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AUTHOR: SUSAN LYNCH FOSTER TITLE: Romancing the Cause: Fourierism, Feminism, and Free Love in Papa's Own

Girl SOURCE: Utopian Studies 8 no1 31-54 '97 The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited. IN 1874, A REVIEWER of Marie Howland's newly published novel, Papa's Own Girl, (FN1) blithely reported: "This is a book that we can cheerfully recommend to all readers. It is a story of American life, with characters naturally drawn, and with a high tone." Another reviewer wrote: This is an excellent story.... It depicts the good effects which may be expected to follow the introduction of many of the various reforms demanded by the age. The tale is simple, is naturally and easily told, and is very fascinating.... There is no need to desire for such a work speedy success, for, we understand, it has already attained it; and the near future will assuredly prove, that, in popular favor, it will take its place between Robinson Crusoe and Uncle Tom's Cabin. These reviews seem utterly unremarkable, and so they would be, were it not for the journals that carried them. The second review appeared in the notorious free-love, feminist(FN2) journal, Woodhull and Claflin's Weekly, the radical organ with a circulation "in the tens of thousands" (Stoehr 6) that had published an English translation of the Communist Manifesto in 1871.(FN3) Present-day readers of Papa's Own Girl would not find it surprising that Victoria Woodhull, first female candidate for the presidency of the United States, had endorsed the novel. But the first cheerful recommendation comes from a much more unlikely source: Godey's Lady's Book, the literary arbiter of middle-class, female respectability, edited by the august defender of conservative domestic ideology, Sarah Josepha Hale.(FN4) How could this novel, which advocated Fourierism, feminism, and free love, be enthusiastically endorsed by two publications so diametrically opposed in their visions of ideal womanhood, sexual morality, and politics? One might suspect that the reviewer for Godey's simply hadn't read the novel, if it were not for favorable reviews in other mainstream publications. The eminently respectable Harper's gave the novel the closest attention. Its reviewer declared: No novel has yet appeared so comprehensive in its range, bearing upon the great social questions of the day: the position of woman and the conditions of labor. Its publication is very timely now, when the long-continued agitation of these topics has rendered it desirable that the problems involved should be clearly presented, and their possible solution indicated from the most hopeful point of view.... it is the great argument of the story, with its glorious forecast of the future, that will most impress thoughtful readers.... (443) The circumspect language of the Harper's review suggests that Papa's Own Girl is somehow a mainstream publication, a rational, reassuringly optimistic distillation of the

problems that engrossed its educated, liberal-minded, middle-class readers. Yet other evidence suggests that such a bland representation of Howland's novel is misleading-perhaps purposely so. While the recent passage of the Comstock Law(FN5) in 1873 may well have led Howland to temper her language, Papa's Own Girl was sufficiently explicit in its discussions of women's sexual rights (and the sexual wrongs done to them) that several libraries, including the Boston Public, banned the novel for its "immorality" (Preface, POG second edition). Howland herself was prevented from borrowing the book from a Philadelphia library: The solicitous librarian, unaware that he was speaking to the book's author, informed Howland that she would need "an order from the chief librarian" to check out Papa's Own Girl because "'its doctrines are corrupting.'" As Howland recalled the encounter, she "left the library without revealing the fact that [she] wrote the book and therefore could not be very badly corrupted by its doctrines."(FN6) The disparate and sometimes puzzling responses to Papa's Own Girl reflect the complexities of Howland's interweaving of radical utopian premises and sentimental literary conventions. These conventions include the set of character types and plots that dominated mid- to late-nineteenth-century women's novels, as well as the emphasis on the emotional aspect of social relationships and the cultural power of feminine influence that permeated these novels. The mere fact that Howland combined sentimental and utopian discourse does not account for the deeply ambivalent reception that was accorded the work. Sentimentality and domesticity would, in fact, seem ideal candidates to disguise or mitigate the potential social threat of a politically radical work. The paradigmatic utopian novel of the nineteenth century, Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward (1888) uses sentimental discourse precisely to such effect. As Kenneth Roemer has persuasively argued, Bellamy invoked the conventions of sentimentality in order to help situate his readers in the unfamiliar political and social space of utopia, in effect creating a home for the reader in the text. Roemer observes: ... if a nineteenth-century author intended to write a book that would motivate middleclass readers to change their self-images and their society, it made sense to draw upon the types of settings familiar to readers of domestic fictions--settings that could easily be read into their own lives where they could begin to translate the fictional narrative into realworld action or at least into altered perceptions of their environment. ("The Literary Domestication of Utopia," 110) But Howland's invocation of sentimental types and relationships differs from Bellamy's in a crucial way: While demonstrating how certain sentimental strategies, such as the use of female influence for social evangelism, can forward the cause of radical utopian change, Howland also uses utopian radicalism as a means of challenging and correcting problematic aspects of sentimentality and its close companion, domestic ideology. Sentimentality and domesticity help to situate the reader in the unfamiliar terrain of Papa's Own Girl, but Howland's feminist, Fourierist, and free-love principles inevitably change some of the familiar coordinates of the sentimental or domestic novel. The sentimental apparatus of the novel offers a superficial sense of orientation, the feeling that this text is familiar terrain. But this very assurance that the text is a terra cognita opens the way for a profound experience of disorientation as typical characters and plots are subtly reshaped and re-aligned.

work of female social reform. Albinski's uneasiness is understandable. as Roemer suggests. and which probably limited its general circulation. offers a critique of American society far more devastating than any delivered by better-known critics such as Hawthorne and Melville" to "certain cases" (124). Tompkins's argument is. she re-reads submission--whether that of Stowe's Uncle Tom or of Susan Warner's best-selling heroine Ellen Montgomery--as an act of Christian heroism that has radical consequences for redefining society according to Christian and matrifocal millennial principles (Tompkins 163-172). in one particular case: To what degree and in what ways does sentimentality. finding the latter prone to getting lost in a "sentimental romance" that is "irrelevant" to the utopian message and subversive of the text's feminism (50). that "a novel's impact on the culture at large depends not on its escape from the formulaic and derivative. absorb and transform a potentially radical set of ideas and concerns? And in what ways does the utopian genre transform the sentimental? Howland's "high tone[d]" "story of American life" (Godey's). and therefore unthreatening. In rescuing women's sentimental writing from critical oblivion. But the triangulation of sentimentality.. and feminism poses an even knottier problem and produces a more conflicted discourse. especially in women's utopian writing. the very parts of the novel that aroused the censors. Certainly. reproducing what is already there in a typical and familiar form" (xvi. for the relationship between sentimental discourse and progressive politics. her "glorious forecast of the future" (Harper's). briefly. not by sales figures but by the novel's ability to spur its readers to action: Some . However.Papa's Own Girl raises questions about the interpretation of sentimentality as a generically subversive as well as simultaneously reassuring literary discourse. What I hope to do in my reading of Papa's Own Girl is not merely to affirm or reverse Albinski's critical judgment that sentimentality weakens American feminist utopian writing but to investigate the following questions.. other critics have been more suspicious of sentimentality. While Roemer's explication of Looking Backward helps to establish the relevance of sentimentality to utopian fiction on the grounds of nineteenth century reader-response. Tompkins's formula has proved enabling for feminist scholars who have sought to rescue mid-nineteenthcentury women's novels from the old critical assumption that these novels are literarily as well as politically vacuous. utopia. her interpretation of sentimental power with its revolutionary potential grounded (ironically) in what still appears to be sexual and economic conservatism suggests broader conclusions about the genre itself. ongoing since the 1970s. is ambiguous at best. a literary form so common as to constitute a cultural template. validated the novel for a smaller but historically significant audience. a certain body of criticism celebrating sentimentality has developed in the wake of Jane Tompkins's landmark Sensational Designs (1985). subverted precisely the aspects of domesticity that would have allowed the novel to pass as a properly mediated. see also 126-127). Although Tompkins limits her assertion that the "the popular domestic novel . sentimentality is less easily dismissed. Woodhull and Claflin's prediction that Papa's Own Girl would rub shoulders with Uncle Tom's Cabin on the figurative bookshelf of fame was eventually justified. but on its tapping into a storehouse of commonly held assumptions. Nan Albinski has contrasted nineteenth-century British and American women writers. With the re-evaluation of domesticity and sentimentality in American literature. especially feminism. the merger of sentimentality and utopia may produce a powerful if in some ways compromised discourse. in contrast.

The novel attracted the attention of Albert Owen. named Pacific City. The consistent comparison of Papa's Own Girl to Uncle Tom's Cabin made by contemporary readers would seem to bolster a Tompkins-esque interpretation of the novel. How a former mill girl. now."(FN9) Although Jewett had a pecuniary incentive to boost the novel.(FN7) Howland (then Marie Stevens Case) spent the years of the Civil War in Europe with the man who was to become her second husband.of Howland's readers attempted to establish a Fourierist utopia like the one sketched in her novel--not in New England but. was.000 copies of the first edition (figure given by Edward Howland) was passed "from hand to hand. editing the colony newspaper from their home in New Jersey. in the 1880s. on the west coast of Mexico. the organ that publicized the utopian colony. Perhaps also like the two free-loving. she visited Godin's Familistère. a brief but suggestive indication of the imperialistic reach of both American utopian novels. Jewett wrote: "This artistic and powerfully written novel is to the social questions that agitate the civilized world. it went on as the evangel of the old-new gospel of human brotherhood" (Hogeland). what Uncle Tom's Cabin was to the question of slavery. a light shining in dark places. To the contrary. of which only a small part can be outlined here. Like Woodhull and Claflin.. F. and children to the Mexican harbor of Topolobampo (Fogarty 88) is a fascinating and complex story. While in France. Then some pitying friend gave it a new and stronger back and sides. the Howlands and Owen came up with the plan for a Fourierist colony to be built on the west coast of Mexico as the terminus of a cross-continental railroad. Marie and Edward Howland were indefatigable publicists for the venture. writing in 1889. Papa's Own Girl was crucial in convincing many of these people to invest their all in the Topolobampo venture.A. the publisher of Stowe's anti-slavery novel and the initial publisher of Papa's Own Girl. implausible as it may appear to a modern critic. The analogy. came to be partly responsible for the emigration of more than a thousand American men. more than superficial. Although Pacific City ultimately failed both as a Fourierist utopia and as a railroad scheme. till out of very weariness it threatened immediate dissolution. more adventurously. it attracted over twelve hundred people between 1886 and 1893 (Fogarty 88). Edward Howland. As letters written to Howland in the late 1880s show. these readers saw Papa's Own Girl as a new "Uncle Tom's Cabin . Atwater.(FN8) That Howland advertised the novel in The Credit Foncier of Sinaloa.. Like a good distributor of tract literature. together. a middle-aged and tenuously middle-class New Jersey matron. notes that he bought copies of Papa's Own Girl and Looking Backward to send to Australia.(FN10) Several correspondents personify the book as an evangelical missionary. the potential colonists were prone to aggrandizing the significance of the novel. his comment proceeds from a verifiably mainstream sensibility. women. for these readers. They themselves emigrated to the young colony. feminist publishers. one eloquent writer describes how one of the precious 3. Atwater . in 1888. may have been the first to draw the analogy: according to the translator of the French edition. could only have reinforced readers' tendencies to interpret the novel as a schema for a better life. John Jewett himself. who had a railroad scheme to sell. the cooperative ironworks and worker's home that served as her model for her fictional Social Palace in Papa's Own Girl. and thus recreated and restrengthened. leading up to the realization of fond hopes through weary efforts" (Gray). But their response was not merely that of a marginalized radical fringe.

While such mediation initially helped to garner support for Fourierism. Guarneri has observed. As Carl J. to give away" since first reading it in 1876. like an emphasis on the practical failure of Fourierism.. While Papa's Own Girl is a "lever of revolution.. I have always been grateful for this service to the society of the future. Howland predicates the multiple happy endings of her novel on the arrival of an entrepreneur-aristocrat. communism. echoing some of the significant moderating moves of the Fourierist discourse of the 1840s. who marries the divorced primary heroine. industrial association. A more productive approach to Papa's Own Girl would investigate its moments of formal and ideological compromise as points of structural resistance where friction between the text's sentimental and utopian modes shows the limits of the strategy of mutual mediation. the Count von Frauenstein. Uncle Tom's Cabin was a lever of revolution. in ideal form. Channing carefully (and accurately) notes that the novel is not a vehicle of the most profoundly radical movement of the time. That she reached them at all is a testament to Howland's innovative artistry and talent for ideological synthesis. Yet the element of State Socialism in that movement is so dangerous that it calls for the best positive statement of free.. you would perhaps see a reason and find an excuse for this letter. If you could see the dilapidated covers of Papa's Own Girl on the table before me." having been "[f]atally compromised by its affinity with mainstream practice" (11). I am very unwilling that the presentation of the associative movement in Papa's Own Girl. adopts the illegitimate child of the secondary heroine. should be lost to the present time. who waited all of his life (in vain) for a rich benefactor to fund his first phalanx (Guarneri 20)." like Uncle Tom's Cabin. Fiction is the greatest teacher of the present day. The ideological resolutions achieved in the novel are frequently tenuous. The same charge could be made against Papa's Own Girl in regards to its reliance on a romantic hero to resolve both the sentimental and the utopian plot. Howland's communitarian romance is ultimately conciliatory. Much of the "Nationalist" movement must interest every constructive socialist.remarks that he has "bought many a copy of [Papa's Own Girl] . The parable and indirect word teach better than direct precept. and its dissenting-but-loyal system of thought" offered a middle road between capitalism and socialism (10). Into that book. But an emphasis on the ideologically compromised end of the novel. Like Fourier. obscures the boldness with which Howland attempted to suture radical thought to mainstream discourse. and invests his fortune in erecting a "Social Palace" on the edge of a New England town.. "Fourierism's semicapitalistic community plan. the degree to which . Like Stowe's novel. due to much missionary work which it has done. The books written by women in modern literature have introduced a new factor in the thought of the world. Guarneri argues that "utopian socialism was co-opted and absorbed into an emerging national consensus. you have put something of Charles Fourier's grand thought. A powerful socialistic impulse has just been given by Looking Backward. William F. Channing's(FN11) letter suggesting a reprint of the novel indicates the general theory of the role of literature in radical reform to which Howland's readers seemed to subscribe: . voluntary.

divorces her husband. its action was subtle and its fulcrum well concealed. feminism. I have lent it freely among my friends so that the noble sentiments contained there might be instituted in their minds too. Canada." As contemporary readers recognized. closes down saloons. speaks at a suffrage convention. She has been wanting to go into some co-operative scheme ever since" (Vrooman). Whatever the ideological and literary flaws of the novel. Letters casting Papa's Own Girl as a tireless evangelist circulating among parlors from Canada to Australia occasionally--and understandably--conflated the novel with the character who is the "papa's girl" of the title. and generally does everything imaginable to shock her conventional mother. entered the community of utopian readers after her brother.. and Fourierism. whose every radical impulse is rooted in her exquisitely developed moral sensibilities. one of the Topolobampo colonists. If Papa's Own Girl was a "lever for revolution" (Channing). Readers were generally quite taken with Clara.. the novel was lauded for its pleasing romance as well as its political doctrines. Papa's Own Girl found eager and receptive readers whose hearts and minds were kindled by the Uncle Tom's Cabin of free love. but perhaps more importantly. rescues fallen women. it is all because "love was her religion--the one necessity of her higher life" (POG 393).she fails testifies to the disparity between the modes of thought she sought to fuse. Baker called it "Truly artistic.D. Enterprising readers such as Atwater enabled the novel to carry its message to the distant shores of Australia. The censoring librarians in Boston and Philadelphia could not restrict the hand-to-hand circulation of the novel described by its enthusiasts: "Its sentiment is grand. For an audience accustomed to pious heroines. Baker). Young Mary Youmans confided in a letter to Howland that the novel had "given me ideas of equity and justice that I never had before. was your Papa's Own Girl. Clara Forest (see Crouch. Recognized at once as propaganda. My sister Ida read the book and it helped give her a new birth into a higher life. social as well as personal. epoch-making as regards my own personal history. She remains one of the brave to-day with the faithful pioneers in Sinaloa. Napoleon Hogeland(FN12) credits the novel with changing his life: One of the epoch-making books that I have read.. L. it appears to have been an effective domestic missionary in recruiting many of those who undertook the journey to Mexico. alike satisfactory and delightful to reason and feeling. the primary Angel in the Novel. goes into business. sent her a copy. Mother read it at first. Howland's novel rewards careful reading as a literary production as well as a political tract. and was much pleased.. more help and fructifying thought than the few cents spent for that one book. The reforms . and I have started my copy around the neighborhood. If Clara pursues an education. Even a "A School-girl Co-operator. I think I never made an investment that gave me and others more satisfaction. It makes a splendid propagande [sic] document. Clara's holier-than-thou rationales for her unusual agenda might have lessened the threat of her more radical theories and actions." From Harry Vrooman's mother to Mary Youman's girlfriends." in Ottawa.. the "corrupting" doctrines cozily ensconced in the sentimental text were able to penetrate the private spaces of middle-class parlors and even of young ladies' seminaries. or who supported the colony from home. Clara's religion of love demands a purity of purpose in all of her interactions..

Free-love theory re-cast marriage as fundamentally openended (see Sears). such as Christian piety and purity. contrasted to two other feminine types. if at all. particularly as shaped by traditional marriage. when the union has proved a success.." the woman of fashion (28). Much of the novel's social criticism is effected through the young heroine's encounters with a world that slowly reveals itself as corrupt and exploitative. patience. While Clara's politics seemingly refute central tenets of true womanhood. though [she] can't bear their oppressing odor" (POG 199). His advice fails to deter his daughter. launches her on a trajectory that takes her far past the point of corrective rebellion where most heroines of domestic novels would stop. The competition between the two women--the loving wife and the heartless flirt--ignites a domestic tinderbox. a man she idolizes. Clara's submission to conventional bridal forms comes as a relief to Mrs. and mild arguments. Why. so unlike other girls.. Papa's Own Girl proposes that Clara represents an even truer kind of womanhood than that of popular domestic ideology.effected in the novel are brought about not by revolutionary violence (the threat of marxist socialism) but by the gentle powers of feminine influence. the sentimental heroine is "frequently . an agitator of woman's . Dr. Like her literary counterparts. who." the "passive woman" and the "belle. decides to "submit even to the orange blossoms. Foremost among Howland's targets is the politics of gender and sexuality. Ever the genial critic of the status quo. While Clara believes that her marriage to a desirable young Boston physician. The conflict between Ella and Clara is overtly one of sexual and emotional rivalry for the attention of Clara's first husband. she nevertheless submits to the traditional ceremonial trappings of a middle-class wedding (POG 168. Howland's free love plot disrupts the usual closure provided by marriage in the domestic narrative. what Clara would have come to. she might have become a frequenter of conventions. 203). 197. Albert. providing an occasion for Howland to expound upon the free-love notions of sexuality and marriage that led to the novel's being censored. if she had not fortunately married young. a perfect union sanctioned by true love. with her inherited tendency to freedom. for the sake of her fiancé and her mother. Similarly. As Nina Baym has noted. who sees Clara's marriage as providentially foreclosing her radical inclinations: There was no knowing. combined in the character of her nemesis Ella. in her opinion. The chapter entitled "Clara's Wedding" puts into play the tension between traditional notions of marriage and its radical revisions. which Howland criticizes as manipulative strategies employed by women to gain advantage over men. The most significant threat of free-love to traditional domesticity was that free love refused the legitimacy of marriage as an act that legally enclosed the wife. Forest comments that "'a young woman conventionally gotten up as a bride. marriage is the catalyst that accelerates Clara's development into a practicing as well as a theoretical radical. and there is something to rejoice over" (POG 204). Clara's reaction to Ella's negative "feminine" traits of passivity and narcissism. Clara defines herself against both types. Far from putting an end to the heroine's story. is a free-love match. Forest. Her father's wry observations about marriage and weddings deflate but cannot destroy the romance surrounding "'the supreme hour for girls'" (POG 203). as Clara carefully converts the conservative people of her town by her fortitude. simply suggests a victim tricked out for sacrifice'" (POG 199) and advises that "Marriage festivals should take place after marriage.

Clara has abundant opportunities to acquire a critical perspective on marriage and sexual relations between men and women. derives not from such novels. A rather mild episode of flirtation between Albert and Ella disturbs Clara's treasured conviction "that love in all its divine freshness. Forest feared most--but. Albert believes that his question. The Story of Avis (1877). By representing love as the daily litmus test that legitimizes marriage. but rather from the principles she has acquired from her father and select authors such George Sand. in a dystopian world. However. an indissoluble bond. Or. but that she has been deceived regarding her husband's commitment to the free love ideals she endorses. thanks to Providence. Clara. "'Are we not irrevocably bound to each other by the very act of marriage?'" is self-evidently rhetorical. The emotional predicament of Howland's heroine is the more compelling because Papa's . the sentimental barometer that registers the presence or absence of utopian possibilities. divorce was unacceptable. such as Elizabeth Stuart Phelps's popular work. When her marriage begins to disintegrate." for "[t]o countenance divorce was to open Pandora's box. apparently so similar to Avis's and countless other domestic heroines.rights--that was indeed what Mrs. and therefore it naturally sought plurality and variety in its arrangements" (Sears 22). "even if woman's worst fear materialized and her great and only destiny became her great and only disaster. Ironically. Clara herself questions whether her sensitivity is morbidly excessive. Papa's Own Girl opens up all kinds of options that cannot be considered in other sentimental novels that criticize marriage. but flourishes in the utopian spaces that open out from her failed union with Albert. true love created true marriage. she had made an excellent match. returns a firm answer: "'The divine spirit of Love makes and justifies marriage. when the soul is gone'" (POG 228). could be preserved" (POG 226-29). The body is nothing to me. the exclusivists argued that such love could exist only between two people. And of course. rather than regarding marriage as the unchangeable consequence of a ceremonial vow. for sexual purposes. Forest's relief is. Clara languishes in conventional society and in her conventional marriage. to trigger countless unimaginable fears" (Kelley 237). like lust. her daughter hearkens to the free-love line. In antebellum novels in particular. placing love over law. whereas the varietists held that love. "'There is no marriage when love is dead'" (POG 290). or free to plan and scheme for the respectable establishment of her two remaining daughters. premature. however. for while she views marriage as a sacred social and legal institution. she is excessively sensitive--but only because she is a utopian character trapped. was general rather than specific in its objects. to develop the floral metaphor so important to the long middle of the novel. (POG 208-9) Mrs. of course. Clara (like Howland herself) appears to adhere to the exclusivist rather than the varietist school of free-love thought: "Although both factions generally held that. her role in the novel is to be. the lesson Clara (and Howland) adduces is not that Clara's demand for complete satisfaction in marriage is unrealistic. Clara's exalted view of love. and the mother's soul was at rest. in effect. Clara's trials are largely emotional. Before separating from Albert. As Clara melodramatically proclaims to her baffled mother. divorce becomes Clara's moral duty when her husband ceases to return her love. at this point. Clara's love life tracks the progress of utopian realization throughout the novel. Unlike the lowerclass women in the novel who suffer from physically abusive fathers or lovers.

Howland does. This modest feminist utopia--a kind of commune. When Mrs. before the appearance of the romantic hero and chiefly through the efforts of the women themselves. the founder of the economic and social utopia that puts an end to the narrative. Clara retains her faith in the sentimental and sexual utopia of free love. Wide World (1850). Susie's function is to debunk the sentimental valorization of female suffering as the hallmark of the True Woman. the plot takes an unexpected turn away from heterosexual romance. with the certainty that it would protect me from all intrusion. she "appear[s] in the doctor's room in a ravishing night toilet that had been packed away in lavender since the days of their honeymoon" (POG 143). is essentially accomplished two-thirds of the way through the novel. In an inverse scenario.Own Girl makes explicit the sexual tension usually so heavily encrypted in sentimental discourse. the inadvertently funny displacement of erotic desires onto tame little ponies and big unruly stallions in Susan Warner's enormously popular evangelical novel.(FN13) Free-love feminists were keenly aware that the freedom not to submit to sex at all represented as great an advance for women as did the freedom to choose to have sex with a desired partner (Sears 22). When a typical sentimental heroine lives to the end of the novel. tongue in cheek: "Is it possible that even virtuous married men are sometimes the victims of artful women?" (POG 143). Forest's seduction of the old doctor is presented wryly as a commentary on the husband's weakness of will. Instead of. The Wide. as sentimental readers would expect. financially successful man (Baym 38-39). The heroines conceive of the business as "a great industry for poor women . Susie becomes a prosperous business woman instead of drowning herself or dying in childbirth. Sexual coercion within marriage seems to be an equal-opportunity evil. even from that of my husband!" (POG 235). Mrs. Forest's behavior amounts to sexual manipulation and borders on prostitution. In contrast to the traditional fate of pregnant girls in early-nineteenth-century novels of seduction. Clara's inability to avoid Albert's advances is a pathetic revelation of the wife's legal and physical subordination to her husband. in contrast. "true" marriage." a capitalist venture in the service of feminism. Ejected from "Love's perfect Eden" (POG 237). in fact--is the work of Clara's lower-class parallel. Susie. her suffering is usually rewarded by marriage to a socially established. In case some readers missed the point that Mrs. An unwed mother. but instead in her self-liberation as she leaves her husband and joins a small domestic utopia composed almost exclusively of women. however. Forest wants to bring Dr. Papa's Own Girl refers to sex with an explicitness perfectly sufficient to communicate free love views. Forest around to her point of view. replacing pious suffering and denial with an ideal of female self-fulfillment. Clara's failed marriage results not in her consumptive decline. But between the dissolution of Clara's first marriage and the resolution of her second. Howland apostrophizes. indicate the different possibilities for resistance available to men and to women. Susie dissociates virtue from virginity by learning to interpret her sexual experience in the terms of free love philosophy rather than by the hegemonic double standard (POG 96). Her vision of an ideal partner will eventually be embodied in the person of Count von Frauenstein. The vindication of the heroines in Papa's Own Girl. Even more than Clara. Clara finds herself wishing that she "might have the one right the Turkish woman has!--if I might put my slippers outside my door. for example. Faithless lovers and husbands are left to enjoy the bitter fruits of their folly while Susie and Clara profit from the more literal fruits of their "flower business.

charmingly frank and interesting letters. (POG 70. It was clear. mild. but she was a little jealous all the same. idealized mother. To her father she scrawled long. in mainstream sentimental literature. rapid. even as re-constituted as an ideal in the relationship between Susie and her daughter. Maternal power lies at the heart of domestic ideology and constitutes the putatively radical base of sentimental discourse (Tompkins 141-143). The contrast between Clara's mother and father illustrates Howland's critique: "Mrs. correct. Forest considered in rather more ladylike taste. But in Papa's Own Girl. pious. is not only the supreme form of feminist heroism." as the venture is called. Clara is truly her father's daughter. it is also the best revenge. Notable domestic heroines such as Ellen Montgomery internalize the lost. Gertrude Flint. "Papa's Own Girl. Only by separating herself from her mother's conventionalities. living. that Clara wrote her mother from duty--short. and other domestic heroines are emphatically their mothers' daughters. emphasis in original) Clara has mastered the forms of sentimental discourse. "Your affectionate daughter." yet emptied of the affective content that animates the mother-daughter relationship in more typical domestic novels. "Dykes and Delano. mother-love alone. dutiful. could not understand the doctor's broad love of humanity" (POG 108).who wish to gain an independent position" (POG 337). Clara's closeness to her father amounts to a betrayal: The doctor's radical ideas had always alarmed her [Mrs. Howland even inverts the normative mother-daughter relationship by having Clara educate and eventually convert her own mother to feminism and Fourierism (although not necessarily to free love). Sentimental idealizations of maternity. even if the mother dies early on in the story. its most subtle: in place of the maternally-oriented values of sentimental novels. Instead. Howland's description of Mrs. her correspondence with her mother is perfectly "correct. The most significant divergence of Papa's Own Girl from the archetypal domestic novel (see Baym) is initially. With an . absorbing his philosophy with his love. at least. Clara's schoolgirl letters to her parents encode the tension between sentimental and political discourse that structures the novel. as Tompkins asserts. and it had troubled her exceedingly to find that Clara delighted in just those radical notions that were her horror. Howland's novel substitutes radical values encoded explicitly as masculine. signing herself. in Howland's analysis. as she undoubtedly was. From her mother's perspective. which Howland describes as dancing in a "pint-pot" (POG 66). "never employ a man when a woman could be found to do the work required" (POG 343). Forest. gentle. If. she is not merely a passive type of womanhood (see Baym 28)--she is pathologically passive-aggressive. In characterizing Clara's maternal heritage as oppressive and disempowering. the daughter is completely oriented to her father. Forest is highly ironic. is an insufficient principle for restructuring society. Indeed. Ellen Montgomery." which indeed Mrs. and living well. Forest]. but Clara must reject rather than introject her mother." To her mother she invariably subscribed herself. and very commonplace notes. in Papa's Own Girl. too. collapse too often into a narrow parochialism. Howland severs her novel from the domestic tradition. "dying is the supreme form of heroism" (127). and embracing her father's liberal attitudes does Clara become a true utopian woman.

Susie and her child. Instead. Howland does not represent the triumphantly successful Boston marriage of Clara and Susie as her ultimate utopian vision. "Papa" performs the "gloriously radical marriage ceremony. Appropriately." that is. The consummation of the radical and the sentimental in Clara's wedding "beneath the two blossom-laden orange-trees. The love triangle between Dr." seduces via the daughter Papa has intellectually impregnated. radical political theory.unselfconscious candor possible only in a pre-Freudian age.) While the doctor pronounces the bulk of the novel's radical political theory. In contrast to the homely "vine-shaded porch" of the "ordinary-sized country house" inhabited by Clara. and Clara reinforces Clara's role as a conduit of a radical tradition characterized as masculine. "With a woman--no. Dr. Clara declares. but it also presages her early retirement. and Barbara Quissell have noted with understandable disappointment. expressing their views fearlessly. The millionaire count Frauenstein. yes" (POG 373).. the sentimental novel. too threatening to persuade the other characters. in the person of "Papa. is the mate hand-picked for Clara by her adored Papa. Despite such perfect "sympathy" between the two male radicals. not because it is feminist. Forest is a Fourierist. with a man. and thus far had found them in perfect accord. and feminist. have you ever been in love?'" the older man readily replies. I would argue that the firm of Dykes and Delano must give way. [designed] after our wicked latitudinarian hearts" (POG 489). (Papa's Own Girl 67-68 gives a good sample of his opinions. "'Doctor. the "grand facade of the palace . capable of satisfying every feminine need.. there are unspecified "needs" that only a woman can meet (POG 373). a feminine medium is required to complete the bond. cementing the passional attraction that links her father and her lover. presents an .(FN14) As feminist critics such as Darby Lewes. The symbolically incestuous relationship between "Papa" and his "Own Girl" is the source of the novel's success as a textbook for radical proselytizing. Frauenstein. Clara slips naturally into place between the two men. and an ever-increasing number of worthy and mostly female employees. yet so closely in sympathy that thought answered to thought like the voice of one's own soul. "I always wanted to marry Papa" (POG 90). finally overwhelms the feminist utopian niche that these women have carved out of the hostile social and economic environment that surrounds them. (POG 372) To Frauenstein's question. his "Own Girl. but because it is capitalist. culminates the bildungsroman plot of Clara's development as a female radical. Carol Farley Kessler. since when they had corresponded. Forest. too strong. Dr. To say they loved each other like brothers would by no means express the sentiment existing between these two men. the grandiose vision of the phalanstery. as Howland prepares readers for their tour of the Social Palace. he had never found a man who was so much "after his own heart. the happiness and prosperity of the whole" (POG 507). his opinions are too brusque. Forest falls in love with Frauenstein long before he has the opportunity to introduce his daughter: So far in his life. Instead." He believed in him fully from the first hour he conversed with him. that dropped their fragrant petals on the united hands of Paul and Clara" (POG 489). a fantasy figure of the phallic father. so unlike in many respects. free-lover. she asserts that "Even the narrowest and most selfish have learned that the happiness and continued prosperity of the individual lies in. and is indissolubly interwoven with. hinted at throughout the novel.

betrays an intense fascination with the overwhelming grandeur of the royal estate. The frieze of this striking edifice is "illuminated" with the words "LIBERTY. As Frauenstein declares to his recruits: "'You are not working to build a stately palace for the rich. until. The painful irony of Marie Antoinette's having "installed a dozen poor families in the cottages as permanent residents" is underscored by Howland's observation that "the queen [was] spending money enough on each entertainment to save thousands from the hunger that consumed them" ("The Trianon Palaces" 36. or mean tenement houses.(FN15) The amenities offered by the Social Palace are staggering: the list merely begins with a "café. 38). Howland's innovative design restructures rather than eliminates its residents' experience of class divisions. All of this collective luxury is supported by the conveniently multipurpose silk factory. In contrast to Marie Antoinette's bizarre collection of show-peasants. it shall become one fair garden from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Howland reconciles her love of aristocratic luxury with her commitment to the working class by creating a true Versailles for the people. a "brick-making establishment" (POG 510). they can still enjoy all the advantages necessary to make a home pleasant and wholesome. "those who by labor create the wealth of the world" ("The Trianon Palaces" 39). Howland nevertheless returns repeatedly to the starving masses whose exploitation supports such royal extravagance. While Hayden interprets the Social Palace as a fantastic revision of "the cramped quarters of the 'mill girls' in the Lowell(FN17) boardinghouses of Howland's youth" (100). and greenhouses run by Susie (POG 528). In Papa's Own Girl. but hereafter labor organizations will build them for themselves. Howland's article based on her visit to Versailles. but not immediately . the workers who inhabit the Social Palace can build equity in their collective home. and which the family in isolation ." (101).(FN16) Despite the opulence of her fictional phalanstery. integrated residence and workplace." a "great public kitchen. and from China to Gibraltar'" (POG 413-414). "The Trianon Palaces. all over the world. Although not erased.. Godin explains in Social Solutions that association itself is the key to improving the lot of the poor: "If the families of the poor cannot have the sumptuous apartments of the rich. and billiard-room. heated in winter by the exhaust steam of the silk factory" (POG 508-510). a more direct inspiration may have been Howland's tour of Versailles during her residence in France. 507). while you keep yourselves and your children in hovels. as I hope." underscoring the status of the Social Palace as an American translation of French ideals.imposing appearance" (POG 509). As Dolores Hayden has noted. besides which the palace of Versailles will seem the work of a 'prentice hand'" (POG 372). they are investors rather than objects of a sinister charity (POG 412-414. Howland's Social Palace "is faithful to the Fourierist plans which inspired it: 'passional attraction' was to erase class divisions in time. Enamored of the exquisite luxury of the Petit Trianon." "EQUALITY. restaurant. A capitalist builds this. The palace you are to build is to be your own home and that of your children after you. The founder of the fictional Familistere describes his projected Social Palace as "'a magnificent structure. with all those general advantages which the palace of the Association affords to its inhabitants. the signification of "class" is substantially modified by the social and physical architecture of the communal." AND "FRATERNITY." a child-care and educational complex for newborns to adolescents." published in Lippincott's in 1874. and particularly with the lavish bucolic fantasy constructed by Marie Antoinette. and "fine swimming-baths ....

or man either.. "good old Dinah" (POG 98) still serves the Forests after they move into the Social Palace. comfort. is offered the chance to run "our great steam-laundry . traditionally female or otherwise. "The world has generally believed that women are by nature devoted to the cooking-stove. enough to make his wife and family and himself comfortable. Howland assumes that "natural attraction" will lead women to concern themselves with "the internal interests. the wash-tub. "Class" becomes a transitory category rather than naming a group position in an oppressive social matrix. While the Social Palace permits class. and no woman. It is the only thing that can give one-half the human race. and freedom. defuses the possibility of tension between the classes in the utopian phalanstery. who can scarcely speak a word of English. While all classes from the poorest workers to the richest capitalists are integrated into the Social Palace. even though her cooking duties have been reduced to bringing fully prepared meals from the communal kitchen to the family's private dining room.. freedom and comfort. Such a sense of collective ownership. The Social Palace is one of the great inventions of this or any other age. the Forest family's cook and a former slave (POG 12) fares similarly. The quintessential stereotype of the inexplicably loyal black servant. who thinks he is better than another. and gender distinctions.. and other domestic tasks in the phalanx. and the cradle. And. cleaning. As collective. As one of Howland's correspondents explains the logic of the phalanstery. woman. the servants. because he dresses differently or happens to be born in a different country" (POG 415).could not procure" (50). and be a household drudge. the utopian phalanstery absorbs ethnic difference into the colorful decor of the residence without abandoning racial stereotypes. can earn enough. Dinah... We have found out positively that this is a mistake" (POG 54). would in practice engage twice as many women as men" (Guarneri 131). the food and other supplies. Apparently not conscious of his own egregious stereotyping. Like Fourier. Dinah remains a servant." although they are not officially limited to these issues (POG 452). professional services replace the labor of the private home. with a baseline standard of living that far outstrips middle-class standards of comfort and culture. But for Howland. nurseries. As Frauenstein announces. Gender roles are similarly modified rather than evacuated in the Social Palace. ethnic. which will free [the workers'] wives from the wash-tub" (POG 415). being human beings need servants. typical feminine concerns do not necessarily mesh with individual women's actual employment.. to pay good wages to servants. Among the lost souls that the Count rescues is "a poor Chinaman. as much as himself. thus cooking." as this Asian immigrant is named. Fourier went so far as to quantify "gender traits into series [work groups] composed two-thirds of one sex and one-third the other. and do it honestly. "Too Soon. women are freed to undertake paid work. of course. Even without any real work to do. and who was suffering from hunger" on the streets of what seems to be an almost uniformly white New England town. one's place on the socioeconomic staircase virtually ceases to signify when that staircase is fantastically transformed into an endlessly rising escalator. the Count exhorts the white laborers to respect the "Chinaman's" cultural differences: "no man is worthy of the name. schools .. theoretically open to all. and so on ad infinitum. it purports to empty them of their invidious character. No woman can have time to cultivate herself. (Jones) .

. The final line of the novel is spoken by Clara. Several critics have commented on the problematic implications of this conclusion (Kessler. Quissell). who holding her baby. If this is where being "Papa's Own Girl" has brought her.Achieving comfort. will recall that any time Clara likes. emphasis in original). Howland's Fourierist vision thus paradoxically reinstates the divide between the private and the public. advantages analogous to those that wealth secures" (217. her rejection of her maternal heritage is fully validated. who has just given birth to twins. and physical health. into a public and communal domesticity that encloses and protects a kernel of familial sentiment. "Am I not Papa's Own Girl?" (POG 547. she is a delicate woman who is strained by the labors of life in her private household. while her husband and father are busy conducting a public gala celebrating the opening of the phalanstery. Clara. seen as fundamentally dysfunctional. The reader. The most striking instance of this ideological paradox occurs at the conclusion of the novel. emphasis in original). Every man is its father. that the novel sets out to eliminate. Forest "watched [Clara's] delight with sad eyes. who has just been given a detailed tour of the Social Palace. The Social Palace transforms the private home. is pictured "lying very pale and still among her pillows. The notion of "equivalence" promises that the ends of capitalism (understood as essentially exploitative) can be attained through the ethically superior economic system of Fourier. even luxury. The French translator puts these words in Clara's mouth: "May my child be the worthy son of his father and grandfather!"(FN18) Certainly the feminism of the novel seems to be undermined by this closing bow to patriarchy. hears the cheers of a whole phalanstery full of people who will support her in raising her son. in which Clara's mother. in contrast.. while she takes part in the work and governance of the collective home." According to the good doctor." Mrs. All employments are open to her. the feminine and the masculine. Further evidence for interpreting this ending as a collapse into patriarchalism is provided by the French translation. as Godin argues "the amelioration of the working-classes cannot be real until they are in possession of the equivalents of wealth. emotional. and then turned her face wearily to the wall" (POG 5).. "It is our baby. Howland re-maps the domestic terrain through the landscape and architecture of the phalanstery. and every child its brother and sister" (POG 546). which was funded by Godin himself. Clara is tucked away in a back room giving birth to the symbolic heir to the Social Palace. She faces none of the burdens of the isolated housekeeper or traditional mother. looks up at her father and says.. without exploitation is the goal of the phalanstery. The closing childbirth is in fact a revision of the childbed scene that opens the novel. every woman its mother. and the cultural and recreational facilities offer the means to maintain perfect mental. The Social Palace must not be complicit with the oppressive aspects of capitalism. The logic that appropriates the goals of capitalism by the cleansing action of analogy also abstracts a domestic ideal from the exploitative and wasteful practices of private domesticity. Clara's mother may well be weary. for in the tradition of the mothers of domestic fiction. Yet I would argue that this birth scene must be read in the context of the space (both physical and political) in which it takes place. or in other words. In the last chapter. she can drop off her child at the round-the-clock nursery (POG 518-522). the "child of the Social Palace. Darby Lewes has cited this scene as showing that "the androcentric social view is still firmly in place" as the novel's "unconventional women doggedly pursue the conventions of the domestic sphere" (95).

for example. (FN21) Howland firmly settles the concern that she might subordinate women's interests to a socialist agenda: "In an address . lover all in one. comrade. mentor. Carol Farley Kessler's analysis of Papa's Own Girl as a "feminist critique of the institution of heterosexual marriage" (69). Howland described Edward as "a divine soul if ever one was born on the earth" (Howland to Anna Hoffman. Many years later. but it does demonstrate that the couple had a rich and deeply affectionate partnership. Albert Kimsey Owen. 16. Marie Howland seems to have experienced deeply and apparently mutually satisfying relationships with male friends (and possibly lovers).. as is so often the case in feminist fiction of the period. and not the practice. "surely. the model for Paul von Frauenstein as well as Dr. Howland remarks. as was Edward to me" (Howland to Stedman. Kessler's conclusions ignore the weight Howland gives to the romance plot with its (symbolically) orgiastic consummation. but with the requirement that to woman belongs her body and her labor. As Dolores Hayden succinctly comments.The suggestion that the end of Papa's Own Girl merely capitulates to androcentrism or. but one who is a real husband. The novel. friend. leads her to conclude that Howland does bow to the conventional happy ending of marriage. Lyman Case. December 25. is not entirely uncritical. I mean. perhaps most reinforced Howland's inclination to idealize heterosexual relationships spanning the spectrum from the collegial to the romantic (Howland. (74-75. The happiness for women depicted in Papa's Own Girl occurs in the business and the household run by Susie and Clara. parenthetical references omitted) While the women's entrepreneurial household does constitute a limited feminist utopia. Howland's "Biographical Sketch of Edward Howland. the editor and poet Edmund Clarence Stedman.(FN20) Writing to Stedman on the anniversary of Edward's death. From her first husband. interpretation of the idyllic marriage that seemingly erases Clara's previously forceful feminist presence can benefit from understanding Howland's personal investment in a sentimental view of heterosexual relations. alternatively.. if less comfortable.. Forest.." published in the Credit Foncier of Sinaloa after his death in Mexico. 1896). When I ended I think most of them saw that if there comes a struggle between capital and labor or between the Devil and the rest of his sex . A more searching. of all the misfortunes that can befall a woman. brother. Such idealization apparently co-existed with Howland's sharp understanding throughout her mature life of women's oppression in a patently patriarchal society. Jan. "In her own life Howland was more assertive about women's equality" than the ending of Papa's Own Girl might lead one to believe (101). and her lifelong literary mentor. of marital well-being. "Biographical Sketch of Edward Howland" 138). 1916). Howland's belief in the utopian promise of heterosexual union reflects the idealism of free-love theory. before the Internationals I gave them an unsugar coated [sic] does of our opinions. to lose her husband is measurably greatest. who encouraged her to follow her heart and Edward Howland. to her utopian collaborator.... ends with only the promise. that the heterosexual romance represents a cagey submission to an alreadysubverted sentimentality are responses that perhaps come all too easily to contemporary feminist critics. In a letter to the prominent woman's rights activist Isabella Beecher Hooker. Not a legal companion..(FN19) Her husband Edward.

. suggests a sexual ideology that may help further explain the displacement of the women-centered utopian community headed by Clara and Susie by the sexually integrated utopia of the Social Palace. the mother of Dr." (95) contemporary readers may well have understood that Susie. for it is strongly hinted in the first few pages . shut out from all voice in making the laws that govern her. remains unwed at the end of the novel. Marie Howland was able to engage in social and political criticism of men. remain very desirable indeed. Howland attacked female inequality from a squarely structural perspective: Our ears are filled with the glories of the nineteenth century.against women's freedom. in "The Woman Suffragists" 2) Possibly in part because Edward Howland shared her feminist views. and the compensation for disfranshising [sic] one-half the race is terrible. The "matrimonial market" may be held up to scorn. The conundrum of Clara's ending tends to obscure the fact that Clara is not Papa's only girl. A self-educated. the time had arrived when woman should be recognized and take an active part in the government of the country. from the broader education of man. is his daughter through her affinity with him. forced to submit to taxation without representation. Howland's metaphor of the eagle with two wings. who has gone to France to study the Familistère with Frauenstein (POG 451-454). Speaking at an 1872 women's rights convention chaired by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. that "Susie's hard-earned capitalist enterprise is swallowed up by [Frauenstein's] Fourierist communal scheme. self-supporting woman. one implicitly female and one male. however. In a sense... the telegraph.. The veritable rash of happy weddings celebrated as the novel progresses to its conclusion suggests that other forms of sexual exchange.. and the conditions are only delayed by . mask the facts as we may. and we hear loud praises of the democratic form of government. with laudations of the modern enterprise that has given us the railroad. from the advanced minds of all civilized countries. Susie. One woman. women will enroll themselves on the side that promises them political equality [sic]" (emphasis in original). and the steam printing press. The law of equilibrium rules everywhere. Although a skeptical feminist reader might note.(FN22) Still. as a power-wielding class. Woman... as Lewes does. denied the privilege of being tried by a jury of her peers.. while the fact that there has never been a true democratic principle in the world seems to be utterly ignored. rooted in an erotic rather than a market economy.. To-day the world is about ready for the inauguration of the democratic form of government. but only because women's dependence turns both parties into kinds of merchandise. who but a fool can wonder that her life from the cradle to the grave is a pint-pot dance. a blunder that has made the political leaders of the day proceed upon the supposition that the American eagle could fly straight with only one wing. taught from the cradle that self-reliance and pecuniary independence were not to be sought by her. while retaining her faith in the utopian potential of equal and enlivening heterosexual relationships. is an important participant in the utopian scheme(FN23) and that her successful horticultural business is a cornerstone of the phalanstery's success (POG 409). Susie is at the conclusion of the novel a figure of female independence.. the novel is more Susie's than Clara's story. (qtd. and to secure the richest and best 'catch' in the matrimonial market the great object of life? . if not through a legal tie. Forest's grandchild.

but his gender finally signifies the dominance of the "masculine" radical tradition. The wary review written by the editor of the local paper in Lebanon. so that whoso [sic] reads a single chapter is tempted if possible to complete the book at a single sitting.(FN24) The alternately positive and negative connotation of the "peculiarity" of both Howland's ideas and her style suggests that. However. since we learn from other sources of the successful operation of the Mr. as a sentimental heroine. feminism. moreover. is probably more representative of the majority of her readers: "Papa's Own Girl" is meeting with a large sale here." but only for a limited audience of readers seemingly predisposed to radicalism.. in the end. as measured by broad popular influence. Clara. As this analysis of the complexities of Howland's interweaving of sentimentality and utopian radicalism has indicated. the sentimental heroine claims a patriarchal radical tradition.. the mixture of sentimental and radical ingredients tends to induce ideological indigestion. Papa's Own Girl did not succeed in becoming another Uncle Tom's Cabin. so much so that one almost feels that the authoress must have been peculiarly unfortunate in the type of manhood with which she has been most familiar. however. despite the predictions of its most enthusiastic readers. The "child of the Social Palace" (POG 546) is equally the product of his mother and his father. the construction of the Familistere. more precisely. the conjunction of these two discourses mediates. the failure is . the novel's discourse of radical utopianism has a greater impact on its sentimental discourse than the reverse. tempting as the novel is to the middle-brow literary palate. since. the gradual erasure of Clara from the central activity of the last third of the novel. is quite another matter. capitalism is conjoined to communitarianism. it is likely to become general. Howland's rearrangement of the familiar coordinates of the domestic novel was. is a double agent in the service of a novel that overturns some of the central conventions of domestic ideology. Howland's novel did succeed in effecting its "sensational designs.... reflects the text's decreasing need for her as a mediating device between the sentimental and the political. and many are now reading it. New Hampshire. That much good might result from a similar system in many instances we can readily see. It is pretty severe at times on men in general. Female independence (financial and sexual) is reconciled with heterosexual marriage.that Susie is the unnamed narrator of this unusual tale. However. or is desirable that it should do so. Without endorsing all its peculiar ideas. one feels compelled to pause now and then for digestion. We suppose it must be taken for granted that such a system of co-operation is practicable. Howland's gospel of Fourierism. Howland's childhood hometown which provided the setting for Papa's Own Girl. on account of the novelty and radicalism of certain passages.. too destabilizing for the novel to attract the wide readership that she evidently desired. with varying degrees of success. Ultimately. It seems to us. and free love finally failed to convert many readers. if. Or. or Social Palace. it is but just to say that it is written in a style peculiarly fascinating. Yet it would be difficult to do so. to go quite too far in the direction of contempt for law and established usages. Godin's experiment in France. Whether upon the whole. a series of seemingly incompatible desires and beliefs.

did not come into popular use until around World War I. But the novel would have been much less interesting had it not overstepped the boundaries that would have contained it. "Making Utopia Home: Domestic Discourse and Radical Politics in Nineteenth-Century American Women's Writing" (Cornell U. References are cited parenthetically as POG. Warner. Throughout the essay. loosening the hold of maternal sacrifice and feminine self-abnegation on the potentially powerful strategy of sentimental seduction for utopian ends. The utopian radicalism of Papa's Own Girl can usefully contextualize and qualify our assessment of the domestic "radicalism" of the sentimental writers. and many other domestic writers. I find the term useful for indicating the broad sweep of nineteenth-century woman's rights activism. See Cott. But the novel does more than show the limits of Howland's bold hijacking of sentimental conventions for politically and economically radical ends. re-works the politics of sentimentality in the direction of a social. whose novels Tompkins "values" for the "kind of cultural work" they perform "within a specific historical situation" (200). references to Papa's Own Girl are to the 1975 reprint of the 1918 edition. ADDED MATERIAL This essay presents a modified version of the chapter entitled "Utopian Seductions: The Radical Plots and Sentimental Strategies of Papa's Own Girl" in my unpublished dissertation. I have retained the earlier title for clarity. But the mother-ruled utopia at the heart of domestic ideology is too small for Howland. Although Woodhull and her colleagues would not have recognized the label. Wide World. FOOTNOTES 1. Howland's novel embodies an evangelical--but crucially. although with a critically different emphasis. It should be noted that the term "feminism. As the two editions are otherwise textually identical. sexual. Titled with equal appropriateness. According to Dolores Hayden. with its linkage of radicalism and reform not to a maternal but rather to a paternal tradition. this was the first English translation of the Communist . 1997). Papa's Own Girl. Howland's "most hopeful point of view" "upon the great social questions of the day: the position of woman and the conditions of labor. not Christian-utopian impulse." as Nancy Cott has demonstrated. 3. providing an alternative reading of American culture at the height of sentimentality's discursive hegemony. and economic radicalism sharply at odds with that of Stowe. The main action of Papa's Own Girl takes place in the late 1850s through the mid-1860s. The American Woman's Home (1869): Clara and Susie's flower business is a viable domestic fortress in an economically and socially hostile capitalist part a testimony to the novel's real strengths: its striking challenge to the feminine subordination required by domestic logic. and its continuities with the selfproclaimed feminist movement of the early twentieth century. Howland did see the strengths of the essentially womancentered household (and little world) paradigmatically represented by Catharine Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe in their compendium. and its feistily optimistic willingness to propose alternatives to mainstream sexual and economic relations. which was re-titled The Familistere. 2. as The Familistere or Papa's Own Girl." in the words of the Harper's review. for to accept Beecher and Stowe's sentimental vision (and Tompkin's interpretation of it) one must also remain within the close parameters of evangelical Christianity and the economic status quo. performs a sort of cultural work that proved to be less popular than that of Uncle Tom's Cabin or The Wide.

Hal D.000 "before the Civil War" (Bercovitch 55). 181). In a later episode. The writer is very likely the same William F. not in 1870. Sears documents the serious impact that this anti-obscenity law had on free-lovers and free-thinkers. Godey's circulation was 150. While some of the published letters do offer objections to certain aspects of Papa's Own Girl. Colorado. After Channing defended himself with a public letter criticizing the divorce laws. Channing "was a utopian reformer and a feminist" who "believed in cooperative labor" and other Fourierist principles (59). La Fille de Son Père iv). Napoleon Hogeland. The orange-blossoms seem not to affect Clara here as they did at her first wedding . he lost his Boston medical practice (Leach 60). The translation back into English." as the Postal Act of 1873 is commonly known. 6. a minister from Greeley. who could be sentenced to prison at hard labor (Sears 71. joined the colony in 1890 (Reynolds 135). given above. The translation ran under the title "German Communism--Manifesto of the German Communist Party" on December 30. William F. 12." Roemer notes that "Looking Backward and Uncle Tom's Cabin were often used to support this faith" (Obsolete Necessity 3). Kenneth Roemer writes. including birth control information. Channing. est aux questions sociales qui agitent actuellement le monde civilisé. she does lock the door to her room to prevent him from "trying to force" himself upon her (POG 389). Ida and Clara Hogeland. it is important to note that Howland selected and in some cases apparently solicited these responses to her novel. Howland's private correspondence indicates that other readers were more severe in their criticisms. at a time when Clara is separated but not yet legally divorced from Albert. is mine. See also Taylor Stoehr. 9. When considering the status of the letters published in the Credit Foncier as historical evidence. 10. ce que «La Case de L'oncle Tom» fut pour la question de l'esclavage» (Howland. The law provided the postal service with broad censorship powers and imposed severe penalties upon violators. 7. made it illegal to send materials related to sex through the mail. nephew of the "famous unitarian preacher William Ellery Channing. «Ce roman artistique et puissamment écrit . were already residents. The letters discussed in this essay represent only one segment of Howland's readership. Holly Blake is currently working on a social biography of Marie Howland. The following account of Howland's Topolobampo episode is drawn from Paul M.. Gaston's Women of Fairhope. 13. 1871. His two sisters. The family name is spelled "Hoagland" in some sources.. 8. those committed to (or at least interested in) the radical reorganization of American society. The "Comstock Law. According to Leach. 4.Manifesto to appear in print (103). 14. the best published source of biographical information on Marie Howland. The French edition reads. 5. authors of literary utopias proceeded on "the traditional American assumption that serious literature should be didactic--an expression of the authors' faith in the power of the written word to change behavior. See also Ray Reynolds history of the colony in the forthcoming revised edition of Cat's Paw Utopia (Borgo Press). as Hayden writes. Howland eventually capitalized on this censorship by incorporating the episode into the preface of the 1885 edition of the novel. 11." who had been pilloried in the press for divorcing his first wife in 1859 (Leach 59). Even near the turn of the century.

which he stenciled all over the interior. 17. and Narrative. Godin's Social Solutions. Both Howland's fictional phalanstery and Godin's account of the real Familistère in Guise almost transparently display the disciplinary discourses embedded in architectural spaces. 1907. Cheney's review is thus not mere puffery for a local author. guessed "that Mrs. is a particularly rich study for Foucauldian analysis: Godin promises. but the detail is an uncomfortable reminder of the earlier occasion. The sources that I have consulted do not indicate whether Howland authorized the significant alteration made in the French translation. However. Isabella Beecher Hooker was the half-sister of Catherine Beecher. Not a Count. 22. Residents of Lebanon. Harriet Beecher Stowe. strangely. Hayden 100. Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell are the most prominent example of such a couple. 24. According to a letter from Howland to Stedman. Marie Stevens Case met Edward Howland in 1859 and married him in 1865. The French edition supplies this final line: «Puisse mon enfant être le digne fils du son père et de son grand-père!» (Howland. and of Right': Victorian Feminist Utopias. Howland "did not live in one of the [Lowell] dormitories--she was with her mother and her older brother in Lowell. with the approval and support of the man who was legally still Marie's husband. 23. and Henry Ward Beecher. Cheney. Victoria Woodhull. Howland did at an earlier time live in "a boardinghouse along with twenty-seven other girls and young women" in Manchester. Howland [as the author's name was given] is intimate with the topography and history of Lebanon" and industriously tracked her down.B." Feminism. Mme. "'The Laws of Justice. I do not mean to suggest that the Howlands were unique in being happily married suffragists. 19. According to Paul M. emphasis added. translated by Howland in the early 1870s and published in English in 1886. In an amusing instance of fiction anticipating reality." where she worked in a textile factory. The house became quite literally a domestic text inscribed with utopian sentiment. 21. Marie Howland had an affair with C. that the social progress of the people is dependent upon the progress of social architecture" (241). although. REFERENCES Albinski. April 21. 15. See Marie Howland's "Biographical Sketch of Edward Howland." 16. 18. Lyman Case. The illumination of the Social Palace also echoes Edward Howland's decoration of his and Marie's home with quotations from Fourier and others. Ray Reynolds asserts that after Edward's death in Mexico. against whom she sided in the infamous Beecher-Tilton scandal incited by the free-love feminist. Hoffman. having long since lost track of the little girl who inhabited the social margins of their town some thirty years earlier. but close enough. for several years they lived in an extralegal free-love union. Godin herself was responsible for translating the end of the novel. Susie is one of the "[female] council of directors" that administers the Social Palace (POG 518). Libby Falk Jones and Sarah . Utopia. Nan Bowman. Lebanon residents do seem more flattered than dismayed by Howland's representation of their town. New Hampshire (Gaston 24). Gaston. a married millionaire from Kansas who backed Topolobampo (83). of Nature. "The most searching examination of the material arrangements of the Familistère will more and more confirm this truth.when she found them "oppressing" (POG 199). La Fille de Son Père 618). Ed. 20.

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