an explanation detailing the current knowledge of explosives and blast waves. It also contains numerical integration techniques for dynamic response calculation. The results from the static tests are compared to current resistance function techniques used by design engineers. 1. These responses are compared to the response from the equivalent blast loading. as well as methods for determining the resistance function for open web steel joists.3 Thesis Overview Chapter 2 covers a literature review of the methods and techniques used in the thesis. The failure mechanisms present in open web steel joists are also discussed.

Nuclear fission divides the nuclei of heavy atoms.2 Blast Waves Explosions can be caused by physical. and thermal energy. 2. nuclear. In this chapter current techniques used to describe blast effects will be discussed. Nuclear explosions generate kinetic energy. Vast amounts of energy can be released in short periods by breaking the bonds between protons and neutrons. A common example of a physical explosion occurs when a pressure vessel fails. Pressure is released. or chemical events. internal energy.1 Introduction Understanding and solving the problem statement requires basic knowledge of blast effects and the responses for roof structures. Nuclear fusion combines nuclei from light atoms.Chapter 2 Literature Review 2. 4 . several design methods for roof structures will be introduced. Changing the structure of atomic nuclei produces nuclear explosions. along with fragments of the vessel. In addition.

forms a shock front. on objects encountered (Smith and Hetherington. 3. The shock front travels in a radial direction. Important factors pertinent to burst pressures include the peak pressure. Low-end explosives create quasi-static loads. or for the specific case of air.3 (Smith and Hetherington. the velocity of the shock front. The compressed medium. The blast releases high-pressure gases at high temperatures. and the surrounding medium is consequently compressed (Smith and Hetherington. 1994). This reaction releases heat and produces gas. Examples of some of these equations are shown in Eqns. The general shape of a pulse shape is shown in Figure 2-1. and air density behind the shock front ρs based on the peak overpressure.The rapid oxidation of fuel elements develops chemical explosions. ambient air pressure. The air behind the shock front also places a load. These gases naturally expand. cause shock waves in the medium. the amount of “overpressure” the shock front carries decreases. which expands.2. 5 . This causes the pressure in the shock wave to drop below the atmospheric pressure. such as air or water. 1994).1. There are several derived equations that calculate the shock front velocity Us. the air density behind the shock front. The gases release energy to reach equilibrium towards the atmospheric pressure. a drag force. and the impulse of the blast pressure. 3. As the explosive gases cool and slow their movement. However. 1994). 3. the duration. and the speed of sound in air at the ambient pressure. more expansion is necessary to actually reach equilibrium. the state returns to the atmospheric pressure. peak dynamic pressure qs. After sufficient “underpressure” is expended. High explosives (chemical and nuclear) in a surrounding medium. due to the high pressure and mass of the gases.

Figure 2-1: Generalized Blast Pressure History (TM 5-1300, 1990).

Us =

6 p s + 7 p0 ⋅ a0 7 p0

(2.1)

ρs =

6 p s + 7 p0 ⋅ ρ0 p s + 7 p0

2

(2.2)

5 ps qs = 2( p s + 7 p0 )

where ps = peak static overpressure

(2.3)

p0 = ambient air pressure in front of shock wave ρ0 = air density in front of shock wave a0 = speed of sound in air at air pressure

6

The peak overpressure is related to a factor called the scaled distance, Z (Eqn. 2.4). This is proportional to the distance from the charge and the cubed root of the charge mass. Typically the charge mass is measured in terms of TNT, and other types of explosives are converted to this mass type. As the distance increases, the maximum pressure of the shock wave decreases. The total duration of the shock burst actually increases. It should also be noted that at any particular range, the peak overpressure of the blast wave decays exponentially to the atmospheric pressure (Biggs, 1967).

Z=

R W 1/ 3

(2.4)

where R = distance from blast source W = mass of charge in terms of TNT

When blast waves strike a surface, the overpressure increases. The pressure from the expanding gases build up since there is no medium to compress and displace. Therefore, the burst pressures from a surface explosion are larger than an explosion occurring in the air. The overpressure of a surface burst is approximately twice that of a free-air burst (Smith and Hetherington, 1994). Next, the discussion of blast loads continues to how they affect buildings and objects.

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2.3

Effects on Structures

Three main loading conditions are available, as explained by Smith and

Hetherington, 1994. In the first type a relatively large shock wave reaches a structure relatively small enough that the blast wave encloses the entire structure. The shock wave effectively acts on the entire structure simultaneously. Additionally, there is a drag force from the rapidly moving wind behind the blast wave. The structure is, however, massive enough to resist translation. The second condition also involves a relatively large shock wave and a target much smaller than the previous case. The same phenomena happen during this case, but the target is sufficiently small enough to be moved by the dynamic, drag pressure. In the final case, the shock burst is too small to surround the structure simultaneously and the structure is too large to be shifted. Instead of simultaneous loading, each component is affected in succession. For a typical building, the front face is loaded with a reflected overpressure.

Figure 2-2: Blast Loading on Structure (Forbes, 1999). 8

2002). 2. the blast pressure is reflected and magnified (Forbes. This reflected pressure decays over time. the pressure magnifies due to reflection. 9 . 2006). 1999). In addition to this blast wave diffraction. This means that while the blast pressures change with respect to time. The roof and sides of the building react instead to incident or side-on pressures. Also. drag forces load the structure (UFC.As stated in the previous section. This can range from simplified hand calculations to utilizing computer programs programmed to deal with complex loading and resistances. Blast pressures simultaneously affect walls with the same pressure-time history on the entire wall area. the pressures converge on the back of the building. these pressures are evenly distributed on every portion of the wall. a reflecting effect amplifies the overpressure. Again. the incident pressure attenuates as it transverses the roof and sides. due to the perpendicular orientation of the front wall to the shock wave. as shown in Fig 2-2. Any method used takes into account the knowledge of blast loads described in the previous section and the component resistances that make up the structure (Morison. Air molecules are stopped by this material and compressed further by the shock front behind them.4 Blast Resistant Design Engineers employ several different methods for the structural design of structures resisting blast loads. After the roof and sides are surpassed. In the presence of a sloped roof. reflected pressure accumulated when the blast wave meets material denser than the medium in which it is traveling. Similar to how the peak pressure decays and load duration grows as the range from the charge increases.

The equation of motion for a linear elastic. 1967).4. 10 . The resistance at this point is also taken as the resistance for the entire structure. This model idealizes an entire structure or structural component as one point in the structure. Single-Degree-of-Freedom System. && + ky + cy & = F1 [ f (t )] My where M = mass of structure k = structural stiffness c = damping coefficient F1 = constant force value f(t) = nondimensional time value (2.5) y M F1 Figure 2-3: Damped.2. damped single-degree-offreedom system follows (Biggs.1 Single-Degree-of-Freedom Model The first explosive design methods are based on the single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model.

Integral (Eqn. This gives the deflection-time history. reissued in 1965 as TM 5-855-1 and not superseded until 1986. It also undercalculates the deflection response and reaction response (Morison. or Convolution. The most notable dynamic load used was a triangular load with zero rise time. Normalized curves were created to aid in calculation of maximum deflection for various dynamic loads and linear elastic.The dot superscripts represent partial derivatives with respect to time. In this method.6). turns up in a 1946 manual “Fundamentals of Protective Design (Non-Nuclear)” EM 1110-345-405. the damping coefficient is assumed to be zero. The first technique. An example of this non-dimensional chart is shown. 2. 11 . the Modal SDOF method. This method only analyzes simplified systems and was not ideal for more general loading histories and resistance functions. 1967). two dots mean acceleration.6) where y0 = initial displacement & = initial velocity y ω = circular frequency ≡ k/M yst = static deflection ≡ F1/k f(τ) = non-dimensional load-time function The military has used two main SDOF methods to deal with explosive threats. On dot signifies velocity. y = y 0 cosωt + ω & y sin ωt + y st ∫ f (τ ) sin ω (t − τ )dτ 0 t (2. The equation simulates the response of lumped mass-spring system (Biggs. 2006). Solution of this equation (without damping) leads to Duhammad’s. the response period is taken as the natural period of the first mode under free vibration. pure plastic resistance curves. For simplicity.

and loading for the lumped mass-spring system based on the distribution of the structure’s mass and the system’s loading. transformation factors can be found to change the system’s mass. Using the conservation of kinetic energy. resistance. 1967). The equivalent SDOF method was widely published in 1957 in parts of the USACE manual “Design of Structures to Resist the Effects of Atomic Weapons”. 12 . internal strain energy and external work. resistance and loading into their lumped mass counterparts. usually the middle point of a structure (Biggs. These transformation factors are also based on the deflected shape function of the system as a whole from a particular reference point. EM 1110-345-415 “Principles of Dynamic Analysis and Design”. While the Modal SDOF method uses the actual mass and loading in the system. 2006).Figure 2-4: Idealized Dynamic Response Curves for Triangular Loading (Morison. and EM 1110-345-416 “Structural Elements Subjected to Dynamic Loads”. this alternative method determines equivalent values of mass.

Accurate shape functions result in accurate solutions. The static deflection shape under the same loading distribution as the dynamic load is relatively easy to calculate and results in very accurate answers.6b. Analysis of the equation allows for the use of only one transformation factor KLM. 1967). This can be solved in the same manner as the Modal SDOF models. the ratio of the mass factor to the load factor. & = Fe (t ) M e && y + ke y or (2.6b) where KM = mass transformation factor KL = load/resistance transformation factor M = total mass k = stiffness F = total load p k Δ Figure 2-5: Equivalent SDOF System. The equation of motion for this equivalent SDOF system is given in Eqns.6a and 2. 2. the solution becomes more approximate and more errors are entered.6a) && + K L ky & = K L F (t ) K M My (2. It should also be noted that the transformation factors for load and resistance are the same (Biggs. 13 y . When the shape function is not as well known.

more importantly. The drag coefficient is a function of the dynamic pressure. 2. The loading function and. This program only computes data corresponding to the positive pulse of a blast load. This program outputs parameters of the pressure-time history including side-on and reflected pressure.5 Roof Systems This section discusses design techniques for roof systems subjected to blast loads.2 CONWEP The Conventional Weapons Effect Program (CONWEP) (Hyde. positive phase duration. Looking at the general equation of motion. The shape of this load is a triangular pulse with an unequal rise and decay times. and peak dynamic pressure. time of arrival. 2. The equation is shown in Eqn.4.1 Equivalent Blast Load The Unified Facilities Criteria 3-340-01 (which supersedes Army Manual TM 5855-1/Airforce AFPAM 32 1147/NAVYFAC P-1080/DSWA DAHSCWEMAN-97) formulates an equivalent uniform blast loading for the roof and sidewalls of a structure. This equivalent load is calculated using values from the CONWEP program. shock front velocity. 14 . 2. incident and reflected impulse. which is the ratio of the length of the blast wave at the back of the roof to the length of the roof.5.2. The load factor is a function of the Lwb/L.7. the mass of a structure is a well-known value. 1992) uses blast test data and empirical equations to calculate load data for different types of explosives with varying loading sequences. the resistance are the less realized components. Different methods for determining these quantities are presented.

2-8. tb and tofb. tf is the time the shock wave hits the roof. respectively. demonstrates that the maximum pressure on the roof takes time to build. Using Fig. The loading ends after the blast wave reaches the end of the roof and the duration of the loading expires. 2002). Figure 2-6: Equivalent Load Factor and Blast Wave Location Ratio (DAHS. The time to reach the peak pressure point is defined as td. The length of the shock wave is calculated from the shock front velocity and the positive phase duration of the shock front. where D is the point on the roof where the peak pressure is said to occur. as shown in Fig. the changing pressure-time history accumulates to a peak value. the load factor and the ration of D/L can be computed.7) CONWEP data is taken at a range equal to the radial distance from the blast source to the back of the roof. The shape of the loading function. 15 . 2-6. In Fig. 2-8. As the shock front transverses the roof.Por = C E Psob + Cd q ob where Por = peak pressure Psob = peak incident pressure at back of roof CE = equivalent load factor qob = dynamic pressure at back of roof Cd = side-on element dynamic drag coefficient (2.

2 Resistance Function There are several different types of roof structures. 16 . 2.5. 1990). Some types include concrete slab and I-beam composites. Figure 2-8: DAHS Equivalent Load (TM 5-1300. purlins and decking.Figure 2-7: DAHS Equivalent Loading Technique. steel joists. open web steel joists (OWSJ) and metal decking.

For these systems, the I-beam and the steel truss are the significant components with respect to design. The behavior of I-beams is well-known and documented. However, the response of open web steel joists to failure is not well documented. Conventional engineering designs assume a simple bilinear linearly elastic, perfect plastic resistance function. The Steel Joist Institute (SJI) has developed charts to ascertain the maximum allowable load per length for every truss as a function of joist type and length (SJI, 2005). The allowable deflection is L/360, where L is the effective joist length. In addition, the Steel Joist Institute provides an equation for the approximate joist moment of inertia, based on the maximum live load and the effective length of the truss. This equation is described in Eqn. 2.8. The derivation for this moment of inertia originates from the stiffness of a simply supported beam under a uniform load and includes a 15% increase in deflection due to elongation in the truss web. Along with the equivalent SDOF method, current engineering practices define a resistance function shape for use in design.

I j = 26.767( w LL )( Lspan ) 3 (10 − 6 )

(2.8)

where wLL = maximum allowable live load of joist (lb/ft) Lspan = effective length (ft)

A current engineering method of deriving the resistance formula takes into account the properties of the joist members and the Steel Joist Institute load specifications. The truss can be designed as a simply supported beam with a uniformly distributed load. Using the design tensile strength of the web members as a limit, the elastic section modulus of the joist cross-section can be computed.

17

Using this value and the joist material characteristics, an effective moment capacity can be computed. The maximum moment for a simply supported beam under uniform load can be determined from the load and the length of the beam. Included into this maximum moment calculation are strength increase factors for the joist materials. Using this relationship, the ultimate resistance can be computed. Similarly, using the deflection equation for the same system, the stiffness and elastic deflection limit can be calculated. The maximum response is calculated using numerical techniques and/or idealized charts based on the ratios of load duration to the joist period and resistance magnitude to the forced load magnitude. SBEDS (2004) uses a slightly different approach. For one, the moment of inertia is calculated from the actual cross-sections of the joist, including the top chord, the bottom chord, and some factor for the web. These calculations prove to result in higher moments of inertia for a given steel truss compared to the Steel Joist Institute’s approximate calculation. The program defines a value Lshear, which is the maximum joist length designed according to SJI with the maximum total allowable load. For K-Series joists this maximum total load is 550 lb/ft. For the deeper joists LH and DLH, this maximum shear load is based on individual truss and is detailed in the SJI Load Tables document. The effective moment capacity is calculated from the maximum shear load and the Lshear quantity, assuming a simply-supported beam with a distributed load. SBEDS program back-calculates a resistance value from the joist length and effective moment capacity. This resistance value is also factored using strength increase factors. The elastic deflection limit and stiffness are calculated using the simply supported beam assumption mentioned earlier.

18

Chapter

3

Verification of Equivalent Blast Load Procedure

3.1

Introduction

Blast loads are dynamic, impulsive, and non-uniform. An experimental blast load

has been formulated to emulate the response of a blast load acting on a roof system. This loading resembles a triangular pulse with a rise time and decay time. This loading shape has been in use for over fifty years. With the advent of more advanced computer technology and finite element analysis programs, current techniques for expressing blast loads on the roofs of structures can be evaluated. This chapter explains the programs and procedures used in blast and dynamic loading estimation.

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and degrees of freedom. John Swanson (Swanson Analysis Systems. These regions. size. also called finite elements. heat transfer problems. Inc. The product ANSYS LS-DYNA is a result of the partnership between ANSYS. explosive simulations. and Livermore Software Technology Corporation and was first introduced in 1996. ANSYS was created in 1970 by Dr. 20 . This is a student level version meant for academic use. drop test problems. It is an explicit non-linear structural simulation used for dynamic analyses. and shape of the elements control the program results. Inc. are linked and controlled by several governing equations.0 is used in this research. including impact test simulations. ANSYS is able to construct static and dynamic structural analysis (both linear and non-linear). This is applicable for structures experiencing large deformations and short time durations. simpler discrete regions. The program ANSYS ED Release 9. The computer solves these equations simultaneously using different numerical schemes to express the behavior of the structure as a whole. fluid flow problems. It supports many of the capabilities present in the full version of ANSYS Multiphysics with some limitations on types and size of elements. and metal forming. compatibility equations and constitutive relations. In general the number. material types. acoustics. including equations of equilibrium.).3. and electromagnetic analyses.2 Review of ANSYS Program Finite element analysis is a numerical method of deconstructing a structure or system into smaller.

The next sections depict the methods used for static and dynamic loads. physical constraints and different loading types can be positioned on the model. First. The number. Its dimensions were 4” x 18” x 20’. completing a solution. and post processing. or contour plots. The ANSYS program includes a graphical user interface (GUI) to aid in executing these steps.3 Static Load Simulations The ANSYS program was used to compare deflection curves derived from kinematic boundary conditions with the results obtained from ANSYS finite element modeling. The entire structure can be modeled or parts of the structure can be modeled. The system can now be discretized into elements.or three-dimensional model of the structure or system has to be formed. isotropic BEAM-type element was used in the modeling. a two. These analyses are also beneficial in validating the use of ANSYS in analytical experimentation. Symmetry can also be used to simplify the construction of the model. graphs. These results can be illustrated using tables. Next. Once the system is idealized into finite elements with their own properties. The material of the beam is modeled as steel.For ANSYS use. The user directs the program to solve the problem and output results. A linearly elastic. static and dynamic analyses were performed using simple models. The beam was modeled as being simply supported. 3. the different material properties that make up the model have to be described and applied to the model’s geometry. size and type of element is based on the analysis type and the user’s judgment. To gain confidence in ANSYS. 21 . three main steps must be performed – preprocessing.

The GUI offers an automated section development that allows users to choose the shape of the element cross-section and it’s dimensions. y. 22 . a set of real constants is inputted. For different elements. This element is used in static analyses to simulate the reactions of an elastic. and the mass density per unit length. torsion. Different material models for several structural materials are available in the ANSYS program. and z directions and rotations in the local x-. For BEAM4 elements. The modulus of elasticity (and also the mass density) is chosen for this particular material type. isotropic material model was used. Each node (shown as I and J in Fig. This technique is commonly used during the loading stage to determine on which face to apply the load. compression. the ANSYS program supplies different ways of detailing each section. The numbers depict the six different surfaces on the element.3. These constants include the cross-sectional area.3. a linear elastic. the cross-sectional dimensions. It is described as a “uniaxial element with tension. and z-axes. 3-1) has six degrees of freedom from translations in the local x.” The element contains two nodes at either end.1 Preprocessing The element type used in this analysis is called BEAM4. y-. For this model. Figure 3-1 shows the rotational aspects of the beam element. and bending capabilities. untapered section in 3D. the weak and strong moments of inertia.

2004). This will apply elements along the line’s geometry. keypoints are chosen as the locations of the beam’s ends. The user can apply the real constants and material attributes to the element mesh and use some node K to orient the elements. and elements.Figure 3-1: BEAM 4 – ANSYS element (ANSYS. For the creation of a simple beam. A third keypoint is also drawn to define the orientation of the element. The user defines the number and size of the finite elements. The line is then meshed into the number of prescribed elements. In the Figure 3-1 this point is denoted as node K. lines. The next step is to mesh the line. The ANSYS ED version limits the number of possible nodes. A straight line is drawn between these keypoints. 23 .

the node at the other end of the beam is constrained in the x and y direction. A list of the nodes and positions in the global directions can be provided. or 240 beam elements. 40 beam elements. three test beams were modeled. Next. The tests were designed to determine how the finite element model deflection compared to expected results and how discretization of the model affects results. Each beam was divided into a different number of segments.3. 3. 24 .3. Each configuration contained only distributed loads. 6” segments. the node at one end of the beam is constrained from movement in the x. or conversely 20 beam elements. To that effect. For each static loading. Each static load was tested on a beam model consisting of 1’ segments.3 Post-Processing ANSYS provides several post processing options.3. loads are placed on one surface of the beam elements to simulate bending about the weak axis of the beam’s cross-section. 3. A contour of the stresses in the beam model can be generated.2 Loading and Solution The structure under consideration is a simply supported beam. respectively. or 1” segments. and z directions. or a graphical representation of the original and deflected position of the model can be drafted.4 Results Five different static load configurations were tested. This model is then solved.3. y.

The shape of the results is consistent with known kinematics. This loading also results in the greatest amount of deflection from all five curves. The displacement of the beam reaches maximum in the center of the beam. Load (plf) 25 . 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 Distance from Support (ft) 15 20 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 Distance from Support (ft) Defl. From the graph. The loading amount is designed to result in a discernable deflection curve. the expected deflection curve as well as the different curves from the three test beams are fairly accurate. Maximum loading = 375 lb/ft. 1' Beam Elements 6" Beam Elements 1" Beam Elements Deflection (in) Figure 3-2: Static Loading #1. Eqn. while keeping the stress of the beam in the elastic range. there appears to be little difference between the calculated values and each ANSYS test. as expected. As can be seen in Figure 3-2.The first static load is a uniform static load.

Eqn 1' Beam Element 6" Beam Element 1" Beam Element Figure 3-3: Static Load #2. Maximum Load = 375 lb/ft. Little difference can be discerned from the different test beams in this graph. The total load on the beam is half that of the uniform loading. The maximum loading is located in the center of the beam. The total load of this curve is the same as that of Static Load #2.The next static load is a triangular loading that decays over the length of the beam. the centroid of the loading is at the center of the beam’s length and it is balanced about the center of the beam. 3 2. Due to the centroid of the loading. The displacements for the three ANSYS tests also appear fairly close to expected answers. The final two static loads are neither symmetrical nor are they continuous along the beam. and the range of the displacement reflects this. However. The third static load is also triangular. however it rises to a peak halfway across the beam’s length and descends the rest of the length to zero. the maximum deflection is off the center of the beam’s length. 26 .5 1 0.5 0 0 5 10 Distance from Support (ft) 15 20 400 Load (plf) 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 20 Distance from Support (ft) Defl.5 Deflection (in) 2 1.

27 .5 0 0 400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 Distance from Support (ft) 20 5 10 Distance from Support (ft) 15 20 Figure 3-4: Static Load #3. While the deflection curves of the previous three static loads can be easily found in a book or manual (AISC. Also.4 3. Eqn. the kinematic boundary conditions of the beam state that the slope and deflection must be continuous along the beam and at the changes in loading. and the maximum beam dislocation is located about an inch from the center of the beam’s length. and the deflection is in the right scale. Static Load #4 consists of three varying uniform loads acting on three different equal length sections of the beam.5 1 0. The total load is little more than half of Static Load #1.5 3 Deflection (in) 2. Maximum Loading = 375 lbs/ft. 2001). The general shape of the displacement curves is customary to the expected results. The load’s center of gravity is about 9’ from a support.5 Load (plf) Defl. 1' Beam Element 6" Beam Element 1" Beam Element 2 1. the derivation of the deflections for Static Loads #4 and #5 involves calculating the internal moment in the beam and integrating twice.

Again. The test with the smallest element length (conversely the largest number of elements) appears to coincide with that of the deflection equation. due to the loading schematic. As can be seen by the deflection curves of Static Load #4.The curves for the 1’ length beam element and for the 6” length beam element are discernable Figure 3-5 around the center of the beam.5 1 0. 28 . The curves all underestimate the deflection. Eqn. 1' Beam Element 6" Beam Element 1" Beam Element Deflection (in) Figure 3-5: Static Load #4. and the curves reflect this. but they arrive closer to the expected value as the element size increases. along with one extra section that remains unloaded. Static Load #5 has similar results. the location of maximum deflection is offset from the center. 3 2. It is made up of three different uniform loads acting on equal length sections of the beam. the 1’ beam segment overestimates and the 6” curve underestimates the expected result.5 0 0 5 10 Distance from Support (ft) 15 20 Load (plf) 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 20 Distance from Support (ft) Defl. It can also be seen that the difference in expected and calculated values decreases with increased discretization.5 2 1.

5 0.75 Load (plf) Defl. In addition. the continuous loads have less error than discontinuous loads.25 Deflection (in) 1 0.25 0 0 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 20 Distance from Support (ft) 5 10 Distance from Support (ft) 15 20 Figure 3-6: Static Load #5. for the most part.1. To further examine this. as expected. The ANSYS results appear to resemble the expected values. the maximum deflection and the locations of maximum deflection are compared to the derived deflection equation.5 1. As can be seen from Figures 3-2 through 3-6. the percentage of error decreases as the element size decreases. 1' Beam Element 6" Beam Element 1" Beam Element 0. the symmetrical loads (Static Loads #1 and #3) have very small deviations from the expected values. Eqn. 29 . And.

5.50% 2. 30 . The smaller the element. For each loading. and so accuracy of the displacement and location of displacement is limited by the length of an element. the location along the beam model of the maximum displacement is compared.50% 0. The number of elements in the model determines the number of nodes in the beam. For Static Loads #1 and #3.00% 0.00% Error 2. Each node is spaced the length of an element. the location of the maximum deflection is no more than half a foot from the center of the beam.00% 1.50% 3. The closest the 1’ beam element models can measure is 1’. the more accurate the measurement is. so there is a relatively larger error for every loading.50% 4.00% 3.Finally. so there is no error for any beam model.50% 1.00% 1' 6" Element Size 1" Static Load 1 Static Load 2 Static Load 3 Static Load 4 Static Load 5 Figure 3-7: Percentage Error of Maximum Deflection.00% 4. the maximum deflection is located at the center of the beam.

From these tests. a sub-program called LS-DYNA exists in ANSYS that is more suited towards explicit solutions and dynamic loads that are applied over short durations.50% 1.50% 2. However. If available. ANSYS has more graphical support than LS-DYNA.4 Dynamic Load Simulations The ANSYS program can be also be used to model structures subjected to dynamic loadings.50% 3. 3.00% 1' 6" Element Size 1" Static Load 1 Static Load 2 Static Load 3 Static Load 4 Static Load 5 Figure 3-8: Percentage of Error of Max Deflection Location.5. data points). LS-DYNA computes solutions faster than ANSYS and can supply more information (i. 31 .00% 1. The following section details the process of evaluating the dynamic analysis capabilities of ANSYS. it can be concluded that ANSYS provides good values for displacement. with less than 5% error.50% 0.00% 4.00% 3. On the other hand.00% 0.e.00% Error 2. but larger element sizes can give reasonable answers.50% 4. the smaller element results in close to exact answers.

It can model beams of different crosssection shapes. and can be used to model isotropic. An equivalent single degree of freedom (SDOF) model was used to determine both the maximum deflection of the beam under a uniformly loaded dynamic load and the shape of the time-history curve of this deflection.The LS-DYNA program is used to verify the maximum deflection of a simply supported beam under different pulse loadings. BEAM 161. linear elastic materials. consists of a node at either end of the element (I and J) and an orientation node (node K) on a different line than that of the beam direction. These latter are not technically degrees of freedom.4. The cross-sectional dimensions are defined as real constants. Also. 32 . The modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio can be inputted. This maximum value and the shape of the graph as a whole were compared to the LSDYNA results. but are computed and stored as such. the material properties of the beam are defined. 3. the magnitude and duration of the dynamic load were constant for each pulse loading. A Hughes-Liu beam element assumes a constant moment along its length and detects stresses in the center. A Belytschko-Schwer element generates a linearly changing moment along the element and measures stresses at either end. The same beam dimensions from the static tests were used. The BEAM 161 element has two main methods of calculation. This element is used for explicit dynamic analyses only. Next.1 Preprocessing The beam element used in this analysis. Each node has six physical degrees of freedom – translation and rotation in three directions – and also three nodal velocity degrees of freedom and three nodal acceleration degrees of freedom.

For this model.Figure 3-9: BEAM 161 – ANSYS LS-DYNA element. 33 . After construction of the line keypoints and line. at the very least the beam model has to be divided into 2 elements. A third keypoint that is not collinear with either endpoint is also necessary for element orientation. with a Young’s modulus of 30 x 106 psi and a Poisson’s ratio of 0. Also. the weight of the structure is considered a necessary value. This is necessary from a practical point to have a node in the center of the beam to measure the maximum deflections. So. The beam can be modeled very simply with a line drawn between two keypoints. the material was assumed to be steel. because this is an explicit solution. another material property is the mass density.3. the beam can be meshed into the desired number of elements with the set material and geometrical properties. The line that makes up the beam can be divided into a certain number of elements or a particular element size. therefore.

The two other loadings tested are triangular pulse loads. The second pulse loading has an equal time to rise from zero and time to decay to zero. The elements that make up the beam can be defined as components where the loads will be acting. The second triangular load is also used for comparison and is similar to the equivalent loading of a roof structure subjected to a blast load.3. All three dynamic loads have equal magnitudes and durations. The test beam is designed as a simply supported. These pulse loads were inputted into the model as array parameters. The duration of the analysis can then be specified and the program can be directed to output ANSYS solutions or LS-DYNA solutions. Two arrays are defined for each load. ANSYS solutions have a limit of 100 points and are usually used to examine the deflection of an entire structure at a specific time. One array gives the time values and the other the load values. A rectangular pulse loading with instantaneous acceleration was tested because it is a very simple. The first triangular pulse load is an instantaneous loading with a linear decay to zero. The loads were all linear. The pulse loads are uniformly distributed across the length of the beam. and are set to act in the center of the beam’s cross-section. 34 . and so translational constraints are put on the endpoints. The program interpolates the points between those given. uniform load. and very few points need to be inputted.4. The first triangular pulse loading allows for comparison to results with the rectangular loading and is similar to the pulse loading from a blast load.2 Loading and Solution Three different pulse loadings were used to test the dynamic load capabilities of LS-DYNA.

3.1) where L = length of element c = wave propagation velocity 35 . 10 elements. 1’. The purposes of these tests do not necessitate a very large number of output points. 3’ 4”. For these tests the time history of the center node of the beam is graphed. The LS-DYNA program calculates the time steps used in the numerical integration based on the dimensions and properties of the beam and the element length (ANSYS. 20 elements. 2004).4. Δt = 0. 40 elements. 3. and 240 elements. 6 elements.3 Post-Processing ANSYS has the capabilities to display the deflection of the entire beam model at a particular time.The LS-DYNA solutions have a limit of 1000 points. The length of time under investigation should be the length of at least half a response period.9 L c (3.4 Results For each dynamic load the model divides the beam into sets of 2 elements. 6”. or graph the displacement time history of a particular node on the beam. or element lengths of 10’. and because of their large size are usually limited to observe the time history of important points or nodes on the beam. and 1” respectively.4.

36 . Number Element Smallest Length Time Step of (sec) (ft) Elements 2 120 0. Number Length: of Depth Elements Ratio 2 30:1 6 10:1 10 6:1 20 3:1 40 3:2 240 1:4 As can be seen.342E-05 40 6 2. and used and corresponding time steps. 3.0005342 6 40 0. 3. The following table shows the number of beam elements. Six models were used with different lengths of beam element.2) where E = modulus of elasticity ρ = mass density The wave propagation velocity (Eqn.0001781 10 24 0. the more elements in a beam (i.451E-06 Table 3-2: Aspect Ratio.c= E ρ (3.2) is calculated from the Young’s Modulus and density of the beam.671E-05 240 1 4. and the smallest time step (Eqn. It must be noted that too small of a time step could lead to a numerical instability in which the solution is not bounded and the resulting deflection approaches infinity.e. It would be assumed that the smaller the time steps used in numerical integration. For all models the element length is uniform. the smaller the time steps are.0001068 20 12 5. the more accurate the solution would be. respective lengths. the shorter the element length). This was not encountered in this investigation. Table 3-1: Minimum Time Steps.1) used in the program is the ratio of the smallest element length in the model and the propagation velocity.

2. Dynamic Load #1 is a rectangular pulse load with an instantaneous rise and decay. 37 .The ANSYS test data was compared to a time history calculated using a single degree of freedom (SDOF) model and load and mass factors to correct for the shape of the load and the shape of the beam (refer to Sec. the more warped the graphs become.2 1 0. the more elements modeled. Coincidentally. The beginning curvature of the graphs demonstrates zero initial displacement and zero initial velocity. Subsequent decreases in element length arrive to a more accurate response.6 0. However. 1. Several deflection time history curves are shown in Figure 3-10. this is the result without including the load and mass factors. The period response also becomes more and more exact. The beam model with two elements and only one node between the endpoints drastically underestimates the response.4.1 for details). Using six elements results in a displacement within 20% of the theoretical response.4 0.2 0 0 -0.8 Deflection (in) 0.2 Time (msec) 10 20 30 40 2 elem (LS-DYNA) 6 elem (LS-DYNA) 20 elem (LS-DYNA) 240 elem (LS-DYNA) Duhammad's Integral Load (plf) 400 200 0 0 2 4 Time (msec) 6 50 60 70 80 90 Figure 3-10: Dynamic Pulse Load #1.

38 .2 0. The accuracy of the answer increases with the decrease in element length.4 Deflection (in) 0. This displays the precision of the ANSYS program. Again.1 0 0 10 20 400 300 200 100 0 0 2 4 Time (msec) 6 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 -0. 0.3 Load (plf) 2 elem (LS-DYNA) 6 elem (LS-DYNA) 20 elem (LS-DYNA) 240 elem (LS-DYNA) Duhammel's Integral 0. Unfortunately.1 Time (msec) Figure 3-11: Dynamic Load #2. The maximum displacement is less than that of the first dynamic loading. The response period is the same. The time history curves resemble those for Dynamic Load #1. 3-11).6 0. which is the expected result. the graphs show a zero initial deflection and a zero initial velocity (Fig. the waviness affects the time of maximum deflection. In addition to the shape.Dynamic Load #2 is a triangular pulse load with an instantaneous rise and a linear decay to zero.5 0. which is consistent with the period of Dynamic Load #1 and with the natural period of the beam model. the curves also become more and more wavy with the addition of elements. This causes a difference between the calculated and expected time of maximum response.

it is an impulsive sensitive system. Due to the beam model’s properties.3 0. The elements with aspect ratios less than 5:1 are specified as deep beams.2 0. measures 4 inches. The ANSYS code chosen was designed only for regular beams. The similar shapes are due to the accuracy of the analysis. and have different kinematic and equilibrium conditions than those of regular beams. The depth of the beam. and thus the depth of each element.6 0. The close responses result from the equal impulse of the pulse loads. The time history curves are very similar to that of Dynamic Load #2 in terms of shape and magnitude.Dynamic Load #3 is also a triangular pulse load with an equal time to rise and time to decay.1 0 0 -0.4 Deflection (in) 0. 0. The resistance of the beam is less related to the peak load than to the pulse’s impulse.5 0.1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 400 Load (plf) 200 0 0 2 4 Time (msec) 6 2 elem (LS-DYNA) 6 elem (LS-DYNA) 20 elem (LS-DYNA) 240 elem (LS-DYNA) Duhammel's Integral Time (msec) Figure 3-12: Dynamic Load #3. 39 . and the aspect ratio of the smallest beam element is 1:4. The aspect ratio of the largest beam element (as shown in Table 3-2) is 30:1. The shape of the curves relates to the aspect ratio of the beam elements.

40 . Unfortunately.To further explore the ANSYS results. time of maximum response. They are compared according to the number of finite elements and the type of loading. Figure 3-14 presents the error in calculating the time of maximum deflection. the accumulation of elements past that level also increases the amount of error. The beam model results in a value within 3% of the SDOF model’s prediction. This trend is common for every pulse load. Figure 3-13 shows a clear decrease in maximum deflection error with an increase in element number. and period are compared to the expected values. 60% 50% Dynamic Load #1 40% Error 30% 20% 10% 0% 2 6 Dynamic Load #2 Dynamic Load #3 10 20 Number of Elements 40 240 Figure 3-13: Percentage Error in Maximum Response. The error in the magnitude of maximum displacement for the 20-element beam is less than 2% for all loads. the maximum deflection.

the period of response is examined for the test beams. 41 . Figure 3-15 shows a marked decrease in error with the increase in element number. Finally. while the error for the 240-element beam is close to zero.35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 2 6 10 20 40 240 Number of Elements Dynamic Load #1 Dynamic Load #2 Dynamic Load #3 Error Figure 3-14: Percentage Error in Time of Maximum Response. The error for the 20element beam is about 3%.

In conclusion. an aspect ratio between 3:1 and 3:2 appears to result in the best solutions in terms of maximum deflection. and response period. An element length of 1’ is used for the next section. 42 . In the next section. time of maximum deflection. For the current purposes. the error is small enough to be applicable.20% 16% Dynamic Load #1 Dynamic Load #2 Dynamic Load #3 12% Error 8% 4% 0% 2 6 10 20 Number of Elements 40 240 Figure 3-15: Percentage Error in Response Period. and additional programming with the LS-DYNA and other finite element analysis software needs to be performed to determine if these are currently the most accurate outcomes. the response of beams under blast loads is explored. For these analyses. None are the answers are perfect. the ANSYS/LS-DYNA models result in answers close to the expected values.

The response of the equivalent loading is also derived using Duhammad’s integral. the same process is repeated using both positive and negative phase data. Using ANSYS. 3. peak load. The loading response is analyzed in stages. where each set of time and load data is applied to each component.3. The loads are inputted as time and load array parameters similar to the pulse loadings in Sec. Next.1 Application of Blast Loads The pressures on a structure from a blast are non-uniform and highly impulsive.3.5 Analysis of Blast Load Response Using LS-DYNA The same steps as before are used to generate a model of a simply-supported beam. there are five sets of time and load arrays. and final time. 43 . corresponding to an element length of 1’ each. the beam model is divided into five differing loading sections. the positive pressure phase is idealized using a triangular pulse with an instantaneous rise time and a time to decay. The test beam is divided into five separate components. To reflect the variable loads. For each subsequent section of the beam.5. different sections of the beam require different loading characteristics at different times. The responses of the blast loads are compared to the response of the equivalent dynamic blast load using ANSYS. Instead of one set of time and load arrays. The loads on each section have a different initial load time. The load pulses on a roof contain a positive downward phase and a negative section phase. First. 3. The peak pressures decay and the load duration increases as the blast wave traverses the roof length. Finally data from an actual blast test is used in analysis. Twenty beam elements make up the beam. the peak load decreases and the time history of the loading changes to represent the accentuation of the blast pulse.

35 feet. Range.30’ 35’ 40’ 45’ 50’ Figure 3-16: Locations of CONWEP measurements. Figure 3-17: Blast Pressure Distribution. incident peak pressure. Pressure information is recorded at ranges of 30 feet (the front end of the beam). These ranges are shown in Figure 3-16. and incident impulse output used in the arrays. Table 3-3: Peak Pressure vs. a hemispherical surface explosive of 1000 lbs of TNT is analyzed at a range of 30 feet from the simply-supported beam.23 41.92 69.2 94.83 53. The application CONWEP (Hyde. 40 feet. positive phase duration.0 50.0 35.0 45. 45 feet.0 Peak Pressure (psi) 134.75 Range of Data Distribution 30-32' 32-37' 37-43' 43-48' 48-50' 44 . 1992) generates time of arrival. and 50 feet (corresponding to the back end of the beam). In CONWEP.0 40. Range of Data Origin (ft) 30.

From the simple dynamic models performed earlier. One shape follows the pattern of decreasing primary and secondary peaks. the peak decays in a nonlinear manner to zero. The beam model supports line loads instead of surface loads. 45 . and 2 feet. 3-18. The pressures are multiplied by the width of the cross-section to calculate the associated distributed load. It can be shown that the first trial impulses are from 2 to 7 times that of the actual pulses (see Fig. 3. 5. 3-21 and 3-22). This decay model is performed with two separate examples (Figs. and 50 feet range data is applied over the next 6. 45. 3-20). and the arrangement of the bilinear decay should be irrelevant. Therefore. along with increasing durations. the actual shape should not matter. it can be ascertained that the beam model is impulse sensitive. The 40. In the actual blast pressures. 3-17) over the first two feet of the beam. The pressure from the 35 feet range is allocated from 32 to 37’. respectively.2 Results (Positive Phase Only) The actual blast loads can be seen in Fig. An important check in this analysis compares the impulses from the actual data to the approximate data. The third scenario keeps the bilinear decay form without following a discernable configuration. The first trial positive phase pressures decay linearly over the same length of time (see Fig 3-19). Table 3-3 displays the peak pressure and the range to which it relates.5. To correct this.These five loading patterns are distributed along the beam to replicate actual blast characteristics. from 30 to 32’. The pressure from the 30 feet range is distributed (as shown in Fig. the pulses were modified to a bilinear decay.

2500 2000 Load (lbs/in) 1500 Beam Segment 1 Beam Segment 2 Beam Segment 3 Beam Segment 4 Beam Segment 5 1000 500 0 0 0.015 Time (sec) 0.140 120 Incident Pressure (psi) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 Time (msec) 20 25 30 Beam Segment 1 Beam Segment 2 Beam Segment 3 Beam Segment 4 Beam Segment 5 Figure 3-18: Actual Blast Loading.01 0. 46 .02 0.03 Figure 3-19: Loading Scenario #1.025 0.005 0.

0 35.015 Time (sec) 0.0 Figure 3-21: Loading Scenario #2. 2500 2000 Load (lb/in) 1500 Beam Segment 1 Beam Segment 2 Beam Segment 3 Beam Segment 4 Beam Segment 5 1000 500 0 0 0.0 50.1600 1400 Incident Impulse (psi-msec) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 30.0 40.0 Distance (ft) 45.005 0.025 0. 47 .02 0.0 Real Data Trial #1 Data Figure 3-20: Impulse Comparison.01 0.

the beam is divided into four equal-sized components instead of five different sized components. 3-24a and b). respectively (Figs. Four different pulses load these sections. the best loading data to use is Scenario #2. The deflection-history for Scenario #1 greatly exceeds the deflection of the other tests. and 45 feet range act on the four segments. This occurs because the pulses closer to the blast source are larger than the pulses farther away. 40. This is repeated in Scenario #5 using loads from the 35.2500 2000 Beam Segment 1 Beam Segment 2 Beam Segment 3 Load (lbs/in) 1500 Beam Segment 4 Beam Segment 5 1000 500 0 0 0. 45. For Scenario #4. The dynamic responses from these five loading combinations are plotted together (Fig. 48 . and 50 feet range. 3-23) and the impulses from the three main load sets are compared to the actual positive impulses. To further continue validation of the input data.005 0.01 0. Scenarios #2-5 agree with other more closely. it can be seen that the impulse for Scenario #2 matches the actual impulses. 40. Scenario #4 and Scenario #5 represent the upper and lower bounds. 35.025 0. loads from 30.03 Figure 3-22: Loading Scenario #3. From these results.02 0. Also. Scenarios #2 and 3 barely differ discernibly.015 Time (sec) 0.

49 . 8 6 4 Deflection (in) 2 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 Time (msec) 50 100 150 200 250 Scenario #1 Scenario #2 Scenario #3 Scenario #4 Scenario #5 Figure 3-24a: Response Comparison of Loading Scenarios using LS-DYNA.0 35.240 230 Incident Impulse (psi-msec) 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 Exact Data Trial #2 Trial #3 30.0 40.0 50.0 Figure 3-23: Impulse Comparison.0 Distance (ft) 45.

5 2 1. 50 . The beam takes longer than the time of the load to fully react.5 -1 -1. As expected. Figure 3-25 displays the deflection-history of the beam model at various points. the midpoint deflection measures the highest of the beam.5 0 -0. The rightmost quarter-point encounters a maximum before the left quarter-point. although the left has a higher deflection than the right. The maximum deflection happens after all the load pulses have come and gone.5 -2 -2.5 Time (msec) 0 50 100 150 200 250 Scenario #2 Scenario #3 Scenario #4 Scenario #5 Figure 3-24b: Response Comparison of Loading Scenarios using LS-DYNA (without Scen.5 1 Deflection (in) 0. #1). This outcome is due to the high natural period of the beam relative to the short duration of the blast.2.

3-27).3 Results (Positive and Negative Phase) Similarly.5 -2 50 100 Midpoint Right Quarter-point Deflection (in) 150 200 250 Time (msec) Figure 3-25: Dynamic Response for Loading Scenario #2. the estimation of the negative phase begins with the shape of a triangle. Comparison of the actual impulses and the approximate triangle impulse (Fig. Initially. 3-29) concludes that the approximate negative impulse is less than the actual by about 11%. the negative phase of the blast loading starts at zero. 51 . This phase is designed to have the same impulse as the actual load.5 Left Quarter-point 1 0.5. To keep the design and input simple.5 -1 -1. a contour using three lines in implemented. There exist a decay time (rise in the absolute sense) to the maximum negative load and a rise time (decay in the absolute sense) back to zero (Fig.2 1. 3.5 0 0 -0.

04 0.08 Time (sec) 0.12 0.02 0. 52 .1 0. 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 -500 Beam Segment 1 Beam Segment 2 Beam Segment 3 Beam Segment 4 Beam Segment 5 Load (lbs/in) 0 0.06 0.140 120 Incident Pressure (psi) 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 0 20 40 60 80 Time (msec) 100 120 140 Beam Segment 1 Beam Segment 2 Beam Segment 3 Beam Segment 4 Beam Segment 5 Figure 3-26: Actual Blast Load – Positive and Negative Phase.14 Figure 3-27: Loading Scenario #1 – Positive and Negative Phase.

-350 -300 Negative Impulse (psi-msec) Actual Trial 1 -250 Trial 2 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 30.1 0.0 40.0 50.0 35.06 0.04 0.12 0. 53 .14 Time (sec) Figure 3-28: Loading Scenario #2 – Positive and Negative Phase.0 Figure 3-29: Negative Impulse Comparison.2500 2000 Beam Segment 1 Beam Segment 2 1500 Load (lb/in) Beam Segment 3 Beam Segment 4 Beam Segment 5 1000 500 0 -500 0 0.08 0.02 0.0 Distance (ft) 45.

3-28 and 3-30). 54 . as can be seen from the midpoint results. the right point experiences higher loading before the left point (Figs. The suction pressure from the negative phase decreases this deflection and enhances the deflection in the rebound. The deflection bounces back to a higher value that the positive phase loading. From Figure 3-31. Again. it can be seen that the initial maximum deflection is less than the deflection from only the positive phase. The same event happens at the left and right quarter-points.The dynamic response of Figure 3-30 is the result of the positive phase and the aforementioned negative phase from Scenario #2. 3 2 Left Quarter-point Midpoint Right Quarter-point Deflection (in) 1 0 0 -1 50 100 150 200 250 -2 -3 Time (msec) Figure 3-30: Response of Loading Scenario #2 – Positive and Negative Phase.

The range to the target structure is the same range used in the blast data.4 Equivalent Blast Loading The procedure to define the blast loading on a roof structure is used for the beam model. 55 .3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 50 100 150 Time (msec) 200 250 Deflection (in) Positive Phase Only Pos. The method is discussed and the response is compared to both the positive phase response and the deflection from the positive and negative blast pressure. In this example. namely 30 feet. The CONWEP application can calculate the necessary information from known bomb size and distance.5. Blast data from this range of 50 feet is used in the analysis. This data is shown in Table 3-4. there is no structure height. 3. The range to the back of the structure equals the range to the target plus the length of the beam model. & Negative Data for Loading Scenario #2. & Negative Phase Figure 3-31: Response Comparison of Positive Only and Pos. The next section covers the equivalent loading defined by TM-855-1.

41 The results of CONWEP are used to describe the pulse loading in Figure 3-32. 56 . while blast loads have both positive and negative phase.83 150 2068 30. The first noticeable characteristics of the equivalent blast loading and the load from blast data are the differences in time of arrival and loading duration.Table 3-4: CONWEP Blast Data. The positive and negative blast pressure has a much larger duration than the equivalent load pressure. While the equivalent load begins at a relatively much later time than the actual arrival time of the blast pressure. Additionally. The length of time the blast affects a structure greatly increases when including the negative phase. Peak Pressure (psi) Positive Phase Duration (msec) Time of Arrival (msec) Incident Impulse (psi-msec) Shock Front Velocity (ft/s) Peak Dynamic Pressure (psi) 41. The equivalent loading contains only a positive phase. the durations vary by about eight percent for the positive phase only of the blast loading.95 15. To keep these details in perspective. the sum of the positive impulses from the blast loads equals three times that of the equivalent loading.73 12. while the actual blast loads have different effects on different portions of the beam model. the design of the equivalent loading applies the pulse to the entire beam. The peak loading of the blast pressures are all greater than the peak load for the DAHS equivalent load. The total impulse from the positive and negative phase of the blast loading differs 15% from the equivalent impulse.

045 Time (sec) Figure 3-32: TM-855 Equivalent Blast Load. due to the shape of the load and how it is applied to the entire beam. There is a 3% difference between the maximum deflections and also between the response periods. there is a very good correlation between the hand calculation and the ANSYS results. we will evaluate how the ANSYS program reproduces the deflection time history by comparing it to the hand numerical integration methods (Fig.035 0. 57 .015 0.03 0. The response of this load on the beam model can be calculated using ANSYS.500 450 400 350 Loading (lb/in) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 0. the deflection time history can be derived using Duhammad’s Integral.02 0. Also.04 0. As expected. 3-33). First.01 0.025 0.005 0.

Figure 3-34 contains the deflection from the positive phase blast data. Since it has been verified that ANSYS calculates the equivalent response correctly and again verifies that ANSYS accurately calculates dynamic responses. the positive and negative phase blast data. and the equivalent pulse load. the deflection for the equivalent load can be compared to the approximate blast loading data. 58 .4 3 2 1 0 0 -1 Duhammel's Integral Deflection (in) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 -2 -3 -4 ANSYS Time (msec) Figure 3-33: Verification of Equivalent Load Response.

4 3 2 Deflection (in) 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 50 100 150 Time (msec) 200 250 Positive Phase Only Pos. Figure 3-34: Comparison of Dynamic Response. The next step in the research is to apply the equivalent load procedure to field test data. Finally. several points can be observed between the three simulations. There is a large variation between the first peak of the equivalent response and the positive phase only response. As noted earlier. the first peak is the most valued by design engineers. and the equivalent response first peak is almost twice that of the positive and negative response. Analyzing the curves. The period response for the equivalent loading almost matches the positive phase response data. Load. 59 . & Negative Phase Equiv. and the positive and negative phase data varies by only six percent. It is believed that the data including the positive and negative blast phase is more accurate than the positive phase only. the starting time of the equivalent loading is about ten milliseconds after the blast wave is calculated to affect the beam model. While the subsequent peaks match for the positive and negative phase and the equivalent load. the time of the maximum response differs between curves.

The test setup is shown in Figures 3-35 and 3-37. The structure consists of six feet high concrete support blocks with earth berms along the sides to prevent blast pressure from forming underneath the roof.3. The charge weight is 1.000-lbs ANFO 30-ft Standoff to block face Figure 3-35: FRP Panel Test. The roof components are structural panels made up of honeycomb fiber reinforced laminations. and the standoff has a range of 30 feet to the face of the support block and 33 feet to the roof component. The results of these tests can be used to further evaluate the DAHS load and procedure.000 lbs of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO).6 Field Test A research project by Hoemann and Salim (2007) was performed to analyze the resistance and dynamic response of roof members consisting of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP). 33-ft Standoff to panel face 1. The cross-section of an FRP panel contains core layers consisting of an FRP material formed into a sinusoidal wave bonded to a flat piece of similar makeup. 60 .

The experimental static resistance functions of these structural members are shown in Figure 3-36. is 15 inches deep. The sample roof was designed against blast loads considering only the elastic range of the FRP material’s resistance. 61 . Both roof panels were 4 feet wide with a simply supported span of twenty feet.) Figure 3-36: Static Resistance Function for FRP Panels. The second sample.Two FRP components were used in the explosive field test. Static Tree Testing 12″ and 15″ Deep Panel Sections 20 16 Equivalent Section of Panel R2 Pressure (psi) 12 8 Equivalent Section of Panel R1 4 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Δ .Displacement (in. R2. One FRP sample has a crosssection depth of 12 inches. It is denoted as R1.

it is noted that the loads on the ground surface are larger than the loads on the roof. Comparing the blast pressures measured on the roof and on the surface.The test setup includes pressure gages on the roof and on the surface at equal radial distances. the measured pressures are inputted into an ANSYS LSDYNA model. There are also deflection gages at the midpoint and two quarter-points for both FRP panels. the dynamic response from the DAHS equivalent load is compared to the experimental values. It should also be noted that the test explosive is placed so that the resulting blast wave travel along roof direction. The response is measured against field deflections. Additionally. Most likely the blast wave loses more energy from striking the roof. which proves that this program correctly calculates pressures at the ground level but not at higher elevations. This schematic is shown in Figure 3-37. 62 . The surface pressures do match the pressures and loading characteristics computed from CONWEP. For this research project. or that blast pressures are not equal from radial distances at varying incident angles.

2007).Panel R1 FF8 FF7 Panel R2 FF6 D5 D 5-ft FF5 FF4 D3 D4 5-ft FF3 D1 10-ft FF1 5-ft D2 5-ft FF2 10-ft 35-ft 30-ft Displacement Gauges Free Field Pressure Gauges Figure 3-37: Roof Panel Schematic (Hoemann and Salim. 63 .

the measured negative phases appear to have the same durations. It is also of interest that the blast pressures measured on the ground and at the rooftop have the same positive phase durations.pressure CONWEP/SBEDS Data Pressure (psi) 60 45 30 15 0 -15 -30 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 Time (msec) Figure 3-38: Pressure-time history at 35 ft. the CONWEP/SBEDS simulation has the same peak pressure measured at the ground level.Figures 3-38 through 3-43 show blast pressure-time histories from the ground.pressure FF2 . Also. rooftop. The CONWEP data was used to determine the time of arrival of the shock front and SBEDS was used to generate simulated pressure-time history. 64 . and calculated pressures from CONWEP and SBEDS. Impulses are also calculated from the pressure-time histories. 105 90 75 FF1 . For Figures 3-38 through 3-43. although they are not well defined.

Comparable to the pressure history. The cause of the shock wave reduction when it reaches the roof is expected to affect the pressures less as the blast wave transverses the roof. This same trend occurs in the impulse diagram (Fig. 337). the impulse-time history shows lower values on the roof than on the ground. The peak incident pressures for the 35 ft range computed by CONWEP is almost twice the impulse measured at the roof (Fig. as shown in Figures 3-40 and 3-42. there is still appreciable error between the measured and calculated blast pressures.200 160 Impulse (psi-msec) 120 80 40 0 -40 -80 -120 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 Time (msec) FF1 FF2 CONWEP/SBEDS Data Figure 3-39: Impulse-time history at 35 ft. 3-38). While this does occur. The CONWEP/SBEDS simulation should closer predict the measured pressure levels. The actual impulses for the simulation are greater than those measured on the rooftop or on the ground. 65 .

180 150 Impulse (psi-msec) 120 90 60 30 0 -30 -60 -90 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 Time (msec) Figure 3-41: Impulse-time history at 45 ft. 66 FF4 FF5 CONWEP/SBEDS Data .60 50 Pressure (psi) 40 30 20 10 0 -10 0 8 FF4 FF5 CONWEP/SBEDS Data 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 Time (msec) Figure 3-40: Pressure-time history at 45 ft.

40 32

FF7 FF8 CONWEP/SBEDS Data

Pressure (psi)

24 16 8 0 -8 -16 0 8

**16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 Time (msec)
**

Figure 3-42: Pressure-time history at 55 ft.

180 150

Impulse (psi-msec)

120 90 60 30 0 -30 -60 -90 0 8

FF7 FF8 CONWEP/SBEDS Data

**16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 Time (msec)
**

Figure 3-43: Impulse-time history at 55 ft. 67

Figures 3-44 and 3-45 display the response of the FRP roof panels from the field data and the simulated deflections from the measured roof pressures. The deflections at the quarter-points predicted by ANSYS LS-DYNA match closely to those measured in the field. In the model, damping is not considered, whereas the effect occurs in the experiment. These models use the measured roof blast pressures.

Normalized Deflection (delta/EI)

**2.4 1.8 1.2 0.6 0 -0.6 -1.2 -1.8 -2.4 0 50 100 150 Time (msec) 200 250
**

Field Test Response ANSYS LS-DYNA Response

Figure 3-44: Deflection Response of R1 panel at near quarter-point.

68

Normalized Deflection (delta/EI)

**2.4 1.8 1.2 0.6 0 -0.6 -1.2 -1.8 -2.4 0 50 100 150 Time (msec) 200 250
**

Field Test Response ANSYS LS-DYNA Response

Figure 3-45: Deflection Response of R1 panel at far quarter-point.

From Figure 3-46, it can be seen that the ANSYS LS-DYNA model continues to closely match the field response, not including damping effects. The DAHS procedure is calculated using CONWEP data. Due to the differences between measured pressures, a corrected DAHS procedure is also used. The only factor changed in the corrected procedure is the peak pressure. The equivalent load response, however, measures almost three times the initial peak deflection and twice that of the rebound deflection. In design, it has been customary to focus on the first maximum deflection point. The rebound effects are similar to the model in Sec. 3.5, where the subsequent peaks are larger than the first. The corrected DAHS response predicts values closer to measured deflections, but the first peak deflection is still twice of that measured. In that regard, the DAHS procedure is still very conservative.

69

The DAHS procedure predicts higher deflections than is measured in the first peak. Panel R2 displays similar results.5 0 -1. It does come close to the peak responses due to rebound. 3-49).5 -6 0 Field Test Response LS-DYNA Response DAHS Response Corrected DAHS 50 100 150 Time (msec) 200 250 Figure 3-46: Deflection Response of R1 panel at midpoint. The ANSYS LS-DYNA simulations approximately measure the primary peak deflections. The corrected DAHS procedure does more closely approach the measured deflections for this test. 70 .5 -3 -4. but again. but this may be inconclusive due to the anchor failure.5 3 1.Normalized Deflection (delta/EI) 6 4. that may be inconclusive due to the anchor failure. but appear to significantly underestimate the rebound peaks (Fig. The deflections during rebound are larger because of a tie-down anchor failure during the negative pressure phase duration.

5 -3 -4.6 -2. Normalized Deflection (delta/EI) 3 1.4 1.5 -6 0 50 100 150 Time (msec) 200 250 Field Test Response ANSYS LS-DYNA Response Figure 3-48: Deflection Response of R2 Panel at far quarter-point.4 -3.8 0 -0.5 0 -1. 71 .6 0.Normalized Deflection (delta/EI) 2.8 -1.2 -4 0 50 100 150 Time (msec) 200 250 Field Test Response ANSYS LS-DYNA Response Figure 3-47: Deflection Response of R2 Panel at near quarter-point.

3. CONWEP accurately predicts the ground surface pressures.2 0 50 100 150 Time (msec) 200 250 Field Test Response LS-DYNA Response DAHS Response Corrected DAHS Figure 3-49: Deflection Response of R2 Panel at midpoint. 72 . The curves define linear elastic materials and do not include any dampening effects.4 -3.6 0.Normalized Deflection (delta/EI) 3.4 1. but is still conservative.2 2. More research is needed to verify this and change the program to account for the load reduction.8 -1.7 Summary It appears from the ANSYS LS-DYNA curves that the equivalent loading procedure does not predict the maximum deflection well. The field test data highlights an interesting phenomenon in blast pressures on the tops of structures. The first deflection curve from the “exact” blast loading is more than 50% less than the deflection response from the equivalent loading.8 0 -0. but encounters greater error on roofs.6 -2. The DAHS procedure more closely approaches the peak deflections from rebound.

It is believed that the failure mechanisms in a steel joist contradict this behavior. deflection.1 Introduction Current resistance functions for open web steel joists include a linear elastic curve close to the elastic limit and a fully plastic curve after yield. The steel trusses in this research are tested to failure to evaluate the maximum load.Chapter 4 Static Resistance Function of Open Web Steel Joists 4. and amount of energy able to be absorbed of a typical joist system. and static tests are performed to qualify this theory. 73 .

26K6. Their sizes are chosen to represent three differing aspect ratios. For the smallest truss. However.1 (Biggs. Stiffness and resistance are related according to Eqn. Figures 4-1 through 4-3 display the response curves for all three sets of trusses according to SBEDS (2004) calculation and an example of current engineering practice. and 32LH06 (SJI. The engineering resistance ranges from 94 to 99% of the SBEDS resistance. 4. The truss types are 16K5. The ultimate resistances for the trusses almost coincide for the SBEDS calculation and the engineering practice. the stiffness and elastic deflection limit did not match as well. the elastic deflection limit also has to change with a similar trend. for the largest joist. other resistance methods can be employed.1) where ye = elastic deflection limit Ru = ultimate resistance ke = effective stiffness 74 . The stiffness ratio of engineering calculation to SBEDS decreases as the aspect ratio decreases. the ratio is about 75%. 1967).4. ye = Ru ke (4. it is more than 27%.2 Analytical Resistance Function Three types of open web steel joists are considered in this research. 2005). Since the ultimate resistances are almost equal with respect to the procedure and the stiffness ratio changes. Before actual experimentation of the joists.

Defl. Defl. Ultimate Load. Defl. Defl. 1200 1000 Engineering Calc 800 Load (lb/ft) 600 400 200 0 0 2 4 6 SBEDS Max Allowable Load. Figure 4-1: Resistance Function for 16K5 Joist. Ultimate Load. 8 10 Deflection (in) 12 14 16 Figure 4-2: Resistance Function for 26K5 Joist.900 800 700 600 Load (lb/ft) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Deflection (in) 12 14 16 Engineering Calc SBEDS Max Allowable Load. 75 .

The SBEDS calculations use data from actual joist cross-sectional properties to calculate the stiffness. The calculation for stiffness utilizes an approximate formula from the Steel Joist Institute (2004) to calculate joist moment of inertia. Allowable Load. This maximum deflection depends on the burst load. Defl. the loading. The SBEDS calculation can generate pressure-impulse diagrams that calculate the maximum deflections each truss can resist and the associated pressures and impulses. and the ratio of pulse duration to the joist natural period. The calculation for ultimate resistance in the engineering procedure uses wellknown values. 4-4. 76 .1600 1400 1200 Load (lb/ft) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Deflection (in) 12 14 16 Engineering Calc SBEDS Max. This relationship is graphed for single-degree-of-freedom models with an elastic-plastic resistance shape subjected to triangular pulse loads in Fig. Figure 4-3: Resistance Function for 32LH06 Joist. Ultimate Load. Defl. The maximum deflection in the engineering procedure is based on the ratio between the ultimate resistance.

23 Ye (in) 3. 16K5 26K5 32LH06 Stiffness (lb/ft/in) 231. Table 4-1: Resistance Data from Engineering Calculations.93 77 .333 1462. For the K-Series joists the maximum resistance is 83% of the engineering calculation and about 78% of the SBEDS calculations.07 39.349 T (msec) 53. respectively.3475 2.7 Ru (lb/ft) Ru (SJI) 774.25 38.411 640 1093.34 499. one-degree-of-freedom system for triangular pulse load (Biggs. 1967).72 1128.03 903.057 622. For the LH-Series truss the maximum load is about 77% for both the engineering calculation and the SBEDS calculation. Figure 4-4: Maximum deflection of elasto-plastic.1902 2.The maximum load and ultimate load based on allowable stress design from the Steel Joist Institute are also noted in Figures 4-1 through 4-3. Tables 4-1 and 4-2 summarize the results of the engineering calculation and SBEDS.

4.52 1478. This is probably due the smaller stiffnesses derived from the engineering method.28 1. For the LH-Series. 78 . both procedures allow for the calculation of joist natural periods.64483 22.5155286 2302. 4. Attention was kept to the Steel Joist Institute specifications for placing and loading OWSJ.1 Testing Samples Three pairs of joists are examined in this research. the natural period is about 77% more than the SBEDS calculations.3155217 838. 16K5 26K5 32LH06 Stiffness (lb/ft/in) 308. The natural periods for the engineering calculations are 20-30% more than the SBEDS calculations for the K-Series trusses.64924 44.40354 30. The results from the testing are compared to the analytical resistance functions. The natural periods from the engineering calculations are larger than the SBEDS calculations.532127 Ru (lb/ft) Ye (in) T (msec) 812.3. The joists were loaded until ultimate failure.3 Experimental Verification This section will discuss the testing of the joists systems to establish the resistance function.Table 4-2: Resistance Data from SBEDS Calculations.05 0.03 1168. Two joist sets are from the KSeries type joists and one is a LH-Series truss.01 Additionally. All trusses are 24 feet long.689 2.

The web members connect to make four panel points in the top chord and three panel points in the bottom chord. The truss had a camber of 0.090 inches. The tension chord is made up of two equal leg angles 1. The compression (top) chord consists of two equal leg angles 1. The 26K5 truss has an effective depth of 25. in construction of the joist a camber of 0. The web consists of crimped-end U-shaped members near the outside of the web and regular U-shaped members in the web set.30 inches is required.30 inches.14 in from the top chord centroid to the bottom chord centroid.5 inches wide and 0.5” wide with thickness of 0.02 inches. The end tension diagonal is a round steel bar 15/16” in diameter.166 inches. The crimped-end members are slightly thicker than the other web members. The rest of the web is made up of tension and compression solid round bar members.155 in.130 in thick.109 inches. The regular web members have the same dimensions as the secondary web members. The compression chord contains two equal leg angles 2” wide with thickness of 0. The end tension members are made up of solid round bars ¾” in diameter. The secondary web members consist of U-shaped members in diagonal near the ends and vertical in the web. The diameters for the round bars in the truss include 11/16” and 19/32”.The 16K5 steel joist has an effective depth of 15. The web members delineate 9 panel points in the top chord and 8 panel points in the bottom chord. They are designed to be in compression These U-shaped members are 1” wide and 1” tall with a thickness of 0. The secondary web members are also solid round bars 11/16” in diameter and are designed to react in compression. 79 . Also. The tension (bottom) chord is also made up of two equal leg angles 1.5 inches wide with a thickness of 0. It should also be noted that the diameters of the web members decrease closer to the center of the joist length.

For the 16K5 steel truss the cross-sectional areas became smaller closer to the center of the joist length. The tension web members have the same dimensions.¼” fillet welds 2 inches long each must be used. Note the top chord has a larger cross-sectional area compared to the bottom chord for all truss types. The end of the OWSJ is welded to the steel supports using a minimum of two 1/8” fillet welds one inch long each.09 inches. the open web steel joists (OWSJ) are designed for resting on steel supports.118 inches. The end tension diagonal is a solid round bar with a 1” diameter. and a minimum of 2 .109 inches thickness. no less than 2 ½” of the end of a K-Series OWSJ may lay on the steel support. no less than 4” of the joist end may be placed on the support.75” wide with thickness of 0. The bottom (tension) chord is made up of two equal leg angles of 1. For LH and DLH-Series OWSJ. 80 . The slenderness ratio of the web members grows larger closer to the center of the joist length. The secondary (compression) members have 1” width and 1” height and thickness of 0. The compression web members have width of 13/8” and height of 1-3/8” and thickness of 0. This joist contains three panel points in the top chord and 2 panel points in the bottom chord.2 Test Set-Up For our testing purposes. The compression chord is made up of two equal leg angles of 1.30 inches. The necessary camber is 0.3. According to the Steel Joist Institute 42nd Edition Standard Specifications (2005). 4.143 inches. There are no crimped members.090 inches. The rest of the web members consist of U-shaped members.The 32LH06 steel truss has an effective length of 31.5” wide with 0. This trend continues for the other two joists.

Due to the plate thickness and LRFD standards. The bearing seats are laid out on the plate to allow room for the welds on each side and for a joist center to joist center distance of 6. the width of the plate is limited to 13 inches. The support system itself is bolted to a strong floor.5 inches. 81 . The bearing seats of the open web steel joists are welded to a 3/8” thick plate that is bolted to the support system. Due to the dimensions of the support. The length of the plate is also 13 inches. Six 1” diameter and two ¾” diameter regular-strength (A307) bolts are used to connect the plate to the strong floor support.Figure 4-5: Bearing seat plates for 16K5 and 26K5 Joists. the width of the fillet welds for the bearing seats will be ¼” and 3 inches long.

Figure 4-6: Bearing Seat Plates for 32LH06 Joist. and specifications approved by the Steel Joist Institute. horizontal bridging consists of continuous. 82 . Due to the joist type. horizontal steel members (equal leg angles) attached to both the top and bottom chord. Each attachment will be made by welding and is to have a slenderness ratio (between attachments) of less than 300. Diagonal bracing is not necessary for any truss. Each weld should resist at least 700 lbs of horizontal force. Figure 4-7: Steel Joist Institute Specifications for horizontal bridging. length.

The LH-Series joist only requires one row of horizontal bracing. Figure 4-8: Lateral bracing – welded to strong floor. or rollers allowing movement in the vertical direction. The spacing has to be uniform throughout the joist. Figures show these bracings.5” equal leg angles. The angles were welded to the strong floor and grease was applied to the sides of the channels to simulate a roller-type connection.Both K-Series joists need a minimum number of two rows of horizontal bracing. These connections can be fixed. The equal angle horizontal bracing for this pair of trusses can be welded at the middle of the trusses. The equal angle horizontal bracing can be welded to the third points on the truss. the ends of joist systems require connections at wall or any other structural component capable of resisting lateral loads. The latter connection type was chosen for several reasons: stability of the joists. smaller effect on resistance of truss system. 83 . Including the horizontal bridging between trusses. and ease of construction. They are welded according to the figure with a 1/8” wide weld one half an inch long. Five sets of lateral bracing were constructed from 12 inches long angles with channel members welded to either end.e. at 8’ from either end. hinged. The horizontal bridging consists of 1. i. The lateral bracings were placed in the center and spaced at 4 feet intervals along the length of the steel joist system.

These deflection gages are connected to the plywood boards that run the length of the joists. Figures show the connection of the strain pots. String potentiometers are placed in the center of the joist system length and at the quarter.points of the joist system length. 84 . Figures 4-10: String Potentiometer.Figure 4-9: Lateral bracing – placement.

The loading tree has a maximum load of 110 kips. Two smaller beams each made up of two channel sections back-to-back are connected to the larger beam.3 Testing Apparatus Each test will consist of a pair of OWSJ. by the horizontal bridging.4. The net effect is that the load from the pneumatic pump is distributed to two points. The variation in lengths between the joist structure and the approximate distributed loading arises due to equipment restraints and available trusses. and by ½” boards of plywood the entire length and width of the joist pair. the loads from those two points are distributed to four points. The joist pair will be tested using an 18’ loading tree (Fig.3. A general schematic of the loading tree is shown below. and so the test sample must be placed upside-down. 4-11) with 16 loading points acting along the joists. Straps were used to connect the truss system to the loading tree due to their relatively high depths. The loading tree consists of a pneumatic pump that pulls a beam made up of two channel sections back-to-back. The equipment pulls up to simulate a downward distributed force. Each of the final plates in the loading tree has connections at the ends to apply load to a testing sample. 85 . and two smaller plates are connected to the previous plates. They will be connected at the supports. Two plates are connected to each of these smaller beams. and finally the loads from the four points are distributed to sixteen points.

3.3.1 16K5 Joist System Figure 4-12 show transverse and side views of the 16K5 truss system. Also. the loading tree does not cover the entire length of the joist. The test samples were loaded using a deflectioncontrolled rate of 0.5 inches per second. As stated in Section 4. This was determined by observing the failure mechanisms of the joist during the test and the decay of load resistance with an increase in deflection. due to the camber in the truss and their own inherent flexibility out of the plane of loading.3.4.Figure 4-11: 16-Point Loading Tree. Each joist system was tested until it could not sustain any more load.3. 86 . 4. 4.4 Results The following section presents the results of the steel joist testing. it can be seen that the trusses are slightly warped.

the welding connecting the compression chord to the bearing seats fails (Fig.Figure 4-12: 16K5 trusses prior to testing. the middle of the truss began to bow out-of-plane (Fig. the tension chord begins to twist. Eventually the horizontal bracing in the tension chord fails (Fig. The welds on the opposite side of the transverse bending fail. 4-18). Figures show this sequence of events. The lateral bracing at the center of the joist length fails due to this deflection (Figs. Then. As the top chord (in figures the bottom is the top) continues to bend. 4-14 and 4-15). The truss system is now characterized as being unable to support any further load. Finally. This bending is mainly due to failure in the compression flange. 4-16). Initially the truss system displayed very little noticeable displacement. 87 . 4-13).

88 .Figure 4-13: 16K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 1 of 5 – Initial bending. Figure 4-14: 16K5 –Failure Sequence 2a of 5 – Failure of lateral bracing.

Figure 4-16: 16K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 3 of 5 horizontal bridging.Figure 4-15: 16K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 2b of 5 – Failure of lateral bracing. 89 .

Figure 4-17: 16K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 4 of 5 – Continued out-of-plane bending. 90 . Figure 4-18: 16K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 5 of 5 – Failure of bearing seat weld.

The more noticeable bending of the compression chord out of the loading plane releases some of the energy absorbed. 35. The load resistance also increases in a fairly linear manner.000 30. As can be seen.000 15.000 25. 4-19). Following this. D1 measures the midpoint. Failures are denoted in the chart as areas where there is a large gap between data points and a downward slope. the system is able to receive more energy. the system experiences linear displacement initially. and finally the bearing seat weld failure finishes the usability of the truss system. while D2 and D3 are the quarter-points (Fig. 91 .000 5.000 10.000 0 0 5 10 Displacement (in) D1 D2 D3 15 20 Figure 4-19: Static response for 16K5 truss system.000 Load (lbs) 20. The failure of the horizontal bracing releases more built-up energy.The load-deflection responses of the 16K5 truss system are shown in Figure 4-19.

Additionally. Defl. It can be seen that the experiment measures a lower yield than existing analytical methods. Ultimate Load. The original stiffness of the 16K5 truss corresponds well to the engineering calculation stiffness. Defl. 92 . Figure 4-20: Midpoint Static Response for an individual 16K5 joist compared with existing methods. The midpoint static response for an individual 16K5 truss was determined by dividing the system response by two times the effective joist length (Fig 4-20).900 800 700 600 Load (lb/ft) 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Deflection (in) 12 14 16 Experiment Engineering Calc SBEDS Max Allowable Load. the maximum experimental load coincides with the ultimate load defined by SJI (2004) and steel joist manufacturers. The analytical methods assume failure mainly by bending.

the load-deflection behavior was fairly linear (Fig 4-30). It should be noted that this member was originally designed as a compression member. The end tension member of one joist fails. the truss system was also slightly askew (Fig. The first noticeable deflection was the bending of the ends of the tension flange in both trusses (Fig. buckling of a compression web member. Since the end tension member in one truss failed. This phenomenon would be caused by high tension in the end tension member. 4-23 and 4-24). This is the most likely cause of the web compression member buckling. A part of the other angle in the tension chord was ripped.3. and the secondary web member and another web member from the other joist buckles (Figs.4. it can be seen that the weld for the tension member failed for one angle in the tension chord. The results of the end tension member break were a large release of energy and redistribution of forces. 4-21). or a combination of the two. From Figure 424. The source is evident from the next failure mode. The truss system continues to absorb energy and the behavior has a linear shape (4-30).2 26K5 Joist System In this test. When the end of the tension chord begins to bend. Figure 4-24 shows the weld from this new tension member fails.4. 4-22). Up to this failure. The failure mechanisms were also different. 93 . the response curves. This was the same portion that was bending at the start of the test. the next web member in that truss takes its place as a tension member.

The load-deflection behavior after this point continued to drop without the anticipation of rebound. 94 . 4-29). From Figure 4-26. Figures 4-21: 26K5 Joist System prior to test. Figure 4-22: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 1 of 5 – Deformation of Tension Chord.The end tension member of the other truss fails. this failure seems to be caused by the twisting of the tension chord more than the bending of the member. It was noticed afterwards that the welds bonding the bearing seats to the connection plates failed (Fig.

Figure 4-24: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 2b of 5 – Failure of End Tension Member.Figure 4-23: 26K5 Joist – Sequence 2a of 5 – Failure of End Tension Member. 95 .

Figure 4-25: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 3 of 5 – Failure of Secondary Web Member. 96 . Figure 4-26: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 4a of 5 – Failure of End Tension Member.

Figure 4-27: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 4b of 5 – Failure of End Tension Member. 97 . Figure 4-28: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 5a of 5 – Connection Plate Failure.

000 20.000 Load (lbs) D1 D2 D3 25.000 40.000 35.000 30.000 15.000 0 0 5 10 Displacement (in) 15 20 Figure 4-30: Static Response for 26K5 Joist System.000 5. 98 .000 10. 45.Figure 4-29: 26K5 Joist – Failure Sequence 5b of 5 – Connection Plate Failure.

Figure 4-31 demonstrates the multiple failure modes a steel joist has to resist before ultimate failure. it can be seen from Figure 4-31 that the current methods calculate more resistance than is experimentally observed. This was not expected to affect the strength of the joist system. Figure 4-31: Midpoint Static Response for individual 26K5 Joist compared with existing methods.3. Defl.4.3 32LH06 Joist System The test set-up for this truss system is displayed in Figure 4-33.1200 1000 800 Load (lb/ft) 600 400 200 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Deflection (in) 12 14 16 Experiment Engineering Calc SBEDS Max Allowable Load. Again. 99 . Defl. compares well with the engineering calculation value. the stiffness. 4. Again the ultimate load of the test closely matches the ultimate resistance of the joist defined by the SJI and the manufacturer. The tension chord in one of the trusses is slightly warped and twisted (Figure 4-32). Ultimate Load. The initial slope of the elastic response curve of the joist.

there was little noticeable deformation at the beginning of the test.This failure system is similar to that of the 26K5 joists in that it is localized in an area other than the midpoint. the response showed no sign of rebounding. Figure 4-32: Initial Deformation of 32LH06 Joist. The primary failure mechanism is the buckling of web compression members near the end of the truss (Figs. 100 . The test was stopped. Like the previous joist types. After the multiple buckles. Again the initial load-deflection behavior changes linearly. The buckling of these members redistributed the forces and caused the secondary web (compression) members to buckle as well. 4-34 through 4-36). This resulted in a loss of energy from the system.

101 . Figure 4-34: 32LH06 Joist – Failure Sequence 1a of 1 – Compression Web Member Buckling.Figures 4-33: 32LH06 Joist System prior to test.

102 .Figure 4-35: 32LH06 – Failure Sequence 1b of 1 – Buckling of Secondary Web Member. Figure 4-36: 32LH06 – Failure Sequence 1c of 1 – Continued Buckling and Bending of Tension Chord.

000 5.000 10.000 25.000 Load (lbs) D1 D2 D3 15. Ultimate Load. Figure 4-38: Midpoint Static Response of individual 32LH06 Joist comparing to existing methods.000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Displacement (in) Figure 4-37: Static Response of 32LH06 Joist System. Defl. 103 .000 20. 1600 1400 1200 Load (lb/ft) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Deflection (in) 12 14 16 Engineering Calc Experiment SBEDS Max. Allowable Load. Defl.30.

4. Since this truss is a longspan steel joist.4 Summary From these static tests. the joist is designed to span longer lengths of about 30 ft or more (SJI. This might have resulted in a sheardominated behavior instead of bending. From the third test it is recommended for LH-Series Joists that longer spans be tested. it can be concluded that more research is necessary to develop the static resistance functions of open web steel joists. It is possible that the experimental resistance was much lower because truss span to depth ratio is too small. Current blast design methodologies assume that the resistance function of open web steel joists behave similar to hot-rolled beams and reinforced concrete slabs. 2005).The steel joist in this test did not reach the expected resistance value as shown in Figure 3-38. The full resistance of the joist and its members was not utilized. The experiments for two out the three tests showed ultimate resistances close to the Steel Joist Institute’s value of ultimate load. The current techniques used to define the resistance function of open web steel joists do not take into account the buckling of web members and the resultant strain softening from the loss of resistance and energy. 104 . 2005). The joist came close to reaching the maximum allowable load (SJI.

the equivalent load did not adequately predict the deflection measured in the field test. The following are the conclusions that can be drawn from this research. The finite element model closely predicted the response from the field test.1 Conclusion The equivalent uniform blast procedure defined by DAHS was compared to numerical blast data simulated using finite element analysis. However. The experimental resistance function did not match these analytical resistance functions currently used in SBEDS. The equivalent load procedure was also compared to experimental blast data.Chapter 5 Conclusions & Recommendations 5. Three different open web steel joists were tested under static uniform loads. The results of the equivalent blast did not adequately predict the response of the simulated blast load. 105 . The resistance function for each steel joist was calculated from these results and compared to current methods for developing truss resistance function.

even after adjusting the pressure input calculated from CONWEP or SBEDS. • Current methods for calculating blast pressures such as CONWEP and SBEDS correctly computes pressures at the ground level. but do not reasonably evaluate blast pressures on roofs. the following recommendations are provided to develop an engineering method for blast design of open web steel joist roof system. 106 . • The current methodology to develop resistance function for open web steel joists measures a higher peak load than experimentally tested. Therefore. current methods to calculate the blast loading on a roof and to design for the resistance of open web steel joist are not accurate. • The SBEDS assumption of perfect plastic behavior post-peak does not take into account the various failure mechanisms observed in open web steel joists. • The equivalent load procedure does not adequately predict response.• The DAHS procedure is very conservative and does not compute accurate responses for roof systems. In summation.

It has been observed that roof systems affect the blast load and effectively reduce the loading. Higher deflections can occur after this. • Current methods to measure blast pressures achieve good results at the ground level.2 Recommendations The following recommendations are made based on the observations of this study. • The equivalent uniform blast load procedure requires more research to better predict response. 107 . • Existing and additional field test in roof systems should be evaluated to verify developed engineering analysis and design. • Currently engineers only focus the first peak deflection in dynamic analysis. This can be accomplished by conducting an array of numerical solutions using various roof and blast parameters. The calculation of blast pressures on rooftops needs to be further researched.5. Engineering analysis and design should consider the first peak deflections and subsequent maximum deflections. • The resistance function for open web steel joists should be developed based on more analytical and experimental research.

Vol. 91-102. M.. 1214-1247. Hoemann. Mississippi. Department of the Navy Publication NAVFAC P-397.” United Facilities Criteria (UFC) 3-340-01. (2007). “The Effect of Lateral Bracing on the Stability of Steel Trusses. McGraw-Hill Book Co. pp. (1992). “Experimental Evaluation of Structural Composites for Blast and Fragmentation Resistance Design. H. (2004). D.. 251-258. USAE Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC). M.REFERENCES American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC).A. Galambos.. (1967).” International Journal of Impact Engineering. Li. (2002). Department of the Army Technical Manual TM 51300. Morison. M. Department of Defense. K.. AISC Manual of Steel Construction – Load and Resistance Factor Design. (2001). (2002). Chock.. pp. No.” Proceedings from the 31st DoD Explosives Safety Seminar.“Review of Two Methods for Calculating Explosive Air Blast. 2. Forbes. Departments of the Army. 128. (1991). Q.” Air Force Research Laboratory. 94-102. R. Meng. pp.. Vol. (2004). “ConWep . Xykis. Salim.” Journal of Construction Steel Research.. 33. pp. (1990). Department of the Air Force Manual AFM 88-22. Vol. USA. San Antonio. D. “Design and Analysis of Hardened Structures to Conventional Weapon Effects (DAHS).” The Shock and Vibration Digest. and the Air Force. “SBEDS (Single-Degree-of-Freedom Blast Effects Design Spreadsheets). Vicksburg.. 125. K. C. Vol. SAS IP. Oswald. Chicago. Introduction to Structural Dynamics. Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions. 108 .J. 20.. the Navy.” Structural Mechanics Division. D. Florida. Structures Laboratory. p.” Journal of Energy Engineering. H. AFRLML-TR-2006-4578. Texas. J. No. C. ANSYS ED Code Version 9.. J. 82. 32. J. Kapania. “Pressure-Impulse Diagram for Blast Loads Based on Dimensional Analysis and Single-Degree-of-Freedom Model. Tyndall AFB. (1999).. Nebuda. Vol. 3. Biggs. Illinois. C.0. J. “Dynamic Response of Walls and Slabs by Single-Degree-ofFreedom Analysis – A Critical Review and Revision. 1. No. (2006). T. (2001).. “Blast Loading on Petrochemical Buildings. Hyde.” Journal of Engineering Mechanics.Application of TM5-855-1.

J. U. (2004). (2002). P.. Army Corps of Engineers.Smith.. “Overview of Simplified Methods and Research for Blast Analysis.. (2005). J..” ASCE. M. (2005). Army Engineering Research and Development Center. U.S. J. 109 .S. No. Amini. Pote. 5. R. Gargan.S. D. Butterworth-Heinemann. D. P. p... Steel Joist Institute. Army Corps of Engineers.G. Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory (ERDC-GSL) Technical Report. “Component Explosive Damage Assessment Workbook. Gross. Steel Joist Institute (SJI). W.” U. D.. “Strength and Design of Open Web Steel Joist with Crimped-End Members. Dinehart. J. B. (1994).. TR-02-14.S. Hetherington. (2004). Vol. A. Sunshine. Swanson. 715.. S. Yost. 42nd Edition Standard Specifications – Load Tables and Weight Tables for Steel Joists and Joist Girders. “Lightweight Steel-Deck Roof System – BlastResponse Evaluation. 130. Army Corps of Engineers. Blast and Ballistic Loading of Structures.” Journal of Structural Engineering. Protective Design Center (PDC) Technical Report.. TR-05-02.” U.

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