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The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 E.

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PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGES IN JAPAN: TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS
Hiroshi Mutsuyoshi- Dr.E., Professor, Ha Minh- Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Saitama University, Japan

In Japan, a number of innovative technologies have been developed to increase not only the structural performance but also the long-term durability of PC bridges. These include the development of novel structural system (external prestressing, highly eccentric external tendons and extradosed prestressing) and the advancement in construction materials (pregrouted prestressing tendon, ultra high strength concrete and corrugated steel web). This paper presents an overview of such innovative technologies of PC bridges including a brief detail of their development and background as well as their applications in actual construction projects. In addition, some noteworthy structures, which represent the state-of-the-art technologies in the construction of PC bridges in Japan are also presented.
ABSTRACT: KEYWORDS:

prestressed concrete bridges, external prestressing, extradosed bridge, corrugated steel web, pre-grouted prestressing tendon

1. PC BRIDGES WITH HIGHY ECCENTRIC EXTERNAL TENDONS Although externally prestressed PC bridges are well recognized to have several advantages, however, they have lower flexural strength compared to that of bridges with internally bonded tendons. This is due to the smaller tendon eccentricity, which is limited by the bounds of concrete section of girder (i.e., at the bottom slab in case of box-girder bridges) as well as the reduction in tendon eccentricity at the ultimate flexural failure (so-called second-order effect). One possible method of enhancing the flexural strength of externally PC structures is to make the tendons highly eccentricity (Fig. 1). This kind of construction is possible only when external prestressing is used, since this allows the tendons to be placed outside the concrete section of girder. In this concept, the compressive forces are taken by concrete and the tensile forces by external tendons, thus taking advantages of both materials effectively. There has been extensive research conducted at Saitama University both analytically and experimentally to study the fundamental behavior of girders with highly eccentric external tendons [3, 4]. From the test results of single-span beams (Fig. 2), it was found that by increasing tendon eccentricity, the flexural strength can be significantly improved or, conversely, the amount of prestressing reduced; the result is more

(a) Ordinary external tendon

(b) Highly eccentric external tendon Figure 1. Ordinary vs. highly eccentric external tendon Figure 2. Loading test of single span girder with highly eccentric external tendons

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the bridge was designed with a two-span continuous and unsymmetrical girder having a total length of 57 m as shown in Fig. from the experiment on shear Figure 3.0 m at the central pier.0 m at the abutments to 6. One of the concerns raised for this type of structure was the shear capacity as the girder height is considerably reduced. the girders consisting of linearly transformed tendon profile were found to have the same overall flexural behavior (Fig. The effective width of the bridge varies from 3. In addition. 4. Considering the site conditions. the behavior of segmental girders with highly eccentric external tendons was also investigated and found to be nearly the same as that of monolithically cast girders. It was verified. By extending the concept of highly eccentric external tendons to continuous girders. this gives considerable flexibility in selecting the method of construction when designing the bridges with highly eccentric external tendons. depending on the site conditions. Layout diagram and dimension of the Boukei Bridge Fig. 5 Completed view of the Boukei Bridge Fig. however. Japan. To verify the application of this concept to the segmental construction method. Linear transformation of tendon layout characteristic of model specimens that the shear capacity of the girder with highly eccentric external tendons is much higher than that of the conventional girders due to the large increase of tensile force in external tendons. Figure 4. 6 Schematic view of layout of external tendon Application of highly eccentric external tendons The world’s first application of the prestressing with highly eccentric external tendon to a continuous-span girder was in the construction of the Boukei Bridge in Hokkaido. 3). This gives the designer to take advantage of arranging the external tendon layout freely. A completed view of the 1262 . the structural performance can be further improved. Hence.The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 economical structures.

is a new type of structural system in which the tendons are installed outside and above the main girder and deviated by short towers located at supports. this type of bridge is placed between cable-stayed bridges and ordinary girder bridges with internal or external tendons. it is placed above the bridge deck and covered with a fin-shaped concrete web member.5 (0. On the other hand. extradosed and cable-stayed bridges can be further revealed by comparing the relationship between materials used with span lengths. and the rate of increase is also thought to be midway between the rates of the other two types of bridges. Because of a lower main tower in extradosed bridges. L H T h T T H θ h T T H T θ Tsinθ Tsinθ Tcosθ Tcosθ H/L ≈ 1/15 ∼ 1/17 h = L/5 H = 2. the height of the main tower in extradosed bridges is lower. This allowed the girder height to be reduced significantly.5 m h ≈ L/15 H/L ≈ 1/15 ∼ 1/35 External prestressing Cable-stayed bridge Extradosed prestressing Figure 7.4 fpu). regardless of the span length. there is almost no increase in the average depth of concrete because the girder height is generally designed to be 2. Comparison among externally box-girder.The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 bridge is shown in Fig. 6. It is interesting to note that extradosed bridges are placed between these two types. The major difference among box-girder. vertical loads are partly resisted by main girders and stress variations in stay cables produced by live loads are smaller than those in cablestayed bridges. Extradosed PC bridges have several positive characteristics. a reduction in labor costs of construction can be achieved. For cable-stayed bridges.5 m.0 ∼ 2. 5. EXTRADOSED PC BRIDGES An extradosed prestressing concept. which is same as that for tendons in ordinary girder bridges. which was first proposed by Mathivat in France [5]. The external tendons are placed below the girder in the mid-span region by means of steel struts. hence. thus reducing self-weight of structures. in cable-stayed bridges. At the intermediate support region. while it is approximately 1/15~1/17 for box-girder bridges. the average concrete thickness increases with the span length. and the steel deviators as diagonal members. Comparing to cable-stayed bridges. the function of which is similar to a truss. the external tendons as tension chords. Considering its definition. the Japan Road Association has recommended that the safety factor for the stayed cables in extradosed bridges under design loads shall be taken as 1. thus making the bridge lightweight. The structure was designed to form a pseudo truss. The girder height may be lower than that of ordinary girder bridges. with the main girder made of concrete as compression chords. extradosed and cable-stayed PC bridges 1263 . the ratio of the girder height to the span length (H/L) in extradosed bridges ranges between 1/15 and 1/35.67 (0. 2. This is quite similar to the behavior of box-girder bridges. 7. where the main girder itself has a decisive influence on the structure rigidity and live loads produce only limited stress variations in tendons.6 fpu : fpu = tensile strength of tendons). this value is specified to be 2. As shown in Fig. since the girder height is a function of the span length. In box-girder bridges. The combination of the subtended tendons and the fin-shaped concrete web makes this bridge a unique one with aesthetically pleasing appearance. Based on these facts. The characteristic of this innovative bridge is that the external tendon layout takes the similar shape of the bending moment diagram as shown in Fig.0~2.

a great number of PC bridges using extradosed prestressing are being constructed in Japan. giving the ratios of h/L and H/L of 1/7. thus enabling efficient prestressing of top and bottom concrete deck slabs. Application of extradosed prestressing Figure 8.5 m. this 1264 . the quantity of prestressing tendons in box-girder bridges shows a more increase than that in cable-stayed bridges. it can be concluded that an extradosed bridge is similar in construction and appearance to a cable-stayed bridge. CORRUGATED STEEL WEB BRIDGES In PC bridges with corrugated steel webs. From both aesthetic and economic viewpoints. the corrugated webs also provide high shear buckling resistance.5 m. 3 crossing the class-1 Shonai River in western Nagoya. a tower height (h) of 16. the bridge was designed with a three-span continuous rigid-frame structure with extradosed prestressing. 10 Ginzanmiyuki Bridge with corrugated web using atmospheric corrosion resisting steel 3. 8 shows the prospective view of the Shin-Meisei bridge on Nagoya Expressway No. Therefore. and the design specifications may be considered to be the same for both types of bridges. however. Use of light-weight corrugated steel plates for webs causes a reduction of self weight of about 25% of main girders. and combined structures with steel girders. such as corrugated steel web.4 and 1/35. 9). precast segmental construction.The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 Similarly. Shin Meisei Bridge (prospective view) (3-span continuous extradosed PC bridge) Nowadays. and a girder height at supports (H) of 3. which is to become a landmark of Nagoya's western threshold. Attempts are also being made to apply this structural concept to other innovated technologies. Fig. respectively Upper concrete slab Corrugated steel web Corrugated steel web Lower concrete slab External tendons Fig. thus resulting in an “accordion effect” (Fig. From the above discussion. 9 Typical section of PC bridge with corrugated web Fig. The length of the middle span (L) is 122 m. light-weight corrugated steel plates are used instead of concrete webs. In the light of structural properties. an extradosed bridge is closed to ordinary PC girder bridges. with increasing span length. The corrugated steel plate webs are capable of withstanding shear forces without absorbing unwanted axial stresses due to prestressing. whereas extradosed bridges yield the intermediate value between the other two types. Moreover.

Special attention should. When pregrouted prestressing strands are used for main tendon. In addition to the rigid or box girder bridges. be given to design for the arrangement of pre-grouted prestressing tendons and detailing of anchorage. DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE MATERIALS FOR PC BRIDGES Many researches have been carried out recently for the development of new construction materials to enhance the performance and long-term durability of the PC bridges. This also eliminates assembly of reinforcement. complete grouting is ensured in this technique. the concept of corrugated steel web was also successfully adopted in the constructions of extradosed and cable-stayed PC bridges. should be anchored in limited anchorage spacing. The weight of a segment to be cantilevered during erection can also be reduced. Time of hardening is set for the epoxy resin filled in the polyethylene protective sheath so that post-tensioning process can be completed before hardening or the epoxy resin. Sheath and epoxy resin also provide double layer corrosion proection to the prestressing tendons. thus. and it naturally hardens with time after the completion of tensioning of prestressing steel and bonds with concrete to form an integrated object. This technique also ensures stronger bond with concrete than conventional cement grouting technique. therefore. Thus. pre-grouted internal tendons and ultra high strength concrete are explained with brief overview on their applications in actual PC bridge projects. Pre-grouted prestressing tendon Pre-grouted prestressing tendon was first developed in 1987.The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 enables the use of longer spans and reduction of construction cost. Management issues include the identification of the time of hardening of resin and of the coefficient of friction 1265 . Figure 11 Pre-grouted prestressing tendons 4. It is made by coating prestressing strands with unhardened epoxy resin and a polyethylene protective tube (Fig. quality enhancement and improvement of durability are expected. 10). saving of construction manpower. In this paper. Application to main steel has just started in view of the above benefits. cable arrangement and concrete placement for concrete webs. Moreover. smaller diameter of sheath makes concrete placement relatively easier and provide higher efficiency in prestressing can be achieved as polyethylene sheath and unhardened resin reduce the friction during prestressing. The resin has viscosity like grease before hardening. 11) and is embedded directly into concrete with the polyethylene protective tube as a tendon for posttensioning. application of transparent sheath. thus longer erection segments can be adopted and construction period can be shortened. In addition. construction work can be saved as neither in-situ insertion of prestressing tendonds nor grouting process is required. Furthermore. Application of corrugated steel web Recently. the use of corrugated steel web has been applied to a variety of new constructions of PC bridges in Japan (Fig. more prestressing strands are required than when conventional multiple strands are used. Numerous prestressing strands. replacing the damaged deck slabs is easier than that in ordinary PC bridges. As the grout is injected into the polyethylene sheath. Pre-grouted prestressing steel was generally applied only to transverse prestressing of deck slabs or other work.

the use of UHSC has a good potential in the construction of large structures. Conventional method of reducing autogenous shrinkage is to use expansion-producing admixture and shrinkage-reducing agents. This problem has been overcome by the development of new type of artificial light weight aggregate called as “J-Lite” (Fig. 12). Hence. cause the increase in autogenous shrinkage which will lead to decrease in effective prestressing force and cracking due to restraining caused by the reinforcing steel.The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 because the resin hardens at various times according to the temperature during construction and the maximum temperature of placed concrete and because the coefficient of friction during tensioning of prestressing strand varies depending on the degree of hardening of the resin (Fig. Low shrinkage ultra high strength concrete termed as “Power Crete” with compressive strength as high as 120N/mm2. The lower water/binder ratio in UHSC may. As strength development in low-shrinkage ultra high strength concrete is independent of the curing condition. 1266 . J-lite is made from environment-friendly coal ash and is twice as strong as conventional light weight aggregate. The chief advantage of using UHSC is the possibility of achieving higher prestressing force compared to the normal concrete which will lead to smaller crosssection and reduction in the over all weight of the structure. however. 7] One of the recent developments in prestressed concrete technology is the use of ultra high strength concrete (UHSC). Innovated prestressing tendons system 5. these materials are expensive. 13). However. ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE IN PC BRIDGES [6. Figure 12. has been developed with the use of J-lite together with expansion-producing admixtures and shrinkagereducing agents. it can be used for cast-in-place applications as well.

Furthermore. Pedisterian bridge constructed with UHSC in Akihabara . The application of innovative construction materials can significantly enhance the long-term durability of externally PC bridges. Tokyo was constructed using low-shrinkage ultra high strength concrete with design compressive strength of 120 N/mm2. On the other hand. have proved to be one of promising solutions that can reduce the self-weight of main girders.0m. new light weight aggregate termed as “J-lite” can be used to produce low-shrinkage ultra high strength concrete which can achieve higher prestressing force compared to the normal concrete. external prestressing with highly eccentric tendons and extradosed prestressing are excellent examples of a wider use of external prestressing technology to achieve a PC bridge with improved structural performance as well as cost-effective outlook. external cable deviators and cross beams on piers were cast in place. thereby enabling the use of longer spans and reduction of construction cost. Pregrouted prestressing tendons which are made of prestressing strand coated with unhardened epoxy resin and polyethylene tube and embedded directly into concrete can provide better protection to the tendonds and enhance the performance of the prestressing tendons. The corrugated steel webs. aesthetic and economical aspects. 6. Considering the development of new construction materials. J-lite Application of UHSC The two-span continuous girder pedestrian bridge in Akihabara. many researches are in progress to develop fiber composite as prestressing 1267 Figure 14. External prestressing technique was used in this bridge and the struts were installed to increase the rigidity. CONCLUSIONS Recent techniques in design and construction of PC bridges in Japan were presented in this paper. Not only to improve the structural properties in terms of safety. which is becoming one of the serious problems in concrete structures nowadays. The total span of the bridge is 170m and the effective width is 8. which take advantages of steel and concrete. the applications of pre-grouted internal tendons and use of low-shrinkage ultra high strength concrete were discussed.The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 Figure 13. In light of new structural systems. The webs were fabricated in plant and transported to the site whereas the slab. The innovated technologies can be mainly divided into two categories: novel structural systems and new construction materials. such innovated technologies were developed to enhance the long-term durability. with emphasis on their background and development as well as their applications in actual structures. A completed view of the bridge is shown in Figure 14.

. Structural analysis of Torisaki River Park Bridge – An innovative PC bridge with large eccentric external tendons. These issues need further investivations. 1999:21:321-326. of 11th Symposium on Development in Prestressed Concrete.. Aravinthan.. H. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to acknowledge the following organizations: Japan Highway Public Corporation. T. REFERENCES 1 Investigation on Life Cycle Cost of Concrete Bridges. Proceedings of a workshop held at Ghent University. implementation of fiber composites in prestressing is limited due to some shortcomings such as relaxation. Moreover.. T.. Kajima Co..The 3rd ACF International Conference-ACF/VCA 2008 materials which are more durable compared to conventional prestressing tendons. M. Hamada. Feb. Low-Autogenous-Shrinkage Ultra-High-Strength Concrete... 2004.. 2004. J. Kajima Technical Research Institute.. 2001:59-54.. Recent Development in Prestressed Concrete Bridges. .. pp. fib Bulletin 15: Durability of post-tensioning tendons. Experimental Investigation on the Flexural Behavior of Two Span Continuous Beams with Large Eccentricities. 15-21. Y. use of external post-tensioning for shear strengthing of reinforced concrete beams are also being investigated recently. Proc. Ltd. Mutsuyoshi. However. 1988. 2001:3811.. Matsui. FIP Note. Kajima Technical Research Institute. T. Sumitomo-Mitsui Construction Co. November 2001:75-88.. Akihabara Public Deck. and Oriental Construction Co. & Shinozaki. Mutsuyoshi. Aravinthan. Kajima Co. Technical Memorandum of Public Works Research Institute. 2 3 4 5 6 7 1268 . Hamada. for providing information to use in this paper. Transactions of JCI. and Watanabe. Y. Mathivat. H..Investigation of Deterioration and Maintenance Cost of Concrete Bridges. Present Situation of Durability of Post-Tensioned PC Bridges in Japan. Ltd. H.