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VISUAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURE

VISUAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURE

0 Rev Date

First Issue Revision Details

Santanu Saha Prepared By NDT Level III Approved( QCM )

7. 9. 11. Scope Reference documents Qualification of Visual Testing Personnel Equipment & Calibration Inspection method and lighting Sequence of inspection Surface finish and extent of inspection Application Reports and documentation Acceptance criteria Appendix – 1: measuring apparatus Attachments 1 & 2: Acceptance criteria. 4. 3.VISUAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURE Index 1. 5. 6. 2. 12. 10. 8. .

Addenda 2009.1.0 3. Addenda 2009 2. The complete examination shall be divided in to three parts namely General.2 ASME Sec VIII Div 2: 2007 Edition.1.4 above and also passing the visual 1. An eye examination performed at least once each year to determine optical capability of NDE personnel to perform the required examinations.1 Qualification of Visual Testing Personnel Personnel who perform Visual examination of welds shall be qualified and certified for the method in accordance with the following: Instruction/training of at least 12 hours in the fundamentals of the Visual examination method. On-the-job training to familiarize the VT personnel with the appearance and interpretation of indications of weld defects. Upon completion of 3. The candidate must obtain at least 70% marks in each examination with no less than 80% in aggregate.1 and 3.2 2.3 3.1 3.1.2 above.1: Power Piping.1. to assure adequate assimilation of the knowledge required.1. 2.4 3. Addenda 2008. The length of time for such training shall be at least 8 hours in addition to the training mentioned in 3. The passing grade for the examination shall be at least 80%. Certified NDE personnel whose work has not included performance of a specific examination method for a period of 1 year or more shall be recertified by successfully completing the examination of 3.0 1. 2.1.4 ASME Sec V: 2007 edition. 3. 2007 edition. Addenda 2009. Specific and Practical (performance examination). 2.2 3.1 Scope This procedure gives minimum requirements to perform Direct Visual Inspection on all types of welds and components as required by the governing document whenever such type of inspection is applicable by contract Specification Extent of visual inspection shall be as per governing document Reference Documents Current editions of the following references shall be applicable.1.1.1 ASME B 31.1.VISUAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURE 1.0 3. the NDE personnel shall be given a written examination and performance examination by QICL to determine if the NDE personnel are qualified to perform the required examinations and interpretation of results.1.5 .3 ASME Sec I: Power Boilers: 2007 edition.

The specific part.1 .3 above. and aids such as a magnifying lens may be used to assist examinations. Equipment & Calibration An array of devices are available for viewing measuring etc. component. and maintained as required by the governing document or contract specifications 4.2 Direct Visual Examination Direct visual examination may usually be made when access is sufficient to place the eye within 24 in (600mm) of the surface to be examined and at an angle not less than 30 deg. vessel. whenever such a device is deemed necessary by contractual requirements or Specification. fiber optics. to attain a minimum of 100 foot candles (1000 lux) at the examination surface/site. Substantial changes in procedures or equipment shall require recertification of the NDE personnel. personnel Qualified to AWS QC 1. if necessary with flashlight or other auxiliary lighting.1 5. to the surface to be examined. Recommended Practice for qualification and certification of NDT personnel may be used for Visual examination of welds. Such systems shall have a resolution capability at least equivalent to that obtainable by direct visual observation and prior approval by authorized inspector Records Weld inspection results shall be recorded when required. any device requiring calibration shall be calibrated accordingly and documented Inspection Method & Lighting Inspection Method Visual inspection shall be performed without magnification unless specifically required by the governing document. Mirrors may be used to improve the angle of vision.0 5.VISUAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURE examination of 3. cameras or other suitable instruments.3 Remote Visual Examination In some cases. 5. evaluation and acceptance shall be based upon comparison with a reference standard where both magnified and unmagnified appearance can be determined 5. shall be illuminated.1. 3. or section thereof.0 4. telescopes. Standard for Qualification and Certification of Welding Inspection or ‘SNT-TC-1A’. Remote visual examination may use visual aids such as mirrors. remote visual examination may have to be substituted for direct examination. When magnification is required. boroscopes. under immediate examination.2 Alternately.

VISUAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURE 6. Weld surface irregularities shall be removed to the extent that they do not interfere with the inspection. Joint clearances 2. Penning shot. the area one inch on either side of the expected weld width. dimensions and surface finish. Clearance dimensions of backing strips. grit.0 a) Application At fit-up for: 1. sockets consumable inserts. which are to be liquid penetrant inspected unless specifically approved by the Authorized Inspector. Weld and preparation. Backing rings.0 6. acceptance inspection shall be performed on an item in the final surface condition and final heat-treated condition. The area of inspection of other items shall be as specified in the governing document. 8. which are within specification allowances the contour of welds. Alignment Prior to welding for 1.1 Sequence of Inspection Visual Inspection shall be performed prior.2 6. Verification of correct type of material. 3. 7.0 7. slag. Visual inspection shall be done after PWHT (if any) and shall be done prior to any other NDE. shall blend smoothly and gradually into the base metal. and adhering or embedded sand or other extraneous materials. scale. sand.2 Area of Interest The area of inspection for welds shall include as a minimum. paint. 6. Surface Finish & Extent of Inspection Surface Finish Unless otherwise specified. during and after the completion of weldment.3 7. 2. and vapor blasting shall not be performed on surfaces. Surfaces to be inspected shall be free from. if the Inspector has reason to doubt the quality of the item as weldments. With the exception of undercuts. The inspector may require additional Inspection.1 b) . Visual Inspection should be performed prior to any other Inspection.

Disposition – Accept / Reject 10. Date 3. 5. 2. c) Condition of tack welds. Name and Signature 8. Subjected to NDE.0 10. Verification of cleanliness requirements. after welding. Drawing No 6.VISUAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURE 4. Degree of undercutting. d) e) 9. Client Name / Symbol 2. in accordance with requirements of the specific weld type. 7.1 10. 3. Contour and finish of outside surface. 5. 4.g. Refer attachment 1 acceptance criteria as per ASME B 31. before painting etc.g. from center punch or other impression marking or excessive grinding. Acceptance Criteria Acceptance Acceptance standards shall be as required by the governing documents.1 . Blasting. After welding for 1. Job No 4. Reports & Documentation Visual Inspection Report shall include the following as minimum 1. before welding.As received. PWHT. / Weld ID 5. Discontinuities shall be classified in accordance with applicable acceptance standards. Placements of reference lines for socket welds. Item No.e. Evidence of mishandling. For compliance to proper Welding procedure.0 9.:. Status e.1 and attachment 2 as per ASME Sec VIII Div 2. Remarks . Contour and finish of inside surface when accessible. painting etc. Observation 9. Size of legs and throat thickness of fillet welds. During welding 1.

Tape Bridge Cam Gauge Bridge Cam Gauge Bridge Cam Gauge.VISUAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURE APPENDIX I MEASURING APPARATUS & PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS ATTRIBUTE Wall thickness Bevel Angles Outside Diameter Inside Diameter Reinforcement Undercut Fillet Legs or Throat Thickness TOOLS Vernier Calliper. Micrometer Bevel Protractor. Tape Vernier Calliper. Weld Fillet Gauge . Bridge Cam Gauge Vernier Calliper.

0 1/4 6.0). .0) General notes: a.0 1/4 6. Weld reinforcement may be removed if so desired.0). For single welded butt joints.0 1/8 3. The weld reinforcement thickness shall be determined from the higher of the abutting surfaces involved. deep Weld reinforcement greater than specified in Table I Lack of fusion on surface Incomplete penetration (applies only when inside surface is readily accessible) Any other linear indications greater than 3/16 in long Surface porosity with rounded indications having dimensions greater than 3/16 in.0). the reinforcement limits given above shall apply to the outside surface of the joint only. incl Over 1/2 to 1 (13.5 3/16 5.0 3/16 5. (mm) Maximum Thickness of Reinforcement for Design Temperature > 750º F 350ºF – 750ºF < 350º F (400º C) (175ºC – (175º C) 400ºC) in.5 3/16 5. c. in.0 to 13. incl Over 1 to 2 (25. The following indications are unacceptable: a. this limitation on reinforcement given above shall apply separately to both inside & outside surfaces of the joint. c.0 to 25. mm 1/16 2.0 3/16 5. Rounded indications which. Addenda 2008 Acceptance Standards. mm in. For double welded butt joints.0 3/32 2. The thickness of weld reinforcement shall be based on the thickness of the thinner of the materials being joined. incl Over 1/8 to 3/16 (3.0 5/32 4.0 1/16 2. b. g.0 to 5. incl Over 3/16 to 1/2 (5. incle Over 2 (50.VISUAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURE ATTACHMENT 1 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA – VISUAL EXAMINATION ASME B31. are circular or elliptical with their length less than three times their width.0 3/32 2.0 1/16 2. f.0 3/16 5. mm in.0). or four or more rounded indications separated by 1/16 in. Cracks – external surface Undercut on surface which is greater than 1/32 in.0 The greater of 1/4 (6mm) or 1/8 times the width of the weld in inches (mm) Upto 1/8 (3. or less edge to edge in any direction.0).1: 2007. d.0 to 50. b.0 1/8 3. e. e.0 5/32 4. TABLE I REINFORCEMENT OF GIRTH & LONGITUDINAL BUTT WELDS Thickness of Base Metal. d.

Unacceptable indications shall be removed or reduced to an indication of acceptable size. . Whenever an indication is removed by chipping or grinding and subsequent repair by welding is not required. ADDENDA 2009 Acceptance Criteria: Welds that are observed to have indications exceeding the criteria given in Table 7.6 are unacceptable.VISUAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURE ATTACHMENT 2 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA – VISUAL EXAMINATION ASME SEC VIII DIV 2: 2007. Weld seams that will be hidden in the final vessel configuration shall be visually examined for workmanship prior to final assembly. or corners. the area shall be blended into the surrounding surface so as to avoid notches. crevices.

VISUAL EXAMINATION PROCEDURE .