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Models of the Atom

a Historical Perspective

Early Greek Theories
•400 B.C. - Democritus thought matter could not be divided indefinitely.
Democritus

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chem@gmail.he pounded up materials in his pestle and mortar until he had reduced them to smaller and smaller particles which he called ATOMA (greek for indivisible) suhardiman.com .

.Aristotle modified an earlier theory that matter was made of four “elements”: earth. However. fire. water. his theory persisted for 2000 years. air.C .Aristotle •350 B. fire air earth water •Aristotle was wrong.

chem@gmail.com .1808 John Dalton suggested that all matter was made up of tiny spheres that were able to bounce around with perfect elasticity and called them ATOMS suhardiman.

com .Dalton’s Atomic Theory Postulate 1 •An element is composed of tiny particles called atoms. •All atoms of a given element show the same chemical properties. suhardiman.chem@gmail.

suhardiman.Dalton’s Atomic Theory Postulate 2 •Atoms of different elements have different properties.com .chem@gmail.

suhardiman.chem@gmail. •In a given compound. the relative number of atoms of each kind are definite and constant.com .Dalton’s Atomic Theory Postulate 3 •Compounds are formed when atoms of two or more elements combine.

•Chemical reactions involve changing the way in which the atoms are joined together.chem@gmail.com .Dalton’s Atomic Theory Postulate 4 •In an ordinary chemical reaction. suhardiman. no atom of any element disappears or is changed into an atom of another element.

1 .2 2.

16 X + 8Y 8 X2 Y 2.1 .

com .1898 Joseph John Thompson found that atoms could sometimes eject a far smaller negative particle which he called an ELECTRON suhardiman.chem@gmail.

Thomson.J.2 . measured mass/charge of e- 2.J.

com 2.Measured mass of e(1923 Nobel Prize in Physics) e.10 x 10-28 g suhardiman.2 .60 x 10-19 C Thomson’s charge/mass of e.chem@gmail.mass = 9.= -1.charge = -1.76 x 108 C/g e.

(Uranium compound) 2.2 .

com .chem@gmail.1904 Thompson develops the idea that an atom was made up of electrons scattered unevenly within an elastic sphere surrounded by a soup of positive charge to balance the electron's charge like plums surrounded by pudding. PLUM PUDDING MODEL suhardiman.

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chem@gmail. they found that although most of them passed through.1910 Ernest Rutherford oversaw Geiger and Marsden carrying out his famous experiment. About 1 in 10.com .000 hit suhardiman. they fired Helium nuclei at a piece of gold foil which was only a few atoms thick.

com . a small number were deflected and. suhardiman. some helium nuclei bounced straight back.helium nuclei gold foil helium nuclei They found that while most of the helium nuclei passed through the foil.chem@gmail. to their surprise.

4 x 107 m/s (~5% speed of light) 1. proton (p) has opposite (+) charge of electron 3. atoms positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus 2.67 x 10-24 g) 2.2 .(1. mass of p is 1840 x mass of e.(1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry) particle velocity ~ 1.

com . He suggested that the positive charge was all in a central nucleus.chem@gmail.Rutherford’s new evidence allowed him to propose a more detailed model with a central nucleus. With this holding the electrons in place by electrical attraction suhardiman.

chem@gmail.2 .com 2.Rutherford’s Model of the Atom atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10-10 m nuclear radius ~ 5 x 10-3 pm = 5 x 10-15 m suhardiman.

1913 Niels Bohr studied under Rutherford at the Victoria University in manchester. With each orbit only able to contain a set number of electrons. Rather like planets orbiting the sun. suhardiman.com . Bohr refined Rutherford's idea by adding that the electrons were in orbits.chem@gmail.

com .Bohr’s Atom electrons in orbits nucleus suhardiman.chem@gmail.

HELIUM ATOM proton +N + N Shell - neutron electron What do these particles consist of? suhardiman.com .chem@gmail.

com .chem@gmail.This is not the end of the story folk suhardiman.

mercy suhardiman.chem@gmail.com .

ATOMIC STRUCTURE Particle proton neutron Charge + ve charge No charge Mass 1 1 electron -ve charge nil .

ATOMIC STRUCTURE He 2 4 Atomic number the number of protons in an atom Atomic mass the number of protons and neutrons in an atom number of electrons = number of protons .

• • • first shell second shell third shell a maximum of 2 electrons a maximum of 8 electrons a maximum of 8 electrons .ATOMIC STRUCTURE Electrons are arranged in Energy Levels or Shells around the nucleus of an atom.

1. Dot & Cross Diagrams . Electronic Configuration 2.ATOMIC STRUCTURE There are two ways to represent the atomic structure of an element or compound.

ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION With electronic configuration elements are represented numerically by the number of electrons in their shells and number of shells. For example. Nitrogen 2 in 1st shell 5 in 2nd shell 2 configuration = 2 . 5 + 5 = 7 N 7 14 .

1 e) 2.4 2.6 f) Cl 17 35 Si 14 28 B 5 11 2.8.8.7 2.3 . a) Ca 20 40 b) Na 11 23 c) O 8 16 2.8.8.ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION Write the electronic configuration for the following elements.2 d) 2.8.

DOT & CROSS DIAGRAMS With Dot & Cross diagrams elements and compounds are represented by Dots or Crosses to show electrons. For example. and circles to show the shells. X Nitrogen X X N X X N 7 14 XX .

X 8 17 X a) O b) Cl 35 X 16 X X X X X X X X X Cl X X X X X O X X X X X X X X X .DOT & CROSS DIAGRAMS Draw the Dot & Cross diagrams for the following elements.

SUMMARY 1. 3. The Atomic Number of an atom = number of protons in the nucleus. Each shell can only carry a set number of electrons. 2. The Atomic Mass of an atom = number of Protons + Neutrons in the nucleus. 4. The number of Protons = Number of Electrons. . Electrons orbit the nucleus in shells. 5.