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CHAPTER-1 Introduction

Unemployment is one of the most developmental issues that every developing economy is facing in the recent century. International statistics reflects that industrial and service workers living in developing areas faces account for about two-thirds of the unemployed. (Patterson et al, 2006). Economically passive people are those who do not fulfill the definitions of employment or unemployment. They are people who do not actively participate in the labour market because they are unable to find a job. Inactivity rates can be very different for men and women for a wide range of factors. These consists the economic climate, social and cultural norms, legislation and education have just some point no farther more explanation (ILO, 2007). Economists have long debates on causes and consequences of unemployment. On one hand unemployment is a symbol of market letdown that causes some workers to be unwillingly prevented from working. On the other hand, unemployment is a form of disguised rest a period when labor is voluntarily moved to more efficient uses. Time use and subjective well-being data provide a new gap on the lives of the unemployed. How much time do unemployed workers spend searching for a job? How much time do they spend in leisure activities and home production? How do they feel about their daily activities and their lives (Krueger and Mueller 2008). Men and women are pillars of society, without their equal participation in all spheres of life no society can progress properly. As far as the capabilities of women are concerned, they are not less than men. From the stone age, women have been equally participating in socio-economic life with men but women labour force participation (LFP) has not given the same consideration as men’s work have received. The status of women is as second-class citizen which is reinforced by the less vocational opportunities available to them. Their contribution remains invisible as most of them have to work in the unorganized and informal sector which includes all kinds of
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work, such as casual frame work, labour in family enterprises and private crafts, private schools or unskilled labour in houses (Sadaquat and Sheikh, 2011). From the few past years, unemployment among rural women in developing countries is very serious problem. The national policy makers of these countries give high attention to this problem. Rural women play a key role in daily reproductive tasks, income generating activities and agriculture etc. In developing countries, however, these women are less likely to realize their status to make their lives better for themselves, for families and for communities because it is the fact that they are given less value of their contributions. In this regard, participation of rural women in productive tasks support is an appropriate mean for empowering them and reduction their unemployment (Aazami et al. 2011). The empowerment of women is very important for human development and international community has been constantly stressing upon women’s participation in different codes of life. Prior to look into the impact of women empowerment, women’s empowerment means the provision of right to women to forward their say in important decisions and ensure bias-free access to resources. International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)1994 has taken into consideration the women’s empowerment from various angles and given five situations where any one can lead to empowering a woman: (a) women’s sense of self-growth (b) their right to have and to determine choices (c) their right to have an access to opportunities and resources (d) their right to have the power to control their lives both inside and outside the home and (e) their ability to influence the direction of social change to create more social and economic order (Muhammad et al. 2010). There are huge differences in women unemployment with reference to gender. Cultural attitudes towards gender play important role for employment in developed countries. Cultural norms and cultural values restrict women for job that is why in South Africa young women had lower employment and lower participation in labour force as compare to males. Their lower employment and lower participation rate in labour force is the outcome of their limited access to education as compare to male. However, institutional policies and structural characteristics are also very important. Attitude towards women independence has a significant importance in social life but it do not play important role in explaining the employment rate of the women. A
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disadvantage for girls is that they have limited access to education which limits their visions for jobs. Many other factors like culture, socio-economic conditions and institutional structure as well as reputation are main factor for women employment (Anonymous, 2005; Giavazzi et al.2009). The rate of unemployment in Pakistan can be measured by the help of Labor Force Survey conducted by the Federal Bureau of Statistics in 2000. According to the survey, the unemployment has shown an increase from 5.9% in 1998 to 7.8% in 2000. This increase has been observed for both males and females. Females are more unemployed (17.3 %) as compared to males (6.1%) (Govt. of Pakistan, 2000). Unemployment is enforced idleness of wage earner who is able and willing to work but cannot find jobs. In societies like Pakistan where most people earn their living only by working for others being unable to find a job is a serious problem. In Pakistan population pressure lower the economic growth rate and resulting in poor or slow growth of country economy. According to the survey report the rate of unemployment in 1998 was 5.50 percent which increased to 7.82 percent by the year 2003. Thus the rate of unemployment in rural areas was 5 percent which increased to 69.4 percent, while the rate of unemployment in urban area was than 9 percent which increased to 9.9 percent by 2003. In Pakistan 50 percent of our population is consisting of women who are treated as out of the work force. Unemployment in Pakistan is increasing due to i.e. (i) rapid population growth (ii) education system in Pakistan (iii) pressure on one industry, but if these things can be checked then unemployment rate can automatically come down (Nayyab Blog, 2010). The Federal Bureau of Statistics released the Pakistan Labour Force Survey 2011 on Monday, which shows the unemployment rate rising to 6% in July 2011, compared to 5.6% a year ago. The size of the total workforce was 57.3 million. The total number of unemployed rose by 280,000 people during the past year to 3.4 million. Unemployment for women, for example, declined from 9.5% last year to 8.9% this year. The corresponding figures for men rose from 4.4% to 5.1%. In absolute terms, the number of unemployed women decreased to 1.18 million from 1.21 million. The number of jobless men increased to 2.22 million from 1.91 million. The rise of employment opportunities is a welcome sign in a country that has historically had cultural
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There is considerable diversity in the status of women across classes. forcing them to lay off people or slow their hiring plans (Rana. a moderate trend for the middle age group people and again highly intensive among old. Patriarchal values embedded in local traditions 4 . These distributional impacts for the economy of Pakistan which clearly testifies that among the young age group unemployment rate has been higher as compare to old women (Qayyum. women’s situation vis-à-vis men are one of systemic subordination. a reflection of strong growth in agricultural commodity prices and consistent government support for several crops such as wheat. 2007). Gender is one of the organizing principles of Pakistani community. 2011).2% last year. as the energy crisis continues to cripple most businesses in cities and towns with rising costs.8%. and the rural/urban divide due to uneven socioeconomic development and the impact of tribal. 2009). The recent government programmes have contributed to a high degree in confiscating the child labour by launching the educational campaigns rigorously and by increasing the enrolments at primary levels especially in urban areas. According to Gilani Research Foundation unemployment has increased in the last few years in Pakistan. Unemployment in rural areas declined from 4.7%. It is caused not only because of poor economic condition of the country but is also a result of the present culture of nepotism (Sifarish) for employment inPakistan. In various countries the unemployment graph accounted for age specification reveals a U shaped pattern high unemployment in the initial stages or among youth category. regions. The status of women in Pakistan is not homogenous because of the interconnection of gender with other forms of exclusion in the society. and the rural/urban divide. This policy of promoting the education has limited the variance of unemployment rate to reasonable extent on the part of males but on part of females the conventional and traditional norms are still strong enough to impede the way of females from coming out of this hall. from 7. regions. feudal and capitalist social formations on women’s lives. However. Tradition of late marriages and migration to other countryfor jobs are also affecting factors for unemployment in Pakistani society (Haque.8% to 4. determined by the forces of patriarchy across classes. saw unemployment rise to 8.differencesagainst female participation in the workforce. Urban areas. meanwhile.

This has led to a low level of resource investment in women by the family and the State. 2001). Women workers in the informal sector. Women in Pakistan are facing many forms of discrimination and unfairness in almost every phase of life.and cultures predetermine the social value of gender. work longer hours for low wages under conditions of job insecurity. low investment in women’s human capital. Pakistanis have wrong interpretation of Islamic teaching about female regarding their rights and duties and these wrong interpretation presents women as needing for protection which lead to their ultimate physical. they live in an atmosphere of fear and their lives are guaranteed in exchange for obedience to social norms. values. The concept of honor linked with women’s sexuality restrictions on women’s mobility and the internalization of patriarchy by women themselves becomes the basis for gender discrimination and disparities in all fields of life (Govt. An artificial divide between production and reproduction. customs and traditions. negative social biases. and cultural practices. especially home-based piece rate workers. created by the ideology of sexual division of labor. The job opportunities available to them only in the informal sector intensify women’s exploitation. 2001). Thus. They also face difficulties finding work that is not vulnerable employment and has decent working conditions. Women of Pakistan are structured by harsh religious.6 per cent in 2008) of the female labour force working in 5 . Working women are especially overrepresented in the agriculture sector with more than two thirds (67. 2007). According to the 1990–1991 PIHS. so women are also facing different types of problems in their life because of male dominated thought (Babur. So. This fear is imposed by the traditional beliefs of male dominated society. Women in Pakistan participate fully in economic activities in the productive and reproductive sphere. of Pakistan. mental and emotional oppression. and standard labor legislation or legal protective measures do not cover their vulnerability. has placed women in reproductive roles as mothers and wives in the private arena of home and men in a productive role as breadwinners in the public arena. (Govt. Pakistani women face a number of challenges when seeking work in specific economic sectors. of Pakistan. compounded by the ideology of purdah(literally veiled). more than three fourths of the economically active women in urban areas are employed in the informal sector. family and tribal customs.

It is now globally admitted that without active participation of women in economic developmental strategy.7 per cent in 2008). Lower ratio of women participation in workforce is a vital factor determining the level of employment among women. 2009). A major problem that Pakistan faces is the growing level of unemployment among educated youth. it says that despite a discernible fall in the interdental growth rate. Moreover. In developing societies. the majority of employed women is classified as at “risk of lacking decent work” or in other words are vulnerable. 2010). This is 5. Women encompass half of world’s population yet they have been struggling for decent living. the dream of development could not be unleashed. The state of gender related issues in developing countries is over deplorable. There are many cultural barriers and traditional restrictions for women regarding employment in rural areas of Pakistan (Ali et al. On unemployment.the sector. population pressures continue to impact negatively on the employment (Mahmood et al. since they are working as contributing family or own account workers. low earnings and low productivity (Govt. The situation is even worse in certain remote and deprived areas. Therefore current study will inquire about causes and consequences of national women unemployment. Gender disparities especially in rural areas interrupted each development strategy throughout the globe. For increasing number of graduates. G. it becomes more difficult to find adequate employment and satisfactory ways of supporting themselves financially and meeting their job exceptions. Khan has lack of basic social and industrial infrastructure that restricts the economic activity. of Pakistan. Both status groups are likely to be characterized by insecure employment arrangements. Keeping in view all these points the main objectives of current study are fallowing: 6 . majority of women have no decision making rights and on choices regarding their marriage. Women who manage to find employment in non-agricultural sectors mainly work in the informal economy (71. The rural area of D.4 percentage points higher than in 2000. like Pakistan where male is dominated. 2011) Women population in Pakistan is more than half and lives in patriarchal family system in which husband or father as family head caused to female suppression.

To identify the socio – economic and cultural factors associated with women unemployment and their consequences an rural women.  7 . Khan. To suggest appropriate policy measures for improving the state of employment among rural women in Tehsil D.Objectives:   To investigate about the socio – economic characteristics of respondents.G.

and is equally spread across all skill groups. is focused among women with young children. That may be seen as a fall in the natural rate of unemployment. several researchers hypothesized that female labor force participation rate reflects during the process of economic development. (2001) have studied the factors influencing female participation in cottage industry of Pakistan. It highlights the findings of related studies and eliminates the possibility of unnecessary duplication of efforts. United Nations (1999) supported the practice of women’s paid employment in overthrowing the perception of women to be non-economic asset for families. Evans (1998) stated that the fall in average unemployment in Britain between its peaks in 1984 and 1993 is totally accounted for by a decrease in female unemployment. In Pakistan. unemployment had a 8 . he discussed that improvements in the provision of workplace assistance to mothers returning to work after childbirth have decreased the labour market frictions related with the presence of young children. poverty status have a positive and significant impact on female economic activities. Having discounted temporary demand-side explanations for these trends. The study has concluded that number of the children. education. Further. The main objective of the study is to analyze the economic behavior of the female workers involved in the business of embroidery. This remarkable betterment is linked with a fall in their inflow rate. Results shows that many factors i. age of the females. rather their employment stands contributory in furnishing opportunity for making investment. the women’s empowerment has taken a serious shape making the population into two vivid camps the opposing and supporting. The results confirm female employment had the impact of economic development. educating girls and facilitating health. Azid et al.CHAPTER-2 Review of Literature Review of the previous literature and work done in the field provides a guideline in designing the scientific studies through the identification of the weakness of the previous studies. number of children and low education were the main cause of unemployment in the sampled area. Tansel (2001) reported that recently.e.

mostly for those in the category of 65 years and above. They studied different economic activities of women workers. occupation and age structure. The probit and multinomial legit model has been used to estimate the parameters. their characteristics regarding their level of participation and problems faced by rural factory working women. This study also found that each studied has its own distinct characteristics and especial problems. They have used cross-sectional data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (1998-1999) for the age group of 15-49 years. low education and lack of other job opportunities like teaching. primary education. educational background. cultural values and discrimination against rural women were the most important factors of unemployment in rural areas. socioeconomic and human capital-related factors on women participation in economic activities. The probit estimates shows that marital status. (2002) investigated the socio-economic characteristics of women workers.considerable discouraging effect on female labor force participation while the impact of education was strongly positive. Zia et al. Micevska (2004) researched about unemployment and labor market rigidities in Southeast Europe. Naqvi and Shahnaz (2002) have examined the effects of various demographic. lack of education. status of respondents. Kongolo and Bamgose (2002) analyzed that lack of information. So this effect important to understand that what could be applied as a solution to one settlement could not be applied to another. Lack of information and knowledge induced those towards unemployment. Rural working women compelled to seek job in factories due to low family income. Further inferences can be drawn in relation to the age structure of respondents that it has impacted negatively on rural women participation. resources and government assistance. Females were unaware to their rights so they were unable to stand for their rights. The hidden unemployment calculations show that urban female unemployment rate is underestimated and the discouraged-worker effect for women is substantial. He found that there were many reasons for unemployment especially for 9 . based on geographical location. nursing and health workers. number of children and female head of households are inversely related with women’s participation in economic activities.

Because married female faced much more financial problems as compare to unmarried female. 10 . They studied the unemployed persons aged 26 to 41 and found macro and micro different relationship of social economic variables with unemployment duration. They found that educational degree had micro level effect on unemployment duration. sex. demographic characteristics (age. (2005) estimated that during the past 25 year the unemployment rate in West Germany was increased dramatically. religion and society) had effect on the employment rate of Kerala. sex. Ludemann et al. They studied socio-demographic characteristics (age. Unemployment duration affected both type of individual male and female and married females suffered more as compare to unmarried females. education. marital status. Zachariah and Rajan (2005) stated that demographic characteristics are also effect the employment rate of any country. they used the data of year 1998 and 2003 and found that in both years. So women and youth were also affected by those strict legislation policies of South-east European countries about temporary employment. Government policy had affected the unemployment rate of Germany.women and youth in South-east Europe and one of them is governmental policies. Tasci and Tansel (2005) found that females in urban area had higher unemployment ratio than urban men because they had lower chance for job and still remained the problem of employment for unemployment. religion and society) of unemployment of Kerala. For their study. So older avoid to loss the job. They also found that there were more chances to attain a job for young individuals who had miss the job as compare to older individuals. He found that after significant liberalization efforts South-east countries had made flexiblelegislation about permanent employment while still had relatively strict legislation on temporary jobs which is a real cause of unemployment in South-east European countries. They also suggested that the problem of unemployment can be solving if we study the history of unemployment. education. marital status. They also suggested that to reduce unemployment rate. Unemployment ratio was higher among unmarried men and women as compare to married persons. policy makers should develop their policies according to demographic change of their country.

Patricia (2006) investigated the causes and effects of unemployment and its impact on development in South Africa’s village Tshiheni. Unemployment has negative effect on social relationship. followed by retrenchments and lack of skill or education. It is also noted that gender has a role in the labour market and males are sorted out in high-paying occupation. Babur (2007) found that lacks of education economic opportunities.Nasir (2005) found that there were several possible explanations for the fact that educational attainment levels of inactive females are relatively high. Socioeconomic and health associated that any factors unemployed person had to faced. Main causes of unemployment were non-availability of jobs. Social setting in Pakistan is divided into two spheres. The internal household job is associated with women. The empirical results show that individuals with high educational achievements choose high-ranking jobs. Majority of the unemployed were 21 to 30 years old and most of them were females. Majority of unemployed were not self-employed but depend on families and child grants for support. He also found that the occupational distribution of the employed disaggregated by sex. She discussed the psychological. Professional choice is affected more by the human capital variables than by the individual characteristics. In other words. Analyses of labour market indicators such as status in employment and employment by sector point at persisting labour market imbalances between men and women. Women do all type of household chores while 11 . women who are qualified for a certain type of jobs may face hurdles which prevent them from obtaining such. potential of work are important factors for women job. Those willing to work find it easier to do so if they live in areas with low regional female unemployment rates. at a short distance from the next accumulation. Results of a bivariate probit model correcting for sample selection show that high regional unemployment discourages women from entering the labour market. and – for mothers – with a high density of childcare provision. Van and Buchel (2006) stated that the regional structure effect on both females those are willing or unwilling because they have no access to the labour markeet. Among human capital variables. education has the strongest impact in the selection of an occupation of choice. Special permission was granted to link regional data to individual respondents in the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP).

there can be a number of reason why people do not actively search for a job either because they feel that no work is available for them or because 12 . in making sure that the informal sector continues to enjoy access to credit to finance its activities and complete its goal of unemployment reduction. (2008) reported that due to low literacy rate in rural areas. They are mostly bound to apply for specific jobs. hunting. This bounding is strictly observed in Pakistan. Women. but with the on-going policy of the Federal Government through the Central Bank of Nigeria on microfinancing the macroeconomic objective of reduced unemployment. women as working populations are mostly involve in agriculture. Women receive no material advantages and totally depend upon the male. That’s why employment rate among female is very low. He therefore advised that the Nigerian Government and all related stakeholders continue in their quest towards decreasing unemployment while they give their undivided support. who are lower status working. The microfinance policy had empowered the many microfinance institutions to provide credit to the informal sector. creative and educational posts. are fighting for survival. The society of Karachi is comprised of different social classes and female participation can be found in every work of life. Nevertheless. The available evidence shows that the women’s participation in the total labor force (rural and urban) is very low and a vast majority of them are engaged in agricultural operations and all these are unpaid work.men do all the work outside the house. Highly qualified females are involved in whitecollar management. The second main cause of high unemployment is purdah observation. Historically socio-cultural factors have restricted the entrance of most females in job market. Regularity of employment is compulsory for better economic condition of women workers and increase regularity of employment will provide them income stability. The informal sector in itself may not be able to get much as we have presently due to inaccessibility to credit. fishing. Hussain (2008) stated that always Pakistani women have experienced disadvantages by men of the same status. That restricts women to do public jobs. administrative. if not full employment will become a fact in Nigeria. forestry. So the education is important factor for unemployment. Akintoye (2008) stated that the unemployment among females as one of the largest problems could be decrease through the informal sector participation. Wasim et al.

The difficulty of finding work is even more pronounced for young women between the age of 15 and 24. Chaudhry and Nosheen (2009) analyzed the determinants of women empowerment in Southern Punjab of Pakistan. with 10. Low inactivity rates bring that men are very likely to take any job they can get in order to maintain at least a subsistence level of support for their families. This is. positive in that it shows men do not face the same difficulties as women in participating in the labour market. access to media. The major stress of this study was on the women empowerment in terms of their participation in household economic activities.5 percent of them available on the job market but not employed. in 2008. domestic economic decisions. labour force participation is necessary to survive and too often not a matter of choice. So above discussed hurdles was the main cause of unemployment among females. women in Pakistan had a much higher likelihood of being unemployed compared to men. social or cultural barriers. socio-cultural norms of the community. But. Mwakaje (2010) stated that approximately 30% of the world’s households were headed by women and it was widely agreed that women-headed households were more common in urban than in rural areas. job of women and household participation rate. female unemployment could be halved during the last decade from 15. to a certain extent. family decision making. This study checked gender differences with regard to access to socio-economic services in unplanned and un-serviced areas of the Dares Salaam City. personal autonomy. i. at the same time. of Pakistan (2008) reported that inactivity rates for men are very low compared to women and have not changed over time.7 per cent.7 percent. He found that on gender and socio-economic matter reveal high imbalance. it reflects the lack of better alternatives for them.e. Especially for young men. Govt.8 per cent to 8. of Pakistan (2009) mentioned that in 2008. and political autonomy. Considering multidimensional nature of women empowerment. Data were collected from 13 . face discrimination or structural. Nevertheless. The results demonstrated that women empowerment is considerably influenced by education.0 per cent. which was more than double as high as the male rate of 4.such persons have fractioned labour mobility. The female unemployment rate stood at 8. the majority of which are mostly women. These are the so-called discouraged workers. writers estimated the collective index for women using four indices. Govt.

Bbaale and Mpuga (2011) suggested that to increase the numbers of women in the labor force in general and wages in particular for them. Results showed that un-necessary difference in incomes and access to socio-economic services.1. countries of Organizations for Economic Cooperation and Developed (OECD). There should be the involvement of all stakeholders especially donors with campaigns and resource allocations to facilitate females to get beyond secondary level education. although women headed households were slightly less accessed than men respondents in accessing socio-economic services. Two residential phases of Hayatabad in Peshawar city such as Phase-I and Phase-V were selected as universe of the study. we have to provide about secondary level education to women because higher education increase the female participation in labor force and enhance the wages rate. Muhammad et al.182 sample households selected randomly. the empowered women were identified in the sample areas and then from amongst them 80 were interviewed under purposive sampling technique through questionnaire. Addison and Ozturk (2010) concluded that during 1970-2008 the wages are minimized regularly in 16 members. First. The government program to spread free education at the secondary level is a good start but needs to be more struggles for better results. The study recommends for the educated status of the rural community to extend the practice of empowering women for the sake of their improved standard of living. Results indicate that early age females have lower participation in organization due to lower wages. manners and permissiveness. (2010) examined the impact of urban women’s empowerment on the socio-economic conditions on family level. they took part in all kinds of decision-making related to family affairs.They observed no gender discrimination in health and education of their children. their children got better education and developed better personality traits such as self-confidence. So it is clear that the empower or working women had impact on family budget. It has been examined that from a long time. organizations pay minimum wages to early age females. 14 . decision making as compare to unemployed women. The research study found that empowered or working women played an important role in supporting their family budget. It has been seen that there is a great variation between the government policies and enforcement of these policies in institutions regarding of employee wages.

while cultivating subsistence products and if they have no farm land. no wage job and their housekeeping activities. were not noticed. mostly. race or less schooling influence the unemployment in South Africa. So female’s household activities affected their economic activities. (2011) identified the primary causes of unemployment among the educated segments in Peshawar Division of Pakistan. They can consider such women as agriculture producer’s production expert and even in some case as policy maker. planting. as one of the intangible factors at agriculture economy. Based on the analysis 63. marketing and preparing food. A sample of 442 individuals was checked to reach at best possible results about the basic causes of unemployment in the educated atmosphere ofPeshawar Division. The serious situation of population growth suggests that rapid measures should be adopted. So.Kyei and Gyekye (2011) concluded that the employment is one of the main prosperity indicators of any nation. age status. Any prominent changes in employment will subsequently affect the living standard of people especially female. In each home about 64% of the females are dependent and 36% of the males are dependent. maintaining.3 % in 2001 and currently 29 %. participate at ranching activities. part time job. 30. Khodamoradi and Abedi (2011) stated that the women form great part of total workforce that needed for agriculture part at universe. Other than activity at agriculture field. Rural women have different roles and duties such asmother. with the official unemployment rate from 15% in 1995.8% educated people viewed that the high growth rate of population increases unemployment among educated segments. the statistics that was represented in relation to extent of women’s activity was very lower than actual extent.1% which is one of the highest in the world. The proportion of females is comparatively higher than males because females are less educated and to our social set up they are not allowed to do jobs. Because in this statistics. processing. Gender. seasonal jobs. women’s participation at rural development was crucial and is considered in order to supply suitable and needed food. Rural women maybe venturing to culture cash products. crops producer. Most of the Limpopo population lives in rural areas and have no satisfactory condition for rural dweller especially rural females in the South. According to the 15 . South Africa passing through high unemployment rates. they have to work for others instead receiving wage. harvesting. Mahmood et al. The Population growth in Pakistan is currently registered at an annual rate of 2.

an attempt was made to causes and consequences of unemployment among rural women within socio-cultural aspect of this area. (2) Sociocultural norms continue to strengthen the gender discrimination. nongovernmental organizations and progressive political parties should concentrate on the education of women if they want to increase the status of women in Pakistan by implementing special schemes and programmes. religious and environmental system. 68% males and 32% of females are employed showing that the percentage of overall employment is comparatively lower than developed countries. In the research study.research analysis. There is little study especially on female unemployment in Pakistan. Sadaquat and Sheikh (2011) they found out men and women are most important for the stability of society without them society cannot stable or progress properly. They face the problem of low paid. low status job. Past research reports and articles on the causes and consequences of female unemployment showed some important factors of this research issue.(1) Females literacy rate is very low as compared to men. Traditional values. Even though limited sociological research work was undertaken in a systematic way in this field. Government. The area of the determinant and consequences of unemployed women has wide potentiality for enquiries. In Pakistani society mostly women are suffering from market discrimination. In Pakistan low participation of females work due to their cultural. 16 . Dera Ghazi Khan is a remote and far flung area of Punjab province that is located on its boarder and has a heterogamous culture due to attachment with other provinces. This study was conducted within limited reviews in order to highlight the research gap and to develop a conceptual frame and mood. Mostly women are attached with unorganized sectors these sectors cannot provide secure jobs. Mostly women are known for low level of productivity less income stability and low security of employment due to their dual role at home and workplace. So rate of unemployment is very high among women as compared to male in both urban and rural area there are two main prominent factors that plays a vital role in unemployment among women.

Goldhaber and Nieto (2010) said “Scientific 17 . The method and techniques of research along with statistical tests and operational definitions of the concepts being used are briefly described in this chapter.CHAPTER 3 Methodology The main objective of methodology is to explain the tools and techniques employed for data collection. analysis and interpretation of data relating to the present study.

acquiring new knowledge. selection was the important step. or correcting and integrating previous knowledge”. The universe: According to Good and Hatt (1952). Khan. The interviewing schedule was constructed in English but all questions were asked in Urdu or Saraiki. Pre-testing: 18 . Tehsil D. The time consumed per interview varied from 20-30 minutes and in some cases it took little more time. Seven union councils are urban and thirty-four are rural.methodology refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena. According to district administration. Khan has forty-one union councils. or undertaking a scientific study. G. selection and specification is the first and important step. The researcher spent approximately ten days for data collection. Limitation of the study: Unemployed women who were the above the age of 16-46 years. to facilitate the respondents in their response. Interview Schedule: The interview schedule was prepared to get information about causes and consequences of unemployment among rural women in Tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan. For understanding a scientific study. Data Collection: The data were collected through interview schedule. The researcher got familiar with the respondents through the key informant. Universe of the present study was comprised of rural areas of Tehsil D. Before starting the interview it was deemed necessary to rapport with respondents by explaining the purpose of research.G. The data were collected through personal interview. any set of individual or objects having a common observable characteristic in a research constitute a population or universe.

the doubts mistakes were removed by explaining them that the information collected would be used only for educational purposes. Seven union councils belong to urban area and 34 union councils belong to rural areas. a lot of time was spent in explaining the purpose of research to the respondents. as they were suspicious of purpose of such data collection. The researcher herself conducted the interview. it was pre-tested on sixteen conveniently selected respondents in Tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan. Paigan Thana Darahama and Chit Sarkani) were selected through simple random sampling technique and from these union councils a sample of 120 respondents was selected through convenient sampling technique.In order to determine the research workability of the interview schedule. However. 1952). Sampling: Time and cost are usually limited factors in social research. Some difficulties were faced during interviewing. Majority of them understood that the information being collected by a government department and news reporter and because of this they did not cooperate. Respondents were individually interviewed. Conceptualization: 19 . some new questions were added and minor modifications were introduced in questions. Based on the results of pre-testing. It is therefore more emotional and efficient to base studies on sample rather than to study the entire universe (Good and Hatt. Coding: After editing the interviewing schedule. According to District administration there are 41 union councils in Tehsil Dera Ghazi Khan. The pre-testing cases were not included in the analysis of data presented in the next chapter. Out of these thirty four rural union councils four rural union councils (GadaiGarbi. Field Experience: In majority of cases. a coding sheet was prepared to convert qualitative data into quantitative form.

conceptualization is much more difficult as compare to any other discipline because the same concepts sometimes used with different meanings by different researchers. aspirations and other attributes of personality of their children. The indicators of socio-economic status are: 1. The socio-economic status of the parents influences the attitude. as it is a complex of attitudes that are interrelated.It is defined as certain scientific terminologies within research framework in order to clearly communicate the meaning to the readers. In the present study age was defined as total number of years completed by the respondents since their birth to the time of interview. Respondents education level 4. Age 2. but do not from a single dimension. Concepts are the abstracts used by the scientists as building block for the development of propositions and theories. The information collected about the age of respondents were categorized as under: a) 16-20 years 20 . Therefore. Marital status 5. defining the concepts used in study operationalized as follow: Socio-economic status: Socio-economic status is a complex concept. In social sciences. which explain and predict phenomenon. socio-economic status includes a number of factors and each factor further has several indices. Therefore. The socio-economic status has been defined as ‘ A comparison of index of socio-economic status’. Occupation Age: Age is an important characteristic of human being and attitudes vary considerably with the age. Family type 3. and thus should not be measured directly as a totality. every society according to its norms and values determines socio-economic status of a person. It refers to the social standing of the individual in the society to which he belongs.

b) 21-25 years c) 26-30 years d) 31-35 years e) 36-40 years f) 41-45 f) g) 41-45 years h) 46 years and above 46 Family type: Family is a group of intimate people emotionally involved and related weather by blood. attitude and prestige of an individual. responsible for the production and rearing. marriage or adoption. Education categorized as under: a) Illiterate b) Primary c) Middle d) Matric e) Intermediate f) Above graduation Occupation: 21 . There are three major types of family discussed in this study: a) Nuclear b) Joint c) Extended Education: Education is one of the most important factors for variation in a knowledge. Education is meant for the formal and informal year of schooling by the respondents in educational institutes like school or any other religious institute. living together.

etc. less-literate and homogeneous with a strong sense of group 22 . isolated. singleness. a) Non occupation b) Private job c) Agriculture d) Business e) Labour (daily wages) f) Govt job g) Any other Marital status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage.Occupation may be defined as the activity with a market value which an individual continually pursuer which an individual. They identified minimum social characteristics of rural areas and concluded that all societies that exhibit social characteristics that differ from such are urban areas. They therefore described the rural area as a society that is small. a) Single b) Married c) Widow d) Divorced e) Separated Rural Area: Roldfield and Goss (1977) in their classical work on the “Little Community” differentiated between what they called the urban and the rural area. divorce. widowhood. continually pursuer for the purpose of obtaining a steady flow of income.

Percentage: For the simple analysis of data.solidarity. behavior is traditional. Unemployment: Unemployment is a state when a woman is able and willing to do work but cannot find work at current wage level. the ways of living are conventionalized into coherent system. spontaneous. The following statistical techniques were used in the present study. The formula for chi-square is as under: (O-E) 2 X2 = ∑ -------------------------E 23 . uncritical and personal. percentage test was applied as a statistical technique. chisquare test was used. According to Fasoranti (2008). which is called culture. Analysis of Data: The collected data was analyzed through statistical technique. The formula for calculating the percentage is as under: P=F/N*100 Where F = Frequency of desired class N= Total no of frequencies P= Percentage Chi-Square Test: To test the significance of association between independent and dependent variables.

Where O= E= ∑= Observed frequency Expected frequency Some of observations Gamma statistics: Gamma statistics was applied to ascertain the relation between certain independents and dependent variables. The Gamma was calculated with the following formula. NS-ND Gamma = _____________ NS+ND Where NS = same order pairs ND = Different order CHAPTER-IV Results and Discussion 24 .

5. This chapter has been divided into two parts.7 percent of the respondents had 16-20 years of age.5 percent of the respondents had 36-40 years of age. So majority of the respondents (about 70%) belonged to young age groups. Similar findings were found by Patricia (2006). of Pakistan (2011).8 percent of them had 41-45 years and remaining 4.The purpose of this chapter is to present analysis and interpretation of data relating to the research problems under investigation. It was found that the impact of changing age compositions has already occurred because of the gradual fertility decline that has been underway in Pakistan since the late 1980s and early 1990’s. Majority of the unemployed were 21 to 30 years old and most of them were females. Table 1 shows that a major proportion i. Part-A (Uni-variate analysis) deals with the analysis of the respondents’ socio-economic characteristics of the opinion about the causes and consequences of unemployment. Age refers to the number of years completed by an individual since his birth. Part-B deals with bivariate analysis showing relationship among various socio-economic characteristics and their opinion about the causes and consequences of unemployment. 36. while 18. 25 ..3 percent of them had 31-35 years of age. followed by retrenchments and lack of skill or education. 14. Similar findings were found by Govt. The respondents were asked their age and data in this regard are presented in (Table 01). Majority of unemployed were not self-employed but depend on families and child grants for support. Whereas 7. Part A and Part B.e. Main causes of unemployment were nonavailability of jobs.2 percent of them had 26-30 years of age and 13. Age factor is very important to influence one’s behavior+ it widens the vision of an individual through experience.2 percent of them had 46 and above years of age. Unemployment has negative effect on social relationship.3 percent of them had 21-25 years of age. It indicates the ability to do work and attitude of person towards various social and economic aspect of life. Age Age is an important factor in determining the behavior of the being.

G.5 5. Literacy in Pakistan rose from 42 to 52 percent between 2002 and 2006. Age of the respondents 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 35-40 41-45 46 & Above Total Frequency 44 22 17 16 9 7 5 120 Percentage 36.e. i. character and general competency.2 13.3 percent of them had education at master level. it was concluded people had more perception about the impact of power outages in D. Table2: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their education. Almost 31 percent were bachelor and 28. This ratio is an indication of how much of the young population is increasing and that of old is decreasing. Frequency 51 Percentage 42. net primary enrollment rates increased from 42 to 52 percent. wisdom and other desirable qualities of mind. Table1: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their age.5 26 Education of the respondents Illiterate .7 18.3 7.0 Education Education can be defined as the process of developing knowledge. Khan city.3 14.. It is generally admitted that without education it is pretty difficult to produce good results in every sphere of life.2 100. the ratio of persons under 15 and over 64 to persons between 15 and 64. So.8 4. epically by the source of formal instruction. After data analysis it is found that the literacy level is also high in the selected areas.A way of looking at the changes in age structure is to examine dependency ratios.

Table3: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their marital status. It indicates that a major proportion i. while about one-fifth i. the overall literacy rate (age 10 years and above) is 57% (69% for male and 45% for female) compared to 56% (69% for male and 45% for female) compared to 56% (69% for male and 44% for female) for 200708. 6.3 percent of them middle passed.. So literacy rate was low in the selected area.0 percent of them were primary and 18.5 percent of the respondents illiterate.3 100. of Pakistan (2011). According to the Govt.e.2 percent of the respondents were matriculated.3 percent of the respondents had graduation and above level.0 Table 2 presents the educational status of the respondents.3 percent of them intermediate and only 3. of Pakistan (2011) stated that the latest Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2008-09. About 9.0 18. So above results varied to Govt. 42.Primary Middle Matric Inter Graduation & Above Total 24 22 11 8 4 120 20.5 27 .2 6. Marital status of the respondents Single Married Frequency 33 81 Percentage 27.3 9.5 67..e.7 3. 20.

Frequency 11 15 21 28 Percentage 9.0 percent of the respondents had 7 and above children and 27. 67. Unemployment duration affected both type of individual male and female and married females suffered more as compare to unmarried females.0 Table 3 depicts that 27.3 1..2 12.5 percent of them married. while a majority i. Table 4 shows that only 9. while 12. 17.0.5 23.7 percent of the respondents separated. 3.3 percent of them widowed and only 1. (2005).3 28 Number of children No child 1-2 3-4 5-6 . Because married female faced much more financial problems as compare to unmarried female.5 percent of them had 1-2 children.5 percent of the respondents were unmarried.8 to about 4. Similar results were presented by Govt. the fertility decline started around 1988 with a reduction of approximately 2 children per woman in each decade through 2000 and later years.7 100. Table4: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their total number of children.Widow Separated Total 4 2 120 3. of Pakistan (2011). They also suggested that the problem of unemployment can be solving if we study the history of unemployment.2 percent of the respondents had no child. the subsequent decade 2000–2009 has seen a slowing of the fertility transition with a fall from 4.5 percent of them had 3-4 children and 23. About 10. According to Ludemann et al.3 percent of them had 5-6 children.5 percent of the respondents single.e.5 17. they found that educational degree had micro level effect on unemployment duration.

of Pakistan (2011).0 percent of the respondents’ husbands were not doing any type of work.0 Husband’s occupation No occupation Private job Agriculture Business Labour Govt job NA (Unmarried.0 6. 10.8 10.8 percent of them were doing private job. Frequency 6 13 12 8 35 7 39 120 Percentage 5.2 5. About 29.0 Table5: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their husband’s occupation. widowed or separated.7 & Above NA (Unmarried) Total 12 33 120 10.5 percent of the respondents were not applicable because they were unmarried. while 10.0 percent of them were agriculturist and 6.5 100.0 10. Table6: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their type of family.8 percent of them were doing private job.7 29.2 percent of the respondents’ husbands were laborer. Widowed or separated) Total Table 5 shows that only 5. almost 61 percent population of Pakistan directly or indirectly dependents on agriculture.7 percent of the respondents’ husbands had their own business.5 100.0 27.8 32. According to the Govt. 5. 29 . Whereas 32.

0 percent of them were living in extended family system. children. grand father and mother.5 percent of the respondents were living in nuclear family system..e. Above results were not similar to those which found by Mansoor (2008).5 42. 42.Type of family Nuclear Joint Extended Total Frequency 63 51 6 120 Percentage 52.3 44.5 5.2 27. mother.5 100. and they live together with their people in the same family unit Table7: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their male family members.0 100.5 percent of them were living in joint family system and remaining 5. This family system comprises father. the joint family system is quite usually found.0 Table 6 indicates that little more than a half i. 52. Frequency 34 53 33 120 Percentage 28.0 Male family members Up to 2 3-4 5 and above Total 30 . He found that in Pakistan.

Table 7 reveals that 28.3 percent of the respondents had up to 2 male family members. Table8: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their female family members. while 40.. Table9: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their total family members.0 Female family members Up to 2 3-4 5 and above Total Table 8 reveals that 19.2 percent of them had 3-4 male family members and 27. while most of the respondents i.2 40.2 percent of the respondents had up to 2 female family members.e. Frequency 23 49 48 120 Percentage 19.2 60.0 31 . male members are the economic pillar for a family.8 15.8 40.0 100. Total family members Up to 5 6-10 Above 10 Total Frequency 29 73 18 120 Percentage 24.8 percent of them had 3-4 female family members and 40. According to Poudel (2006).5 percent of them had 5 and above male family members.0 100. 44.0 percent of them had 5 and above female family members.

Khan Strongly agree Agree Neutral Total 32 .8 percent of them had 6-10 family members and only 15. while a majority i. 44.0 percent of them had above 10 family members.5 percent of them had semi pacca type house.2 percent had pacca type house and about one-third i. 32.e.3 percent of the respondents had kacha type house.G. Table10: House type Kacha Pacca Semi Pacca Total Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their house type.G. 60.3 3. 24.2 percent of the respondents had up to 5 family members.. Table11: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about prevalence of female unemployment prevailing in D.Table 9 indicates that about one-fourth i.e.2 32. Frequency 28 53 39 120 Percentage 23.0 Table 10 reveals that 23.4 83.3 100. Frequency 16 100 4 120 Percentage 13.3 44.. Data indicates that more than 75% respondents had more than 6 family members that indicates large family size and joint family system in the society. while a major proportion i.e..e.0 Female unemployment prevailing in D.5 100..Khan.

5 percent of the respondents strongly agreed..3 percent of them neutral with this opinion. G. family and tribal customs.5 82. Khan” and 3.e.4 percent of the respondents strongly agreed.3 percent of them agreed with the statement that “female unemployment is prevailing in D.G. 2.G . Khan” .5 percent of them agreed with the statement that “lack of job opportunities for rural women is the mother cause of enhancing rate of unemployment in D. women of Pakistan are structured by harsh religious.e.5 percent were disagreed with this statement.Khan Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Frequency Percentage 15 99 3 3 12. the rate of female’s unemployment rate is high and this is due to lack of education and lack of job opportunities. 83. Table 12 indicates that 12.5 2. mental and emotional oppression.Table 11 indicates that 13.G . Pakistanis have wrong interpretation of Islamic teaching about female regarding their rights and duties and these wrong interpretations presents women as needing for protection which lead to their ultimate physical.5 2. Table12: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about lack of job opportunities for rural women is the mother cause of enhancing rate of unemployment in D. While according to Babur (2007).. while a large majority i. In a study Qayyum (2007) said that in total unemployment. 82. while a huge majority i.5 percent of them were neutral while 2.5 33 .Khan Lack of job opportunities for rural women is the mother cause of enhancing rate of unemployment in D.

Total

120

100.0

Table 13 shows that 11.7 percent of the respondents strongly opinioned that female should do job to support her family economically, while a vast majority i.e., 85.0 percent of them agreed with the opinion that women should do job for economic support to their family, only one respondent was neutral and remaining 2.5 percent of them disagreed with this statement. Table13: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about women should do job for economic support to their family Respondents’ opinion about women should do job for economic support to their family Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total Frequency Percentage

14 102 1 3 120

11.7 85.0 .8 2.5 100.0

Table14:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about women have lack of job opportunities as compare to male in rural areas.

Women have lack of job opportunities as compare to male in rural areas Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total

Frequency

Percentage

17 100 1 2 120

14.2 83.3 .8 1.7 100.0
34

Table 14 depicts that 14.2 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a significant majority i.e., 83.3 percent of them agreed with the opinion that women have lack of job opportunities as compare to male in rural areas, only one respondent was neutral and remaining 1.7 percent of them disagreed with this statement. Similar results were found by Ali et al. (2010). They also found that male had dominated position in the society and women had less decision making power regarding their employment. Table 15 presents the reasons of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to males in rural areas. In response to ‘physical weakness’ as a reason of lack of job opportunities for females only 4.2 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, about a half i.e., 50.8 percent of them agreed with the reason ‘physical weakness’ is a cause of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to male in rural areas, while 5.8 percent were neutral, 39.2 percent of respondents disagreed with this reason. In response to ‘more emotional’ as a reason of lack of job opportunities for females, only 1.7 percent of the respondents were strongly agreed, about a half i.e., 49.2 percent of them agreed with the reason ‘more emotional’ is a cause of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to male in rural areas, while 1.7 percent of respondents were neutral and 47.5 percent disagreed with this reason. In response to ‘need more security’ as a reason of lack of job opportunities for females, about 15.0 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a majority i.e., 75.8 percent of respondents agreed with the reason ‘need more security’ for female is a cause of lack of job opportunities for them as compare to male in rural areas, whereas 0.8 percent neutral and 8.3 percent disagreed with this reason. In response to ‘disturb the environment’ as a reason of lack of job opportunities for females only one respondent strongly agreed, 38.3 percent of them agreed with the reason ‘disturb the environment’ is a cause of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to male in rural areas, while 6.7 percent of respondents were neutral and a majority i.e., 54.2 percent disagreed with this reason. In response to ‘cultural environment’ as a reason of lack of job opportunities for females, just 5.8 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.e., 60.0 percent of
35

respondents agreed with the reason ‘cultural environment’ is a cause of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to male in rural areas, while 9.2 percent of respondents were neutral and about one-fourth i.e., 25.0 percent of them disagreed with this reason. Similar findings were presented by Babur (2007). He found that the women of Pakistan are structured by harsh religious, family and tribal customs. Pakistanis have wrong interpretation of Islamic teaching about female regarding their rights and duties and this wrong interpretation presents women as needing for protection which lead to their ultimate physical, mental and emotional oppression. Table 16 depicts that about one-third i.e., 34.2 percent of the respondents strongly agreed, while a majority i.e., 60.0 percent of them agreed with the statement that the curse of favoritism/ nepotism promotes the rate of unemployment among women, only 2.5 percent of respondents were neutral and 3.3 percent disagreed with this statement. Krueger and Mueller (2008) stated that unemployment is a symbol of market letdown that causes some workers to be unwillingly prevented from working.

Table15:

Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their response regarding the reasons of lack of job opportunities for female as compare to male in rural areas. Strongly agree f % 5 2 18 1 4.2 1.7 15. 0 0.8 Agree f 61 59 91 46 % 50.8 49.2 75.8 38.3 Neutral F 7 2 1 8 % 5.8 1.7 0.8 6.7 Disagree f 47 57 10 65 % 39.2 47.5 8.3 54.2 Strongly disagree f 0 0 0 0 % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

N = 120 Reasons

Total f 120 120 120 120 % 100 100 100 100

Physical weakness More emotional Need more security Disturb the environment

36

The curse of favoritism/ nepotism promotes the rate of unemployment among women Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total Frequency Percentage 41 72 3 4 120 34.2 60.0 120 100 Table16: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the curse of favoritism/ nepotism promotes the rate of unemployment among women.5 3.0 Table17: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the ever increasing population enhances the rate of unemployment among women.0 2. Frequency Percentage Ever increasing population enhances the rate of unemployment among women.0 37 .7 100.5 6.0 11 9.2 30 25.3 100.8 2.0 0 0. Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total 6 103 3 8 120 5.Cultural environment 7 5.8 72 60.0 85.

35.e. Table18: Percentage distribution of the respondents regarding the extent of increasing unemployment rate among women due to over population Frequency Percentage Extent of increase of unemployment rate among women due to over population To great extent To some extent Not at all Total 43 69 8 120 35.0 38 . They also found that ever increasing population enhances the rate of unemployment rate. work injury and other natural diseases may cause the unemployment.e. child birth etc as cause of female unemployment. 57. like work force reduction.Table 17 indicates that only 5.5 percent of the respondents agreed ‘to a great extent’ with the statement that “the ever increasing population enhances the rate of unemployment among women”.8 percent agreed with the opinion that “the ever increasing population enhances the rate of unemployment among women”. Table 18 reveals that a majority i.7 percent not agree with this statement. In a study Vroman (2005) discussed the sickness. (2011)..7 100.0 percent of the respondents strongly agree. only 2. Above results supported to Mahmood et al.5 6. while a huge majority i. illness.8 percent of them agree ‘to some extent’ with this statement and 6. 85. He said that the earning of many families decreases due to long term interruption in earning.8 57.. Earners are the important source of income and most of the families face decrease in earnings due to unemployment. child birth.5 percent of them were neutral and 6.7 percent disagreed with this statement.

5 0.2 88.8 0.3 85..0 0.e.8 f 13 12 12 19 11 26 Disagree % 10.8 4.8 percent of them disagreed with this cause.e.5 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a huge majority i. whereas 0.0 15.5 62.0 0.5 F 3 1 5 14 6 7 Neutral % 2.8 9. Just one respondent was strongly agreed and a vast majority i.0 0.2 11. 85.2 21.0 72.7 f 0 0 0 0 0 0 Strongly disagree % 0.0 percent of them were agree with their opinion that ‘technical education’ is a real cause of spreading 39 .0 5. N = 120 Reasons Strongly agree f Informal education Skill education Technical education Information technology Professional education Religious education 3 1 1 0 4 12 % 2.0 10. 84.0 0.e.0 3.0 percent of them disagreed with this cause.3 percent of them w agreed with their opinion that ‘skill education’ is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas.Table19: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their response that different kinds of education in rural women is a real cause of spreading unemployment... 88. 0 f 101 106 102 87 99 75 Agree % 84.5 0.0 0.5 percent of them were neutral and 10.2 percent of them agreed with their opinion that informal education is a real cause of spreading unemployment.7 5.8 10.3 10. Just one respondent was strongly agreed and a large majority i.0 f 120 120 120 120 120 120 Total % 100 100 100 100 100 100 Table 19 shows that only 2.8 percent of them were neutral and 10.8 0.5 82. whereas 2.

82.unemployment in rural areas.8 percent of them were neutral and 21.0 percent of them were neutral and 9.0 percent of them disagreed with this cause.7 percent of them disagreed with this cause.5 percent of them were agree with their opinion that information technology is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas.e.0 40 .2 percent of them disagreed with this cause. Unemployment has negative effect on social relationship. followed by retrenchments and lack of skill or education. A significant majority i. Only 3. whereas 5. where as 5.5 percent of them agreed with their opinion that religious education is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas..8 11.0 20.8 percent of them disagreed with this cause.5 percent of them were agree with their opinion that professional education is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas. where as 4.5 65. Table20: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the lack of job opportunities for women is real cause of brain drain Frequency Percentage Lack of job opportunities for women is real cause of brain drain Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total 3 78 25 14 120 2. According to Patricia (2006).. 72.0 percent of the respondents were strongly agreed and a majority i.. About 10.e.e. main causes of unemployment were non-availability of jobs.7 100.2 percent of them were neutral and 10. where as 11.3 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a large majority i.7 percent of them were neutral and 15. 62. Majority of unemployed were not self-employed but depend on families and child grants for support.

6 percent of the respondents were strongly agree.8 percent of them were neutral and 11. Table 22 reveals that 11. nursing and health workers.e..7 percent of them were disagreed with this statement.e.7 percent of respondents were neutral and another 1. (2008) also reported unemployed womenreceive no material advantages and totally depend upon the male. 85. about one-fifth i. only 1.e.e.6 85.0 1.7 100.5 percent of respondents were neutral and 4. Table22: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the family of unemployed women treats her harshly.. while a vast majority i.1 Table 21 indicates that 11. 81.7 percent of them were agree with the statement that the family of unemployed women treats her harshly. According to Zia et al. Wasim et al. (2002). 20. only 2. Table21: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment harmfully hit the self-respect of women. low education and lack of other job opportunities like teaching. 41 .5 percent of the respondents strongly agreed.7 1.2 percents were disagree with this statement. while a huge majority i.Table 20 indicates that only 2.0 percent of them were agreed with the statement that unemployment harmfully hit the self-respect of women.6 percent of the respondents were strongly agreed. rural working women compelled to seek job in factories due to low family income.7 percent of them disagreed with this opinion. 65.. while a majority i. Frequency Percentage Respondents’ opinion about unemployment harmfully hit the self-respect of women Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total 14 102 2 2 120 11..0 percent of them agreed with the statement that the lack of job opportunities for women is real cause of brain drain.

This is.2 100.Family of unemployed women treats her harshly Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total Table23: Frequency 14 98 3 5 120 Percentage 11..e.2 percent of the respondents said that their family never treated them harshly.3 percent of them told that they sometimes they treated harshly by the family due to their employment and 4.0 Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about extent of harsh treatment by the family. So women were facing harsh behaviour in labour market. According to Govt.3 4. of Pakistan (2008).5 4. Table24: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment in women increase the rate of poverty. to a certain extent. positive in that it shows men do not face the same difficulties as women in participating in the labour market.2 100.0 Table 23 shows that little more than a half i.7 2.5 percent of the respondents reported that oftenly they treated harshly by the family and 43. Frequency Percentage 42 Unemployment in women . inactivity rates for men are very low compared to women and have not changed over time.6 81. Frequency Percentage Extent of treats her harshly by the familyto unemployment Often Sometime Never Total 63 52 5 120 52. 52.5 43.

they found that unemployment is a cause of poverty.0 percent of them agreed with the statement that unemployment 43 ..6 5. only 1.5 80. Frequency Percentage Unemployment among rural women leads to suicidal activities Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total 3 96 6 15 120 2.0 12.0 5.7 1.6 percent of them were neutral and 5.7 percent of them agreed with the statement that unemployment in women increase the rate of poverty.1 Table 24 indicates that 31.5 100.e. 61.7 61.0 percent were disagree with this statement. (2001).5 percent of the respondents strongly agreed. while a significant majority i. Similarly Azidet al. 80.7 percent of the respondents strongly agreed.. Table25: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment among rural women leads to suicidal activities. while a majority i.increase the rate of poverty Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total 38 74 2 6 120 31.0 Table 25 indicates that only 2.e.0 100.

0 percent of them were agree with the opinion that unemployment among rural women dangerously affects the health of unemployed person. They concluded that unemployment had negative impact on unemployed persons. only 6. Table26: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment among rural women dangerously affects the health of unemployed person. Similar findings were presented by Mahmood et al. Frequency Percentage Unemployment among rural women dangerously affects the health of unemployed person Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 40 72 0 8 0 120 33.. while a majority i. 33.7 0. only 5..0 0. Table27: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment among rural women leads to the domestic violence among family members.3 percent of the respondents were strongly agree.among rural women leads to suicidal activities.0 6.0 Table 26 indicates that about one-third i. (2011). 60.7 percent of them disagreed with this statement. (2011).0 100.0 percent of them were neutral and ``12. Above results were supported by Mahmood et al.5 percent disagreed with this statement.e. Frequency Percentage Unemployment among rural women leads to the domestic violence among family members 44 . They found that unemployment had negative impact on unemployed.3 60.e.

5 56.7 4. while a huge majority i. 56.e.7 1. 85.2 85. Unemployment among rural women is the mother cause of disappointment of future Strongly agree Agree Frequency Percentage 5 103 4. Similarly Kyei and Gyekye (2011) concluded that the employment is one of the main prosperity indicators of any nation.7 percent of them agreed with the statement that unemployment among rural women leads to the domestic violence among family members. only 1.8 45 . Table 28 shows that only 4.e.7 percent of them were neutral and remaining 3. while a major proportion i..2 percent opinioned negatively and disagree with the statement.2 percent of the respondents strongly agreed.2 100.5 percent of the respondents strongly agreed.0 Table 27 indicates that 37. where as 6.3 percent of them disagreed with this statement and opinion negatively.. while the men had superior status. Table28: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment among rural women is the mother cause of disappointment of future.7 percent of them were neutral and 4. According to Mwakaje (2010) gender and socioeconomic issues reveal high inequalities. It means women faced domestic violence.8 percent of them agreed with the statement that unemployment among rural women is the mother cause of disappointment of future.Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total 45 68 2 5 120 37.

(2009).2 percent of the respondents strongly agreed.8 5.0 100. According to Giavazzi et al.0 .e..3 0. whereas only one respondent were neutral and remaining 5. 85.Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 8 4 0 120 6.0 46 .0 Table 29 shows that 9. Table29: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployed women cannot properly attend the community ceremonial activities. while a vast majority i.0 100. attitude towards women independence has a significant importance in social life but it do not play important role in explaining the employment rate of the women.0 percent of them agreed with the statement that unemployed women cannot properly attend the community ceremonial activities.0 percent disagreed with this statement.2 85.7 3. Frequency Percentage Unemployed women cannot properly attend the community ceremonial activities Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total 11 102 1 6 120 9.

74... 83.5 percent of them were disagree with this statement..3 Neutral Freq 0 0 %ag e 0.8 percent of respondents opinioned that unemployment badly affected their personality and only one respondent were neutral.0 Disagree Freq 3 3 %ag e 2.. Table30: N = 120 Statements Strongly agree Freq friends avoid to meet Loss of social relations 28 23 %ag e 23.2 percent of them opinioned that friends avoid to meet due to their unemployment and 2.5 2.3 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a vast majority i.2 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a significant majority i. According to Kyei and Gyekye (2011). Table shows that 23. 6. 78.5 percent of them disagreed with this opinion. About one-fifth i.e.5 Strongly disagree Freq 0 0 %ag e 0.7 percent of them were neutral and 3. 47 .0 Total Freq 120 120 %age 100 100 Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that the unemployment affects the social life of rural women.0 0.. 19. 80.7 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a huge majority i.e.0 0.3 percent of respondents opinioned that they last their of social relations due to their unemployment and 2.e.e. Any prominent changes in employment will subsequently affect the living standard of people especially female.3 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a large majority i.e. Slightly less than one-fifth i.3 19.2 Agree Freq 89 94 %ag e 74. Only 6..3 percent of the respondents were disagree with this statement.Table 30 present the respondents’ opinion that the unemployment affects the social life of rural women.3 percent of them were agree with the statement that they socially excluded from decision making and social gathering due to unemployment.2 78. 18. the employment is one of the main prosperity indicators of any nation.e.

7 4 3.0 120 100 Table 31 indicates that only 6. Table31: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion that changes occurs in the behavior of unemployed women.8 percent felt sensitivity due to their unemployment.7 100 83.8 1 0. there are huge differences in women unemployment with reference to gender. Cultural attitudes towards gender play important role for employment in developed countries.Unemployment badly affects personality Socially excluded from decision making and social gathering 22 18..0 120 100 8 6. where as 30.e.0 48 . Cultural norms and cultural values restrict women for job.8 0 0. 40.3 97 80.3 0 0. while 21. Similarly Giavazzi et al (2009).7 percent of the respondents felt no change in their behavior due to unemployment.0 0 0.8 percent of the respondents depressed due to their unemployment.7 40.7 percent of them were harsh/aggressive and a major proportion i.8 30.7 21. Frequency Percentage Respondents’ views changes occurs in the behavior of unemployed women No change Harsh/ aggressive Sensitivity Depressed Total 8 26 49 37 120 6.8 100.3 8 6.

.7 78 65.0 percent of them were agree with the statement that unemployed youth involved in robbery/fraud.7 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a majority i.3 Agree Freq 69 %ag e 57..Study found that unemployment is a cause of negative activities.0 0 0. where as 3. 65..3 24 20.e.5 percent of them were agree with the statement that unemployed youth create social crime. of Pakistan.0 Total Freq 120 %age 100 14 11.0 percent of them were disagree with this statement. About 11.3 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a majority i. 20.e. 25.0 120 100 Table 32 present the respondents’ opinion that unemployed youth of rural women involved in the negative activities. Similar findings were presented by Govt.2 Disagree Freq 30 %ag e 25. where as 9..e.2 percent of them were neutral and about one-fourth i. 2001.e. 57.3 percent of them were neutral and about one-fifth i.0 percent of them were disagree with this statement.0 4 3. 49 .Table32: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about the statement that unemployed youth of rural women involved in the negative activities N = 120 Statements Strongly agree Freq They create social crime They involved in robbery /fraud 10 %ag e 8. Table shows that 8.0 Strongly disagree Freq 0 %ag e 0.5 Neutral Freq 11 %ag e 9.

e. 55..2 percent of them were agree that they spent their leisure time on TV watching.e. while 5.2 percent of them disagreed with this leisure time activity..8 percent of them were neutral and 4. 75. About 8. study.e.e.8 percent of them agreed that they spent their leisure time with ‘faction’. while 0..8 percent of them disagreed that they spent their leisure time with ‘sleeping’.2 percent of them disagreed with this leisure time activity.Table 33 reveals that 1. while 0. About 10..e.0 53. 54. About one-third i.3 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i. unemployment affected the leisure time activities. 70. 53.e.5 percent of them were neutral and 29. while 2. 33.3 Neutral Freq 3 0 %age Percentage distribution of the respondents regarding utilization of unemployed leisure time. Table33: N = 120 Statements Strongly agree Freq Sleeping Help family in household 2 52 %age 1. makeup etc.e.. About 43. Whereas only 9.7 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and 40.2 percent of the respondents spending their leisure time with any other activity i.3 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.0 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a major proportion i.3 Agree Freq 48 64 %age 40.e.0 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.0 .0 percent of them agreed that they just talking in their leisure time.3 Strongly disagree Freq 0 0 %age 0.7 43.0 percent of them disagreed with this leisure time activity. According to Krueger and Mueller (2008).5 0.3 percent of them agreed that they spent their leisure time with ‘help of family in household work.8 3.8 percent of them agreed that they spent their leisure time with ‘sleeping’.0 0.8 percent of them were neutral and 11.8 percent of them were neutral and 10.5 percent of them were neutral.7 percent of them disagreed with this leisure time activity.3 percent of them disagreed with this leisure time activity. About one-fourth i. while 3.3 percent of them agreed that they spent their leisure time with ‘the use of mobile’. while 12.3 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.... Disagree Freq 67 4 %age 55. 48. 25.0 Total Freq 120 120 50 %age 100 100 2.

0 0.3 25.0 0.0 Table 34 shows that 6. makeup etc.0 35 12 5 14 109 29.0 4. while a huge majority i.8 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 percent of them agreed with the opinion that “rural women start their own business after facing the long term unemployment”.2 11.V Any other (study.3 0.8 .8 100.0 8.2 9.8 0.8 70.8 0.7 5.0 58 91 84 65 11 48.) 100 100 100 100 100 12 10 30 40 0 10. Frequency Percentage Respondents’ opinion about rural women start their own business after facing the long term unemployment Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Total 8 104 7 1 120 6.0 54.7 86.8 0.0 0.7 90.5 5.3 75.2 15 7 1 1 0 12.e.0 33. where as 5. 51 .2 10.7 percent of the respondents strongly agreed.0 120 120 120 120 120 Table34: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion about rural women start their own business after facing the long term unemployment.work Use of mobile Faction Just talking T.8 percent of the respondents were neutral and remaining one respondent disagreed with this opinion. 86.0 0..

23.e. 50.e... where as 15.7 percent of them agreed with the suggestion ‘we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through skilled education’.8 percent of them agreed with the suggestion ‘we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through government policies’. where as 2. 35.e. 69.8 percent of them were agree with the suggestion ‘we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through changing our tradition’.8 percent of them were disagree with this suggestion. whereas 18.3 percent of them were neutral and 30. 20.0 percent of them disagreed with this suggestion.8 percent of them were neutral and 24.2 percent of them agreed with the suggestion ‘we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through more job opportunities’.5 percent of them disagreed with this suggestion.3 percent of them agreed with the suggestion ‘we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through prioritizing’.. 52 .e. 57. 61.3 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a major proportion i. Only 3.. whereas 10. Only 8.0 percent of them were neutral and 15.5 percent of them were neutral and 8.3 percent of the respondents were strongly agree and a majority i. whereas 15.3 percent of them disagreed with this suggestion.e.e. About one-fifth i. Only 2.3 percent of them disagreed with this suggestion.5 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.3 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a significant majority i.0 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i.5 percent of them agreed with the suggestion ‘we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through changes of people behaviour’.e.5 percent of them disagreed with this suggestion..8 percent of them were neutral and 28. 48.Table 35 present the suggestion for overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women..e. Slightly less than one-fourth i. Table shows that more than one-third i.0 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a half i. 74.e.8 percent of the respondents strongly agreed and a majority i. where as 2..e.. where as 2.. 65.2 percent of them agreed with the suggestion ‘we overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women through family support during job searching’..2 percent of them disagreed with this suggestion. Only 5.

0 0.8 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 Agree Freq 74 89 %age 61.8 65.3 30.8 10. Table35: N = 120 Statements Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their suggestions for overcomes the problem of unemployment among rural women.2 48.0 29 10 36 34 19 24.8 2.0 120 120 120 120 120 53 .3 15.0 0.5 20.0 0.8 23.3 69 83 58 61 79 57.0 Disagree Freq 3 3 %age 2.Similarly Muhammad et al.3 5.0 3.8 19 3 22 19 12 15.0 Total Through skilled education Through more job opportunities People behavior Family support during job Prioritizing Govt policy Tradition 43 28 120 120 3 24 4 6 10 2.0 0.2 Neutral Freq 0 0 %age 0.5 2.3 50.5 18.7 74.0 28.0 0.5 69.0 8.5 Strongly disagree Freq 0 0 %age 0. (2010) recommends for the educated status of the rural community to extend the practice of empowering women for the sake of their improved standard of living.3 15.0 0.2 8. Strongly agree Freq %age 35.

and the second factor was that the existing socio-cultural norms continues to strengthen gender discrimination and were a source of a massive wastage of the human capital available in the country. Khan.G. Frequency 45 Percentage 37.0 Table37: Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion regarding the reduction of unemployment among rural women in D.3 percent of the respondents reported lack of family income is a consequences of unemployment among rural women.3 54 . the first factor is that women with no education or with some basic education were allowed to work due to intensive poverty and high rate of inflation.0 21.Table 36 shows that 18..0 percent of the respondents told that due to unemployment among rural women poverty level was increased and 21. Frequency 22 72 26 120 Percentage 18.3 14 28 11.7 percent of the respondents said that the increase in crime due to unemployment.7 23. Table36: Consequences Lack of family income Increase in poverty Increase in crime Total Percentage distribution of the respondents according to their opinion regarding the consequences of rural community.e.7 100. 60. According to Sadaquat and Sheikh (2011).5 Suggestions Government should make economic opportunities for females in rural areas Government establish the educational institutions in the rural areas To reduce the domestic violence in the society Women establish their own business then they reduce 58 48.3 60. while a majority i.

7 24.e. Whereas 23.2 Table 37 present the suggestions to reduce the unemployment rate among rural women in D. should provide loan facility to females for their own business 32 29 26. Similarly Ludemann et al.2 percent of them suggested ‘to establish the institution where they generate their income and about one-third i. About 37. Zachariah and Rajan (2005) also suggested that to reduce unemployment rate.the unemployment rate To establish the vocational colleges To establish the institution where they generate their income Govt.. policy makers should develop their policies according to demographic change of their country. 34.3 percent of the respondents suggested that the ‘women establish their own business then they reduce the unemployment rate’.2 percent of them suggested that the government should provide loan facility to females for their own business. 24.e. (2005) also suggested that the problem of unemployment can be solve if we study the history of unemployment. 11. 55 .e.. whereas little less than a half i. Khan.G.5 percent of the respondents suggested that the ‘Government should make economic opportunities for females in rural areas’.7 percent of them suggested ‘to establish the vocational colleges’. 26.3 percent of them suggested that ‘the government establish the educational institutions in the rural areas’. 48.2 41 34. about one-fourth i.7 percent of them told that we reduced the unemployment rate ‘To reduce the domestic violence in the society’..

8%) Medium 9 2 11 %age (7. lower will be the prevailing of female’s unemployment Table38: Association between cultural environment of the respondents and prevailing of female’s unemployment in D. Bivariate analysis was used to find out association of socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and their effect on unemployment among rural women. It is explained in other words.2%) High 28 2 30 %age (23. the variation which is explained by one variable is pattern in such a manner that its variance is not randomly distributed in connection with the other variable.7%) (25%) Freq 116 4 120 Total %age (96.4%) (100%) 56 .6%) (3.3%) (1.5%) (1. TESTING OF HYPOTHESES Hypothesis 1:Higher the rigid cultural environment of the respondent.4.7%) (9.2: Part-B (Bi-variate analysis) Bivariate analysis is applied to see the relationship/ association between the two variables. Khan prevailing of females unemployment Cultural environment Low Low Medium Total 79 0 79 %age (65. G.8%) (0%) (65.

7%) (0.045* Gamma=0.5%) (100%) Chi-square=9. Gamma value show strong association between prevailing of female’s unemployment in Dera Ghazi khan and exclusion from cultural environment. Lacks of job opportunities Low Low Medium High Total 96 1 2 99 %age (80%) (0.004** Gamma=0. So our null hypothesis is accepted. lower will be the suicidal activities of the respondents Table39: Association between increase suicidal activities of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.Chi-square=11.8%) (1.5%) (2.8%) (12.765 d.7%) (82.713 *= Significant Chi-square value shows the significant association between cultural environment and the unemployment.f=2 significance=0.f=4 significance=0.285 d. Hypothesis 2: Higher will be the prevailing of female’s unemployment.682 *= Significant 57 .4%) Suicidal activities Medium 6 0 0 6 % age (5%) (0%) (0%) (5%) High 12 2 1 15 % age (10%) (1.5%) Freq 114 3 3 120 Total % age (95%) (2.

Hypothesis 3: Higher will be the prevailing of female’s unemployment.157 NS = Non.square value show the significant association between health dangerously affects of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.f=2 significance=0.5%) (1. Gamma value strong association between suicidal activities and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhance the rate of unemployment.158NS Gamma=0. Health dangerously affects Low Medium High Total lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment Low 107 3 2 112 % age (89.7%) (93.694 d.5%) (100%) Chi-square=3.5%) (2.9%) (2.8%) (6.7%) (0%) (0.square value show the significant association between increase suicidal activities of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.2%) (2. lower will be the dangerously affects the health of the respondents Table40: Association between health dangerously affects of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.Significant Chi.4%) High 7 0 1 8 % age (5.6%) Freq 114 3 3 120 Total %age (94. 58 . so our null hypothesis is accepted.Chi.

2%) Medium 2 0 0 2 %age (1.square value show the significant association between domestic violence of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.5%) (1.5%) (2.7%) (94.151NS Gamma=0.Significant Chi. Hypothesis 4: Higher will be the lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.3%) (0%) (0.1%) Freq 114 3 3 120 Total %age (95%) (2.Gamma value weak association between lack of job opportunities for rural women enhance the rate of unemployment and health dangerously affects. lower will be the domestic violence of the respondents Table41: Association between domestic violence of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment domestic violence Low Medium High Total lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment Low 108 3 2 113 %age (90%) (2.729 d.7%) High 4 0 1 5 %age (3.8%) (4.508 NS = Non.5%) (100%) Chi-square=6. so our null hypothesis is rejected.7%) (0%) (0%) (1. Gamma value 59 .f=4 significance=0.

f=4 significance=0.8%) (0.4%) (100%) Chi-square=44.2%) (0.832 **= Highly-Significant Chi.8%) (0.8%) (1.square value show the significant association between Community ceremonial activities of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of 60 .502 d. Hypothesis 5: Higher will be the lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.7%) High 5 1 0 0 %age (4.weak association between lack of job opportunities for rural women enhance the rate of unemployment and domestic violence. lower will be the community Ceremonial Activities of the respondents Table42: Association between Community ceremonial activities of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment Community ceremonial activities Low Medium High Total lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment Low 109 1 2 112 %age (90.4%) (2.8%) (0%) (0%) Freq 114 3 3 120 Total %age (95%) (2.000** Gamma=0.7%) (94.1%) Medium 0 1 1 2 %age (0%) (0.8%) (1. so our null hypothesis is rejected.

767 **= Highly-Significant Chi.5%) (2.square value show the significant association between social crime of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment. so our null hypothesis is accepted. lower will be the social crime of the respondents. 61 . so our null hypothesis is accepted.5%) (0%) (3. Gamma value strong association between lack of job opportunities for rural women enhance the rate of unemployment and social crime.unemployment.7%) High 3 3 0 4 %age (2.5%) (2. Gamma value strong association between lack of job opportunities for rural women enhance the rate of unemployment and community ceremonial activities.7%) (96.3%) Freq 114 3 3 120 Total %age (95.013* Gamma=0.5%) (1.5%) (2.657 d. Hypothesis 6: Higher will be the lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.5%) (100%) Low Medium High Total 111 3 2 116 Chi-square=8.5%) (2.f=2 significance=0. Table43: Association between social crime of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment Social crime lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment Low %age (92.

Hypothesis 7: Higher will be the lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.7%) (0.5%) (2.5%) (58.2%) (0%) (0%) (29.Significant Chi.7%) (2.2%) Freq 114 3 3 120 Total %age (95%) (2. so our null hypothesis is rejected.626 NS = Non.226 d. 62 .3%) Medium 14 1 0 15 %age (11.square value show the significant association between Involved in robbery of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment.f=4 significance=0.376NS Gamma=-0. Table44: Association between Involved in robbery of the respondent and lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment lack of job opportunities for rural women enhances the rate of unemployment Low 65 2 3 70 %age (54. Gamma value weak association between lack of job opportunities for rural women enhance the rate of unemployment and Involved in robbery.8%) (0%) (12.5%) High 35 0 0 35 %age (29.5%) (100%) Involved in robbery Low Medium High Total Chi-square=4.1%) (1. lower will be the involved in robbery of the respondents.

837 d.Hypothesis 8: Higher will be the physical weakness of the respondent.3%) (0. G. so our null hypothesis is rejected.f=2 significance=0.1%) 116 4 120 (96.6%) (55%) Chi-square=2.3%) (99.056 NS = Non.8%) (39.0%) 1 7 (0. lower will be the prevailing of female’s unemployment Table45: Association between physical weakness of the respondents and female’s unemployment in D. Khan. G. Physical weakness Low 64 %age (53. Gamma value shows weak association between the respondents and prevailing of female’s unemployment and physical weakness.Significant Chi-square value shows significant association between the increase physical weakness of the respondents and prevailing unemployment of females in D.8%) High 46 1 47 %age Freq Total %age prevailing of females unemployment Low Medium Total (38.8%) (5. Khan. 63 .6%) (3.3%) Medium %age (5.9%) 2 66 (1.242NS Gamma=-0.

customs and traditions. Pakistani women face a number of challenges when seeking work in specific economic sectors. Tradition of late marriages and migration to other country for jobs are also affecting factors for unemployment in Pakistani society. From the few past years. This fear is imposed by the traditional beliefs of male dominated society. Attitude towards women independence has a significant importance in social life but it do not play important role in explaining the employment rate of the women. Pakistanis have wrong interpretation of Islamic teaching about female regarding their rights and duties and this wrong interpretation presents women as needing for protection which lead to their ultimate physical. unemployment among rural women in developing countries is very serious problem. The job opportunities available to them only in the informal sector intensify women’s exploitation. They also face difficulties finding work that is not vulnerable employment and has decent working conditions. 64 . It is caused not only because of poor economic condition of the country but is also a result of the present culture of nepotism for employment in Pakistan. The status of women in Pakistan is not homogenous because of the interconnection of gender with other forms of exclusion in the society. Women of Pakistan are structured by harsh religious. and standard labor legislation or legal protective measures do not cover their vulnerability.CHAPTER-V Summary and Conclusion Unemployment is one of the developmental problems that face every developing economy in the 21st century. so women are also facing different types of problems in their life because of male dominated thought. Females are more unemployed as compared to males. They live in an atmosphere of fear and their lives are guaranteed in exchange for obedience to social norms. The status of women is as second-class citizen which is reinforced by the narrow vocational opportunities available to them. mental and emotional oppression. values. Cultural attitudes towards gender play important role for employment in developed countries. family and tribal customs. The empowerment of women is highly important for human development as international community has been constantly stressing upon women’s participation in different spheres of life. Women’s lower employment and lower participation rate in labour force is the outcome of their limited access to education as compare to male.

8%) had 6-10 total family members.2%) as compare to male in rural areas. 6) Majority of the respondents (52.5%) live in nuclear family system 7) Mostly respondents (60. 15) More than half women have lack of job opportunities (54.7%) belong to age group 16-20 years 2) Mostly respondents( 42.Major Findings: 1) Majority of the respondents (36. Khan as a mother cause of unemployment. G. 8) A huge majority (83. 10) A huge majority of the respondents (85%) agreed women should do job for economic support to their family.5 %) were illiterate 3) Majority of the respondents (67.8%) were agreed with the reason that female needs more security which is a cause of lack of job opportunities for them.8%) declared ‘physical weakness’ as a cause of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to male in rural areas 13) About a half (49. 65 .3%) respondents reported female unemployment in D.3 %) pinioned that women have lack of job opportunities as compare to male in rural areas.5%) declared lack of job opportunities for rural women in D.5%) were married 4) Respondents who were married were in majority who had 5-6 children 5) Majority (29%) of the respondents’ husbands were laborer. 11) A significant majority (83. 12) Half of respondents (50. Khan. 14) A two third of the respondents (75. 9) A prominent proportion of the respondent (82.G.2%) of the respondents said that ‘more emotional’ is a cause of lack of job opportunities for females.

5%) of respondents declared that lack of professional education is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas.0%) opinioned that the curse of favoritism/ nepotism promotes the rate of unemployment among women. 24) A reasonable majority of respondents (65%) said that “the lack of job opportunities is one of the causes of brain drain.0%) of the respondents were agreed unemployment harmfully hit the self-respect of women.8%) declared that the ever increasing of population enhances the rate of unemployment among women.2%) of respondents declared that ‘informal education’ as a real cause of spreading unemployment. 21) A large majority (85.7%) of the respondents opinioned that the family treats unemployed person her harshly opportunity.e.0%) declared cultural environment is a cause of lack of job opportunities for females as compare to male in rural areas.0%) of respondents said that lack of technical education is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas. 25) A huge majority (85. 18) A huge majority of the respondents (85.. 20) A vast majority (88. 66 .16) Most of the respondents (60.3%) of respondents opinioned that lack of skill education is a real cause of spreading unemployment in rural areas. 17) A good majority (60. (81. 26) A vast majority i. 22) A significant majority (72. 27) A good majority of the respondents (61.5%) said that lack of information technology in rural areas spreading unemployment.7%) said that unemployment in women increases the rate of poverty in society. 23) A large majority (82. 19) A huge majority (84.

38) Majority of the respondents (65%) opinioned that unemployed youth involved in robbery/fraud. 31) A huge majority (85.5%) were agreed that unemployed youth create social crime.0%) of the respondents opinioned that unemployment among rural women leads to suicidal activities 29) A majority (60.28) A significant majority (80. 36) A huge majority (83. 30) A major proportion (56.0%) of the respondents said that unemployed women cannot properly attend the community ceremonial activities. 39) A major proportion of the respondents (48.3%) of the respondents said that unemployment losses the social relations. Suggestion: 67 .8%) of the respondents opinioned that unemployment badly affected their personality.3%) said that their leisure time in using mobile. 37) Majority of the respondents (57. 33) A large majority (74.2%) respondent opinioned that friends avoid to meet unemployed persons.8%) of the respondents declared unemployment as the mother cause of disappointment of future.0%) of the respondents said that unemployment dangerously affects the health of unemployed person. 32) A vast majority (85.7%) of respondents declared that unemployment among rural women leads to words domestic violence among family members.3%) of the respondents were agreed that unemployed persons are socially excluded from decision making and social gathering. 34) A significant majority (78. 35) A vast majority (80.

3) Women of rural areas should establish their own domestic level business to reduce the unemployment rate in D. 6) Female’s handicrafts should promote as economic\income generating activity by early access to market. Conclusion: A major problem that Pakistan faces is the growing level of unemployment among educated youth. Khan. 7) Home and small industries should be encouraged by the Government.On the basis of present study. G. Such as to control the early marriages and to control the birth rate. 2) Government should open both formal and informal training centers in rural areas give girls knowledge. 1) Government should make economic opportunities for females in rural areas by enhancing female’s jobs quota at school level. 9) Programs should be started for the awareness about family planning for common people because over population is contributed a lot in increasing the rate of unemployment. skill and hope for a bright future. The state of gender related issues in developing countries 68 . 4) Vocational colleges should establish to enhance skills in women to reduce unemployment at union council level Government should provide market opportunities to sale their products such as handicrafts. 5) Institution should establish where women generate their income such as vocational institution. teaching. For this purpose Government should provide interest free loan facility to females for their own business. 8) Government give more job opportunities. In this way young women to delay marriage and childbearing to a time that is healthier and more economically secure for them and their babies. There are many cultural barriers and traditional restrictions for women regarding employment in rural areas of Pakistan. nursing and free pick and drop facility should be provided to educated females. some important suggestions are made for possible limitations.

the dream of development could not be unleashed.is over deplorable. 69 . In rural areas they have to face many cultural barriers and religious rigidity that restrict them to participate in economic activities and job search so. It is now globally admitted that without active participation of women in economic developmental strategy. The situation is even worse in certain remote and deprived areas. G. Khan has lack of basic social and industrial infrastructure that restricts the economic activity because females are culturally socially are depressed from some basic niceties of life like better education social empowerment and free mobility in society as well as lack of job opportunities. Lower ratio of women participation in workforce is a vital factor determining the level of employment among women. there bound to live with in the four walls of house so they do not participate in income generating activities outside the house. The rural area of D.

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