RANT Dropped and Blocked Calls Classification Summary ([Only registered and activated users can see links

and Download Documents ] [Only registered and activated users can see links and Download Documents ] MTN South Africa) 1 Introduction 2 2 Dropped Calls Classification 3 2.1 Missing Neighbours 3 2.2 Poor Coverage 4 2.3 Bad Radio Environment 5 2.4 Congestion 6 2.5 Not Radio 7 2.6 Equipment Fault 8 3 Blocked Calls Classification 9 3.1 Missing Neighbour 10 3.2 Poor RF (Bad Coverage and Radio Environment) 11 3.3 Equipment Fault (UE) 12 3.3.1 Security and Authentication Mode Failure 12 3.3.2 UE Freeze 13 3.4 Not Radio 14 3.4.1 Disconnect on RAB Setup 14 3.4.2 Resources Unavailable (Congestion) 15 3.4.3 UE Sensitivity Fault 16 3.5 Abnormal blocked calls 17 3.5.1 Unclassified - Unanswered RRC requests 17 3.5.2 Faulty Block Recording - Barred [Only registered and activated users can see links and Download Documents ] 18 3.5.3 Call Initialisation during L.U. signalling 19 1 Introduction This document describes some of the typical dropped/blocked call classifications encountered during several RAN Tuning Projects for [Only registered and activated users can see links and Download Documents ] networks. The purpose of the document is for RAN Consultants to understand some of the problems to make the UE analysis and classification easier. The analysis has been based on limited data (for example no [Only registered and activated users can see links and Download Documents ] data or data based on similar tool, no usage of RBS and RNC tracers) and for this result there could be a deviation in the results. Some of these classifications are only a guideline and should be viewed merely as documenting the typical problem until the correct reason behind the dropped call is established. All these dropped/blocked calls categories are adapted to the radio environment ev [Only registered and activated users can see links and Download Documents ]ation thresholds set up for the MTN 3G RAN Tuning project in the post-processing tool [Only registered and activated users can see links and Download Documents ] Deskcat 5.6. In the table below are listed the main causes that must be considered during the analysis, with the explanation for each cause. CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA Poor Coverage The Drop occurs in regions where conditions[Only registered and activated users can see links and Download Documents ] RSCP and/or[Only registered and activated users can see links and Download Documents ] Ec/No are

2. In this case Pilot Pollution situations are included as well (3 cells in AS and more than 1 strong SCs is interfering the connection within a range of 5 dB . The release cause is classified as unspecified. 2 Dropped Calls Classification The main cases and dropped call causes are listed below. Bad Radio Environment Every drop that occurs when Best Server is Missing (Mostly in good CPICH RSCP conditions). The scanner also reports poor radio conditions for the same SC at the same instant i. wrong parameter settings that can affect accessibility/SHOs in the cell). The cell 62096 act as an increasing interferer until eventually the call is released.Ec/No basis evaluation). 2. The network sends an RRC Connection Release when the RBS reaches the maximum available Power in DL. In the table below an example is shown.3 Bad Radio Environment Every drop that occurs when Best Server is Missing (Mostly in good CPICH RSCP conditions). In this case Pilot Pollution situations are included as well (3 cells in AS and more than 1 strong SCs is interfering the connection within a range of 5 dB . as the two cells are not defined neighbours. the logging equipment is working properly and the RRC connection release cause (marked usually as "Unspecified") could be attributed to a RBS/Network fault. This can be seen in the Serving/Active Set window in TEMS. Not Radio Every drop that occurs when the radio conditions are good. The best server RSCP=-127dBm and Ec/No=-32dB.measured in critical v[Only registered and activated users can see links and Download Documents ]es not suitable for a proper connection. During the call sector 62096 (SC = 293) becomes the strongest sector but is not added to the active set. (including UL UE power going to maximum even if the CPICH RSCP is measured at good values.1 Missing Neighbours Every drop that occurs when there are poor RSCP and/or Ec/No levels/quality on the Best Server/AS.2 Poor Coverage The Drop occurs in regions where conditions CPICH RSCP and/or CPICH Ec/No are measured in critical values not suitable for a proper connection. Equipment Fault Every drop that occurs when [Only registered and activated users can see links and Download Documents ]Investigation/UE are Blocking or Freezing and/or SW is crashing.e. crossed UL-DL feeders. with the contemporary possibility for the UE to perform a SHO on a better cell that is not declared as a Neighbour for the AS cells themselves.69dB. Problem Description: In this case the RF environment as reported by the UE is very poor before the call is dropped. Missing Neighbours Every drop that occurs when there are poor RSCP and/or Ec/No levels/quality on the Best Server/AS. The UE then goes into idle mode. so that it's not possible to maintain the connection. The UE active set update cannot follow the quick coverage changes. The UE active set update cannot follow the quick coverage changes. Congestion Every drop that occurs when there are no more available radio resources for the connection.97dBm and Ec/Io = -10.Ec/No basis evaluation). Problem Description: The Active Set best server is cell 61888 (SC = 205). 2. . An example of dropped call for missing neighbour problem is shown in figure below. The last message sent is the UL Active Set Complete message sent by the UE. RSCP = 11. crossed feeders causing false missing neighbours. with the contemporary possibility for the UE to perform a SHO on a better cell that is not declared as a Neighbour for the AS cells themselves.

(including UL UE power going to maximum even if the CPICH RSCP is measured at good values. An example of UE freezing dropped call is shown in figure below. The radio resource unavailability pops up suddenly after a certain number of fast SHOs. and all MN (SCs 304. The network sends an RRC Connection Release when the RBS reaches the maximum available Power in DL. Problem description: In the example the network sends a DL Measurement Control message and then the UE freezes. doesn’t show the event on the chart. crossed feeders causing false missing neighbours. RSCP =-93. as a poor coverage drop since the scanner indicates the radio conditions should be ok to maintain the call.Problem Description: The Active Set best servers are cells with SCs 49 and 303. 2. Although the drop is as a result of low RSCP as measured by the UE it should not be classified. During the call UE is performing a continuous number of SHOs. as shown in figure below. Problem Description: The radio environment as reported by the UE is very poor just before the call dropped i.72dBm and Ec/Io = -5.4 Congestion Every drop that occurs when there are no more available radio resources for the connection.e. and an “RRC Connection Release” message from the network comes to interrupt the call. 179 and 180) are close to them on a RSCP basis (from –70dBm to –79 dBm). 2. so it’s advisable to check the Events and Layer 3 messages: In the L3 table the RRC Connection Release DL corresponds (into the Event table) to an RRC Connection Abnormal Release with the specification “Unspecified”. Best server RSCP=-127dBm and Ec/No=-27dB. and the Layer 3 messages sequence is regular. 2. The scanner reports much better radio conditions for the same SC at the same instant i. wrong parameter settings that can affect accessibility/SHOs in the cell). Sometimes the TEMS Inv.e. 3 Blocked Calls Classification The main cases and blocked call causes are listed below. crossed UL-DL feeders. the Radio Environment is not suitable for a good connection and therefore the dropped call occurs. An example is shown in figure below. So. In this situation the cases of Blocked Calls are pretty equal to the corresponding ones in the dropped calls list. and there is a Best Server cell (SC 352) with two more cells that are carrying the service. There are no further massages sent between the network and the UE. affecting both the service continuity and the quality of the connection (low values of Ec/No on each cell). In the corresponding DL Layer 3 message “RRC Connection Release” when the drop happens.6 Equipment Fault Every drop that occurs when TEMS Investigation/UE are Blocking or Freezing and/or SW is crashing. the logging equipment is working properly and the RRC connection release cause (marked usually as "Unspecified") could be attributed to a RBS/Network fault. The RF environment was good at the time of the drop as can be seen from the scanner information i. RSCP =-82.66dB. the release cause is clearly marked as “Congestion”. so that it's not possible to maintain the connection. In the TEMS L3 messages window details the release cause is clearly marked as “Congestion”. Also the MN set is good. This case also includes the “UE Sensitivity” drop.5 Not Radio Every drop that occurs when the radio conditions are good.57dBm and Ec/Io = -8.44dB.e. It’s advisable to consider that it is intended as “blocked call” a connection interrupted for the . Problem Description: In this case the radio environment doesn’t show any critical issue: the AS is full. like in this case.

This can be seen in the Layer 3 messages window below. The RF environment was good at the time of the drop as can be seen from the scanner information i.3. During the set up sector 48007 (SC = 451) becomes the strongest sector but is not added to the active set as the two cells are not defined neighbours.e. 3. 3. which is set to 6 seconds. the classification for the blocked calls is different for the dropped calls’ one.2 Resources Unavailable (Congestion) Problem description: In this example the network sends a Disconnect message with the . after the “DL Call Proceeding” message the network sends a Disconnect message. In the example the UE sends a UL Active Set Update Complete message and then the UE freezes. which is indicated by the Call initialisation event in TEMS Investigation.e.e.17dBm and Ec/Io = 11. This case can include both DC Config Failure and RAB setup failure.same problems shown in section 2 (with some obvious exceptions shown in the following paragraphs) and according the Classification Criteria table shown in section 1. The call is then released. 3. This can be seen in the Serving/Active Set window in TEMS. It’s crucial to consider that the blocked call event always happens during the call setup phase.2 UE Freeze Problem description: This type of dropped call classification is caused by the UE “freezing” which can be seen in figure below. The call is being set up on cell 49046 (SC = 387). unspecified as shown in L3 message details window. RSCP =-114. The best server RSCP=-121dBm and Ec/No=-21dB. 3. 3.13dB. RSCP =-94. Best server RSCP= -94dBm and Ec/No= -3dB). The release cause is classified as unspecified.e.2 Poor RF (Bad Coverage and Radio Environment) Problem Description: In this case the RF environment as reported by the UE is very poor when the UE attempts to initiate a call. 3.3 Equipment Fault (UE) 3.4.3. The call is released normally during call set up and 6 seconds after the network sends the security command.1 Disconnect on RAB Setup Problem description: In this case the radio environment is good as shown in figure above (i. The attempt is indicated by the event “Call Initialization” in TEMS Investigation. The cell 48007 act as an increasing interferer until eventually the call itself is released. As can be seen in figure above the radio environment at the time of the blocked call is good i. There are no further massages sent between the network and the UE before the next call attempt. The scanner also reports poor radio conditions for the same SC at the same instant i. There is a timer for the correct response to this security command.17dBm and Ec/Io = 5. Best server RSCP=-71dBm and Ec/No=-2dB.4. which causes the connection to be dropped and result in a blocked call. The cause value is (127) Interworking. Due to these differences. which is triggered at the start of a command sequence. This indicates a problem in the security and authentication response by the UE.1 Missing Neighbour Problem Description: An example of a blocked call caused by a missing neighbour is shown in figure above.29dB. During call set up.1 Security and Authentication Mode Failure Problem Description: In this case there is a problem with the security and Authentication procedure.4 Not Radio 3.

3.U. The radio environment is good at the time of the Disconnect message as seen in figure above. This can be seen in the events window in figure above. 3.06dBm and Ec/Io = -2. Although the blocked call is as a result of low RSCP as measured by the UE it should not be classified. RSCP =-89.Barred Network Problem description: This occurs when the UE attempts to initiate a call on a network other than the measured one (in our case MTN).e.2 Faulty Block Recording . As seen in the RRC Connection Request message the establishment cause is registration and the Location Update request message is for Normal Location Updating.4. signalling Problem description: In this case the UE is involved in Location Update signalling. low CPICH Ec/No. good RSPC.5 Abnormal blocked calls 3. it has to be excluded from our analysis. It is not clear whether or not the network receives the RRC request. 3. The radio environment in the downlink as seen by TEMS is good i. Best server RSCP=-122dBm and Ec/No=-18dB).5. The example shows the case that happened for the [Only registered and activated users can see links and Download Documents ] network (DL UARFCN 10712). Sometimes this example of blocked call can be also referred to Congestion problems in the measured cell.5. The scanner reports much better radio conditions for the same SC at the same instant i.following message: cause value (47) Resources Unavailable. The radio environment as reported by the UE is very poor when the UE attempts to initiate a call (i. During the L. 3.U.Unanswered RRC requests Problem description: In this example an RRC request is sent but the network never responds with an RRC connection setup message.3 Call Initialisation during L. Similar Threads:  TCH DROP  TCH drop  ALU MOP for Drop calls in eDAT LTE  Call drop causes  TBF Drop Rate  drop calls due to UL interference from DT logfiles  tch n sd drop analysis  Drop& Block call analysis in WCDMA using TEMS  Voice drop in UMTS . Unspecified. signalling a new call attempt is triggered by the command sequence in TEMS Investigation.1 Unclassified .3 UE Sensitivity Fault Problem Description: In figure above.e. The Disconnect message occurs after the Radio Bearer is set up.5. as a poor RF block since the scanner indicates the radio conditions should be sufficient to set up a call.65dB. In the serving/Active Set window in TEMS in figure above it can be seen that the DL UARFCN for the network the UE is camped on in idle mode is 10564. This can be seen in the Layer 3 messages window in figure above. DeskCat considers this a blocked call but since the blocked call does do not occur on the [Only registered and activated users can see links and Download Documents ] network. an example of a drop classified as UE sensitivity fault is shown.e.

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