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A. BACKGROUND

Included with standard Excel is an add-in, called Solver, which is tool for optimization and solving equations. The Standard Solver was developed by Frontline System; Inc. Frontline System also has developed several more powerful solver packages for Excel. One of these, called Premium Solver which is not included in standard excel. To check or to activate Standard Solver add-In on Excel 2007, follow these steps:

1. 2. 3.

On the [Excel Options] dialog box, Select [Add-Ins] Group on the Left Panel , on the Manage selection box, choose, [Excel addIns], then click [Go].

4.

Once the Solver Add-In is activated or installed, it is ready for optimization and solving equation. In this article, Solver Add-in is implemented for optimizing or adjusting on survey measurements as an alternative method instead of least square adjustment using matrices. Basically, least square adjustment is a method of how to analyze and adjust survey measurements in order to obtain minimum corrections on survey measurements. Since the corrections could result in minus (negative) or plus (positive), they have to be squared to obtain positive value. It can be concluded that the good observation will have a minimum sum of squared corrections. If V1, V2, V3, V4,.,Vn are identified as correction for observation number 1, 2, 3, 4, ,n, then the criterion for least square is as follow:

2 2 2 + 3 + 42 + . + = 12 + 2 ==

In which W1, W2, W3, W4,.Wn are the weight of the corresponding observations.

2 2 2 + 3 3 + 4 42 + . + = 1 12 + 2 2 ==

Three methods of least square have been applied on survey measurement: 1. 2. 3. Adjustment of observations only, also known as condition method Adjustment of indirect observations, also known as parameter method Adjustment of combined parameter and observations

All methods require advanced knowledge on matrices operation such as inverse, transpose & derivative and calculus such as linearization and derivatives. The condition method or adjustment of observations only (method #1) is implemented in Solver Model. With this Solver Add-In, there is no requirement of knowledge for matrices, inverse matrices, derivative and linearization. Steps for least square adjustment with solver add-in Basic steps to perform adjustment with Solver Add-In according to least square method #1 are: 1. 2. 3. A.1.1 Defining number of observations and its redundancy Defining condition equations & constraints Set target parameter to be minimums. DEFINING NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS AND ITS REDUNDANCY

Redundancy (r) is defined as excess measurement compared to required minimum number of measurements. For example measurement of inner angle of triangles of S1, S2 and S3 will require 2 (two) minimum measurements. The third measurement is not mathematically necessary since it can be derived from equation 180-(S1+S2). If n identified as number of observations, u number of minimum observations, the equation of redundancy is: =

A.1.2

Condition equations, also known as independent equations, are one or more mathematical models consisting of observations to meet a real condition or mathematically proved as TRUE. Example: The sum of three inner angles of triangle is 180 The sum of a looped difference heights is 0

After conditions equations are modeled, the constraints can be identified. The constraints from example above are 180 and 0 Number of equation equals to number of redundancy. A.1.3 SET TARGET PARAMETER

Target parameter is cell on excel that is set to be minimum. According to least square method, the cell contains formula of sum of squared corrections.

A.2

SOLVER MODEL

Solver Model represents least square equations which consist of observations, corrections, weight and adjusted observations. The sum of corrections which is set to be minimum are shown in Solver Model Solver model of measurements on three inner angles on triangle S1, S2 and S3 with no weight:

Number of measurements (n)=3 Number of minimum measurements (u)=2 Redundancy (r=n-u)=1 S1+V1+S2+V2+S3+V3=180 Number of measurements (n) Number of minimum measurements (u) Redundancy (r=n-u) Conditions equations Constraints Target to minimum By Changing cells 3 2 1 S1+V1+S2+V2+S3+V3=180 [E5]=180 [D5] [C2:C4]

Solver add-in will calculate values on range [C2:C4] iteratively until minimum value on cell [D5] is obtained. Setting on solver parameters: Solver parameters can be set by activating the solver program with the following steps: 1. 2. On Excel 2007, select [Data] ribbon In the group of [Analysis], click [Solver]

B.1 ADJUSTMENT ON LEVELING NETWORK

1. Number of Observations and Redundancy Number of Observations (n) Minimum Required Observations (u) :6 :3 Minimum 3 (three) observations are required to calculation elevations on B, C and D (number of red circles) Redundancy (r=n-u) :3 Thus, three (3) conditional equations are required to adjust six (6) observations. 2. Solver Model, Conditional Equations and Constraint

REMARK Copy formula on C37 down to C42 Copy formula on D37 down to D42 Copy formula on F37 down to F42 Copy formula on G37 down to G42 Target Parameter on Solver

Conditional equations can be written clearer by naming cells (called range name) rather than using cell reference. For example, formula/equation in cell F48 is more comprehensive expressed by =La_1-La_3+La_2 instead of =G37-G39+G38. Individual cell on G37:G42 can be named according to list on H37:H42 with the following: Select / block range G37:H42 Click [Formula] ribbon In the group [Defined Names], click [Create from Selection] On the options [Create name from values], check only at [Right column] Click [OK]

After naming cells, the following formula can be applied: CELL F48 F49 F50 G48:G50 FORMULA =La_1-La_3+La_2 =La_2+La_4-La_5 =La_3+La_6-La_5 Constraints REMARK

3. Solver Parameters Select [Data] ribbon In the group of [Analysis], click [Solver] Set parameters as shown below

Click [Solve]

Solver found a solution means all constraints and conditions are correct. click [OK]

4. Statistical Testing After optimization, sample variance (s2) can be obtained from target cell (F44) with the equation s2 = sum(V2W)/(nu) = F44/3. Statically, the value of sample variance (s2) can be tested with Chi-Square distribution using 95% Confidence Interval or 5% significant level. 2 =

() 2 2

( 2 ) 2

FORMULA =F44 =CHIINV(0.05/2, E32) =IF(F53 < F54, "Pass at the 5% significant level", "Fail at the 5% significant level")

NOTE

B.2

ADJUSTMENT ON TRIANGULATION

1. Number of Observations and Redundancy Number of Observations (n) Minimum Required Observations (u) :8 :4 Minimum 4 (four) observations are required to calculation coordinates on B and C (number of yellow squares) Redundancy (r=n-u) :4

CELL C40 D40 F40 G40 I40 J40 K40 H54 H55 H56 H57 J54

FORMULA =F21 =1/(G21^2) =E40^2*D40 =C40+(E40/3600) =TRUNC(G40) =TRUNC((G40-I40)*60) =3600*(G40-I40-J40/60) =La_1+La_2+La_3+La_8 =La_4+La_5+La_6+La_7 =La_1+La_6+La_7+La_8 =La_1+La_2+La_3+La_4+La_5+La_6+La_7+La_8 =(I54-H54)*3600

REMARK Copy formula on C40:D40 down to C47:D47 Copy formula on F40:G40 down to F47:G47

3. Solver Parameters

Optimization result:

4. Statistical Testing

B.3

ADJUSTMENT ON TRILATERATION

1. Number of Observations and Redundancy Number of Observations (n) Minimum Required Observations (u) Redundancy (r=n-u) : 10 :9 :1

CELL C39 D39 E39 G39 H39 E54 F54 G54 H54 I54 J54

FORMULA =C20 =D20 =1/(D39^2) =F39^2*E39 =C39+F39 =VLOOKUP(B54,$B$39:$H$48,7,0) =VLOOKUP(C54,$B$39:$H$48,7,0) =VLOOKUP(D54,$B$39:$H$48,7,0) =F54^2+G54^2-E54^2 =2*F54*G54 =H54/I54

REMARK

Copy formula on C39:E39 down to C48:E48 Copy formula on G39:H39 down to G48:H48

3. Solver Parameters

Optimization result:

4. Statistical Testing

B.4

ADJUSTMENT ON TRAVERSE

1. Number of Observations and Redundancy Number of Observations (n) Minimum Required Observations (u) Redundancy (r=n-u) : 18 : 12 :6

2. Solver Model, Conditional Equations and Constraints Traverse surveying observes/collects two types of observation; they are horizontal angle and distance observations thereby traverse surveying obtains 2 (two) metric units: decimal degree for horizontal angle and meter for distance. Considering that optimization process (process to minimize corrections) involves two different units, the number is required to convert seconds to radians on standard deviation of horizontal angles. The calculated from =2*PI()/(360*60*60). As depicted on sample of traverse net, the net can be divided into 2 (two) loops named as Loop#1 and Loop#2. Loop#1 follows on stations BM.1, BM.2 POL.1, POL.2, BM.5 and BM.6 while for Loop#2 follows BM.1, BM.2, POL.3, POL.4, POL.5, BM.5 and BM.6. Solver add-in will optimize or adjust Loop#1 and Loop#2 in one process. Coordinates on Loop#1 are not derived from Loop#2 or Loop#2 is derived conversely from Loop#1.

REMARK Standard deviation is multiplied by $C$60 () for Angle Observation Copy formula on L40:M40 down to L54:M57 Correction is divided by $C$60 () for angle observations. Unit for angle correction is second and for distance is meter

Adjusted observations.. Unit for adjusted observations is degree and for distance is meter. Format angle display as dd mm' ss.00" Copy formula on O40:R40 down to O57:R57 Set target to minimum

Calculate azimuth base on previous azimuth and measured horizontal angle Copy formula I72 to I74, I76 and I78

=$H72*SIN(RADIANS($I72)) =$H72*COS(RADIANS($I72)) =O71 =P71 =L71+J72 =M71+K72 Copy formula L73:M73 to L75:M75 and L77:M77 Copy formula J72:K72 to J74:K74 J76:K76 and

3. Solver Parameters

Optimization result:

4. Statistical Testing

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