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Abhtvd-bhdva Akiko

本 無 今 有 有 已還 無 attacks the三 is the settled and the theory four

the phases Sautrantika of the often seventy uses two when dharnzas1) it

世 実 有theory

which ntika

the Sarvastivada


for. To examine

the meaning


the Sautra-

holds and to give a definition abhatva,
無. time. 本, the

of it is the purpose "not having
the is not Chinese always

of this paper. before", was trans-

The Sanskrit
lated in the into sense to Chinese本 of

Accordingly however, usage of



character本means 'before' used as the past, so that it is




The first examination tika and the Sarvastivada tion, transformation vada's stand

is the case of the dispute arisen on the four phases


the Sautran-

of the d harmas,

i. e. birth, durathe Sarvasti-

and destruction.

The Sautrantika,


that the four phases "The three

take place simultaneously, (four) phases which take

says in the Abhiplace at the same

dharma-kola-bhasya: moment

are not perceptible.



can not be perceived not having

are not admitbefore, (jati). period now The of

ted as phases2)."

and continues:



existed birth

comes into existence: phase 'duration'

this is the phase of the dharma that the dharma exists


(sthiti) shows during

for a certain from

time. The dharma, and succeeding thatva).

its stay

in the present,


its preceding (anyato

d harmas:

this difference

is what is called transformation that the d harrna

The phase 'destruction'

(atita) indicates

will return

non-existence3)." It is understood,
ses of Second, the dharnzas, in the course

本 is of used the



the Sautrantika
sense of the future.


to the four pha-




世 実 有theory




defining which

the three


of time,




is the state after


the d karma

has not yet come into existence. stays for a time: this state

The d harma,

having past

come into existence,


the present.



The effect of man's deeds is produced from the bijas Iwhich are in a state of flux. non-existent. shows the Sarvastivada ceasing its arises and after to non-existence5). and The brjas are the potentialities which engender their fruits And further he continues: which the panca skandhas are endowed i. order being Then that the are interchangeable. used dhaas for return to non-existence. being momentary. The active dharmas. into 'here' in three of time the present (space). interchangeable If the past and the future be formed. Osaki) is the state of the dharma which became (20) non-existent4). ・過 未 future. transforms conclusion:本is three aspects: the used image following ways. at the moment . refutes. of space. the actual dharmas6). we are (The now dhars. having tence. are 本would and the first have in本. into The exis" 無 今 有 有 已 還 無. brings function. Vasubandhu explains the bi j a in the Abhidharma-kosa-bhasya as follows: with. it returns if the "The disapproving eye-organ of the first sutra-proof out of nowhere. Third. the the sautrantika's dhars of Abhutva doctrine'現 the past bhavati 在 and the pratimgaohati). d harmas the image of time will not there will be only past scattering succeeding and arraying in a fixed (time). up. and then the stand- Having theory'本 本. (phala).Abhutva-bhava (A. said to the Sarvastivada's are And statement were whose past and second sutra-proof mology. -968 engendering actual dha- rmas and being permeated by actual dharmas. ready not to consider the existed Sautrantika's before. come 有. and future d harmas free from the in confusion. of epistethe two meanings. bhtuva ca 有 体 and after having existed is present for a while. e. the Sautrantika."* above mentioned the past here. diHerent which the restriction is 有 the has of time. runs from so Sautrantika's past point to future.). Finally. and since this doctrine is founded on the theory of the bija. two theory-proof the standpoints the future. the theory of the bij a ought to be known clearly in order to understand what 有 indicates. producing bijas similar to themselves. 無 体'(The explaining are existent. " In this case *is also used as the future. examined and of time which runs from future to past. Therefore.

because in translation. (indriya words三 when the vijnana not mean the three becomes modes of the time (the past. is not a insignicant definition gives These of two proofs to the touch upon the三 In and that the三 two 世 世 実 有 the ・ 法 体 恒 有doctrine before the the三 from 世 実 three Sautrantika's有. three periods the are of time. It giving Sarvastivada 有theory. (already destructed) Both the bijas dharuas(not the being It d harmas are in the cause present and that but the two are different in nature. must moral and epistemological so that the viewpoints. and further maintain tinuation The bijas (sarntati). then. and the of existence future d harinas born). It that reaSon. then. future and present). called曾 The form 有. the Sautrntika's 有 was set up on the assumption concluded that the bi j as are existent as the the potential 有). which d harmas the that once have existed dharnzas are to be on (曾 有)and born in actual 有are future(当 当 有and実 interpenetrated the same level. d harmas In can words. teaching of the impermanence 有should the non-substantiality distinguished elements. We can say.” 斐translated “The dharnzas dharnas sometimes three periods Chinese三 adhηan(世 It may be asked. create and permeate bijas. from the actual is and to be in the of present the past yet different d harmas."The which Ab)hidharma-kosa-bhasya Vaibhasikas . of their birth. The 三 世 実 有 ・法 体 恒 theoretically systema- tizing the doctrine and be clearly of Early Buddhism of from常 denitely -967- based on the fundamental For The it. 有theory if実 was 有and恒 set up 有are in the the process same of as nitya(常 有).(21) Abhutva-bhava (A. be the sufficient for establishing factors that the the law of cause and effect. 有. as the transformed dharnzas so that曾 from 有. As of to the called the but Chinese they mean the it the d harmas is suspected existing that玄 世. always be existent. Hence the con(vesesa) of the bijas7). and also and artha) 世do can be the indispensable active. proves 実 有and恒 appears in say statement reads. They coexist reciprocally may be effect. Abhidharma-koa-bhasya to was defend set up stra-proofs show theory-proofs 実 有theory different other points the of view: d harmas grounds religious. Osaki) and increase bijas. 当 有. evolution are defined (parinama) and manifestation but The bijas thus have a superior power of producing actual dharmas. into 路)8).

1. dharmas The past and future are neither can dharmas. image of time does not take shape. p. emembered different angles. 477. 11. line that the In such case. 295. The three non-conditioned dharmas in five categories are excluded. this有means"I and the end.. in nature. the other there is only a logical among a tremendous ber of disorderly The cept happens of conclusion space(now). here ln there is only the present Sautrantika's有ought 本 is used in two ways- examined the the present is a denial unchangeable and the future-the of sequence order. ii. 64. linked to the past and the future. 有 ought to be considered for the dharmas from two dirent is.. p. (actual dharmas) so that The two are different each other. three past nor future. ii. of time may because be formed the d harmas in a straight As to 有 are momentary." 1) 2) 3) 5) 7) 9) is another question. not continually but uncontinually. to suggest d harmas. 299. 2-40 4) Ibid.. 3-5p Ibid.. it may is neither however. the beginning con- exquisitely. different. to be lt must be.. identical i. ii. the bijas. Osaki) that The (22) are conditioned9). 4-60 Ibid. 77. 有 (the of time not exist the ls present) independently. nor e. sautranti(ka constant existence of the bijas as well as the d harmas and the present in the present. is to Bhaa. 9-100 Ibid. that all d harmas sarvastivada's do exist but not eternally. p. the image past to future. p. 11. to the past. 298. 30 Ibid. from and the bijas are existent and that that the case in the present. 11. 78. it be. p. they coexist without contradicting Since the active dharmas be held that there now'. 5. p. 12-140 6) Ibid. the one arising relation after because there in an num- of the d harmas. that being the the Whether Sautrantika's original word 有(time)involves for the am the Sautrantika's有. 11." angles. The Abhidharma-kola-bhasya (Pradhan). 14-180 8) Ibid.Abhutva-bhava (A. it indicates the runs from professes. p. the f our phases of the d harmas the future past towards which and indicate that does that the d harmas which flows arise from from it and proceed the future. p... 4-50 -966- .