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The SMART Group A guiding Influence in the Electronics Industry


Legislative Directives
Brighton 2004

1. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment - WEEE Directive. 2. Restriction of use of certain Hazardous Substances - RoHS Directive.
Cadmium – Mercury – Hexavalent Chromium

Smart GROUP Lead-free Experience 2
Compone nts in a lead-free environme nt

Lead – Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs)

Angus Westwater

& - Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs )


Components in a Lead-Free Environment
• Termination plating – Lead-free • Solderability • Increased process temperature. - Thermo mechanical fatigue (TMF) - Moisture sensitivity level (MSL) • Placement accuracy – Self alignment • Lead contamination – Transition period • Tin whiskers

Lead –Free Component
1. No change to functionality specification. 2. Qualified to 260 ºC - 265ºC soldering temperatures 3. One or Two passes through the soldering process.


Typical Termination Lead-Free Solder Plating
Tin, Silver, Copper Tin, Silver Tin, Copper Nickel, Gold (on Copper) Tin (on Nickel) Palladium, Gold Tin, Bismuth – SnAgCu - SnAg - SnCu - CuNiAu - Sn - PdAu - SnBi*

Reflow Process Temperature Profiles
Component durability re -qualification i ncrease 10ºC
+10HC - 250HC flow/wave 67HC - 235HC - 215HC SMD reflow - 183C (eutecti c) 33HC - 235HC - 217HC (Sn3Ag0.5Cu) Possibility to reduce the superheat zone to 12HC (229C) Note: Sn2Cu for wave melting point = 227HC) - 260HC flow/wave - 240HC SMD reflow

Supe rhe at z one 32 HC

Supe rhe at z one 18 HC

Leaded (SnPb) process
* Will be come more viable when lead has been re move d from the solde ring process (PbBi low melting phase )

Lead-free process

This paper has been downloaded from SMART Group or Nepcon web sites sites Email SMART Group at

uk Email SMART Group at info@smartgroup.000 pcs/lot Flux sprayer C) Higher and longer preheating .org .Increase in mechanical fatigue.smartgroup. The lead-free Solder Joint (Thermal cycling . Pb free SnAgCu melting point 217 HC Hopper/feeder mm Downward Force Total pad coverage with SnPb solder Pb free higher surface tension produces slower wetting (Improvements in nitrogen gas environment) Point C Point B IPC/EIA J-STD-002A Notes: Lead Contamination of Solder Joint.Pb free Termination Solder Plating Processes Marking – Cropping Final test – Tape& Reel Lead-frame Die attach 260 HC 230 HC b) Longe r above process temp.The SMART Group A guiding Influence in the Electronics Industry Reflow Soldering Profiles for Leadfree Solder Temperature a) High peak soldering temperature . Pb rich region with poor thermal cycling fatigue characteristics This paper has been downloaded from SMART Group or Nepcon web sites sites www. Solder Bath 10.SnPb versus Pb free REFLO W H EAT SnPb solder paste B Printer A D Key parameter Wetting time A – D seconds Time REFLO W Coppe r hallow H EAT Leadfree solder paste C Max wetting force Force Solde r we tting Upward Force Imme rsion de pth 0.) Solder joint material by volume • Solder paste 70% • PCB platting 25% • Component plating 5% (SnPb) Coppe r hallow Pb free solder paste SnAgCu SnPb platting 10µ thick Sn10Pb plating Sn37Pb solder Sn plating SnAgCu Not a solderability issue: Inspection Pb diffusion into solder & training SnAgCu+Pb – Melting point and solidification can be <180H C Lead collects in last area to cool.Pb free SnPb melting point 183 HC Bond wires Epoxy Molding 150HC Ty pical SnPb solde ring te mpe rature profile Ramp Soak Spike Cool + Solder print area Solder Dipping Time Electroplating solution - Increased heat – Longer duration Electroplating anode material (tin) Barrel Electroplating Notes: Component Termination Solderability Force + Strain gauge & Controller Sample Molten Solde r pe lle t He ate d block Solde r surface (meniscus) PCB solder pad wetting .

• Easily applied. spontaneous growths of metallic filaments will grow on the tin termination minutes @ ‘125 ºC Note: human hair approximately 50µm Sn This paper has been downloaded from SMART Group or Nepcon web sites sites www. electroplated layers ? • Electroplated stress. zinc.30µm) Glass under coating Down Side SMT Capacitors & Re sistors Under certain circumstances.The SMART Group A guiding Influence in the Electronics Industry Reflow /Flow Process (Lead contamination of PCB top side leadfree solder) Le ad be aring te rminations (SnPb) Le adfree solde r SnAgCu (MP 217 HC) Lead-free Introduced Tombstone Failures He at transfe r He at transfe r Top side solder alloy SnAgCu +Pb (MP < 180 HC) To p side >170 HC (high risk of lifting) Faste r solidification Lead-Free solders • Incre ase d surface te nsion • Incre ase d solidification tempe rature range • Compone nt miniaturisation Solde r shrink force Flow process To p side max 150 HC Courtesy Seiko Epson Lifting pre ve nte d PCB component pad dimensions/tracking and heat transfer route become critical “Further reduction in the PCB assembly process window” Notes: Tin Plating Tin (Sn) plating has many desirable . side & bottom (10 .uk www.12µm) Resistor element RuOx Lead-Free outer termination Sn/Pb replaced with Sn (5 -12µm) *Pb Glass replaced with resin 1206 and smaller Notes: Tin Whiskers • Whiskers also grow on cadmium. Stress in the tin coating 2.2 µm All controllable during the component plating process * 70 minutes @ 55 ºC . non toxic • Good corrosion protection (shelf life) • Excellent solderability. i. Sn Sn Chip Resistor Construction Glass* over coating Marking Glass middle coating Inner termination Ag/Pd Email SMART Group at info@smartgroup.nepcon. Plating thickness 1000 cyc 8. • Growth is encouraged in tin layers under stress. Tin purity 3.smartgroup. “Electroplating processes can therefore be optimised by component manufacturers to minimise plating stress” Critical Parameters Encouraging Whisker Growth in Component Tin Plating 1. aluminium & lead.e. is linked to high plating currents & rapid electroplating process. Alumina substrate Laser trim “Tin Whiskers” Nickel plating Ni (2 .

org Email SMART Group at info@smartgroup. Humidity enters the package by diffusion.Catastrophic failure or LONG TERM RELIABILITY compromised. remain a risk for whisker growth SnAgCu solder ball will not melt. * IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020B This paper has been downloaded from SMART Group or Nepcon web sites sites www. SnPb Lead-free BGA Placement error tolerance reduced SnAgCu “Self alignment” SnPb paste “Self alignment” reduced SnPb paste Tin plating alloys with base SnAgCu solder NOTE: Sn plated component terminations utilising low temperature conductive adhesive. Device sensitivity to moisture is classified* by Moisture Sensitivity Level (MSL) Important .uk www. creates internal vapour pressure and accelerated expansion within the device. flow and create surface tension at < 217ºC Notes: Lead-free BGA Placement in SnPb Process (Coplanarity Tolerance) SnAgCu Solder balls MP 217ºC SnPb Solder paste (reflow 215 ºC) Solder ball Coplanarity tolerances cause open solder ball connections if SnAgCu balls do not collapse during SnPb process reflow.nepcon. collecting at dissimilar material interfaces. in SnPb Process (Placement Tolerance) 215ºC Reflow temperature SnAgCu Solder balls MP 217ºC SnPb Solder paste MP 183 ºC 50% placement error tolerance.smartgroup. Impact of Moisture Ingression Rapid heating during soldering. absorb moisture. Component Durability to Lead-Free Soldering Temperatures Higher Temperature SnAgCu Longer Duration Coplanarity tolerance Notes: Moisture Sensitive Device (MSD) Electronic devices encapsulated with plastic compounds and organic packaging materials.The SMART Group A guiding Influence in the Electronics Industry Tin Whisker Growth Prevention • Optimise electroplating current & plating time. Solder heat Lead-free BGA Placement. Diffusion of alloys (% 1%) from bulk solder. • Electroplate Tin (Sn) on nickel (Ni). Similar CTE. . • During PCB reflow or flow soldering processes. Action of heating and cooling tin plating relaxes lattice structure.

co.033A Email SMART Group at info@smartgroup. Shipping and Use of Moisture / Reflow Sensitive Surface Mount Devices 3 4 5 5a 6 * IPC/JEDEC J-S TD-020B Notes: MSD Component Storage Sealing Zip Dry Pack Maintain Reliability Lead-Free Soldering Process Moisture Ingression Electrostatic Discharge ESD* • Remove from packing at production line • Return components to hermetically sealed packing during further storage • Humidity ingression is cumulative. Re-qualify component MSL. . “ESD and how components are damage d This paper has been downloaded from SMART Group or Nepcon web sites sites www.27th .nepcon.033A Dry Pack MSL 6 * Ne pcon 13. Review component storage conditions.00 . bake and dry as per IPC/JEDEC J-STD .uk www. Packing.Component manufacturer 2.The SMART Group A guiding Influence in the Electronics Industry Component Moisture Ingression Induced Failures Bond wire dama ge Popcorn effect Impact of Lead-free Temperatures on MSL Existing Component MSL classification Existing storage & handling procedures Increased soldering heat Longer heat duration “New potential for moisture ingression / solder heat failures” Distortion / cracking Vapo ur Delamination Particularly where existing procedures are marginal Notes: Actions 1. – Component Compone nt Moisture Se nsitivity Classification Component floor life MSL 1 2 2a Time Unlimited 1 Year 4 weeks 168 hrs 72 hrs 48 hrs 24 hrs T ime on label (T OL) Conditions ≤30ºC/85%RH ≤ 30ºC/60%RH ≤ 30ºC/60%RH ≤ 30ºC/60%RH ≤ 30ºC/60%RH ≤ 30ºC/60%RH ≤ 30ºC/60%RH ≤ 30ºC/60%RH Infinite floor life One year One month One week Three days Two days One day Dry before use user Industry Standard IPC/JEDEC J-STD . MSL 3 • If MSL violated.

uk .033A (MSL) BS EN61340-5-1: 2001 (ESD) Very likely to be less than the cost of component final test and field failure.nepcon.The SMART Group A guiding Influence in the Electronics Industry Safe Handling and Storage IPC/JEDEC J-STD Email SMART Group at info@smartgroup.Education & Audit Notes: Notes: This paper has been downloaded from SMART Group or Nepcon web sites sites www. Compliance – Training .