You are on page 1of 74

CHAPTER-1 Introduction

Unemployment is one of the most developmental issues that every developing economy is facing in the recent century. International statistics reflects that industrial and service workers living in developing areas faces account for about two-thirds of the unemployed. (Patterson et al, 2006). Economically passive people are those who do not fulfill the definitions of employment or unemployment. They are people who do not actively participate in the labour market because they are unable to find a job. Inactivity rates can be very different for men and women for a wide range of factors. These consists the economic climate, social and cultural norms, legislation and education have just some point no farther more explanation (ILO, 2007). Economists have long debates on causes and consequences of unemployment. On one hand unemployment is a symbol of market letdown that causes some workers to be unwillingly prevented from working. On the other hand, unemployment is a form of disguised rest a period when labor is voluntarily moved to more efficient uses. Time use and subjective well-being data provide a new gap on the lives of the unemployed. How much time do unemployed workers spend searching for a job? How much time do they spend in leisure activities and home production? How do they feel about their daily activities and their lives (Krueger and Mueller 2008). Men and women are pillars of society, without their equal participation in all spheres of life no society can progress properly. As far as the capabilities of women are concerned, they are not less than men. From the stone age, women have been equally participating in socio-economic life with men but women labour force participation (LFP) has not given the same consideration as mens work have received. The status of women is as second-class citizen which is reinforced by the less vocational opportunities available to them. Their contribution remains invisible as most of them have to work in the unorganized and informal sector which includes all kinds of
1

work, such as casual frame work, labour in family enterprises and private crafts, private schools or unskilled labour in houses (Sadaquat and Sheikh, 2011). From the few past years, unemployment among rural women in developing countries is very serious problem. The national policy makers of these countries give high attention to this problem. Rural women play a key role in daily reproductive tasks, income generating activities and agriculture etc. In developing countries, however, these women are less likely to realize their status to make their lives better for themselves, for families and for communities because it is the fact that they are given less value of their contributions. In this regard, participation of rural women in productive tasks support is an appropriate mean for empowering them and reduction their unemployment (Aazami et al. 2011). The empowerment of women is very important for human development and international community has been constantly stressing upon womens participation in different codes of life. Prior to look into the impact of women empowerment, womens empowerment means the provision of right to women to forward their say in important decisions and ensure bias-free access to resources. International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)1994 has taken into consideration the womens empowerment from various angles and given five situations where any one can lead to empowering a woman: (a) womens sense of self-growth (b) their right to have and to determine choices (c) their right to have an access to opportunities and resources (d) their right to have the power to control their lives both inside and outside the home and (e) their ability to influence the direction of social change to create more social and economic order (Muhammad et al. 2010). There are huge differences in women unemployment with reference to gender. Cultural attitudes towards gender play important role for employment in developed countries. Cultural norms and cultural values restrict women for job that is why in South Africa young women had lower employment and lower participation in labour force as compare to males. Their lower employment and lower participation rate in labour force is the outcome of their limited access to education as compare to male. However, institutional policies and structural characteristics are also very important. Attitude towards women independence has a significant importance in social life but it do not play important role in explaining the employment rate of the women. A
2

disadvantage for girls is that they have limited access to education which limits their visions for jobs. Many other factors like culture, socio-economic conditions and institutional structure as well as reputation are main factor for women employment (Anonymous, 2005; Giavazzi et al.2009). The rate of unemployment in Pakistan can be measured by the help of Labor Force Survey conducted by the Federal Bureau of Statistics in 2000. According to the survey, the unemployment has shown an increase from 5.9% in 1998 to 7.8% in 2000. This increase has been observed for both males and females. Females are more unemployed (17.3 %) as compared to males (6.1%) (Govt. of Pakistan, 2000). Unemployment is enforced idleness of wage earner who is able and willing to work but cannot find jobs. In societies like Pakistan where most people earn their living only by working for others being unable to find a job is a serious problem. In Pakistan population pressure lower the economic growth rate and resulting in poor or slow growth of country economy. According to the survey report the rate of unemployment in 1998 was 5.50 percent which increased to 7.82 percent by the year 2003. Thus the rate of unemployment in rural areas was 5 percent which increased to 69.4 percent, while the rate of unemployment in urban area was than 9 percent which increased to 9.9 percent by 2003. In Pakistan 50 percent of our population is consisting of women who are treated as out of the work force. Unemployment in Pakistan is increasing due to i.e. (i) rapid population growth (ii) education system in Pakistan (iii) pressure on one industry, but if these things can be checked then unemployment rate can automatically come down (Nayyab Blog, 2010). The Federal Bureau of Statistics released the Pakistan Labour Force Survey 2011 on Monday, which shows the unemployment rate rising to 6% in July 2011, compared to 5.6% a year ago. The size of the total workforce was 57.3 million. The total number of unemployed rose by 280,000 people during the past year to 3.4 million. Unemployment for women, for example, declined from 9.5% last year to 8.9% this year. The corresponding figures for men rose from 4.4% to 5.1%. In absolute terms, the number of unemployed women decreased to 1.18 million from 1.21 million. The number of jobless men increased to 2.22 million from 1.91 million. The rise of employment opportunities is a welcome sign in a country that has historically had cultural
3

differencesagainst female participation in the workforce. Unemployment in rural areas declined from 4.8% to 4.7%, a reflection of strong growth in agricultural commodity prices and consistent government support for several crops such as wheat. Urban areas, meanwhile, saw unemployment rise to 8.8%, from 7.2% last year, as the energy crisis continues to cripple most businesses in cities and towns with rising costs, forcing them to lay off people or slow their hiring plans (Rana, 2011). According to Gilani Research Foundation unemployment has increased in the last few years in Pakistan. It is caused not only because of poor economic condition of the country but is also a result of the present culture of nepotism (Sifarish) for employment inPakistan. Tradition of late marriages and migration to other countryfor jobs are also affecting factors for unemployment in Pakistani society (Haque, 2009). In various countries the unemployment graph accounted for age specification reveals a U shaped pattern high unemployment in the initial stages or among youth category, a moderate trend for the middle age group people and again highly intensive among old. The recent government programmes have contributed to a high degree in confiscating the child labour by launching the educational campaigns rigorously and by increasing the enrolments at primary levels especially in urban areas. This policy of promoting the education has limited the variance of unemployment rate to reasonable extent on the part of males but on part of females the conventional and traditional norms are still strong enough to impede the way of females from coming out of this hall. These distributional impacts for the economy of Pakistan which clearly testifies that among the young age group unemployment rate has been higher as compare to old women (Qayyum, 2007). The status of women in Pakistan is not homogenous because of the interconnection of gender with other forms of exclusion in the society. There is considerable diversity in the status of women across classes, regions, and the rural/urban divide due to uneven socioeconomic development and the impact of tribal, feudal and capitalist social formations on womens lives. However, womens situation vis--vis men are one of systemic subordination, determined by the forces of patriarchy across classes, regions, and the rural/urban divide. Gender is one of the organizing principles of Pakistani community. Patriarchal values embedded in local traditions
4

and cultures predetermine the social value of gender. An artificial divide between production and reproduction, created by the ideology of sexual division of labor, has placed women in reproductive roles as mothers and wives in the private arena of home and men in a productive role as breadwinners in the public arena. This has led to a low level of resource investment in women by the family and the State. Thus, low investment in womens human capital, compounded by the ideology of purdah(literally veiled), negative social biases, and cultural practices. The concept of honor linked with womens sexuality restrictions on womens mobility and the internalization of patriarchy by women themselves becomes the basis for gender discrimination and disparities in all fields of life (Govt. of Pakistan, 2001). Women of Pakistan are structured by harsh religious, family and tribal customs. Pakistanis have wrong interpretation of Islamic teaching about female regarding their rights and duties and these wrong interpretation presents women as needing for protection which lead to their ultimate physical, mental and emotional oppression. Women in Pakistan are facing many forms of discrimination and unfairness in almost every phase of life. So, they live in an atmosphere of fear and their lives are guaranteed in exchange for obedience to social norms, values, customs and traditions. This fear is imposed by the traditional beliefs of male dominated society, so women are also facing different types of problems in their life because of male dominated thought (Babur, 2007). Women in Pakistan participate fully in economic activities in the productive and reproductive sphere. According to the 19901991 PIHS, more than three fourths of the economically active women in urban areas are employed in the informal sector. The job opportunities available to them only in the informal sector intensify womens exploitation, and standard labor legislation or legal protective measures do not cover their vulnerability. Women workers in the informal sector, especially home-based piece rate workers, work longer hours for low wages under conditions of job insecurity. (Govt. of Pakistan, 2001). Pakistani women face a number of challenges when seeking work in specific economic sectors. They also face difficulties finding work that is not vulnerable employment and has decent working conditions. Working women are especially overrepresented in the agriculture sector with more than two thirds (67.6 per cent in 2008) of the female labour force working in
5

the sector. This is 5.4 percentage points higher than in 2000. Women who manage to find employment in non-agricultural sectors mainly work in the informal economy (71.7 per cent in 2008). Moreover, the majority of employed women is classified as at risk of lacking decent work or in other words are vulnerable, since they are working as contributing family or own account workers. Both status groups are likely to be characterized by insecure employment arrangements, low earnings and low productivity (Govt. of Pakistan, 2009). A major problem that Pakistan faces is the growing level of unemployment among educated youth. For increasing number of graduates, it becomes more difficult to find adequate employment and satisfactory ways of supporting themselves financially and meeting their job exceptions. On unemployment, it says that despite a discernible fall in the interdental growth rate, population pressures continue to impact negatively on the employment (Mahmood et al. 2011) Women population in Pakistan is more than half and lives in patriarchal family system in which husband or father as family head caused to female suppression. In developing societies, like Pakistan where male is dominated, majority of women have no decision making rights and on choices regarding their marriage. There are many cultural barriers and traditional restrictions for women regarding employment in rural areas of Pakistan (Ali et al. 2010). Gender disparities especially in rural areas interrupted each development strategy throughout the globe. Women encompass half of worlds population yet they have been struggling for decent living. The state of gender related issues in developing countries is over deplorable. Lower ratio of women participation in workforce is a vital factor determining the level of employment among women. The situation is even worse in certain remote and deprived areas. The rural area of D. G. Khan has lack of basic social and industrial infrastructure that restricts the economic activity. It is now globally admitted that without active participation of women in economic developmental strategy, the dream of development could not be unleashed. Therefore current study will inquire about causes and consequences of national women unemployment. Keeping in view all these points the main objectives of current study are fallowing:
6

Objectives:

To investigate about the socio economic characteristics of respondents. To identify the socio economic and cultural factors associated with women unemployment and their consequences an rural women. To suggest appropriate policy measures for improving the state of employment among rural women in Tehsil D.G. Khan.

CHAPTER-2 Review of Literature


Review of the previous literature and work done in the field provides a guideline in designing the scientific studies through the identification of the weakness of the previous studies. It highlights the findings of related studies and eliminates the possibility of unnecessary duplication of efforts. Evans (1998) stated that the fall in average unemployment in Britain between its peaks in 1984 and 1993 is totally accounted for by a decrease in female unemployment. This remarkable betterment is linked with a fall in their inflow rate, is focused among women with young children, and is equally spread across all skill groups. Having discounted temporary demand-side explanations for these trends, he discussed that improvements in the provision of workplace assistance to mothers returning to work after childbirth have decreased the labour market frictions related with the presence of young children. That may be seen as a fall in the natural rate of unemployment. United Nations (1999) supported the practice of womens paid employment in overthrowing the perception of women to be non-economic asset for families; rather their employment stands contributory in furnishing opportunity for making investment, educating girls and facilitating health. In Pakistan, the womens empowerment has taken a serious shape making the population into two vivid camps the opposing and supporting. Azid et al. (2001) have studied the factors influencing female participation in cottage industry of Pakistan. The main objective of the study is to analyze the economic behavior of the female workers involved in the business of embroidery. The study has concluded that number of the children, age of the females, education, poverty status have a positive and significant impact on female economic activities. Results shows that many factors i.e. number of children and low education were the main cause of unemployment in the sampled area. Tansel (2001) reported that recently, several researchers hypothesized that female labor force participation rate reflects during the process of economic development. The results confirm female employment had the impact of economic development. Further, unemployment had a
8

considerable discouraging effect on female labor force participation while the impact of education was strongly positive. The hidden unemployment calculations show that urban female unemployment rate is underestimated and the discouraged-worker effect for women is substantial. Zia et al. (2002) investigated the socio-economic characteristics of women workers. They studied different economic activities of women workers, their characteristics regarding their level of participation and problems faced by rural factory working women. Rural working women compelled to seek job in factories due to low family income, low education and lack of other job opportunities like teaching, nursing and health workers. Females were unaware to their rights so they were unable to stand for their rights. Lack of information and knowledge induced those towards unemployment. Naqvi and Shahnaz (2002) have examined the effects of various demographic, socioeconomic and human capital-related factors on women participation in economic activities. They have used cross-sectional data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (1998-1999) for the age group of 15-49 years. The probit and multinomial legit model has been used to estimate the parameters. The probit estimates shows that marital status, primary education, number of children and female head of households are inversely related with womens participation in economic activities. Kongolo and Bamgose (2002) analyzed that lack of information, resources and

government assistance, lack of education, cultural values and discrimination against rural women were the most important factors of unemployment in rural areas. Further inferences can be drawn in relation to the age structure of respondents that it has impacted negatively on rural women participation, mostly for those in the category of 65 years and above. This study also found that each studied has its own distinct characteristics and especial problems, based on geographical location, status of respondents, educational background, occupation and age structure. So this effect important to understand that what could be applied as a solution to one settlement could not be applied to another. Micevska (2004) researched about unemployment and labor market rigidities in Southeast Europe. He found that there were many reasons for unemployment especially for
9

women and youth in South-east Europe and one of them is governmental policies. He found that after significant liberalization efforts South-east countries had made flexiblelegislation about permanent employment while still had relatively strict legislation on temporary jobs which is a real cause of unemployment in South-east European countries. So women and youth were also affected by those strict legislation policies of South-east European countries about temporary employment. Ludemann et al. (2005) estimated that during the past 25 year the unemployment rate in West Germany was increased dramatically. They studied the unemployed persons aged 26 to 41 and found macro and micro different relationship of social economic variables with unemployment duration. Government policy had affected the unemployment rate of Germany. They found that educational degree had micro level effect on unemployment duration. Unemployment duration affected both type of individual male and female and married females suffered more as compare to unmarried females. Because married female faced much more financial problems as compare to unmarried female. They also suggested that the problem of unemployment can be solving if we study the history of unemployment. Tasci and Tansel (2005) found that females in urban area had higher unemployment ratio than urban men because they had lower chance for job and still remained the problem of employment for unemployment. Unemployment ratio was higher among unmarried men and women as compare to married persons. They also found that there were more chances to attain a job for young individuals who had miss the job as compare to older individuals. So older avoid to loss the job. Zachariah and Rajan (2005) stated that demographic characteristics are also effect the employment rate of any country. They studied socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, marital status, education, religion and society) of unemployment of Kerala. For their study, they used the data of year 1998 and 2003 and found that in both years, demographic characteristics (age, sex, marital status, education, religion and society) had effect on the employment rate of Kerala. They also suggested that to reduce unemployment rate, policy makers should develop their policies according to demographic change of their country.

10

Nasir (2005) found that there were several possible explanations for the fact that educational attainment levels of inactive females are relatively high. Analyses of labour market indicators such as status in employment and employment by sector point at persisting labour market imbalances between men and women. He also found that the occupational distribution of the employed disaggregated by sex. In other words, women who are qualified for a certain type of jobs may face hurdles which prevent them from obtaining such. The empirical results show that individuals with high educational achievements choose high-ranking jobs. It is also noted that gender has a role in the labour market and males are sorted out in high-paying occupation. Professional choice is affected more by the human capital variables than by the individual characteristics. Among human capital variables, education has the strongest impact in the selection of an occupation of choice. Patricia (2006) investigated the causes and effects of unemployment and its impact on development in South Africas village Tshiheni. She discussed the psychological, Socioeconomic and health associated that any factors unemployed person had to faced. Majority of the unemployed were 21 to 30 years old and most of them were females. Main causes of unemployment were non-availability of jobs, followed by retrenchments and lack of skill or education. Unemployment has negative effect on social relationship. Majority of unemployed were not self-employed but depend on families and child grants for support. Van and Buchel (2006) stated that the regional structure effect on both females those are willing or unwilling because they have no access to the labour markeet. Special permission was granted to link regional data to individual respondents in the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). Results of a bivariate probit model correcting for sample selection show that high regional unemployment discourages women from entering the labour market. Those willing to work find it easier to do so if they live in areas with low regional female unemployment rates, at a short distance from the next accumulation, and for mothers with a high density of childcare provision. Babur (2007) found that lacks of education economic opportunities, potential of work are important factors for women job. Social setting in Pakistan is divided into two spheres. The internal household job is associated with women. Women do all type of household chores while
11

men do all the work outside the house. This bounding is strictly observed in Pakistan. The second main cause of high unemployment is purdah observation. That restricts women to do public jobs. They are mostly bound to apply for specific jobs. Thats why employment rate among female is very low. Wasim et al. (2008) reported that due to low literacy rate in rural areas, women as working populations are mostly involve in agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing. The available evidence shows that the womens participation in the total labor force (rural and urban) is very low and a vast majority of them are engaged in agricultural operations and all these are unpaid work. Women receive no material advantages and totally depend upon the male. Regularity of employment is compulsory for better economic condition of women workers and increase regularity of employment will provide them income stability. Hussain (2008) stated that always Pakistani women have experienced disadvantages by men of the same status. Historically socio-cultural factors have restricted the entrance of most females in job market. The society of Karachi is comprised of different social classes and female participation can be found in every work of life. Highly qualified females are involved in whitecollar management, administrative, creative and educational posts. Women, who are lower status working, are fighting for survival. So the education is important factor for unemployment. Akintoye (2008) stated that the unemployment among females as one of the largest problems could be decrease through the informal sector participation. The informal sector in itself may not be able to get much as we have presently due to inaccessibility to credit, but with the on-going policy of the Federal Government through the Central Bank of Nigeria on microfinancing the macroeconomic objective of reduced unemployment, if not full employment will become a fact in Nigeria. The microfinance policy had empowered the many microfinance institutions to provide credit to the informal sector. He therefore advised that the Nigerian Government and all related stakeholders continue in their quest towards decreasing unemployment while they give their undivided support, in making sure that the informal sector continues to enjoy access to credit to finance its activities and complete its goal of unemployment reduction. Nevertheless, there can be a number of reason why people do not actively search for a job either because they feel that no work is available for them or because
12

such persons have fractioned labour mobility, face discrimination or structural, social or cultural barriers. These are the so-called discouraged workers, the majority of which are mostly women. Govt. of Pakistan (2008) reported that inactivity rates for men are very low compared to women and have not changed over time. This is, to a certain extent, positive in that it shows men do not face the same difficulties as women in participating in the labour market. But, at the same time, it reflects the lack of better alternatives for them. Low inactivity rates bring that men are very likely to take any job they can get in order to maintain at least a subsistence level of support for their families. Especially for young men, labour force participation is necessary to survive and too often not a matter of choice. Govt. of Pakistan (2009) mentioned that in 2008, women in Pakistan had a much higher likelihood of being unemployed compared to men. The female unemployment rate stood at 8.7 percent, which was more than double as high as the male rate of 4.0 per cent. Nevertheless, female unemployment could be halved during the last decade from 15.8 per cent to 8.7 per cent. The difficulty of finding work is even more pronounced for young women between the age of 15 and 24, with 10.5 percent of them available on the job market but not employed, in 2008. Chaudhry and Nosheen (2009) analyzed the determinants of women empowerment in Southern Punjab of Pakistan. Considering multidimensional nature of women empowerment, writers estimated the collective index for women using four indices, i.e. personal autonomy, family decision making, domestic economic decisions, and political autonomy. The results demonstrated that women empowerment is considerably influenced by education, access to media, socio-cultural norms of the community, job of women and household participation rate. The major stress of this study was on the women empowerment in terms of their participation in household economic activities. So above discussed hurdles was the main cause of unemployment among females. Mwakaje (2010) stated that approximately 30% of the worlds households were headed by women and it was widely agreed that women-headed households were more common in urban than in rural areas. He found that on gender and socio-economic matter reveal high imbalance. This study checked gender differences with regard to access to socio-economic services in unplanned and un-serviced areas of the Dares Salaam City. Data were collected from
13

1,182 sample households selected randomly. Results showed that un-necessary difference in incomes and access to socio-economic services, although women headed households were slightly less accessed than men respondents in accessing socio-economic services. Addison and Ozturk (2010) concluded that during 1970-2008 the wages are minimized regularly in 16 members, countries of Organizations for Economic Cooperation and Developed (OECD). It has been examined that from a long time, organizations pay minimum wages to early age females. It has been seen that there is a great variation between the government policies and enforcement of these policies in institutions regarding of employee wages. Results indicate that early age females have lower participation in organization due to lower wages. Muhammad et al. (2010) examined the impact of urban womens empowerment on the socio-economic conditions on family level. Two residential phases of Hayatabad in Peshawar city such as Phase-I and Phase-V were selected as universe of the study. First, the empowered women were identified in the sample areas and then from amongst them 80 were interviewed under purposive sampling technique through questionnaire. The research study found that empowered or working women played an important role in supporting their family budget; they took part in all kinds of decision-making related to family affairs.They observed no gender discrimination in health and education of their children; their children got better education and developed better personality traits such as self-confidence, manners and permissiveness. The study recommends for the educated status of the rural community to extend the practice of empowering women for the sake of their improved standard of living. So it is clear that the empower or working women had impact on family budget, decision making as compare to unemployed women. Bbaale and Mpuga (2011) suggested that to increase the numbers of women in the labor force in general and wages in particular for them, we have to provide about secondary level education to women because higher education increase the female participation in labor force and enhance the wages rate. The government program to spread free education at the secondary level is a good start but needs to be more struggles for better results. There should be the involvement of all stakeholders especially donors with campaigns and resource allocations to facilitate females to get beyond secondary level education.
14

Kyei and Gyekye (2011) concluded that the employment is one of the main prosperity indicators of any nation. Any prominent changes in employment will subsequently affect the living standard of people especially female. South Africa passing through high unemployment rates, with the official unemployment rate from 15% in 1995, 30.3 % in 2001 and currently 29 %. Most of the Limpopo population lives in rural areas and have no satisfactory condition for rural dweller especially rural females in the South. Gender, age status, race or less schooling influence the unemployment in South Africa. Khodamoradi and Abedi (2011) stated that the women form great part of total workforce that needed for agriculture part at universe, as one of the intangible factors at agriculture economy. So, the statistics that was represented in relation to extent of womens activity was very lower than actual extent. Because in this statistics, mostly, seasonal jobs, part time job, no wage job and their housekeeping activities, were not noticed. Rural women have different roles and duties such asmother, crops producer, participate at ranching activities, planting, maintaining, harvesting, processing, marketing and preparing food. So females household activities affected their economic activities. Rural women maybe venturing to culture cash products, while cultivating subsistence products and if they have no farm land, they have to work for others instead receiving wage. They can consider such women as agriculture producers production expert and even in some case as policy maker. Other than activity at agriculture field, womens participation at rural development was crucial and is considered in order to supply suitable and needed food. Mahmood et al. (2011) identified the primary causes of unemployment among the educated segments in Peshawar Division of Pakistan. A sample of 442 individuals was checked to reach at best possible results about the basic causes of unemployment in the educated atmosphere ofPeshawar Division. Based on the analysis 63.8% educated people viewed that the high growth rate of population increases unemployment among educated segments. The Population growth in Pakistan is currently registered at an annual rate of 2.1% which is one of the highest in the world. The serious situation of population growth suggests that rapid measures should be adopted. In each home about 64% of the females are dependent and 36% of the males are dependent. The proportion of females is comparatively higher than males because females are less educated and to our social set up they are not allowed to do jobs. According to the
15

research analysis, 68% males and 32% of females are employed showing that the percentage of overall employment is comparatively lower than developed countries. Sadaquat and Sheikh (2011) they found out men and women are most important for the stability of society without them society cannot stable or progress properly. In Pakistan low participation of females work due to their cultural, Traditional values, religious and environmental system. In Pakistani society mostly women are suffering from market discrimination. They face the problem of low paid, low status job. Mostly women are attached with unorganized sectors these sectors cannot provide secure jobs. Mostly women are known for low level of productivity less income stability and low security of employment due to their dual role at home and workplace. So rate of unemployment is very high among women as compared to male in both urban and rural area there are two main prominent factors that plays a vital role in unemployment among women.(1) Females literacy rate is very low as compared to men. (2) Sociocultural norms continue to strengthen the gender discrimination. Government, nongovernmental organizations and progressive political parties should concentrate on the education of women if they want to increase the status of women in Pakistan by implementing special schemes and programmes. Past research reports and articles on the causes and consequences of female unemployment showed some important factors of this research issue. The area of the determinant and consequences of unemployed women has wide potentiality for enquiries. Even though limited sociological research work was undertaken in a systematic way in this field. There is little study especially on female unemployment in Pakistan. Dera Ghazi Khan is a remote and far flung area of Punjab province that is located on its boarder and has a heterogamous culture due to attachment with other provinces. In the research study, an attempt was made to causes and consequences of unemployment among rural women within socio-cultural aspect of this area. This study was conducted within limited reviews in order to highlight the research gap and to develop a conceptual frame and mood.

16

CHAPTER 3 Methodology
The main objective of methodology is to explain the tools and techniques employed for data collection, analysis and interpretation of data relating to the present study. The method and techniques of research along with statistical tests and operational definitions of the concepts being used are briefly described in this chapter. Goldhaber and Nieto (2010) said Scientific
17

methodology refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.

The universe:
According to Good and Hatt (1952), any set of individual or objects having a common observable characteristic in a research constitute a population or universe, or undertaking a scientific study, selection and specification is the first and important step. For understanding a scientific study, selection was the important step. Universe of the present study was comprised of rural areas of Tehsil D.G. Khan. According to district administration, Tehsil D. G. Khan has forty-one union councils. Seven union councils are urban and thirty-four are rural.

Limitation of the study:


Unemployed women who were the above the age of 16-46 years.

Data Collection:
The data were collected through interview schedule.

Interview Schedule:
The interview schedule was prepared to get information about causes and consequences of unemployment among rural women in Tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan. The data were collected through personal interview. Before starting the interview it was deemed necessary to rapport with respondents by explaining the purpose of research. The researcher got familiar with the respondents through the key informant. The researcher spent approximately ten days for data collection. The interviewing schedule was constructed in English but all questions were asked in Urdu or Saraiki, to facilitate the respondents in their response. The time consumed per interview varied from 20-30 minutes and in some cases it took little more time.

Pre-testing:

18

In order to determine the research workability of the interview schedule, it was pre-tested on sixteen conveniently selected respondents in Tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan. Based on the results of pre-testing, some new questions were added and minor modifications were introduced in questions. The pre-testing cases were not included in the analysis of data presented in the next chapter.

Field Experience:
In majority of cases, a lot of time was spent in explaining the purpose of research to the respondents, as they were suspicious of purpose of such data collection. The researcher herself conducted the interview. Respondents were individually interviewed. Some difficulties were faced during interviewing. Majority of them understood that the information being collected by a government department and news reporter and because of this they did not cooperate. However, the doubts mistakes were removed by explaining them that the information collected would be used only for educational purposes.

Sampling:
Time and cost are usually limited factors in social research. It is therefore more emotional and efficient to base studies on sample rather than to study the entire universe (Good and Hatt, 1952). According to District administration there are 41 union councils in Tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan. Seven union councils belong to urban area and 34 union councils belong to rural areas. Out of these thirty four rural union councils four rural union councils (GadaiGarbi, Paigan Thana Darahama and Chit Sarkani) were selected through simple random sampling technique and from these union councils a sample of 120 respondents was selected through convenient sampling technique.

Coding:
After editing the interviewing schedule, a coding sheet was prepared to convert qualitative data into quantitative form.

Conceptualization:
19

It is defined as certain scientific terminologies within research framework in order to clearly communicate the meaning to the readers. Concepts are the abstracts used by the scientists as building block for the development of propositions and theories, which explain and predict phenomenon. In social sciences, conceptualization is much more difficult as compare to any other discipline because the same concepts sometimes used with different meanings by different researchers. Therefore, defining the concepts used in study operationalized as follow:

Socio-economic status:
Socio-economic status is a complex concept. It refers to the social standing of the individual in the society to which he belongs. The socio-economic status has been defined as A comparison of index of socio-economic status, as it is a complex of attitudes that are interrelated, but do not from a single dimension, and thus should not be measured directly as a totality. Therefore, socio-economic status includes a number of factors and each factor further has several indices; every society according to its norms and values determines socio-economic status of a person. The socio-economic status of the parents influences the attitude, aspirations and other attributes of personality of their children. The indicators of socio-economic status are: 1. Age 2. Family type 3. Respondents education level 4. Marital status 5. Occupation

Age:
Age is an important characteristic of human being and attitudes vary considerably with the age. In the present study age was defined as total number of years completed by the respondents since their birth to the time of interview. The information collected about the age of respondents were categorized as under: a) 16-20 years
20

b) 21-25 years c) 26-30 years d) 31-35 years e) 36-40 years f) 41-45 f) g) 41-45 years h) 46 years and above 46

Family type:
Family is a group of intimate people emotionally involved and related weather by blood, marriage or adoption, responsible for the production and rearing, living together. There are three major types of family discussed in this study: a) Nuclear b) Joint c) Extended

Education:
Education is one of the most important factors for variation in a knowledge, attitude and prestige of an individual. Education is meant for the formal and informal year of schooling by the respondents in educational institutes like school or any other religious institute. Education categorized as under: a) Illiterate b) Primary c) Middle d) Matric e) Intermediate f) Above graduation

Occupation:

21

Occupation may be defined as the activity with a market value which an individual continually pursuer which an individual, continually pursuer for the purpose of obtaining a steady flow of income. a) Non occupation b) Private job c) Agriculture d) Business e) Labour (daily wages) f) Govt job g) Any other

Marital status:
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc. a) Single b) Married c) Widow d) Divorced e) Separated

Rural Area:
Roldfield and Goss (1977) in their classical work on the Little Community differentiated between what they called the urban and the rural area. They identified minimum social characteristics of rural areas and concluded that all societies that exhibit social characteristics that differ from such are urban areas. They therefore described the rural area as a society that is small, isolated, less-literate and homogeneous with a strong sense of group
22

solidarity. According to Fasoranti (2008), the ways of living are conventionalized into coherent system, which is called culture; behavior is traditional, spontaneous, uncritical and personal.

Unemployment:
Unemployment is a state when a woman is able and willing to do work but cannot find work at current wage level.

Analysis of Data:
The collected data was analyzed through statistical technique. The following statistical techniques were used in the present study.

Percentage:
For the simple analysis of data, percentage test was applied as a statistical technique. The formula for calculating the percentage is as under: P=F/N*100 Where F = Frequency of desired class N= Total no of frequencies P= Percentage

Chi-Square Test:
To test the significance of association between independent and dependent variables, chisquare test was used. The formula for chi-square is as under: (O-E) 2 X2 = -------------------------E
23

Where O= E= = Observed frequency Expected frequency Some of observations

Gamma statistics:
Gamma statistics was applied to ascertain the relation between certain independents and dependent variables. The Gamma was calculated with the following formula. NS-ND Gamma = _____________ NS+ND Where NS = same order pairs ND = Different order

CHAPTER-IV Results and Discussion

24

The purpose of this chapter is to present analysis and interpretation of data relating to the research problems under investigation. This chapter has been divided into two parts, Part A and Part B. Part-A (Uni-variate analysis) deals with the analysis of the respondents socio-economic characteristics of the opinion about the causes and consequences of unemployment. Part-B deals with bivariate analysis showing relationship among various socio-economic characteristics and their opinion about the causes and consequences of unemployment.

Age
Age is an important factor in determining the behavior of the being. It indicates the ability to do work and attitude of person towards various social and economic aspect of life. Age refers to the number of years completed by an individual since his birth. Age factor is very important to influence ones behavior+ it widens the vision of an individual through experience. The respondents were asked their age and data in this regard are presented in (Table 01). Table 1 shows that a major proportion i.e., 36.7 percent of the respondents had 16-20 years of age, while 18.3 percent of them had 21-25 years of age, 14.2 percent of them had 26-30 years of age and 13.3 percent of them had 31-35 years of age. Whereas 7.5 percent of the respondents had 36-40 years of age, 5.8 percent of them had 41-45 years and remaining 4.2 percent of them had 46 and above years of age. So majority of the respondents (about 70%) belonged to young age groups. Similar findings were found by Patricia (2006). Majority of the unemployed were 21 to 30 years old and most of them were females. Main causes of unemployment were nonavailability of jobs, followed by retrenchments and lack of skill or education. Unemployment has negative effect on social relationship. Majority of unemployed were not self-employed but depend on families and child grants for support. Similar findings were found by Govt. of Pakistan (2011). It was found that the impact of changing age compositions has already occurred because of the gradual fertility decline that has been underway in Pakistan since the late 1980s and early 1990s.

25

A way of looking at the changes in age structure is to examine dependency ratios, i.e., the ratio of persons under 15 and over 64 to persons between 15 and 64. This ratio is an indication of how much of the young population is increasing and that of old is decreasing.
Table1: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their age.

Age of the respondents 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 35-40 41-45 46 & Above Total

Frequency 44 22 17 16 9 7 5 120

Percentage 36.7 18.3 14.2 13.3 7.5 5.8 4.2 100.0

Education
Education can be defined as the process of developing knowledge, wisdom and other desirable qualities of mind, character and general competency, epically by the source of formal instruction. It is generally admitted that without education it is pretty difficult to produce good results in every sphere of life. Literacy in Pakistan rose from 42 to 52 percent between 2002 and 2006, net primary enrollment rates increased from 42 to 52 percent. After data analysis it is found that the literacy level is also high in the selected areas. Almost 31 percent were bachelor and 28.3 percent of them had education at master level. So, it was concluded people had more perception about the impact of power outages in D. G. Khan city. Table2: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their education. Frequency 51 Percentage 42.5
26

Education of the respondents Illiterate

Primary Middle Matric Inter Graduation & Above Total

24 22 11 8 4 120

20.0 18.3 9.2 6.7 3.3 100.0

Table 2 presents the educational status of the respondents. It indicates that a major proportion i.e., 42.5 percent of the respondents illiterate, while about one-fifth i.e., 20.0 percent of them were primary and 18.3 percent of them middle passed. About 9.2 percent of the respondents were matriculated, 6.3 percent of them intermediate and only 3.3 percent of the respondents had graduation and above level. So literacy rate was low in the selected area. According to the Govt. of Pakistan (2011) stated that the latest Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2008-09, the overall literacy rate (age 10 years and above) is 57% (69% for male and 45% for female) compared to 56% (69% for male and 45% for female) compared to 56% (69% for male and 44% for female) for 200708. So above results varied to Govt. of Pakistan (2011).

Table3:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their marital status.

Marital status of the respondents Single Married

Frequency 33 81

Percentage 27.5 67.5


27

Widow Separated Total

4 2 120

3.3 1.7 100.0

Table 3 depicts that 27.5 percent of the respondents single, while a majority i.e., 67.5 percent of them married, 3.3 percent of them widowed and only 1.7 percent of the respondents separated. Table 4 shows that only 9.2 percent of the respondents had no child, while 12.5 percent of them had 1-2 children, 17.5 percent of them had 3-4 children and 23.3 percent of them had 5-6 children. About 10.0 percent of the respondents had 7 and above children and 27.5 percent of the respondents were unmarried. According to Ludemann et al. (2005), they found that educational degree had micro level effect on unemployment duration. Unemployment duration affected both type of individual male and female and married females suffered more as compare to unmarried females. Because married female faced much more financial problems as compare to unmarried female. They also suggested that the problem of unemployment can be solving if we study the history of unemployment. Similar results were presented by Govt. of Pakistan (2011), the fertility decline started around 1988 with a reduction of approximately 2 children per woman in each decade through 2000 and later years, the subsequent decade 20002009 has seen a slowing of the fertility transition with a fall from 4.8 to about 4.0.

Table4:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their total number of children. Frequency 11 15 21 28 Percentage 9.2 12.5 17.5 23.3
28

Number of children No child 1-2 3-4 5-6

7 & Above NA (Unmarried) Total

12 33 120

10.0 27.5 100.0

Table5:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their husbands occupation. Frequency 6 13 12 8 35 7 39 120 Percentage 5.0 10.8 10.0 6.7 29.2 5.8 32.5 100.0

Husbands occupation No occupation Private job Agriculture Business Labour Govt job NA (Unmarried, Widowed or separated) Total

Table 5 shows that only 5.0 percent of the respondents husbands were not doing any type of work, while 10.8 percent of them were doing private job, 10.0 percent of them were agriculturist and 6.7 percent of the respondents husbands had their own business. About 29.2 percent of the respondents husbands were laborer, 5.8 percent of them were doing private job. Whereas 32.5 percent of the respondents were not applicable because they were unmarried, widowed or separated. According to the Govt. of Pakistan (2011), almost 61 percent population of Pakistan directly or indirectly dependents on agriculture.

Table6:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their type of family.


29

Type of family Nuclear Joint Extended Total

Frequency 63 51 6 120

Percentage 52.5 42.5 5.0 100.0

Table 6 indicates that little more than a half i.e., 52.5 percent of the respondents were living in nuclear family system, 42.5 percent of them were living in joint family system and remaining 5.0 percent of them were living in extended family system. Above results were not similar to those which found by Mansoor (2008). He found that in Pakistan, the joint family system is quite usually found. This family system comprises father, mother, children, grand father and mother, and they live together with their people in the same family unit

Table7:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their male family members. Frequency 34 53 33 120 Percentage 28.3 44.2 27.5 100.0

Male family members Up to 2 3-4 5 and above Total

30

Table 7 reveals that 28.3 percent of the respondents had up to 2 male family members, while most of the respondents i.e., 44.2 percent of them had 3-4 male family members and 27.5 percent of them had 5 and above male family members. According to Poudel (2006), male members are the economic pillar for a family.

Table8:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their female family members. Frequency 23 49 48 120 Percentage 19.2 40.8 40.0 100.0

Female family members Up to 2 3-4 5 and above Total

Table 8 reveals that 19.2 percent of the respondents had up to 2 female family members, while 40.8 percent of them had 3-4 female family members and 40.0 percent of them had 5 and above female family members.

Table9:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their total family members.

Total family members Up to 5 6-10 Above 10 Total

Frequency 29 73 18 120

Percentage 24.2 60.8 15.0 100.0

31

Table 9 indicates that about one-fourth i.e., 24.2 percent of the respondents had up to 5 family members, while a majority i.e., 60.8 percent of them had 6-10 family members and only 15.0 percent of them had above 10 family members. Data indicates that more than 75% respondents had more than 6 family members that indicates large family size and joint family system in the society.

Table10: House type Kacha Pacca Semi Pacca Total

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their house type. Frequency 28 53 39 120 Percentage 23.3 44.2 32.5 100.0

Table 10 reveals that 23.3 percent of the respondents had kacha type house, while a major proportion i.e., 44.2 percent had pacca type house and about one-third i.e., 32.5 percent of them had semi pacca type house.

Table11:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about prevalence of female unemployment prevailing in D.G.Khan. Frequency 16 100 4 120 Percentage 13.4 83.3 3.3 100.0

Female unemployment prevailing in D.G.Khan Strongly agree Agree Neutral Total

32

Table 11 indicates that 13.4 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a large majority i.e., 83.3 percent of them agreed with the statement that female unemployment is prevailing in D. G. Khan and 3.3 percent of them neutral with this opinion. While according to Babur (2007), women of Pakistan are structured by harsh religious, family and tribal customs. Pakistanis have wrong interpretation of Islamic teaching about female regarding their rights and duties and these wrong interpretations presents women as needing for protection which lead to their ultimate physical, mental and emotional oppression. Table 12 indicates that 12.5 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a huge majority i.e., 82.5 percent of them agreed with the statement that lack of job opportunities for rural women is the mother cause of enhancing rate of unemployment in D.G. Khan , 2.5 percent of them were neutral while 2.5 percent were disagreed with this statement. In a study Qayyum (2007) said that in total unemployment, the rate of females unemployment rate is high and this is due to lack of education and lack of job opportunities.

Table12:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about lack of job opportunities for rural women is the mother cause of enhancing rate of unemployment in D.G .Khan

Lack of job opportunities for rural women is the mother cause of enhancing rate of unemployment in D.G .Khan Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree

Frequency

Percentage

15 99 3 3

12.5 82.5 2.5 2.5


33

Total

120

100.0

Table 13 shows that 11.7 percent of the respondents strongly opinioned that female should do job to support her family economically, while a vast majority i.e., 85.0 percent of them agreed with the opinion that women should do job for economic support to their family, only one respondent was neutral and remaining 2.5 percent of them disagreed with this statement. Table13: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about women should do job for economic support to their family Respondents opinion about women should do job for economic support to their family Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total Frequency Percentage

14 102 1 3 120

11.7 85.0 .8 2.5 100.0

Table14:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about women have lack of job opportunities as compare to male in rural areas.

Women have lack of job opportunities as compare to male in rural areas Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total

Frequency

Percentage

17 100 1 2 120

14.2 83.3 .8 1.7 100.0


34

Table 14 depicts that 14.2 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a significant majority i.e., 83.3 percent of them agreed with the opinion that women have lack of job opportunities as compare to male in rural areas, only one respondent was neutral and remaining 1.7 percent of them disagreed with this statement. Similar results were found by Ali et al. (2010). They also found that male had dominated position in the society and women had less decision making power regarding their employment. Table 15 presents the reasons of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to males in rural areas. In response to physical weakness as a reason of lack of job opportunities for females only 4.2 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, about a half i.e., 50.8 percent of them agreed with the reason physical weakness is a cause of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to male in rural areas, while 5.8 percent were neutral, 39.2 percent of respondents disagreed with this reason. In response to more emotional as a reason of lack of job opportunities for females, only 1.7 percent of the respondents were strongly agreed, about a half i.e., 49.2 percent of them agreed with the reason more emotional is a cause of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to male in rural areas, while 1.7 percent of respondents were neutral and 47.5 percent disagreed with this reason. In response to need more security as a reason of lack of job opportunities for females, about 15.0 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a majority i.e., 75.8 percent of respondents agreed with the reason need more security for female is a cause of lack of job opportunities for them as compare to male in rural areas, whereas 0.8 percent neutral and 8.3 percent disagreed with this reason. In response to disturb the environment as a reason of lack of job opportunities for females only one respondent strongly agreed, 38.3 percent of them agreed with the reason disturb the environment is a cause of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to male in rural areas, while 6.7 percent of respondents were neutral and a majority i.e., 54.2 percent disagreed with this reason. In response to cultural environment as a reason of lack of job opportunities for females, just 5.8 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.e., 60.0 percent of
35

respondents agreed with the reason cultural environment is a cause of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to male in rural areas, while 9.2 percent of respondents were neutral and about one-fourth i.e., 25.0 percent of them disagreed with this reason. Similar findings were presented by Babur (2007). He found that the women of Pakistan are structured by harsh religious, family and tribal customs. Pakistanis have wrong interpretation of Islamic teaching about female regarding their rights and duties and this wrong interpretation presents women as needing for protection which lead to their ultimate physical, mental and emotional oppression. Table 16 depicts that about one-third i.e., 34.2 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a majority i.e., 60.0 percent of them agreed with the statement that the curse of favoritism/ nepotism promotes the rate of unemployment among women, only 2.5 percent of respondents were neutral and 3.3 percent disagreed with this statement. Krueger and Mueller (2008) stated that unemployment is a symbol of market letdown that causes some workers to be unwillingly prevented from working.

Table15:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their response regarding the reasons of lack of job opportunities for female as compare to male in rural areas. Strongly agree f % 5 2 18 1 4.2 1.7 15. 0 0.8 Agree f 61 59 91 46 % 50.8 49.2 75.8 38.3 Neutral F 7 2 1 8 % 5.8 1.7 0.8 6.7 Disagree f 47 57 10 65 % 39.2 47.5 8.3 54.2 Strongly disagree f 0 0 0 0 % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

N = 120 Reasons

Total f 120 120 120 120 % 100 100 100 100

Physical weakness More emotional Need more security Disturb the environment

36

Cultural environment

5.8

72

60.0

11

9.2

30

25.0

0.0

120

100

Table16:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the curse of favoritism/ nepotism promotes the rate of unemployment among women.

The curse of favoritism/ nepotism promotes the rate of unemployment among women Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total

Frequency

Percentage

41 72 3 4 120

34.2 60.0 2.5 3.3 100.0

Table17:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the ever increasing population enhances the rate of unemployment among women. Frequency Percentage

Ever increasing population enhances the rate of unemployment among women. Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total

6 103 3 8 120

5.0 85.8 2.5 6.7 100.0

37

Table 17 indicates that only 5.0 percent of the respondents strongly agree, while a huge majority i.e., 85.8 percent agreed with the opinion that the ever increasing population enhances the rate of unemployment among women, only 2.5 percent of them were neutral and 6.7 percent disagreed with this statement. In a study Vroman (2005) discussed the sickness, child birth etc as cause of female unemployment. He said that the earning of many families decreases due to long term interruption in earning, like work force reduction, illness, child birth, work injury and other natural diseases may cause the unemployment. Earners are the important source of income and most of the families face decrease in earnings due to unemployment. Table 18 reveals that a majority i.e., 57.5 percent of the respondents agreed to a great extent with the statement that the ever increasing population enhances the rate of unemployment among women, 35.8 percent of them agree to some extent with this statement and 6.7 percent not agree with this statement. Above results supported to Mahmood et al. (2011). They also found that ever increasing population enhances the rate of unemployment rate.

Table18:

Percentage distribution of the respondents regarding the extent of increasing unemployment rate among women due to over population Frequency Percentage

Extent of increase of unemployment rate among women due to over population To great extent To some extent Not at all Total

43 69 8 120

35.8 57.5 6.7 100.0

38

Table19:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their response that different kinds of education in rural women is a real cause of spreading unemployment.

N = 120 Reasons Strongly agree f Informal education Skill education Technical education Information technology Professional education Religious education 3 1 1 0 4 12 % 2.5 0.8 0.8 0.0 3.3 10. 0 f 101 106 102 87 99 75 Agree % 84.2 88.3 85.0 72.5 82.5 62.5 F 3 1 5 14 6 7 Neutral % 2.5 0.8 4.2 11.7 5.0 5.8 f 13 12 12 19 11 26 Disagree % 10.8 10.0 10.0 15.8 9.2 21.7 f 0 0 0 0 0 0 Strongly disagree % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 f 120 120 120 120 120 120 Total % 100 100 100 100 100 100

Table 19 shows that only 2.5 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a huge majority i.e., 84.2 percent of them agreed with their opinion that informal education is a real cause of spreading unemployment, whereas 2.5 percent of them were neutral and 10.8 percent of them disagreed with this cause. Just one respondent was strongly agreed and a vast majority i.e., 88.3 percent of them w agreed with their opinion that skill education is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas, whereas 0.8 percent of them were neutral and 10.0 percent of them disagreed with this cause. Just one respondent was strongly agreed and a large majority i.e., 85.0 percent of them were agree with their opinion that technical education is a real cause of spreading

39

unemployment in rural areas, where as 4.2 percent of them were neutral and 10.0 percent of them disagreed with this cause. A significant majority i.e., 72.5 percent of them were agree with their opinion that information technology is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas, where as 11.7 percent of them were neutral and 15.8 percent of them disagreed with this cause. Only 3.3 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a large majority i.e., 82.5 percent of them were agree with their opinion that professional education is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas, where as 5.0 percent of them were neutral and 9.2 percent of them disagreed with this cause. About 10.0 percent of the respondents were strongly agreed and a majority i.e., 62.5 percent of them agreed with their opinion that religious education is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas, whereas 5.8 percent of them were neutral and 21.7 percent of them disagreed with this cause. According to Patricia (2006), main causes of unemployment were non-availability of jobs, followed by retrenchments and lack of skill or education. Unemployment has negative effect on social relationship. Majority of unemployed were not self-employed but depend on families and child grants for support. Table20: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the lack of job opportunities for women is real cause of brain drain Frequency Percentage

Lack of job opportunities for women is real cause of brain drain Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total

3 78 25 14 120

2.5 65.0 20.8 11.7 100.0

40

Table 20 indicates that only 2.5 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a majority i.e., 65.0 percent of them agreed with the statement that the lack of job opportunities for women is real cause of brain drain, about one-fifth i.e., 20.8 percent of them were neutral and 11.7 percent of them disagreed with this opinion. According to Zia et al. (2002), rural working women compelled to seek job in factories due to low family income, low education and lack of other job opportunities like teaching, nursing and health workers. Table21: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment harmfully hit the self-respect of women. Frequency Percentage

Respondents opinion about unemployment harmfully hit the self-respect of women Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total

14 102 2 2 120

11.6 85.0 1.7 1.7 100.1

Table 21 indicates that 11.6 percent of the respondents were strongly agreed, while a huge majority i.e., 85.0 percent of them were agreed with the statement that unemployment harmfully hit the self-respect of women, only 1.7 percent of respondents were neutral and another 1.7 percent of them were disagreed with this statement. Wasim et al. (2008) also reported unemployed womenreceive no material advantages and totally depend upon the male. Table 22 reveals that 11.6 percent of the respondents were strongly agree, while a vast majority i.e., 81.7 percent of them were agree with the statement that the family of unemployed women treats her harshly, only 2.5 percent of respondents were neutral and 4.2 percents were disagree with this statement. Table22: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the family of unemployed women treats her harshly.
41

Family of unemployed women treats her harshly Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total Table23:

Frequency 14 98 3 5 120

Percentage 11.6 81.7 2.5 4.2 100.0

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about extent of harsh treatment by the family. Frequency Percentage

Extent of treats her harshly by the familyto unemployment Often Sometime Never Total

63 52 5 120

52.5 43.3 4.2 100.0

Table 23 shows that little more than a half i.e., 52.5 percent of the respondents reported that oftenly they treated harshly by the family and 43.3 percent of them told that they sometimes they treated harshly by the family due to their employment and 4.2 percent of the respondents said that their family never treated them harshly. According to Govt. of Pakistan (2008), inactivity rates for men are very low compared to women and have not changed over time. This is, to a certain extent, positive in that it shows men do not face the same difficulties as women in participating in the labour market. So women were facing harsh behaviour in labour market.

Table24:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment in women increase the rate of poverty. Frequency Percentage
42

Unemployment in women

increase the rate of poverty Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total 38 74 2 6 120 31.7 61.7 1.6 5.0 100.1

Table 24 indicates that 31.7 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a majority i.e., 61.7 percent of them agreed with the statement that unemployment in women increase the rate of poverty, only 1.6 percent of them were neutral and 5.0 percent were disagree with this statement. Similarly Azidet al. (2001), they found that unemployment is a cause of poverty.

Table25:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment among rural women leads to suicidal activities. Frequency Percentage

Unemployment among rural women leads to suicidal activities Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total

3 96 6 15 120

2.5 80.0 5.0 12.5 100.0

Table 25 indicates that only 2.5 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a significant majority i.e., 80.0 percent of them agreed with the statement that unemployment

43

among rural women leads to suicidal activities, only 5.0 percent of them were neutral and ``12.5 percent disagreed with this statement. Similar findings were presented by Mahmood et al. (2011). They found that unemployment had negative impact on unemployed. Table26: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment among rural women dangerously affects the health of unemployed person. Frequency Percentage

Unemployment among rural women dangerously affects the health of unemployed person Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

40 72 0 8 0 120

33.3 60.0 0.0 6.7 0.0 100.0

Table 26 indicates that about one-third i.e., 33.3 percent of the respondents were strongly agree, while a majority i.e., 60.0 percent of them were agree with the opinion that unemployment among rural women dangerously affects the health of unemployed person, only 6.7 percent of them disagreed with this statement. Above results were supported by Mahmood et al. (2011). They concluded that unemployment had negative impact on unemployed persons.

Table27:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment among rural women leads to the domestic violence among family members. Frequency Percentage

Unemployment among rural women leads to the domestic violence among family members

44

Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total

45 68 2 5 120

37.5 56.7 1.7 4.2 100.0

Table 27 indicates that 37.5 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a major proportion i.e., 56.7 percent of them agreed with the statement that unemployment among rural women leads to the domestic violence among family members, only 1.7 percent of them were neutral and 4.2 percent opinioned negatively and disagree with the statement. According to Mwakaje (2010) gender and socioeconomic issues reveal high inequalities. It means women faced domestic violence, while the men had superior status. Table 28 shows that only 4.2 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a huge majority i.e., 85.8 percent of them agreed with the statement that unemployment among rural women is the mother cause of disappointment of future, where as 6.7 percent of them were neutral and remaining 3.3 percent of them disagreed with this statement and opinion negatively. Similarly Kyei and Gyekye (2011) concluded that the employment is one of the main prosperity indicators of any nation.

Table28:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment among rural women is the mother cause of disappointment of future.

Unemployment among rural women is the mother cause of disappointment of future Strongly agree Agree

Frequency

Percentage

5 103

4.2 85.8
45

Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

8 4 0 120

6.7 3.3 0.0 100.0

Table 29 shows that 9.2 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a vast majority i.e., 85.0 percent of them agreed with the statement that unemployed women cannot properly attend the community ceremonial activities, whereas only one respondent were neutral and remaining 5.0 percent disagreed with this statement. According to Giavazzi et al. (2009), attitude towards women independence has a significant importance in social life but it do not play important role in explaining the employment rate of the women.

Table29:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployed women cannot properly attend the community ceremonial activities. Frequency Percentage

Unemployed women cannot properly attend the community ceremonial activities Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total

11 102 1 6 120

9.2 85.0 .8 5.0 100.0

46

Table 30 present the respondents opinion that the unemployment affects the social life of rural women. Table shows that 23.3 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a large majority i.e., 74.2 percent of them opinioned that friends avoid to meet due to their unemployment and 2.5 percent of them disagreed with this opinion. About one-fifth i.e., 19.2 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a significant majority i.e., 78.3 percent of respondents opinioned that they last their of social relations due to their unemployment and 2.5 percent of them were disagree with this statement. Slightly less than one-fifth i.e., 18.3 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a vast majority i.e., 80.8 percent of respondents opinioned that unemployment badly affected their personality and only one respondent were neutral. Only 6.7 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a huge majority i.e., 83.3 percent of them were agree with the statement that they socially excluded from decision making and social gathering due to unemployment, 6.7 percent of them were neutral and 3.3 percent of the respondents were disagree with this statement. According to Kyei and Gyekye (2011), the employment is one of the main prosperity indicators of any nation. Any prominent changes in employment will subsequently affect the living standard of people especially female. Table30: N = 120 Statements Strongly agree Freq friends avoid to meet Loss of social relations 28 23 %ag e 23.3 19.2 Agree Freq 89 94 %ag e 74.2 78.3 Neutral Freq 0 0 %ag e 0.0 0.0 Disagree Freq 3 3 %ag e 2.5 2.5 Strongly disagree Freq 0 0 %ag e 0.0 0.0 Total Freq 120 120 %age 100 100 Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment affects the social life of rural women.

47

Unemployment badly affects personality Socially excluded from decision making and social gathering

22

18.3

97

80.8

0.8

0.0

0.0

120

100

6.7

100

83.3

6.7

3.3

0.0

120

100

Table 31 indicates that only 6.7 percent of the respondents felt no change in their behavior due to unemployment, while 21.7 percent of them were harsh/aggressive and a major proportion i.e., 40.8 percent felt sensitivity due to their unemployment, where as 30.8 percent of the respondents depressed due to their unemployment. Similarly Giavazzi et al (2009), there are huge differences in women unemployment with reference to gender. Cultural attitudes towards gender play important role for employment in developed countries. Cultural norms and cultural values restrict women for job. Table31: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that changes occurs in the behavior of unemployed women. Frequency Percentage

Respondents views changes occurs in the behavior of unemployed women No change Harsh/ aggressive Sensitivity Depressed Total

8 26 49 37 120

6.7 21.7 40.8 30.8 100.0


48

Table32:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about the statement that unemployed youth of rural women involved in the negative activities

N = 120 Statements Strongly agree Freq They create social crime They involved in robbery /fraud 10 %ag e 8.3 Agree Freq 69 %ag e 57.5 Neutral Freq 11 %ag e 9.2 Disagree Freq 30 %ag e 25.0 Strongly disagree Freq 0 %ag e 0.0 Total Freq 120 %age 100

14

11.7

78

65.0

3.3

24

20.0

0.0

120

100

Table 32 present the respondents opinion that unemployed youth of rural women involved in the negative activities. Table shows that 8.3 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a majority i.e., 57.5 percent of them were agree with the statement that unemployed youth create social crime, where as 9.2 percent of them were neutral and about one-fourth i.e., 25.0 percent of them were disagree with this statement. About 11.7 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a majority i.e., 65.0 percent of them were agree with the statement that unemployed youth involved in robbery/fraud, where as 3.3 percent of them were neutral and about one-fifth i.e., 20.0 percent of them were disagree with this statement. Similar findings were presented by Govt. of Pakistan; 2001.Study found that unemployment is a cause of negative activities.

49

Table 33 reveals that 1.7 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and 40.8 percent of them agreed that they spent their leisure time with sleeping, while 2.5 percent of them were neutral, 55.8 percent of them disagreed that they spent their leisure time with sleeping. About 43.3 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.e., 53.3 percent of them agreed that they spent their leisure time with help of family in household work, while 3.3 percent of them disagreed with this leisure time activity. About 10.0 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a major proportion i.e., 48.3 percent of them agreed that they spent their leisure time with the use of mobile, while 12.5 percent of them were neutral and 29.2 percent of them disagreed with this leisure time activity. About 8.3 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.e., 75.8 percent of them agreed that they spent their leisure time with faction, while 5.8 percent of them were neutral and 10.0 percent of them disagreed with this leisure time activity. About one-fourth i.e., 25.0 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.e., 70.0 percent of them agreed that they just talking in their leisure time, while 0.8 percent of them were neutral and 4.2 percent of them disagreed with this leisure time activity. About one-third i.e., 33.3 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.e., 54.2 percent of them were agree that they spent their leisure time on TV watching, while 0.8 percent of them were neutral and 11.7 percent of them disagreed with this leisure time activity. Whereas only 9.2 percent of the respondents spending their leisure time with any other activity i.e., study, makeup etc. According to Krueger and Mueller (2008), unemployment affected the leisure time activities. Table33: N = 120 Statements Strongly agree Freq Sleeping Help family in household 2 52 %age 1.7 43.3 Agree Freq 48 64 %age 40.0 53.3 Neutral Freq 3 0
%age

Percentage distribution of the respondents regarding utilization of unemployed leisure time.

Disagree Freq 67 4 %age 55.8 3.3

Strongly disagree Freq 0 0 %age 0.0 0.0

Total Freq 120 120


50

%age 100 100

2.5 0.0

work Use of mobile Faction Just talking T.V Any other (study, makeup etc.) 100 100 100 100 100

12 10 30 40 0

10.0 8.3 25.0 33.3 0.0

58 91 84 65 11

48.3 75.8 70.0 54.2 9.2

15 7 1 1 0

12.5 5.8 0.8 0.8 0.0

35 12 5 14 109

29.2 10.0 4.2 11.7 90.8

0 0 0 0 0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

120 120 120 120 120

Table34:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about rural women start their own business after facing the long term unemployment. Frequency Percentage

Respondents opinion about rural women start their own business after facing the long term unemployment Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total

8 104 7 1 120

6.7 86.7 5.8 .8 100.0

Table 34 shows that 6.7 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a huge majority i.e., 86.7 percent of them agreed with the opinion that rural women start their own business after facing the long term unemployment, where as 5.8 percent of the respondents were neutral and remaining one respondent disagreed with this opinion.
51

Table 35 present the suggestion for overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women. Table shows that more than one-third i.e., 35.8 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.e., 61.7 percent of them agreed with the suggestion we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through skilled education, where as 2.5 percent of them disagreed with this suggestion. Slightly less than one-fourth i.e., 23.3 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a significant majority i.e., 74.2 percent of them agreed with the suggestion we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through more job opportunities, where as 2.5 percent of them disagreed with this suggestion. Only 2.5 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.e., 57.5 percent of them agreed with the suggestion we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through changes of people behaviour, where as 15.8 percent of them were neutral and 24.2 percent of them disagreed with this suggestion. About one-fifth i.e., 20.0 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.e., 69.2 percent of them agreed with the suggestion we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through family support during job searching, where as 2.5 percent of them were neutral and 8.3 percent of them disagreed with this suggestion. Only 3.3 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a major proportion i.e., 48.3 percent of them agreed with the suggestion we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through prioritizing, whereas 18.3 percent of them were neutral and 30.0 percent of them disagreed with this suggestion. Only 5.0 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a half i.e., 50.8 percent of them agreed with the suggestion we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through government policies, whereas 15.8 percent of them were neutral and 28.3 percent of them disagreed with this suggestion. Only 8.3 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a majority i.e., 65.8 percent of them were agree with the suggestion we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through changing our tradition, whereas 10.0 percent of them were neutral and 15.8 percent of them were disagree with this suggestion.
52

Similarly Muhammad et al. (2010) recommends for the educated status of the rural community to extend the practice of empowering women for the sake of their improved standard of living.

Table35: N = 120 Statements

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their suggestions for overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women.

Strongly agree Freq %age 35.8 23.3

Agree Freq 74 89 %age 61.7 74.2

Neutral Freq 0 0 %age 0.0 0.0

Disagree Freq 3 3 %age 2.5 2.5

Strongly disagree Freq 0 0 %age 0.0 0.0

Total

Through skilled education Through more job opportunities People behavior Family support during job Prioritizing Govt policy Tradition

43 28

120 120

3 24 4 6 10

2.5 20.0 3.3 5.0 8.3

69 83 58 61 79

57.5 69.2 48.3 50.8 65.8

19 3 22 19 12

15.8 2.5 18.3 15.8 10.0

29 10 36 34 19

24.2 8.3 30.0 28.3 15.8

0 0 0 0 0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

120 120 120 120 120


53

Table 36 shows that 18.3 percent of the respondents reported lack of family income is a consequences of unemployment among rural women, while a majority i.e., 60.0 percent of the respondents told that due to unemployment among rural women poverty level was increased and 21.7 percent of the respondents said that the increase in crime due to unemployment. According to Sadaquat and Sheikh (2011), the first factor is that women with no education or with some basic education were allowed to work due to intensive poverty and high rate of inflation; and the second factor was that the existing socio-cultural norms continues to strengthen gender discrimination and were a source of a massive wastage of the human capital available in the country. Table36: Consequences Lack of family income Increase in poverty Increase in crime Total Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion regarding the consequences of rural community. Frequency 22 72 26 120 Percentage 18.3 60.0 21.7 100.0

Table37:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion regarding the reduction of unemployment among rural women in D.G. Khan. Frequency 45 Percentage 37.5

Suggestions Government should make economic opportunities for females in rural areas Government establish the educational institutions in the rural areas To reduce the domestic violence in the society Women establish their own business then they reduce

58

48.3

14 28

11.7 23.3

54

the unemployment rate To establish the vocational colleges To establish the institution where they generate their income Govt. should provide loan facility to females for their own business 32 29 26.7 24.2

41

34.2

Table 37 present the suggestions to reduce the unemployment rate among rural women in D.G. Khan. About 37.5 percent of the respondents suggested that the Government should make economic opportunities for females in rural areas, whereas little less than a half i.e., 48.3 percent of them suggested that the government establish the educational institutions in the rural areas, 11.7 percent of them told that we reduced the unemployment rate To reduce the domestic violence in the society. Whereas 23.3 percent of the respondents suggested that the women establish their own business then they reduce the unemployment rate, 26.7 percent of them suggested to establish the vocational colleges, about one-fourth i.e., 24.2 percent of them suggested to establish the institution where they generate their income and about one-third i.e., 34.2 percent of them suggested that the government should provide loan facility to females for their own business. Similarly Ludemann et al. (2005) also suggested that the problem of unemployment can be solve if we study the history of unemployment. Zachariah and Rajan (2005) also suggested that to reduce unemployment rate, policy makers should develop their policies according to demographic change of their country.

55

4.2: Part-B (Bi-variate analysis)


Bivariate analysis is applied to see the relationship/ association between the two variables. It is explained in other words, the variation which is explained by one variable is pattern in such a manner that its variance is not randomly distributed in connection with the other variable. Bivariate analysis was used to find out association of socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and their effect on unemployment among rural women.

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES
Hypothesis 1:Higher the rigid cultural environment of the respondent, lower will be the prevailing of females unemployment Table38: Association between cultural environment of the respondents and prevailing of females unemployment in D. G. Khan prevailing of females unemployment Cultural environment Low Low Medium Total 79 0 79 %age (65.8%) (0%) (65.8%) Medium 9 2 11 %age (7.5%) (1.7%) (9.2%) High 28 2 30 %age (23.3%) (1.7%) (25%) Freq 116 4 120 Total %age (96.6%) (3.4%) (100%)

56

Chi-square=11.285 d.f=2 significance=0.004** Gamma=0.713 *= Significant Chi-square value shows the significant association between cultural environment and the unemployment. Gamma value show strong association between prevailing of females unemployment in Dera Ghazi khan and exclusion from cultural environment. So our null hypothesis is accepted.

Hypothesis 2: Higher will be the prevailing of females unemployment, lower will be the suicidal activities of the respondents Table39: Association between increase suicidal activities of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.

Lacks of job opportunities Low Low Medium High Total 96 1 2 99 %age (80%) (0.8%) (1.7%) (82.4%)

Suicidal activities Medium 6 0 0 6 % age (5%) (0%) (0%) (5%) High 12 2 1 15 % age (10%) (1.7%) (0.8%) (12.5%) Freq 114 3 3 120

Total % age (95%) (2.5%) (2.5%) (100%)

Chi-square=9.765 d.f=4 significance=0.045* Gamma=0.682 *= Significant

57

Chi- square value show the significant association between increase suicidal activities of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment. Gamma value strong association between suicidal activities and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhance the rate of unemployment, so our null hypothesis is accepted.

Hypothesis 3: Higher will be the prevailing of females unemployment, lower will be the dangerously affects the health of the respondents Table40: Association between health dangerously affects of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.

Health dangerously affects Low Medium High Total

lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment Low 107 3 2 112 % age (89.2%) (2.5%) (1.7%) (93.4%) High 7 0 1 8 % age (5.7%) (0%) (0.8%) (6.6%) Freq 114 3 3 120

Total %age (94.9%) (2.5%) (2.5%) (100%)

Chi-square=3.694 d.f=2 significance=0.158NS Gamma=0.157


NS = Non- Significant

Chi- square value show the significant association between health dangerously affects of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.
58

Gamma value weak association between lack of job opportunities for rural women enhance the rate of unemployment and health dangerously affects, so our null hypothesis is rejected.

Hypothesis 4: Higher will be the lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment, lower will be the domestic violence of the respondents Table41: Association between domestic violence of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment

domestic violence Low Medium High Total

lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment Low 108 3 2 113 %age (90%) (2.5%) (1.7%) (94.2%) Medium 2 0 0 2 %age (1.7%) (0%) (0%) (1.7%) High 4 0 1 5 %age (3.3%) (0%) (0.8%) (4.1%) Freq 114 3 3 120

Total %age (95%) (2.5%) (2.5%) (100%)

Chi-square=6.729 d.f=4 significance=0.151NS Gamma=0.508


NS = Non- Significant

Chi- square value show the significant association between domestic violence of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment. Gamma value
59

weak association between lack of job opportunities for rural women enhance the rate of unemployment and domestic violence, so our null hypothesis is rejected.

Hypothesis 5: Higher will be the lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment, lower will be the community Ceremonial Activities of the respondents Table42: Association between Community ceremonial activities of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment

Community ceremonial activities Low Medium High Total

lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment Low 109 1 2 112 %age (90.8%) (0.8%) (1.7%) (94.1%) Medium 0 1 1 2 %age (0%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (1.7%) High 5 1 0 0 %age (4.2%) (0.8%) (0%) (0%) Freq 114 3 3 120

Total %age (95%) (2.4%) (2.4%) (100%)

Chi-square=44.502 d.f=4 significance=0.000** Gamma=0.832 **= Highly-Significant

Chi- square value show the significant association between Community ceremonial activities of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of
60

unemployment. Gamma value strong association between lack of job opportunities for rural women enhance the rate of unemployment and community ceremonial activities, so our null hypothesis is accepted.

Hypothesis 6: Higher will be the lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment, lower will be the social crime of the respondents, Table43: Association between social crime of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment

Social crime

lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment Low %age (92.5%) (2.5%) (1.7%) (96.7%) High 3 3 0 4 %age (2.5%) (2.5%) (0%) (3.3%) Freq 114 3 3 120

Total %age (95.5%) (2.5%) (2.5%) (100%)

Low Medium High Total

111 3 2 116

Chi-square=8.657 d.f=2 significance=0.013* Gamma=0.767 **= Highly-Significant

Chi- square value show the significant association between social crime of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment. Gamma value strong association between lack of job opportunities for rural women enhance the rate of unemployment and social crime, so our null hypothesis is accepted.

61

Hypothesis 7: Higher will be the lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment, lower will be the involved in robbery of the respondents, Table44: Association between Involved in robbery of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment Low 65 2 3 70 %age (54.1%) (1.7%) (2.5%) (58.3%) Medium 14 1 0 15 %age (11.7%) (0.8%) (0%) (12.5%) High 35 0 0 35 %age (29.2%) (0%) (0%) (29.2%) Freq 114 3 3 120 Total %age (95%) (2.5%) (2.5%) (100%)

Involved in robbery Low Medium High Total

Chi-square=4.226 d.f=4 significance=0.376NS Gamma=-0.626


NS = Non- Significant

Chi- square value show the significant association between Involved in robbery of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment. Gamma value weak association between lack of job opportunities for rural women enhance the rate of unemployment and Involved in robbery, so our null hypothesis is rejected.

62

Hypothesis 8: Higher will be the physical weakness of the respondent, lower will be the prevailing of females unemployment Table45: Association between physical weakness of the respondents and females unemployment in D. G. Khan. Physical weakness Low 64 %age (53.3%) Medium %age (5.0%) 1 7 (0.8%) (5.8%) High 46 1 47 %age Freq Total %age

prevailing of females unemployment Low Medium Total

(38.3%) (0.8%) (39.1%)

116 4 120

(96.6%) (3.3%) (99.9%)

2 66

(1.6%) (55%)

Chi-square=2.837 d.f=2 significance=0.242NS Gamma=-0.056


NS = Non- Significant

Chi-square value shows significant association between the increase physical weakness of the respondents and prevailing unemployment of females in D. G. Khan. Gamma value shows weak association between the respondents and prevailing of females unemployment and physical weakness, so our null hypothesis is rejected.

63

CHAPTER-V Summary and Conclusion


Unemployment is one of the developmental problems that face every developing economy in the 21st century. The status of women is as second-class citizen which is reinforced by the narrow vocational opportunities available to them. From the few past years, unemployment among rural women in developing countries is very serious problem. The empowerment of women is highly important for human development as international community has been constantly stressing upon womens participation in different spheres of life. Cultural attitudes towards gender play important role for employment in developed countries. Womens lower employment and lower participation rate in labour force is the outcome of their limited access to education as compare to male. Attitude towards women independence has a significant importance in social life but it do not play important role in explaining the employment rate of the women. Females are more unemployed as compared to males. It is caused not only because of poor economic condition of the country but is also a result of the present culture of nepotism for employment in Pakistan. Tradition of late marriages and migration to other country for jobs are also affecting factors for unemployment in Pakistani society. The status of women in Pakistan is not homogenous because of the interconnection of gender with other forms of exclusion in the society. Women of Pakistan are structured by harsh religious, family and tribal customs. Pakistanis have wrong interpretation of Islamic teaching about female regarding their rights and duties and this wrong interpretation presents women as needing for protection which lead to their ultimate physical, mental and emotional oppression. They live in an atmosphere of fear and their lives are guaranteed in exchange for obedience to social norms, values, customs and traditions. This fear is imposed by the traditional beliefs of male dominated society, so women are also facing different types of problems in their life because of male dominated thought. The job opportunities available to them only in the informal sector intensify womens exploitation, and standard labor legislation or legal protective measures do not cover their vulnerability. Pakistani women face a number of challenges when seeking work in specific economic sectors. They also face difficulties finding work that is not vulnerable employment and has decent working conditions.
64

Major Findings:
1) Majority of the respondents (36.7%) belong to age group 16-20 years 2) Mostly respondents( 42.5 %) were illiterate 3) Majority of the respondents (67.5%) were married 4) Respondents who were married were in majority who had 5-6 children 5) Majority (29%) of the respondents husbands were laborer. 6) Majority of the respondents (52.5%) live in nuclear family system 7) Mostly respondents (60.8%) had 6-10 total family members. 8) A huge majority (83.3%) respondents reported female unemployment in D. G. Khan. 9) A prominent proportion of the respondent (82.5%) declared lack of job opportunities for rural women in D.G. Khan as a mother cause of unemployment. 10) A huge majority of the respondents (85%) agreed women should do job for economic support to their family. 11) A significant majority (83.3 %) pinioned that women have lack of job opportunities as compare to male in rural areas. 12) Half of respondents (50.8%) declared physical weakness as a cause of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to male in rural areas 13) About a half (49.2%) of the respondents said that more emotional is a cause of lack of job opportunities for females. 14) A two third of the respondents (75.8%) were agreed with the reason that female needs more security which is a cause of lack of job opportunities for them. 15) More than half women have lack of job opportunities (54.2%) as compare to male in rural areas.

65

16) Most of the respondents (60.0%) declared cultural environment is a cause of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to male in rural areas. 17) A good majority (60.0%) opinioned that the curse of favoritism/ nepotism promotes the rate of unemployment among women. 18) A huge majority of the respondents (85.8%) declared that the ever increasing of population enhances the rate of unemployment among women. 19) A huge majority (84.2%) of respondents declared that informal education as a real cause of spreading unemployment. 20) A vast majority (88.3%) of respondents opinioned that lack of skill education is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas. 21) A large majority (85.0%) of respondents said that lack of technical education is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas. 22) A significant majority (72.5%) said that lack of information technology in rural areas spreading unemployment. 23) A large majority (82.5%) of respondents declared that lack of professional education is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas. 24) A reasonable majority of respondents (65%) said that the lack of job opportunities is one of the causes of brain drain. 25) A huge majority (85.0%) of the respondents were agreed unemployment harmfully hit the self-respect of women. 26) A vast majority i.e., (81.7%) of the respondents opinioned that the family treats unemployed person her harshly opportunity. 27) A good majority of the respondents (61.7%) said that unemployment in women increases the rate of poverty in society.

66

28) A significant majority (80.0%) of the respondents opinioned that unemployment among rural women leads to suicidal activities 29) A majority (60.0%) of the respondents said that unemployment dangerously affects the health of unemployed person. 30) A major proportion (56.7%) of respondents declared that unemployment among rural women leads to words domestic violence among family members. 31) A huge majority (85.8%) of the respondents declared unemployment as the mother cause of disappointment of future. 32) A vast majority (85.0%) of the respondents said that unemployed women cannot properly attend the community ceremonial activities. 33) A large majority (74.2%) respondent opinioned that friends avoid to meet unemployed persons. 34) A significant majority (78.3%) of the respondents said that unemployment losses the social relations. 35) A vast majority (80.8%) of the respondents opinioned that unemployment badly affected their personality. 36) A huge majority (83.3%) of the respondents were agreed that unemployed persons are socially excluded from decision making and social gathering. 37) Majority of the respondents (57.5%) were agreed that unemployed youth create social crime. 38) Majority of the respondents (65%) opinioned that unemployed youth involved in robbery/fraud. 39) A major proportion of the respondents (48.3%) said that their leisure time in using mobile.

Suggestion:
67

On the basis of present study, some important suggestions are made for possible limitations. 1) Government should make economic opportunities for females in rural areas by enhancing females jobs quota at school level. 2) Government should open both formal and informal training centers in rural areas give girls knowledge, skill and hope for a bright future. In this way young women to delay marriage and childbearing to a time that is healthier and more economically secure for them and their babies. 3) Women of rural areas should establish their own domestic level business to reduce the unemployment rate in D. G. Khan. For this purpose Government should provide interest free loan facility to females for their own business. 4) Vocational colleges should establish to enhance skills in women to reduce unemployment at union council level Government should provide market opportunities to sale their products such as handicrafts. 5) Institution should establish where women generate their income such as vocational institution. 6) Females handicrafts should promote as economic\income generating activity by early access to market. 7) Home and small industries should be encouraged by the Government. 8) Government give more job opportunities, teaching, nursing and free pick and drop facility should be provided to educated females. 9) Programs should be started for the awareness about family planning for common people because over population is contributed a lot in increasing the rate of unemployment. Such as to control the early marriages and to control the birth rate.

Conclusion:
A major problem that Pakistan faces is the growing level of unemployment among educated youth. There are many cultural barriers and traditional restrictions for women regarding employment in rural areas of Pakistan. The state of gender related issues in developing countries
68

is over deplorable. Lower ratio of women participation in workforce is a vital factor determining the level of employment among women. The situation is even worse in certain remote and deprived areas. The rural area of D. G. Khan has lack of basic social and industrial infrastructure that restricts the economic activity because females are culturally socially are depressed from some basic niceties of life like better education social empowerment and free mobility in society as well as lack of job opportunities. In rural areas they have to face many cultural barriers and religious rigidity that restrict them to participate in economic activities and job search so, there bound to live with in the four walls of house so they do not participate in income generating activities outside the house. It is now globally admitted that without active participation of women in economic developmental strategy, the dream of development could not be unleashed.

69

LITERATURE CITED
Aazami, M., H. Sorushmehr and K. N. Mahdei. 2011. Socio-economic factors affecting rural WP in productive co operations: Case study of paveh ball-making cooperative. African.J. Agri.Res., 6(14): 3369-3381. Addison, J. T and O. D. Ozturk. 2010. Minimum wages, labor market institutions and female employment and unemployment: A cross-country analysis. IZA Discussion Paper No. 5162. Bonn, Germany: 1-29. Akintoye, I. R. 2008. Reducing unemployment through the informal sector: A case study of Nigeria. Eur. J. Eco, Fin and Adm. Sci, 11: 97-106. Ali, W., M. I. Fani, S. Afzal and G. Yasin. 2010. Cultural barriers in women empowerment: A sociological analysis of Multan, Pakistan. Eur. J. Soc. Sci, 18(1): 147-155. Anonmyus. 2005. Meeting youth unemployment head on. Youth unemployment in Africais ranked second in the world. Chapter 5.167-202 available at
www.uneca.org/era2005/chap5.pdf.

Azid, T., M. Aslam, and M. O. Chaudary. 2001. Poverty, female labour force participation, and cottage industry: A case study of cloth embroidery in rural Multan. The Pakistan Development Review, 40(4): 1105-1118.
Babur, U. Z. 2007. Violence against women in Pakistan: Current realities and strategies for Change. M.A Thesis Center for Peace Studies. European UniverityStudenschlaining/Burg, Austria. Bbaale, E and P. Mpuga. 2011. Female education, labour force participation and choice of the employment type: Evidence from Uganda. Int. J. Eco. Bui. Mod. 2(1): 29-41.
Chaudhry, I. S. and F. Nosheen. 2009. The determinants of women empowerment in southern Punjab (Pakistan): An empirical analysis. Eur. J. Sol, Sci, 10 (2): 216-29.

Evans, P.1998. Why has the female unemployment ratefallen so much in Britain? Bank of England, Threadneedle Street, London, EC2R 8AH. Fasranti, O. O. 2008. Studying rural system. Logos-Universal publisher Inc, Akure: 10-15 Giavazzi, F., Schiantarelli, F and M. Serafinelli. 2009. Culture, policies and labor

marketoutcomes. Department of Economics Boston. IZA Discussion: 4558.


70

Govt. of Pakistan. 2000. Labour Force Survey of Pakistan. Govt. of Pakistan, Islamabad. Govt. of Pakistan. 2001. Situational analysis of women in Pakistanan overview. Country Briefing PaperWomen in Pakistan. Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. Govt. of Pakistan. 2006. Labour Force Survey 2003-04 and 2005-06. Govt. of Pakistan, Islamabad: 1-14. Govt. of Pakistan. 2008. Pakistan employment trends for youth. Ministry of Labour & Manpower, Labour Market Information and Analysis Unit Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, MOL, May, 2008. Govt. of Pakistan. 2009. Pakistan employment trends for women 2009. Labour Market Information and Analysis Unit. Ministry of Labour and Manpower, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad: 1-53. Govt.of Pakistan. 2011. Economic Survey of Pakistan. Ministry of Finance, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Govt. of Pakistan. 2011. Economic Survey of Pakistan. Ministry of Finance, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Goldhaber, A. S and M. M. Nieto. 2010 photon and gravation mass limits, Rev. Mod. Phys. American physical society, (82):939-979. Good, W and P. Hatt. 1952. Methods in research. Mcgraw Hill Book Company, New York, 133-214. Haque, R. M. 2009. Pakistanis perceive nepotism to be one of the top most causes for theunemployment: Gilani poll/Gallup Pakistan. Gilani Research Foundation: 1-2. Hussain, I. 2008. Problems of Working Women in Pakistan. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Newcastle, UK. ICPD. 1994. Guidelines on womens empowerment. POPIN, UN Population Div. Deptt. of Econ. & Social Affairs International Labour Organization (ILO). 2007. Female inactivity. Key Indicators of the Labour Market, Fifth Edition, ILO, Geneva 2007. Khodamoradi, S and M. Abedi. 2011. Assessing Employment of rural women and its effect on other empowerment. J. Lif. Sci, 2011; 8(2). Kongolo, M and O. O. Bamgose. 2002. Participation of rural women in development: A case study of Tsheseng, Thintwa, and Makhalaneng Villages, South Africa. J. Inte. Wom. Stu. 4(1): 79- 92.
71

Krueger, B. A and A. Mueller. 2008. The lot of the unemployed: A time use perspective. Princeton University Industrial Relation Section. Paper No. 524: 1-38. Kyei. A. K and K. B. Gyekye. 2011. Determinants of unemployment in Limpopo province in South Africa: Exploratory studies. J. Eme. Tre. Eco. and Manag. Sci, 2(1): 54-61. Ludemann, E., R. A. Wilke and X. Zhang. 2005. Censored quantile regressions and the length unemployment periods in West Germany. ZEW Discussion Paper No. o4- 57, Germany: 1-33. Mahmood, Z., N. Akhtar, M. Amin and M. Idrees. 2011. Causes of unemployment among the educated segments in Peshawar division, Pakistan: A statistical study. Sarhad. J. Agr. 27(1): 139-142. Mansoor, H. 2008. Family System in Pakistan. Asian Women Magazine, Available at:
http://ezinearticles.com/?Family-System-in-Pakistan&id=1025541

Micevska, M. 2004. Unemployment and labour market rigidities in Southeast Europe Global Development Network South-East Europe: 1-36. Muhammad, N., A. Askar and R. Javed. 2010. Socioeconomic impacts of womens empowerment in Peshawar, Pakistan. Sarhad. J. Agr, 26(3): 1-15. Mwakaje, A.G. 2010. Gender, poverty and access to socio-economic services in un-planned and un-serviced urban areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 12(3): 204-221. Naqvi, Z.F. and L. Shahnaz, 2002.How do women decide to work in Pakistan? The Pakistan Development Review, 41(4): 495-513. Nasir, Z. M. 2005. An analysis of occupational choice in Pakistan: A multinomial approach Pakistan Development Review, 44(1): 57-79. Nayyab Blog, 2010. Rising unemployment in Pakistan.Published in Karachi Dairy,
Uncategorized, on May 8, 2010. Available at: http://nayyab. wordpress. com/2010/05/08/rising-unemployment-in-pakistan/.

Patricia, N. N. 2006. An investigation of unemployment at Tshiheni Village: Limpopo province. M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Management and Law, University of Limpopo, South Africa: 1-103.

72

Patterson, Okaforand Williams. 2006. Globalization and employment Generation Evaluating the impact of trade on aggregate employment in Nigerias in Industrial Sector, NES 2006 Annual Conference Nigeria. Poudel, Smita. 2006. "Dowry: a Social Evil." Ohmy News International. Ohmynews.com, 26 Sept. 2006. Web. 11 July 2010. Qayyum, W. 2007. Causes of youth unemployment in Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review., 46(4): 611621. Rana, S. 2011. Labour force survey 2011: Official unemployment rate at 6%. Government of Pakistan.Published in The Express Tribune, August 2nd, 2011. Roldfield, R. K. F. Goss. 1977. Consequences in mechanization in United state. A paper for rural sociology annual meeting. Madison. Agric: 1935-1975. Sadaquat, M.B and Q. A. Sheikh. 2011. Employment situation of women in Pakistan. Int. J.
Soc, Eco, 38 (2): 98-113.

Tansel, A. 2001. Economic development and female labor force participation in Turkey: Timeseries evidence and cross-province estimates. ERC Working Papers in Economics, 01/05, May 2002: 1-37. Tasci, M. H and A. Tansel. 2005. Unemployment and transitions in the Turkish labor market: Evidence from individual level data. IZA Discussion Paper No. 1663. Bonn, Germany: 1-49. United Nations. 1999. UN commission on the status of women. Retrieved from: www.undp. org.my/uploads/CSW-iwd08-factsheet.pdf. On May 20, 2009. Van Ham M and F. Bchel. 2006. Unwilling or unable? spatial and socio-economic restrictions on females labour market access. Regional Studies., 40(3): 15-24. Vromon, W. 2005.Introdudtion of an unemployment insurance scheme: Some consideration in establishing an unemployment programme.Int. Soc. Ses. Asso.1-16. Wasim, P. M., G. M. Herani., W. Farooqui and M. A. Qureshi. 2008. Family types, authority structure and women workers in Sindh labor force: Problems and prospects. Ind. J. Mana. and Soc. Sci, 2(1): 29-49.
73

Zachariah, C. K., S. I. Rajan. 2005. Unemployment in Kerala at the turn of the century insights from CDs gulf migration studies. Working Paper Published 8-1997. Pages No. 2102. Zia, Q., Z. Batool, S. Rehman and H. Badar. 2002. Role of skilled and unskilled factory working women in the rural economy of Punjab: A case study in Faisaladad. Intern. J. Agr. and Bio; 4(2): 288-290.

74