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COMPENDIUM OF TYPICAL HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH STEELWORKS AND THEIR CONTROL MEASURES IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

STEELWORKS
No. Hazards Possible Control Measures Useful Links/Tips

1. Trailer operation during loading and delivery of steel
1.1 Toppling of trailer • Ensure load is properly placed for even weight distribution • Secure materials to trailer • No parking at edge of excavation or near open sides • Provide separate access way for vehicle and person 1.2 1.3 Uncontrolled movement of vehicles due to sloping area Falling from height • Provide and use of choker or other stopper to control movement • Provide and use proper ladder access • Provide and use of tagline to control movement of load • Position a traffic controller during trailer operation • Use rear view mirror during reversing

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Hit by reversing trailer

1 Collapse of crane due to failure of lifting gear. Crane operation during unloading 2.2 Collapse of crane from unstable ground due to improper/incomplete • Provide and use proper crane access e.• Implement operation of reverse sensor and other safeguards 1.5 Hands and fingers stuck between the steel members • Employ an experienced lifting person to perform the task • Adopt safe work procedures • Provide and use gloves 2.g.steel plates • Check for firm compacted ground See Appendix Figure 3 See Appendix Figure 2 See Appendix Figure 1 . signaller and rigger) • Ensure certification of equipment by authorised examiner • Implement and use a colour code system for lifting gear and lifting machines • Adopt a regular inspection programme • Implement Permit-To-Lift system • Provide and use tagline to control movement of load • Ensure effective communication between signaller and crane operator 2. crane operator. lifting appliances and lifting machines • Provide and use proper crane access • Cordon off lifting / danger zone • Ensure counter-weights are properly placed and in position • Employ qualified lifting personnel (Lifting personnel.

crane operator.2 3. signaller and rigger) • Provide and use tagline to control movement of load • Cordon off lifting zone • Check that outriggers are fully extended • Ensure counter-weights are properly placed and in position • Ensure effective communication between signaller and crane operator • Provide and use adequate and appropriate PPE 3.2 Steel members falling from height during installation and lifting • Check that steel structure is constructed according to .compaction • Cordon off lifting / danger zone • Check that outriggers are fully extended • Ensure counter-weights are properly placed and in position See Appendix Figure 4 2.3 Injury from (a) hit by materials during crane boom or load swinging (b) Hit by falling objects (c) Material falling off during lifting or storage • Employ qualified lifting personnel (Lifting personnel.1 Toppling of cranes • Avoid overloading of crane beyond its safe working load at its specified radius and boom length • Check that crane is parked on level and firm ground with its outriggers fully extended and resting on steel plates • Refer to other possible control measures under 1.1 and 1. Crane operation during steel erection 3.

4 Back injury when handling steel members .2 Hands and fingers stuck between the steel members • Employ experienced lifting person to perform the task • Adopt safe work procedures • Provide and use gloves 4.PE's design and to PE's recommended sequence • Ensure welds and bolting are done properly before releasing load • Provide and use toolbox to contain tools and bolts • Practise good housekeeping techniques • Cordon off lifting zone • Provide and use adequate and appropriate PPE 4.1 Falling from height Refer to Technical Advisory on Falls From Height1 • Provide and use proper access • Provide and use safe work platform • Provide and use effective lifeline with safety harness • Construct effective barricades • Practise good housekeeping techniques • Avoid obstruction to access 4.3 Hit by material during lifting • Cordon off lifting zone • Provide and use adequate and appropriate PPE (hard hats and safety shoes) • Provide and use appropriate mechanical aids • Conduct training on proper handling of steel See Appendix Figure 5 4. Steel erection 4.

5 Trip and slip • Avoid gaps and projections • Practise good housekeeping techniques • Conduct regular inspection 5.4 Flying sparks leading to eye injuries Back pain or injuries Inhalation of fumes and metal dust • Provide and use face shield and goggles • Conduct training on welding techniques • Implement regular rest intervals • Conduct regular medical surveillance of worker health • Conduct awareness training on long term inhalation of fumes.1 Fire or explosion • Implement hot work-permit • Use hoses and power lines that are in good condition • Provide and use flashback arresters • Prohibit smoking • Implement fire watch • Implement fire-fighting procedures 5.3 5. Welding / Hot works 5.2 5.members • Implement supervision during work • Implement regular rest intervals 4. maintain and use appropriate respirator or dust mask • Conduct regular air monitoring See Appendix Figure 7 See Appendix Figure 8 See Appendix Figure 6 . metal dust and etc • Provide.

2 Heat stress • Implement regular rest intervals • Provide adequate supply of drinking wate • Provide adequate shade and ventilation 6. Removal of connections and members 6.5 5.7 Excessive noise exposure 5.8 Confined space leading to asphyxiation.3 Excessive noise exposure • Conduct a regular audiometric test . maintain and use of appropriate respirator/ dust mask • Conduct regular air monitoring 6.1 Inhalation of metal dust • Conduct frequent worker health check-up • Provide.5. maintain and use appropriate hearing protection • Implement job rotation • Conduct and implement a hearing conservation program • Implement confined space permit • Provide and use proper PPE and rescue equipment • Implement safe work procedures See Appendix Figure 9 See Appendix Figure 10 5.6 Hit by falling materials Heat stress • Provide and use safety shoes • Implement regular rest intervals • Provide adequate supply of drinking water • Provide adequate shade and ventilation • Conduct a regular audiometric test • Conduct regular noise monitoring • Provide. explosion and flash fire 6.

html under Programmebased Engagement Æ Falls from height programme .• Conduct regular noise monitoring • Provide.sg/maintaining_safe_and_healthy_workplace.gov. maintain and use appropriate hearing protection • Implement job rotation • Conduct and implement a hearing conservation program 1 This document can be retrieved from http://www.mom.

1 Figure 3: Proper crane access Figure 4: Fully extended outriggers Return to Section 2.Appendix Figure 1: Colour code system for lifting gear and lifting machines Figure 2: Permit-To-Lift Return to Section 2.2 .2 Return to Section 2.1 Return to Section 2.

2 .1 Figure 7: Fire fighting Figure 8: Face shield and goggles Return to Section 5.Figure 5: Barricades Figure 6: Flashback arresters Return to Section 4.1 Return to Section 5.1 Return to Section 5.

Companies are to conduct risk assessment on the work activities specific to their workplaces by identifying the hazards. .Figure 9: Drinking water supply Figure 10: Shade Return to Section 5.6 *Contents of this resource are originated from the Risk Assessment workshops organised by the Singapore Contractors Association Limited with the support of the Occupational Safety and Health Division of the Ministry of Manpower. References should be made to the relevant regulations and code of practices when in doubt.6 Return to Section 5. evaluating the risk and determining suitable control measures where appropriate. This material is not intended to be an exhaustive list of hazards and control measures for the above-mentioned activities.