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You are on page 1of 5

00 ©2009 IEEE

September 14-16, 2009

METU

Northern Cyprus Campus

646

Co-Occurrence based Statistical Approach for Face

Recognition

Alaa Eleyan, Hasan Demirel

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University

{alaa.eleyan, hasan.demirel}@emu.edu.tr

Abstract— this paper introduces a new face recognition

method based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix

(GLCM). Both distributions of the intensities and information

about relative position of neighbourhood pixels are carried by

GLCM. Two methods have been used to extract feature vec-

tors from the GLCM for face classification. The first, method

extracts the well-known Haralick features to form the feature

vector, where the second method directly uses GLCM by con-

verting the matrix into a vector which can be used as a feature

vector for the classification process. The results demonstrate

that using the GLCM directly as the feature vector in the rec-

ognition process outperforms the feature vector containing the

statistical Haralick features. Additionally, the proposed

GLCM based face recognition system outperforms the well-

known techniques such as principal component analysis and

linear discriminant analysis.

Index Terms— gray level co-occurrence matrix, Haralick

features, face recognition.

I. INTRODUCTION

Face recognition has always been attracting the attention of

the researchers as one of the most important techniques for

human identification. One of the limitations of real-time

recognition systems is the computational complexity of the

existing approaches. Many systems and algorithms have

been introduced in the last couple of decades with high

recognition rates. The general problem of these systems is

their computational cost in data pre-preparation and trans-

formation to another domains such as eigenspace [3][4],

fisherspace[5][6], wavelet transform [10][11] and cosine

transform [12].

Many researchers have used the gray-level co-occurrence

matrix [13] for the extraction of texture features to be used

in texture classification. Gelzinis et al. [14] presented a

new approach to exploiting information available from the

co-occurrence matrices computed for different distance

parameter values. Attempt to extend the approach was in-

troduced in [16], where a new matrix called motif co-

occurrence matrix was proposed. Walker et al. [15] have

proposed to form co-occurrence matrix-based features by

weighted summation of co-occurrence matrix elements

from localized areas of high discrimination. The colour co-

occurrence histograms was used in [17] for object recogni-

tion, where they used false alarm rate to adjust some algo-

rithm’s parameters for optimizing the performance.

The idea behind this paper is to use this co-occurrence ma-

trix and its extracted features in face recognition. To the

best of our knowledge, no one has attempted to implement

this method for face recognition before. The idea is simple

and it is straight forward. For each face image, a feature

vector is formed directly by converting the generated

GLCM to a vector and used for classification. Additionally,

Haralick features [13] containing 14 statistical features can

be extracted from the GLCM to form a new feature vector

with 14 coefficients.

The GLCM method is compared with two well-known face

recognition techniques. The first one is the principal com-

ponent analysis (PCA) [1][2], which is the standard tech-

nique used in statistical pattern recognition and signal

processing for dimensionality reduction and feature extrac-

tion. As patterns often contain redundant information,

mapping them to a feature vector helps to get rid of redun-

dancies and yet preserve most of the intrinsic information.

These extracted features have great role in distinguishing

input patterns. The proposed GLCM based method is also

compared with the other well-known technique, linear dis-

criminant analysis (LDA), which overcomes the limitations

of PCA method by applying the Fisher’s linear discrimi-

nant criterion. This criterion tries to maximize the ratio of

the determinant of the between-class scatter matrix of the

projected samples to the determinant of the within-class

scatter matrix of the projected samples. Fisher discriminant

analysis method groups images of the same class and sepa-

rates images of different classes. Images are projected from

N dimensional space (N is the number of pixels) to C di-

mensional space (where C is the number of classes).

Unlike the PCA method that extracts features to best repre-

sent face images; the LDA method tries to find the sub-

space that best discriminates different face classes and en-

codes discriminatory information in a linear separable

space, where the bases are not necessarily orthogonal.

The paper is organized as follows: second section discusses

the gray level co-occurrence matrix. Third section explains

14 well-know GLCM Haralick features. The databases are

given in section four, while the experimental results, com-

parison with other algorithms and discussions are given in

fifth section followed by the conclusions in the final sec-

tion.

II. GRAY-LEVEL CO-OCCURRENCE MATRIX

One of the simplest approaches for describing texture is to

use statistical moments of the intensity histogram of an

image or region [9]. Using only histograms in calculation,

will result in measures of texture that only carry informa-

611

647

tion about distribution of intensities, but not about the

relative position of pixels with respect to each other in that

texture. Using a statistical approach such as co-occurrence

matrix will help to provide valuable information about the

relative position of the neighbouring pixels in an image.

Given an image I, of size N×N, the co-occurrence, matrix

P can be defined as:

1 1

1, ( , ) & ( , )

( , )

0,

N N

x y

x y

if I x y i I x y j

i j

otherwise

= =

= + A + A = ¦

=

´

¹

__

P

(1)

where the offset (¨

x

, ¨

y

), is specifying the distance be-

tween the pixel-of-interest and its neighbour. Note that the

offset (¨

x

,¨

y

) parameterization makes the co-occurrence

matrix sensitive to rotation. Choosing the offset vector, so

a rotation of the image not equal to 180 degrees, will

result in a different co-occurrence matrix for the same

(rotated) image. This can be avoided by forming the co-

occurrence matrix using a set of offsets sweeping through

180 degrees at the same distance parameter ¨ to achieve a

degree of rotational invariance (i.e. [0 ¨] for 0

o

: P hori-

zontal, [-¨ ¨] for 45

o

: P right diagonal, [-¨ 0] for 90

o

: P

vertical, and [-¨ -¨] for 135

o

: P left diagonal).

Figure 1 shows how to generate the four cooccurrence

matrices using N

g

=5 levels and offsets {[0 1], [-1 1], [-1

0], [-1 -1]} defined as one neighboring pixel in the

possible four directions. We can see that two neighboring

pixels (2,1) of the input image is reflected in P

H

concurrence matrix as 3, because there are 3 occurrences

of the pixel intensity value 2 and pixel intensity value 1

adjacent to each other in the input image. The neighboring

pixels (1, 2) will occur again 3 times in P

H

, which makes

these matrices symmetric. In the same manner, the other

three matrices P

V

, P

LD

, P

RD

are calculated.

0 3 4 2

2 1 3 4

0 3 2 1

2 1 0 3

0 1 2 3

0

1

2

3

Input image Intensity

0 1 0 2 0

1 0 3 1 0

0 3 0 1 1

2 1 1 0 2

0 0 1 2 0

0 1 2 3 4

0

1

2

3

4

0 0 4 0 0

0 0 0 3 0

4 0 0 1 1

0 3 1 0 1

0 1 1 1 0

0 1 2 3 4

0

1

2

3

4

0 2 0 0 0

2 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 3 1

0 0 3 2 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 1 2 3 4

0

1

2

3

4

0 1 0 1 0

1 0 1 1 0

0 1 0 2 0

0 1 2 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

0 1 2 3 4

0

1

2

3

4

P

H

(0

o

) P

V

(90

o

) P

RD

(45

o

) P

LD

(135

o

)

Figure 1 – Cooccurrence matrix generation for N

g

=5 levels and

four different offsets: P

H

(0

o

), P

V

(90

o

), P

RD

(45

o

), and P

LD

(135

o

).

The averaged GLCM matrix can be calculated by:

4

H V RD LD

+ + +

=

P P P P

P (2)

For normalization, we then divide each entry in the

GLCM matrix P by normalization constant R, that

represents the number of neighboring pixel pairs used in

calculating GLCM, to form a new normalized matrix p

which will be used later on in the classification process or

in generation of Haralick features.

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 2 – (a) Example from ORL Database (112×92),

(b) corresponding CLGM with 64 gray levels (64×64) and

(c) corresponding CLGM with 256 gray levels (256×256).

III. HARALICK FEATURES

In 1973, Haralick [13] introduced 14 statistical features.

These features are generated by calculating the features for

each one of the co-occurrence matrices obtained by using

the directions 0

o

, 45

o

, 90

o

, and 135

o

, then averaging these

four values. The symbol ¨ representing the offset parame-

ter can be selected as 1 or higher value. In general ¨ value

is set to 1 as the offset parameter. A vector of these 14 sta-

tistical features is used for characterizing the co-occurrence

matrix contents. Calculation of these features can be done

using the following equations.

Notations:

p(i, j) is the (i, j)’th entry in normalized GLCM.

N

g

, dimension of GLCM (number of gray levels)

p

x

(i) and p

y

(j) are the marginal probabilities:

1 1

( ) ( , ), ( ) ( , ).

g g

N N

x y

j i

p i p i j p j p i j

= =

= =

_ _

ȝ is the mean of ȝ

x

and ȝ

y

;

1 1

( ), ( ).

g g

N N

x x y y

i i

ip i ip i µ µ

= =

= =

_ _

ı

x

and ı

y

are the standard deviations of p

x

and p

y

, respec-

tively.

1/ 2 1/ 2

2 2

1 1

( )( ) , ( )( )

g g

N N

x x x y y y

i i

p i i p i i o µ o µ

= =

= ÷ = ÷

| | | |

| |

\ . \ .

_ _

1 1

( ) ( , ); 2, 3, , 2

g g

N N

x y

i j k

i j

p k p i j k N

+

+ =

= =

= =

__

!

1 1

( ) ( , ); 0,1, , 1

g g

N N

x y

i j k

i j

p k p i j k N

÷

÷ =

= =

= = ÷

__

!

612

648

1 1

1 ( , ) log{ ( ) ( )}

g g

N N

x y

i j

HXY p i j p i p j

= =

= ÷

__

1 1

2 ( ) ( ) log{ ( ) ( )}

g g

N N

x y x y

i j

HXY p i p j p i p j

= =

= ÷

__

1

( , ) ( , )

( , )

( ) ( )

g

N

k

x y

p i k p j k

i j

p i p j

=

=

_

Q

HX and HY are the entropies of p

x

and p

y

, respectively.

1

( ) log{ ( )}

g

N

x x

i

HX p i p i

=

= ÷

_

1

( ) log{ ( )}

g

N

y y

j

HY p j p j

=

= ÷

_

Haralick Features:

2

1

1 1

( , ) .

g g

N N

i j

f p i j

= =

=

__

(3)

( )

1

2

2

| | 0 1 1

, .

g g g

N N N

i j n n i j

f n p i j

÷

÷ = = = =

=

¦ ¹

´ `

¹ )

_ __

(4)

( )( )

3

1 1

( , )

.

g g

N N

x y

i j

x y

i i p i j

f

µ µ

o o

= =

÷ ÷

=

__

(5)

2

4

1 1

( ) ( , )

g g

N N

i j

f i p i j µ

= =

= ÷

__

(6)

( )

5 2

1 1

1

( , )

1

g g

N N

i j

f p i j

i j = =

=

+ ÷

__

(7)

2

6

2

( )

g

N

x y

k

f kp k

+

=

=

_

(8)

( )

2

2

7 6

2

( )

g

N

x y

k

f k f p k

+

=

= ÷

_

(9)

2

8

2

( ) log{ ( )}

g

N

x y x y

k

f p k p k

+ +

=

= ÷

_

(10)

9

1 1

( , ) log{ ( , )}

g g

N N

i j

f p i j p i j

= =

= ÷

__

(11)

1 1

2

10

0 0

[ ( )] ( )

g g

N N

x y x y

k l

f k lp l p k

÷ ÷

÷ ÷

= =

= ÷

_ _

(12)

1

11

0

( ) log{ ( )}

g

N

x y x y

k

f p k p k

÷

÷ ÷

=

= ÷

_

(13)

9

12

1

max( , )

f HXY

f

HX HY

÷

= (14)

( )

1/ 2

13 9

1 exp[ 2( 2 )] f HXY f = ÷ ÷ ÷ (15)

( )

1/ 2

14

second largest eignvalue of f = Q (16)

IV. PROPOSED SYSTEM

We adopted two scenarios for the implementation of

GLCM based face recognition. In the first scenario, we

used the co-occurrence matrix directly by converting it into

a column vector for each image in the recognition process.

In the second scenario, we used the vector of Haralick fea-

tures extracted from the co-occurrence matrix for recogni-

tion. Figure 3 shows these proposed scenarios.

Face

Database

GLCM

GLCM

Features

Classification

Classification

1

st

Scenario

2

nd

Scenario

Figure 3 – Proposed scenarios for using co-occurrence matrix and

its features for face recognition.

In the first scenario, we are using the GLCM directly after

converting it to a column vector. However, for 8-bit gray

level representation the size of this vector is 256×256,

which corresponds to a 65536 dimensional vector. The di-

mension of this vector can be reduced by reducing the

number of quantization/gray levels, N

g

, of the image. For

example, if N

g

is reduced to 16, the GLCM will be 256

(16×16) dimensional vector. The effects of dimensionality

reduction on the recognition performance are studied in the

following section.

In the second scenario, a vector of 14 Haralick features is

used to represent the given image. The size of this vector,

which is 14, is independent of the size of the GLCM.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The simulations have been conducted on the two data sets:

FERET and ORL face databases. The standard test bed

adopted in similar studies for the FERET database [7], has

been used to test our algorithm for identification. The re-

sults are reported in terms of the standard recognition

rates (%). 600 frontal face images out of 200 subjects are

selected, where all the subjects are in the upright and fron-

tal position. Each face image is cropped to the size of

128×128 to extract the facial region and normalized to

zero mean and unit variance. In order to test the algo-

rithms, two images of each subject are randomly chosen

for training, while the remaining one is used for testing

(i.e. 400 training and 200 test images). In Figure 4 the first

two rows are the sample training images while the third

row shows samples from test images. It can be observed

from this figure that the test images contain variations in

illumination and facial expressions.

The second database used, was the face database from Oli-

vetti Research Lab [8]. This database is widely used for

evaluating face recognition algorithms. The database con-

sists of 400 images acquired from 40 persons. All images

were taken under a dark background. The images are grey

scale with a 92×112 pixels resolution.

613

649

Out of the 10 images per subject of the ORL face data-

base, first n were selected for training and the remaining

10-n were used for testing. Hence, no overlap exists be-

tween the training and test face images. Figures 4 and 5

show examples of both databases.

Figure 4 – Example FERET images used in our experiments. The

top two rows the examples of training images used and the bottom

row shows the examples of test images.

Figure 5 – Example ORL images used in our experiments.

Table 1 shows the result of using GLCM column vector

directly (direct GLCM) on ORL database using L

1

norm

distance, į

L1

. Reduced number of gray levels has been

used for GLCM dimensionality reduction. The training set

has been formed by using n=5 samples of each individual,

where the test set has been formed by using the remaining

5 samples. The results indicate that the direct GLCM ap-

proach outperforms the Haralick features based approach.

It is also, important to note that, the dimensionality reduc-

tion based on the reduction of the number of gray levels

does not change the recognition performance significantly

as we reduce the number of gray levels from 256 down to

16 levels. Highest performance is achieved by using 64

gray levels.

Table 2 shows the results on FERET database using L

1

norm distance. Different number of gray levels has been

used for GLCM dimensionality reduction. The training set

has been formed by using 2 samples of each subject,

where the test set has been formed by using the remaining

1 sample per subject. Similarly, the results indicate that

the direct GLCM approach outperforms the Haralick fea-

tures based approach. Highest performance is achieved

by using 32 gray levels.

The results in both tables indicate that, the proposed direct

GLCM method is much more suitable method than the

method using well-known Haralick features. The GLCM

scalability, provided by the scalable number of gray levels

N

g

, is an important flexibility.

An important result, which can be observed in Tables 1 and

2, is that in some cases when the co-occurrence matrix be-

comes smaller due to the use of reduced number of gray

levels, N

g

, the recognition performance of direct GLCM

approach slightly increases. This can be due to the quantiza-

tion process which suppresses the noise in the input image

that helps to increase the recognition performance.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

Number of training images

R

e

c

o

g

n

i

t

i

o

n

R

a

t

e

NumLevels 256

NumLevels 128

NumLevels 64

NumLevels 32

NumLevels 16

NumLevels 8

Figure 6 – Face recognition performance of the Direct GLCM for

ORL database, using different number of training images and

different number of levels for generation of GLCM matrix, with

the į

L1

distance measure.

Figures 6 shows the performance of the direct GLCM

method for changing number of training samples in the

training set for different number of gray levels. The results

show that the recognition performance of the proposed sys-

tem changes slightly as we reduce the number of gray levels

from 256 to 16. Although, this observation is specific to

these two datasets and cannot be generalized, the results

indicate the scalability of the proposed direct GLCM ap-

proach.

Table 3 compares the performance of the proposed direct

GLCM based recognition system with the state of the art

techniques PCA and LDA by using the ORL face data-

base. The results demonstrate the superiority of the pro-

Table 2 – Face recognition performance (%) for different number of

levels using FERET database and similarity measures: į

L1

, with 2

training Images / 1 testing Images

Number of Gray Levels

Approach 256 128 64 32 16 8 4

Haralick features 29.33 29.67 26.17 26.67 34.50 36.83 13.16

Direct GLCM 88.67 90.67 91.67 92.33 88.67 74.83 14.33

Table 1 – Face recognition performance (%) for different number

of levels using ORL database and similarity measures: į

L1

, with 5

training images / 5 testing images

Number of Gray Levels

Approach 256 128 64 32 16 8 4

Haralick features 71.90 70.20 70.50 74.90 79.50 78.30 69.60

Direct GLCM 95.10 96.00 96.30 95.90 95.20 91.20 70.40

614

650

posed direct GLCM based face recognition system over

the well know face recognition techniques PCA and LDA.

VI. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, we introduced a new face recognition method,

direct GLCM, which performs recognition by using gray-

level co-occurrence matrix. The direct GLCM method is

very competitive and outperforms the state of the art face

recognition techniques such as PCA and LDA. Using

smaller number of gray levels made the algorithm faster

and, at the same time, preserved the high recognition rate.

This can be due to the process of quantization which helps

in suppressing the noise of the images existing in higher

gray-levels. Recognition in Table 1 for ORL database gen-

erates the highest performance at N

g

=64 which corresponds

to a moderate number of gray levels in image representa-

tion. Same argument holds for FERET database as the rec-

ognition was the highest at N

g

=32 in Table 2. In general, it

is obvious from the results that the direct GLCM is a robust

method for face recognition with performance higher than

PCA and LDA techniques.

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[15] R.F. Walker, P.T. Jackway, D. Longstaff, Genetic algorithm opti-

mization of adaptive multi-scale GLCM features, Int. J. Pattern Recogni-

tion Artif. Intell. vol. 17, no. 1, pp.17-39, 2003.

[16] N. Jhanwar, S. Chaudhuri, G. Seetharaman, B. Zavidovique, Con-

tent based image retrieval using motif cooccurrence matrix, Image Vision

Comput. vol. 22, pp. 1211-1220, 2004

[17] P. Chang, J. Krumm. Object recognition with color cooccurrence

histograms. IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition,

Fort Collins, co, June 1999.

Table 3 – Face recognition performance (%) of PCA, LDA,

direct GLCM and Haralick features for different number of

training images using ORL database with į

L1

and N

g

=256.

# Train

Images

Haralick

Features

Direct

GLCM

PCA LDA

1 42.33 60.11 61.44 35.83

2 56.50 78.69 74.63 76.88

3 62.86 87.43 82.86 87.57

4 68.33 92.33 88.42 93.25

5 71.90 95.10 90.00 95.10

6 74.50 96.38 91.13 96.35

7 74.67 96.83 94.00 96.67

8 76.00 98.25 94.50 97.25

9 76.00 99.50 97.50 98.50

615

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