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The Indian Iconography of the Decans and Horâs Author(s): David Pingree Source: Journal of the Warburg and

Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 26, No. 3/4 (1963), pp. 223-254 Published by: The Warburg Institute Stable URL: Accessed: 14/12/2009 10:17
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wranz Bolll was the first to recognize the importanceof the study of the 1 iconographyof the Decans for a broaderinvestigationof the transmission of ideas in antiquityand during the A{iddleAges. He was able to show that these odd Egyptian deities had at some time before the sixth century of our era made the long voyage to India; that thence they had travelledto Islamic lands; and so finally returnedto Byzantiumand the West. Aby Warburg2 discoveredthat they were not neglectedwhen they arrivedin Italy, but became an importantelement in the programmeof decorationat the Palazzo della Ragione (Salone) in Padua, renovatedin I306, and in the Salone dei Mesi of the Palazzo Schifanoiaat Ferrara,which was completed in I470. Finally, Wilhelm Gundel3 gathered massive documentation from North Africa, Europe, and Asia to illustratetheir diffusionthroughoutmost of the then civilized world. The present paper is a supplementto the labours of these three scholars, making available additional material which serves to identify a missinggenerationin their stemma atecanorum. This new material is found in a curious Sanskritastrologicalpoem, the Yavanajataka or GreekHoroscopyof Sphujidhvaja. This is a rrery old text. It is cited extensivelyby the fourteenth-century commentatorVisn. usarman4 and by his ninth-centurypredecessorsBhattotpala 5 and Govindasvamin. 6
1 F. Boll, Sphaera, 0. Neugebauer, 'Variants to the I903, pp. 4I2 ff^. and pp. I6I-67; Catalogus Codicum Astrologorum Graecorum (here- Greek Translation of Abu Ma'shar's Version after CCAG),v, I, pp. I56-57. His theory of the Paranatellonta of Varahamihira and that Abu Ma'shar's knowledgeof the Indian Teukros', Bull.del'acad. roy.deBelgique, Classe Decans came from Kanaka cannot be ac- des Lettres, se Ser., xliii, I957, pp. I33-40; cepted; no siddhantasuch as Kanakatrans- O. Neugebauer and R. A. Parker, Egyptian lated would have mentionedthem. Astronomical Texts, i, Ig60; and H. ltitter and 2 A. Warburg, 'Italienische Kunst und M. Plessner, 'Picatrix'. Das tiel des Weisen von internationale Astrologieim Palazzo Schifa- Pseudo-Magrztz, Studies of the Warburg Instinoja zu Ferrara', in his Gesammelte Schriften, ii, tute 27, I 962, pp. I 33-40. I932, pp. 459-82 4 Visnusarman's commentary on Vidyaand 627-44. See also P. d'Ancona,I Mesidi Schifanoia inFerrara, madhava's Vidyamadhaviya was edited with I954. 3 W. Gundel, Dekane the mula by R. Shama Sastry, Mysore undDekansternbilder, Sanskrit Studien der BibliothekWarburg I 9, I 936. Series 63, 67, and 70, Mysore, Ig23-26. For The more recent literatureincludes the fol- his quotations of the Yavanajataka and those lowing works: the article by Gundel in RE of the following authors see my forthcoming Suttl. 7, I940, columns II6-24; J. J. Clere, edition. 'Un texte astronomique 5 Bhattotpala wrote commentaries on Varade Tanis', Keomi I0, I949, 3-27; B. L. van der Waerden,'Baby- hamihira's Brhajjataka (finished in A.D. 966) lonian AstronomyII. The Thirty-sixStars' (lithographed in Bombay, I874),, Brhatjrournal of J%ear EasternStudies,Viii, I 949, samhita (ed. MM. Sudhakara Dvivedi, pp. 6-26; the fragmentof Teucerof Babylon Vizianagram Sanskrit Series I0, 2 vols., Benares, edited by S. Weinstockin CCAG,ix, p. 2; I 895-97), Laghujataka (unpublished; over pp. I80-86; a sixth-centurypapyrus of the fifty manuscripts are recorded), and Yogarelevantportionof the Testamentof Solomon yatra (I have used MSS. 855 and 856 of published by K. Preisendanz,'Ein Wiener I 884/87 at the BhandarkarOriental Research Papyrus-fragment zum Testamentum Salo- Institute, Poona); on Prthuyasas' Satpancamonis', Symbolae R. Taubenschlag dedicatae,sika (lithographed in Bombay, I 866; ed vol. 3, Eos48, 3, Vratislaviae-Varsaviae I957, Dlnanatha Jha, HaridasSanskrit SeriesI49,



Kalyan. avarman,who wrote c. 800, basedmuch of his Saraval17 on this poem, and parts of the Brhatparasarahorasastra,8 composed a little bit earlier,are inspiredby Sphujidhvaja's work. Varahamihira9who flourishedin the first half of the sixth centuryand is the most renownedof Indian astrologers) was familiarwith it, as was also Mlnaraja,l°whose Vrddhayavanajataka seemsto
Benares, I 947); and on Brahmagupta's V. S. Sastri and M. 1t. Bhat, Bangalore, Khandakhadyaka (perhaps containedin MS. I 947; Venkatesvara Press, Bombay, I 955; 528 of I875/76 at Poona). His only original and Acyutananda Jha, Benares, I959); (2) work is the Prasnajnana or Aryasaptati(ed. the Samasasamhita (known only from quotaP. J. gresthin, Bombay, I 930 and V. S. tions by Bhattotpala); (3) the Brhajjataka Sastri,Bangalore,I949). (lithographed in Bombay, I 874; ed. K. 6 Govindasvamin's (fl. 800-850) worksin- Sambasiva Sastri, Tri7vandrum Sanskrit Series clude a commentary on the Mahabhaskariya 9I, Trivandrum, Ig26; 2nd ed. by S. K. of BhaskaraI (ed. T. S. Kuppanna Sastri, Pillai, Trivandrum, I957; V. S. Sastri, Madras Government Oriental Series I30, Madras, Bangalore, Ig2g; A. N. S. Aiyangar, Adyar I957) and one on the Uttarakhandaof the Library Series 79, Madras, I 95 I (adhyayas IBrhatparasarahorasastra (I have used MS. IO); Sltaram Jha, 2nd ed., Benares, Igs2; 3 I 66 of the Oriental Research Institute, and Acyutananda Jha, Haridfas Sanskrit Series Mysore; the work is also preservedin MS. I 7 I, Benares, I 957); (4? the Laghujataka (ed. I I499 (of which MS. I I498 iS an apograph) A. Weber, Indzsche Studzen, 11, I 853, pp. 277in the Tanjore MaharajaSerfoji'sSarasvati 287 (adhyayas I-2); H. Jacobi, De astrologiae MahalLibrary). It is in the latterthat quota- indicae hord attellatae originibus, I 872 (adhyayas tions of Sphujidhvaja and many other early 3 I3); Venkatesvara Press, Bombay, I935 ; Indian astrologers are found. and Sitaram Jha, Benares, I948; see also 7 Kalyanavarman is cited by Bhattotpala E. C. Sachau, Alberuni's India,I 9 I 4, i, p. I 58, and himself mentionsKanaka (53, I), who and ch. So); (5) the Brhadyogayatra (unpubmay be the Indiansagewho went to Baghdad lished; only three manuscripts are known: in 767 (V. V. Ramana-gastrinin Isis, xiv, GIO539 of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 388 I930, p. 470). The Saravali is editedby V. S. of the Asiatic Society of Bombay, and R4203 Sastri,Bangalore,I928, and by SitaramJha, (b) of the Government Oriental Manuscripts Benares,I 953. Library, Madras); (6) the Yogayatra (ed. 8 The BrhatparaNarahorasastra has been H. Kern, Verstreide Geschriften, i, I9I3, pp. 97publishedby the Venkatesvara Press, Bom- I 68 (adhyayas I-9); andJagdish Lal, Lahore, bay, I95I, and by Sltaram Jha, 2nd ed., I944); (7) the Tikanikayatra (ed. V. K. R. Benares,I952. The passagesreferredto are Pandit, Journal of theUniversity of Bombay, xx, all in the Purvakhandawhich is cited by 2 (ArtsJ%umber 26) , I 95 I , pp. 40-63; and Kalyanavarman and was written before the (8) the Pancasiddhantika (ed. G. Thibaut Uttarakhandacommentedon by Govinda- and Sudhakara Dvivedi, Benares, I889; resvamin. Since the Purvakhandashows a printed Lahore, I 930. See also M. Kharegat, knowledgeof Varahamihira's Brhajjataka, it 'On the Interpretation of Certain Passages must be dated betweenc. 600 and 750. in the Pancasiddhantika of Varaha-Mihira', 9 The worksof Varahamihirawho wrote Journal of theBombay Branch of theRoyal Asiatic after505, the date of Latadeva's recensions of Society(hereafter ffBBRAS),xix, I 896, pp. the Old Suryasiddhanta,the Romakasid- I og-4 I; B. L. van der Waerden, 'Babylodhanta, and the Paulisasiddhanta summa- nische Planetenrechnung in Aegypten und rized in the Pancasiddhantika, and can be Indien', Bibliotheca Orientalis, Xiii, I956, pp. connectedwith the EmperorYasodharman, I08-IIO; O. Neugebauer, fhe ExactSciences 2nd ed., Providence, I957, pp. who flourishedin the thirties of the sixth in Antzquity, century (see my article CThe Empires of I 65-66 and I 72-73; D. Pingree, CA Greek Rudradamanand Yasodharman:Evidence Linear Planetary Text in India', XAOS, lix, from Two AstrologicalGeographies', ffournal I 959, pp. 282-84; and 'Astronomy and ofthe American Oriental Society (hereafter jrAOS), Astrology in India and Iran', Isis, liv, I963, lxxix, I 959, pp 267-70), include: ( I ) the pp. 229-46. Brhatsamhita (ed. H. Ikern,Bibliothecs Indis-s, 10I am preparing an edition of Mlnaraja Calcutta, I 865; S. Dvivedi, VizEanagram on the basis of 27 of 35 known manuscripts. It is probably the Clongastrological work of Sanskrit SeriesI0, 2 vols., Benares, I895-97;

which was guarded by its being written in his own tongue. I 4): gate sadeke'rdhasatesamanam idam gakanam/ kalakriyatattvam raveruse suryadinetprade 'rket kramattad abdadiyugadi bhanoh // (the manuscripthas sadagrefor sadeke.D. . XBBRAS.aka accept as the date of the compositionof the Yavanajataka. Sphujidhvaja.S. 2. astronomically 'When I 66 ( I 50 plus I 6) yearsof the gakas have passed. 245. but the truth of which was seen by the foremost of kings in N.15 These dates are strengthened to by Birunlin India. But greater precisionis possible.that is the beginning of the year and the beginning of the yuga of the Sun.14 Reckoned from in the bhutasankhyasystem as narayanankendu and this ve may to A.' (This and the two verses given in the next footnote were edited by P. that this translationwas made in a year somewhatdoubtfullyidentified as 7I or I 49/ I 50 of the ChristianEra. But perhaps this solutioncan be acceptedin loco melioris.D.l2 And the immediatelypreceding yuga would have begun in A.D. mahipamukhyair anudrstatattvam horartharatnakaravaksamudram// suryaprasad<a >gatatattvadrstir lokanubhavaya vacobhir adyaih / idam babhase niravadyavakyo horarthasastram yavanestarah prak // 'Previously Yavanesvara. In discussinga luni-solarcycle of I65 states that one such mahayugaSphujidhvaja years or 33 pancavarsayugas wrote-began after I66 years of he time the at current presumablythe one seems eminently reasonable.i. This indicates the correct interpretationof the concluding verse of the in whichit is statedthat the text was writtenat a date expressed Yavanajataka. However. and. 13 Pancasiddhantika 14 The verse is (76.the last versesof the workalso informus that it is a versification of a prose treatiseby Yavane§vara(the Lord of the Greeks).but this will not make sense). the Yavanas'referred ps I58 11The verse is (76. . Era this corresponds the epoch of the $. V. translated this ocean of words which is the jewel-mine of horoscopy. I955. 80.l3 cavarsayuga date can be narrowedto between 245 and c. raisesa seriousproblemconcerningthe date of the adoptionof that zodiac. . of course.D. This. Kane in his article 'The Yavanajataka of Sphujidhvaja'.that is the truth of the calculation of time. . whose vision of the truth came from the favour of the Sun and whose language is flawless. pp. but Sunday I6 Marchwas the firstday of the brighthalf of Caitra. 60-6 I ): iti svabhasaracanabhiguptam ugrahakse . and not for many years before or after that date. . that this prose language. in fact. A. 'There was a wise king named Sphujidhvaja who versified this whole (text). the epoch of the panSo the limitsof Sphujidhvaja's ofthe Old Paitamahasiddhanta.ll or in of a I6s-year yugabeginning the for down laid are which conditions The when the Sun is a Sunday on occur year that of Moon that Caitra New enteringthe first degree of Aries-were very nearly met in A. At dawn on Sunday. krtsnam caturbhir matiman sahasrair // (the manuscript reads narayanankendumatam) . This 245. text was a translationof a workwrittenin his (Yavanesvara's) finally. which is. yadidrs. 62): nama babhuvaraja sphujidhvajo idam cakara/ ya indravajrabhir ankendumitabdadrstam narayan.' 12 The conjunctionof the Sun and Moon had takenplace duringthe night of Saturday I5 March 245 about 5° in front of the real equinoctialpoint for that year. or I9I. 300. must surely be dated beforeA. I-5. in four thousand indravajra verses. the $.D. . 269/270.) 15 These verses are ( 76. I 2.then.THE INDIAN ICONOGRAPHY OF THE DECANS AND HORAS 5 have been composedin the early fourth century..akashad elapsed. 300. / visn.and the 5° vanishesif one uses the standard Indian zodiac. which was seen by him in the year I 9 I. xxx.

pp.l9 The popularityof Isis in Alexandriaduring the first half of the second century is well-attested. Cumont F.and termini technici all indicate that the Subject-matter.column2097 . into translation its before years few a dated to Alexandriaand in its apparent also is poem Sphujidhvaja's of source The Greco-Egyptian They paper. lighthouse the of restoration of his commemoration mint featuring Isis Alexandrian the from coin special a issued in I48/I49. columns45I-53. held official positionsunder the Ksatrapasof Ujjain. XXiii. but for 20 of the 3I years between I24/I25 at PharosAntoninusPius. the Round Zodiacat Dendera in Cumont. Boll-Gundelin Roscher-Ziegler. I928. romains. ii.' for the instruction (Graha must be understoodhere in the sense of seven instead of the usual nine as Yavanesvaraand Sphujidhvajaknow only the classicalseven planets. Religionsgeschichte. I 6 I I 2 columns 6. Pharos: 21 Vogt. Thiersch. Roeder. M. 7). and never menI959. i. and I53/I54. Goessler p. in India and Iran'. 229-46. they arethe EgyptiandeitiesShu and Tefnut. columns480-go. und romischenMythologie.Reallexikon appropriate I 952. pp. But there are certainpeculiariof the signs of the zodiac in the first chapter (I4-25) tiesin the descriptions whichbetray an Egyptianorigin. pp. tion Rahu or Ketu. 20J.l8 That she is also standingin a boat indicates that she is Isis Pelagia. 300-OI.though it is true Yavanajataka that the nature of the predictionshas been extensivelymodified-probably by Sphujidhvaja to suit a Hindu audience.I 909. see XAOS. et gresques antiquite's des naire Munzen. I 2 6-X7. Daressy. Varahamihira furtherand actually amalgamatedthem. second and third describe respectively the images of the twenty-four Horas two in each Drekanas-three in each sign. H. lix. I963. this of substance the provide which chapters. Yavanesvara methodology. 208-I6. There zodiacalsign-and thoseof the thirty-six is a close relationshipbetween the Horas and the Drekanasof any one sign. . I os3. p.2l Thus the Sanskrit. Isis.l7 And Virgo is said to be a maiden holdinga torch: that is. 17 See the Tabula Bianchinidescribedin 959-63s columns in I937. the (year) 7I-he translatedthis science of genethlialogyby means of excellent words of the world. Sphaera. and W. I27. be traced back can Yavanajataka the of original Greek Pharia. by and Sphaera. Die alexandrinischen I 9 I 7. I 0 and egy87tiennes logie et a l'archetologie see Drexler. This couple is found also on a peg-calendarfrom Rome in the Wurzburg in Germania. I890-97. 268-69. is indeed an offshootof Hellenisticastrology. Petrie. go-ge. relatifsa la 87hiloG. 19 Drexler. On Isis Pharia in the tomb of Mory-Hor at Athribis in columns479-80 . I 2-I 3 Bonnet.Isis. Drexler in Roscher-Ziegler. Her image appears on Alexandriancoins for only 27 of the 89 years between 90/9I and I78/I79. deragyptischen Lexikon 18 W. ii.pp. Roeder. iX.Recueilde travaux et assyriennes.Diction7. p. The Twins are portrayedas a man and a womanholdingrespectivelythe club of Heraclesand the lyre of Apollo. vi.p. e3-X4. I 908. Other corevidence is to be found in some featuresof the Greektext which roborative translated. RE. For these deities and other Xii.l6 who ruled from the third decade of the second century to the last of the fourth. and the two zodiacs pl. Islam und Occident. F. I048. Athribis. fasc. I 9 I 5e. I 9O I .p. p. Knobel on pp. UniversityMuseum(P. pp. pp. liv. Vogt. andAstrology der griechischen See my article'Astronomy Boll. see also E. bythe fact that Yavane§vara. 2 nos. the Zodiac of Cairo in I 924.20 Moreover.226 DAVID PINGREE and Mlnarajaall seem to have Sphujidhvaja. mentionedin this papersee the resaegyptiacae articlesin H. B.) 16 and plates 36-38. Bonnet. Daremberg-Saglio-Pottier-Lafaye. went this fact is ourjustificationfor discussingthem together. Antike.

in the fourthor fifth century (p.. In Timaeum 38C (3 . he believes.24The twenty-four Horas are a naturalextensionof these ideas under the influenceof the Decans. were stuck together by the compiler. 27. p. 57. .4I. 30 Ed. P. I0.C. I46. I9I 3.EP that late (the words in -arius which Gundel at Esne. iii. column 20. 28 Ed. Abt. Brugsch.pp. Iamblichus. pp. Gundel. 27 Gundel. F. f. 28 L. cf. Horapollo. p. Gundel. 2I. but was 23 Brugsch.Dendera and Esne.C.70.D. Heft I2. The Decans were originallythirty-sixstarsor constellations whose risings markedthe hoursofthe night as early as 2IOO B. 507. incorporatedmaterialof a considerablyearlierdate. Abh.3l Similarimages of the geitung(hereafter OL4).-hist. frequentlyin contextswhich make perfectlyobvioustheir Egyptian origin. pp. I0). Gardinal Pitra.. Proclus. cf. Borchardt in Orientalische Literatur as Neugebauer has shown (Exact Sciences.25at the formerthere were two versions. I 883. 7. I02. (pp.)N. Gf. Thompson. Arabic termsshows that the Latin versionis 25 I referto the tablein Gundel. 45.and Latin texts ofthe first few centuriesA. Wiss.28 Besidesthese representations two literarydescriptions have survirred from antiquity. Le calendrier de 354. p. I890. 247-77. 26 Gundel. gr.Saturnalia I.22and the south and north walls of the pronaos of the temple at Dendera are ornamentedwith pictures of the gods of the hoursof day and night. 56. Greek.Ruelle.C. I29I. pp.pp. Analecta Sacra et Classica. I3 and Lydus. I936. 24 F.Pal.Bl.other astrological texts indicates that the Greekoriginalcould not have been compiled glythicaI. Demotic ever. from the second century B.thoughunfortunately both belong to the same tradition.and at the latteronly one. Volksk. I888.pp. and S. App. refer to the twelrre hours ofthe day as dirrinities. an examinationof its relationshipto PaSyri. 22 H. which is based on an Alexandrianmodel. in Astronomische und astrolog?sche Inschriftender altagyptischen Denkmaler.Philos.or fifthcenturydate couldbe due to the sixth-century Dendera.I904. Aeuevstrologische Texte des HermesTrismeg?stos. 3. I937. p. centuryB. I 7. Thesaurus Inscriptionum Aegyptiacarum. (p. varyingagesincludingperhaps somematerial Macrobius.30 a Latin translationof a Greektext of the sixth centurywhich has. 31 Gundelclaimedthat this text was originally writtenin Greekin Egyptin the second I948. chapterI. and DR the Round Zodiac of adduces as evidence for a fourth.THE INDIAN ICONOGRAPHY OF THE DECANS AND HORAS 227 The Horashave no direct prototypes in Egypt. Revue dethilologie. I 84-87. Hess. I2I). I 69 . Griith and H. Martianus Capella I. 572. XXXViii. Stern. But we do find on several temples representations of the Sun as an increasinglyolder man for each of the twelve hoursof the day.D. howea-er.a numberof Demotic. Vat. I 908. Hiero. I 8-2 I.33.5. p. W. Bayer. revised in the third century A.4-6 Diehl) . in the pronaos.De mysteriis 7. These are the 'Ispa B5Ros ascribed to Hermes Trismegistus29 and the LiberHermetis. Gougny. Weinstock. Greekversion). 284-go and G. though sources of Anth.27 The Zodiac of Athens discussedby Gundel is now recognizedto be a forgery. Ofthe gods ofthe Decans illustrationsare preservedat two Egyptiantemples.Journalof Roman Studies. W.and the presenceof De mensibus 2. xl. Akad. In addition some of the Decanscan still be seen on the badly damagedTabula Bianchini26 and in a fragmentpreserved in a manuscript which belongedto Peirescin the seventeenth century. Quintus Smyrnaeus2. and Psellus'epigramin R.-E.was made mentionedby H. DP signifiesthe pronaosat Dendera. v. 593595. XXXii.Ep. before the sixth century. Theirvery name proclaims that they are creations of the Hellenisticimagination. I 87-89. and I80). The Latin translation.23 Moreover. 76. HowI 953. Leiden (PatyriGraecae Magicae I3) lines 388-92. The star cataloguesin chapters3 and 25. in the pronaosand the other on the so-calledRound Zodiac.

5. I9OI. 7). 905. 2-237. I3 (5. of parts of the Anthologiae are translations Vettius Valens (late second century): 5-7 Epistula ad Anebonem36.viii. lxvi. and Roll I7 (cf 2. Library. 378): 24 (7). 236. 4).. 6 . 8 Reporton and I 5). columns of 843-46. 5). But it can be stated with certainty that the vast majorityof the attributeswhich appear in the Western iconography of the Decans can be found in the if one probesbeneath the Indian surface.C. interpretation that. A numberof other chaptersare nation.(beginning of 98). Oxyrhynchus second the in stars of the longitudesof 73 33 See M. 26° higherthanPtolemy's figures. 4. Illustrations see Kroll). I 7 IllumiBook Ancient and I947. 6. as this paper will try to substantiate. 5. 86-87). Grenfell and A. I049. 35No. 22 (2. Iamblichus. 23 and 237. 34 (cf. and Calcutta.32 This is usually claimed to in the fragmentary which was written in about 200 B. 3I (cf. I93I. it is absurdto assumethat the few remnantswhich we can study provide more than a hint of the rich variety of strangely-formed who once ruled over diversesegmentsof the zodiac. Martin Classical Lectures I 6. I 26-37. for this chapter.D. 30). 8). (5. support to evidence real no thereis is the Sanskritversesof Sphujidhvaja with material this of comparison A this But at firstsight disappointing. 27 Sastrl in Xournalof the Asiatic Society prasada (cf 4. It is mentioned in Porphyrius. Eusebius. and specifically set out to Yavanesvara that which adorned the Alexandrian manuscript interpreter. Jvxepal. p. 3. 23)8 of Bengal. And finally. This indicatesa date of c. pp. 32 Ed. IO mysteriis I8 2. 480 W. Hunt. Yavanajataka The followingtext is based on one manuscript. 33 (cf. (originallyin Valens. the was Sphujidhvaja We cannot determinewhether translate. Weitzmann.. I 903. ( I 895I900). rect for the period from I30 to 60 B. And the followingchapters and W. and 20 . Mass.. p. 2.written on palm-leavesin NorthernDevanagariin the early thirteenthcentury.33 this contention. But most significant leaf and SelectedPaper MSS. I897. The Greco-Egyptian certainlyextensive. Manuscripts Sanskrit of Search the EsxyxyLxx the from Others are translations of Palmof Paul of Alexandria(c. in especially K. I2 (5. 520): I6 (54). pp. catalogue. a great deal of licensewas permitted to the imaginationsof the individual expositors. xxx.35The manuscript pp. RE Suppl.228 DAVID PINGREE deitieswho presidedover half-Decansor 5° arcs of the ecliptic are described OxyrhynchusPapyrus465.not only not a versification of illustrations a gaiva. 4. 2). 2). I2. Durbar are the three chapterswhich are translations from the compendium of Rhetorius the 4I . evangelica 8.34 or usingcopies of the picturesreproducedin his manuscriptof Yavanesvara. I. it is now preservedin which once belonged the Durbar Libraryat Kathmandu. B. I Calcutta. 22). Praeparatio (5. referringback to 5. and 28 (cf. pp. traditionconcerningthe Decans was is not surprising. Ig (97). 22-27). I5 (5. But. Egyptian(c. 7). they are a Hindu. 6). 334-37): I 8 (Cf. 6A.There are no completecorrespondences. S. Caminfluenced by the Mathesis of Firmicus bridge. 30). I4 (CCAG. Thebes of Hephaestio and g2b-d. It was described by HariMaternus(c.iii. Gundel. Pieper. pp. 3I-238. 6. OL4. 9-I 5). 6). I 929. 68-69). Kroll. 23 (4. Codex. Belonging 40pp. whose text is here cor34 On early Greek manuscript illustrations rupt.the second and third chaptersof Sphujidhvajaare of a prose translationof a Greektext or rather. 3II-I2.furthermore. and their attributesto the same Decan. I I (5. 38).s I are 3. I959. 29). 4. A. I927. and Catalogue to the 26 (beginningof 24). Papyri. Even what we creatures is not consistentin assigninggods haveof the Westerntradition. P. but be a part of the Salmeschoeniaca. give longitudeswhich were cor. 8 (5. columns 2424-25. II80K. cf 4. RE. Hindu in pictures the described who whether it was Yavanesvarahimself terms which were adopted and perhaps extended by Sphujidhvaja. and 36 (cf 7. 8. De 3.C. 9 (cf 5.

the Rajaguru of Nepal. and BJ (the twentyseventh chapter of Varahamihira's Brhajjataka). emend. but muchof the text (and therefore the translation) is doubtful.but whose meaningis especiallydoubtfulare shownin italics. ambarah7 sarpavibhusitango baddhasicarmogravapuh kiriti8// 4 // I bhavanarthabhaga 5 raktamburah kalah ravapradiptah 6 sastognipanih 8 raktartham I2 chagadirudha.r am greatly indebted to him for helping me to gain what understanding of these descriptions I have.mjnayoktah / nanakrtivyanj analingarupas tan kartsnyaso laksanatasca vaksye // 5 raktambarahl kalaravipradiptah I // lo sastragnipanih kapilardhakesah2 / suvarnakarnabharanah pracando3 raksartham4 abhyudyatakaladan. Passageswhich are probablynot corrupt. The Sanskritof Sphujidhvaja is deplorable. dah5 // 2 // mese tu hora prathamanrrupa vyaghustanada krsadirghavaktra / ajavikanam ganamadhyasamstha chagadhirudha prtanamprasasti// 3 // . Wherethe Sanskrit is meaningless. it is enclosedwithin daggersand the translation dissolvesinto dots. and insects have chewed their way through the verses.D (the third chapter). emend. Some assistanceis providedby Varahamihira.It will be noticed that the name of Professor Ingalls appearsfrequentlyin the apparatus.THE INDIAN ICONOGRAPHY OF THE DECANS AND HORAS 229 to Hemaraja. edgesof folia have brokenoff. Below the apparatuscriticusreferencesare given to the parallelsin H (the second chapter of the Yavanajataka). But the errorsin text and translation(which I hope are few) I claim as my own. . emend. Ingalls I4 mrtangavl^ro. but have been written down in the margin by a corrector. Ingalls rdhakavapabandhah.angular bracketsare used to indicate restorations. Parentheses surroundaksaraswhich are missingin the text.the manuscript is corrupt. kapalamall6 I5 saradlptacapo matangaviro'rdhakalapabandhah / krsn. bhaman. is a copy of this. . * * . as I am to Richard Gombrichfor the emendationwhich he has suggested. dale ye bhavanardhabhaga hora iti svakramasa .and rubbinghas made it very difficultto decipherat times. Ingalls 1 D2a BJ2aand 3c 2 D33a H45a BJ3a 3 D2a BJ3c BJIc and 3b 6 D33b 7 H44c 8 D4b 4 BJIb 5 D2d .

emend. and 20a 4 D6b D6c BJ2b. Gombrich II mRdUValgUnaSl vayodiptavidagdacesta I 5 senanathabhiruddha I 6 raktambara 3 Dgc 4 Dgb BJgc 1 D8b 7 DIOb 2 8 DIOa H45b 5 BJgd 6 DI7a . * . b manasvinill I5 campakacarugauril2 / vidyausadhij nanakalavidhij nal 3 kauseyavastrabharanal4 pradipta// 8 // II I turnna Ingalls 2 unmamcati 6 samutthana IO bhaksanajatabhava. . adya tu tanubharasobha I2 jvalalambakanci I4 manasvani 8 3 D6b cf. o vyalambavasah purusahsasilpah/ safigltanatyaSrutaraktabhavo 4 IO 5 vetrasanasthah prakarotikavyam5// Io / stricancalah kamavipascidatma kanyabhujalifiganabaddhapaksah / natyarthagomardavavalgunasi hora trtiye prathamativacya // I I // nari vayodiptavidagdhacesta6 raktangagauri7 nipuna krtajna/ vyattahavesainyanayabhiruddha raktambara raktavilambahara8 // I 2 // IO I3 2 brahmangayaJna 4 hore 5 sukapincchavarno 9 kamavipaksabhavah.4b. I8b.R. emend.tacintafl // 5 // goksirasarpihkalasi3 pradhana4 nari samutthayakutharahasta5 / hayanana6caruvilasadola citrambara7 nupuraghustapada // 6 // catuspadavestitarasmikaya trsnarrrta bhaksanajatibhava8 / adya vrse tu stanabharasobha hora nitambijvalalambakanci9 // 7 // nari vayasthanayanabhiramal° . kanyabhujalinganabaddhapatuh.4a. BJ2b.230 DAVID PINGREE 5 IO cauraihsaharanyam upetya turnaihl samharamunmuncatibhimavaktrah2 / vidarayannasmabhiragrasrfigam mese dvitiya hatanas. and 20c 9 D7d 10DI3a 13 DI7b BJ3aand sa 14 DI3b H44b 5 B BJ2b l H2IC 7 H44d 2 DI5C Dga 12 D7b D5c gosthesamabhatikrsivalanam brahmazngayajnafl prasavanganeva / sraggandhacurnal 5 savapanamatta2 hora vrse vakyabhagadvitiya // 9 // Vi nagrahastah3 sukapiccharrarn. .

I6 and I 4c 7 BJ2Ia-b 12 D23b H30c and vila - 9 idhin pravarddhatuni emend. kandarpacitrangakrtafigaragah / 5 t t sasuddhayatnarikarabhidhanaih smrtascaturthevihita dvitiya // I7 // puruso'visadi simhogramurtihl vikrterniyanta3/ diptah pracando2 yamakalakalpo prodvrttadamstro4 // I8 nisadacaurahavamadhyasamsthah prabaddhatuni5 // IO / parvatakandaresu m. l BJ7c 7 DIIC 12 BJ8a musyamana I4 ye(ddha)kanthah Ingalls BJI Ib 9 H23b 14 BJ8b 3 D24b BJIIc 15 BJI°C 4 D24c 10 BJ8a 1B D27a emend.THE INDIAN IGONOGRAPHYOF THE DECANS AND HORAS 23I s bhujocchritalkrandati2musyamana3 caurairvihare kriyateca nagna4 nivartitasa sannahayuddhena hora trtiye vihita dvitiya // I3 // nari praphullotpalapadmahasta5 / jale sthita6campakavarnagauri7 candram§ugaurabharanottarlya harardhaharojjValabhusitarigl 8 // I4 // IO kantam a<va>lambya9 a§oka§akham udyanamadhyel°manasasmarantill / kancikalapastanalolahara hora caturthebhavane matadya// I5 // purusahsugaura§l3 udyanamadhyel2 / citrastramalambatil4yo '§vakanthahl5 IS kam1 ViiaSOnmiSaCarU§ObhO16 vilalapa kantah // grhitapadmol7 I krandrati I O smaranti I6 gahinapadmo. BJI 6 DI Ia Ib ah krtante vicitravastrabharan. DIob 11 H38d 8 niNadacaurahayamadhyasamsthah sangramaprstah. 34c BJ6a 3 H45d 9 H30c 13 D22b H2gb 4 H3 Ia 10 D26a 5 BJgb BJI4c . 2 D24d 8 H24b 13 DI2d 2 vihara 3 nivirttita I 5 vilasonmitacaruNobho I6 // 9 aNokasaksamalambya 5 DI 11 H22d Ib DI8b 17 cf. Ingalls rasarasanarci pracandai BJ I 3d and BJI4b I4C 2 D I 4a H30b 8 cf.rgan7 nighno ksatadhiravaksah I9 // rasarasanarthi6 dvipendra(da)ntah8 // simhe tu hora prathamabhiyojya purusahpracando2 safigramahrstah9 vyakrstacapol° I5 mrgacarmavasahll I kancanavarmadharil2 napumsakah // 20 vilasiniraksatirudharomal3 tvarikarab hi dh anai I3 h 6 vikrtinniyanta 3 sas ad d h aya II I5 ksatadhltavaksah kamCanaVarmadhar1 1 D I 4a B cf.

emend. tuladharah4 pancaniyogadhl^rah) // 26 // vl^thyantareo IO citravilasavasa6 I5 dhanyadikarsapanajatiyanta7 / prasasibhallapragrllltamudra 11 pramanirastavratam acaramsca // 27 // tuladharenirdayakarmasila hora dvitl^ya narakarmasl^la / damstrotkatas8 tran. . Ingalls kanyakrtausya I4 lipijnah I5 phalarivindramalacarumalas candramsusubhair vacanair.emend. . . . . emend. DI7a 2 BJ7a cf. gal° // 22 // praroditill brahmabArtaflsv vyalambyasotphullapala§i§akhaml3 / vipannavaccadravinatatangi sasthetu hora prathamapta§obha // 23 // kanyakrtau sa prathitadvitiya candram§ugaurahl4 purusolipijnahl5/ phullaravindamalacarumala§ candram§u§ubhrair da§anair vapusman// aranyel2 24 // 2 smrsati 8 putarthini kantamanuprasam. . Ingalls 1 D22a 2 H5a 3 BJI3C cf. D2IC 6D20b 7D20d 8H3Ia 3 BJI9b 4 BJI9a 5 9D23b D20a BJIga . emend. akasadhanadvidd vicitrabanasinikrstakhadgah9 // 28 // 3 filpanrsasraggrathanas ca 4 bhiromo IO dhanyadikosapanajatayantah II pramaSibhallapragRhltamudrah I2 prapyanirastavratam. jna 9 brahmabhrtasvaranya sotphullapalasrasakha I I vipannavatvadravinatatangi.232 DAVID PINGREE 5 IO I5 vyaluptake§o viralagradantol raktonrguhyamspr§atistriyamva / svacakracauraih saha2raudramuccair3 marauvirauty3arkagrhedvitiya // 2 I // §yamavadata4 prathamabhirupa5 prajnartavardra6 malinai§ca vastraih7/ suksmanivastranivicintayanti8 putrarthini9 kantamanusyasan. Ingalls 1 cf. . D24d 4 DI7a H26b 5 DI8a BJ7b B DI8a BJ7c 7 BJI6b 8 BJI6c 9 DI8b BJ7c 10DI8b llBJIIb IO I3 I6 BJ I I b 13 H I 5a BJ I I C BJ I 8a BJ I 7a 5 smrta<sca> kantampranaylkaroti / silpanrtisraggrathanesu glrmanl suclvidhane2 nipuno 'bhiramah// 25 // tule tu hora prathamamanusyah syamavadato nipunah3samantrah/ * * * * * * * * * * y ( . . . Ingalls I 5 damstro§aras tranakasadhanadvr. .

tha man. Ingalls 1 D22b 2 BJI4b and 3Ib 3 cf. A ^ A * A A A 1 o 5 Ca(m^l)karabhal4 viditendrajAlal5 visastrasilpal6 nipun.emend. . alo ^ . D26b t6 . . idamakanci/ krodhakula2 vyakulabhimadamstra s IO dastadharosthi krtadimbavaira // dhanurdhare santavikrstadhanvl^3 hora narascandrakiritamali / candrananah4 kancanabaddhamauli5 hayena sandhavati6 yajnagopta7 // 34 // tapovane8sanusuparvatanam tapahsthito9 dasyujanam vihanya / vec angayaJ nangavlczlprayuita z sarvarthasiddhahl° kamalayataksahll // 35 // horaparadhanvinicarusobhal2 narl caratopavlasapurn.^ . BJ2sa 7 BJ2sc-d 8 BJ25b 9 D34c 10H47d llBJ2ga 12 D27a BJ26a 18 DI6a 14 D27b BJ26a 15 D32a 16cf. . opadesa// 36 // I-2 visanaloddamabrhadbhujangamasaktakantha 3 krodhakula 5 sangaorikrstadhanta 6 candrakiritimali 7 kancanabaddhaInauli I 5 ca(mi)karatabha I 6 vidyastrasilpa 1 D23d BJ23b 2 D23c 3 Dg6a BJ2sb 4 DIgb 5 D26c 6 D26a cf.THE INDIAN ICONOGRAPHY OF THE DECANS AND HORAS 233 bhitta grhanamparaghatamudri romancitahl kambala2 tkocapostraht 3 1 5 udghosayanvithisu sinjyaghantam udvejananyacaratiprajanam// 29 // horastametu prathamograrupa4 diptapracandah puruso'traudrah6 / himsrapraharas7 tapaniyamali8i ranonmukhah pannagabaddhavarma9 // 30 damstrotkatahl° kala iva pravrddholl raktanganetrol2 vipulasikesil3 / // IO I5 visena sastrenaca hanti sattvanl4 mahesvarah kruddhaivantakale// 3I horastamekrsnavapurl5 dvitiya nari samasthavisava<ktra>hastal4 / sastrahavavyadhibhayams caranti sarpaih9krtatopaviloladola // 32 // // 6 I hitta. D22b 4 D34b 5 D23a HI8b 6 BJI IC 7 D2sa and 3Id 8 D23b and 2sa 9 D23d and 24a BJ22cand 23b 10H28c 1l D29b H38C 12 BJId 13 D24a 14 H36d l5D24b BJIa visanaloddamabrhadbhuj angair 1 asaktakan. Ingalls paraghatamadrl 3 vithisutksipya ghantlm dlptiprabhanda IO raktantanetro II satva I2 krudhah 5 Nastrahavavyadhibhaya svajanti. emend.

BJ3Ib 12 BJ29a 4 l D29a 2 cf. Ingalls I3 kumbhadhara 8 3 D37d cf. . . l D27b BJ26b BJ27b 7 D2gb ll D28a BJ29b 2 D27c-d 3 HIeb 4 BJ26c 8 D32c BJ27c 9 D3Ia BJg8a 13 D29a BJ28a 5 D32a 6 D2gb lOD6a cf.emend. . r 4I // malimasas5 carmavilasavasa6 trasyosavapasyamaroSn. * * . . ^ 1 . am tu tasyah pravadanti§esamll lambodaral2sa makarogradamstral3 // 40 // 3 udyaadyaratnani (sic) 6 damstrakarara. 3Ib 12 D3Ib 5 nllanJ anaonalmoarasamvrtangl pisacalohabharana2 vicitra / jalam visanti3vadavamukhastha muhurmuhur thardayatet giram sa // adya narahkumbhadhare tu hora krsnanjanabhol vikaraladamstrah4 / . IO arotit // 42 // I5 bahvistasilpo bahusilpapanih skandheghatas7casya salobhacittah8 / ghatadhvajanam pranayonayah syad dyutaksahasto 'bhimatoriraksuh// 43 // hora smrtakumbhadhare dvitiya kauseyavastrabharana9 tu nari / krsnambara pasagrhltahastal° padmayataksallsrutipandital2 ca // 44 // II 3 vitantl 4 muhurhimarharddayate 5 adye IO ghatas pranayanavasyo I2 rirangah.emend. Ingalls g raksam IO krkrsnadhanyam I I visrjan * . .A. Ingalls trkrtah 7 candayudho 8 nibhindan.rjan prasaktan mlecchamsca can. ^ _ ^ 234 DAVID PINGREE 5 IO 5 bhadrasanasthal pravaramsamudgam2 ratnadipurnam2 vimalangaraga3 / samudraratnani4 vilokayanti lribhatilaksmiriva saprahasa// 37 // mrge tu hora prathamamanusyo damstrakaralo5 vikrtahpracandah/ dandayudho6 mrtyurivantakale7 sandhamvibhindanmrgacarmavasa8 // 38 // lohani dasan mahisamsca raksan jale sthito ra(ksa)tikrsnadhanyam cauransaraudran vis. BJ28c ll D3sa BJ2ga 6 D32c D32a 5 D32b BJ32c 9 D35b BJ3Ic lOD3IC . H48b D30a BJ32c 7 BJ30c-d cf. ^ * ^ . emend. dalaparanbibharti// 39 // mrge dvitiya pramadavikesi9 raktananaraktabhujaikapadal° / krsn.

D33d 8 BJ2gc cf. nidarsanair dvitlyah // horasvarupo yavanajatake 4 aranyaih 3 emend. Ingalls pradais 3 lohanvrranyo. D37a 2 BJ32a-b and 33c 7 surupa° BJ36c 4 BJ36b .ICONOGRAPHY OF THE DECANS AND HORAS THE INDIwAN krsnayatangll kapilograkesl2 235 5 IO I5 madanta/ vaidagdhabhavapracura ganairvrta codakaraksaslnam niyatim niyanti // 45 // sakalaratrim mine tu hora prathamavara stri / <ca> maharnavastha3 santlrnakanta sugauri pathi sthita candramukhl4 // 46 // bhujastanotkampavilasahasa strlbhirvrta sarvamanoharabhir5 / uttlryakulac ca maharnavasya5 abhati raktambarabhusitangl6 ca // 47 // nirupadrava sarvarthasiddhir7 mine tu hora prathitadvitlya narl pisacottaralohakarnl8 nllena harenaca bhusitangl // 48 // capi salokacitraih kanclgunais9 I 6 kanricigunais 2 II abhati 6 BJ35a-b 1 BJ29band 33a 6 D35b D33a 7 H35d 3 4 DIgb cf. BJ3sc D3sc BJ22b 9 cf. H4Ib D30a abhlrasamsthanakrtottarlya 1 5 nllais ca vastraihpravibhatiraudra/ lohan harantlsakataihpadai§ca2 caurais3ca dlptair musitahy aranye4// 49 // etas tu hora yavanairniruktas / cintasamudbhutigunasrayarthah anubandhair sarupalingabharan. jnah // 50 // eva yatharthasam. eva 8 nidarNanaity 1 cf.

* . aksah suklamb aro9 varan. H2c 7 H2d BJIC 8 H8b 9 BJIa 10cf. asa . BJ2a 5 BJ2c H6a BJ2band 4a 7 H6a 8 H7b BJ2a-b and 4b 9 H8b 11BJ8a 12 BJ8a-b D25c 13 Hgc 14 D20a cf. atu(lya)murdh a10 banayudhodhaturasarthavic ca mese dvitiyo gurulomasangahll// 3 // nilambaronilavapuhpracandol2 dandayudhol3 nilakiritamalil4 / I5 bali tarangais' ca gavaksita<ro> mese trtiyahkalikalakalpah // 4 // 3 nanavidyacchadanacitrarupas 5 prandah 6 krodhapraharah ripudarunaksah I I vastayuso * . D26b lOH7d . Komai . A A citrasragalankrtalambaharahl3 I5 / adyas trtiye krtasilpabhandahl4 sastrastravidl2 bandhakirltavarma // 8 /1 I syamahkataksakulacittasasta X kadumbakulakanthamala 3 adya netra 4 mapnoti sodaniyukta 8 paradyanavanabhirama 9 kamaletigl II subhrulataca vrsabhanuyata I2 °kanci I 3 vanavicitrapanis I 5 adya I 6 sastrastravivandhakiritavarma 6 l BJ6c 2 H6b 3 cf. isl2 A ^ . avarmayudhacitrabano6 mese kutharodyatapanir7 adyah // X // gaurah8prahariripudarun. H2b 6 cf. .sadgunarasitrtiyabhaga drekan.mjna yavanakhyaya ye nanavidhacchadanacitrarupas 1 tan sarvalingadigunair vidhasye// I // raktambaro2 raktavapuh3 pra<ca>ndah4 krodhapraharah ksatagatrapanih5 / suvarn.angl kakudmat^l campakacitramala9 / subhrulatasa vrsabhantayata nitambabimbanuvilambakancll° // 7 // dhanurdharollbanavicitrapan. . BJId 4H2c BJIC 5 cf. BJ6aand Ioa D2gc 12 BJ3c 13 BJ3b 14 H4d 5 IO syama kataksakulacittastasta nari kadambakulakanthamala / adyo vrse tatra kutharahasta2 sambhatigopalavinamitangl3 // 5 // raktanana4 raktabhujaikapada5 raktadharosthl kalasl6pradhana7 / bhaksyeca pane ca sadabhiyukta8 vrse 'parodyanavanabhirama // 6 // narl ma . . BJsc 4 H40b cf. l HIC 2 H2a BJ2a 3cf.236 DAVID PINGREE 5 IO sat.

BJI4c 10HI2a 5 HI8b . emend.THE INDIAN ICONOGRAPHY OF THE DECANS AND HO 237 syama vicitrambaracarukancll narl kalagltakathabhirama2 / 5 IO vlnam3pragrhyabhirata prakama subhruvilasl mithunedvitlya // 9 // raktambaro4 raktavi<la>mbaharo4 raktangagauro5 ra<bha>sapracandah / raktagradando naravrndamukhyah sastrastradhar^l6 mithune trtiyah // IO // nar^l vilasarpitavalgusabda jale sthita7padmagrh^ltahasta8 / kamatura9 campakacarugaur^ll° sukle<ka>vastra prathamacaturthe// I I sarpasana madAyamarupasobhi daksin. yabhavapracura tadatma/ ratnakaralankrtacarumurtirl3 // I5 gauramsukal4 karkatake dVitlyah // I 2 // I ViCitrambaraCarUkUrSCl 2 kalagltakathabhirata 5 raktavimbaharo 6 raktangagauro rasapracandah 8 sastrarthadhari I2 suklevastra. BJIIa 9 HIsb and I6C D28b 0 HI4b 11cf. BJIIa and I2b 12 cf. D2Ia BJ26b 13 BJga 14 HI6a nllotpalabhanayanabhiramal kauseyacitrabharanottarlya2 / s IO I5 bandhya3ca saubhagyamadotkata ca (nar^l ca)turthevihita trt^lya // I 3 // simhodarahsimhavapuh4 pracandah5 sastrayudhah prautdhabalabhimanl^ / raudrograkarma6 pisunasanepsur7 adyah prabhutagrakaras ca simhe // I4 nar^l pragalbhaviralagrakesl^8 saile parasvaharanesu drpta / tasyaprakarams ca karotibhlma simhe 'para markatatulyacesta9 // I5 // narl krtatopavidagdhacestal° yantresusilparthamanikriyasu / dantasanastha prakaroticintam simhe trtlya dvisatamvadhena // I6 // // I2 6 predvabalibhimani 7 pisanasanepsur maustikatulyacesta. Ingalls l H8a 7 2 H8d and I7a BJ7b 3 BJ7c cf. HIga 8 H2Ia cf. BJIsc 8 prasunagrakara§ 4 HI8a 6 BJI4C BJIsa cf. Ingalls caturthah I4 daksinyabhavapracuran tadatma 1 H6d and 7d 2 HIOCBJgc-d 3 HIOa 4HI2d 5 HI2b sBJgb 7 HI4b 8 HI4a and I6d cf. emend.

do IO nikRstakhadgasl° tapanlyaVarmall / prakridate krodhavimurchitarcirl2 I5 adyo 'stametiksn. air vrtangah/ adyas tule §yamatanuhl2 sunetro hiranyapanyakarako§abhumihl3 // 20 // ^ ^ * ^ ^ * ^ ^ ^ s ta 4 rthaviniscitasya 7 vanartham 9 vilasipihavabhava (sic) IOsmrtanana. Ingalls I2 madaprakhalitair 1 H22a BJI7b 2 H2sc cf. H8c 4 H22a-b BJ7b c 5 H22d 6 H22b 7 cf. emend. H20b 9 H30b 10H28d 11H30c BJ2Ib 12 H33c 13 H30d and 33a 14 H3Ib 15 H33a-b BJ22c 16 HI3a-b 17 H32a 18 HI3b BJ22a 19HI3a and 2IC 6 . avisairbhujangaihl3// 23 // nari vike§il4bhujagairnibaddhal5 caurairaranyel6musitasitangil7 / caurad drutamdhavatisa xrinagnal8 kite 'para krandatiraudramuccaihl9 // 24 // 7 siratranavibaddhavarma IO 2 citranva(ra) lambatravilambaharacitravilambahara (sic) nikrstakhadga IS vilagna I6 cocam uccaih 1 DI2a 2 cf. HIsa 10H27a BJIga 11D8c BJIgc 12H26b 13H27b 5 nari sumadhyalviditalpa§ilpa2 citramba(ra)3 citravilambahara4 / dutividhanenipun. H27a 5 H28c H29b 7 cf. BJI7a 3 cf. H29b 8 H28d BJ2Ib cf.238 DAVID PINGREE 5 IO I5 §yamolnarah silpavidagdhasastrah2 sankhyanakau§alyakathavidhijnah3 / saubhagyanaipunyavidhau 'bhiyuktah kanyadibhago 'rthaviniscitah syat // I 7 // nari surupartavadigdhagatri4 naramprajartherahasismaranti5 / sa pan. a vararthe tule dvitiya vitadhurtacesta // 2 I // narah prahariviralagradantah5 prarudharoma6 gurutkaucapanguht7 / dhanvi §irastran. dita6yatnavatijanartham sasthevidesamvrajatidvitiya // I8 // narl vl Wasarplta navaZnava smitananacandramukhi8 trtiya / asokapuspabharanaikaveni 9 gatair madaprakhalitair vibhati // I 9 // vlthyaml° manusyahkrta§ilpabhandah kau§eyacitrabharan. avibaddhavarma8 tule trtiyovitakutacestah // 22 // narah pradipto9ripucandadan. DI Ia and 27a 8 H34c 9 cf. H2sc 3 H6d and I7a 4 cf.

trtiyah// 28 // gandharvagandhapranayi 6 rathastrasiksa 2 nidhanestatikarmathaN 3 nagnatrateccho I3 kurcci I2 ghatta dvitiye IOkanakaNmusauri 5 H36d D8d 4 cf. BJ3b 3 cf. H4Ia 14 H36c 13 H42b and 38b H44c . BJ36a 2 H30c 1 H30c 9 H34c 8 BJ2sc cf. H40b 10H40d 9 H40a 8 H24d BJ30b 15 cf. BJ25a 6 H34a BJ25b 13H37a-b BJ26c 12H36c BJ26a 11H36a BJ26b 10H36b 18DI IC 17BJ27c 16H32a BJ2gb 15BJ27a 14H37c BJ26c nilanjanabllol makarogradamstro2 / kalakrtantakarma4 dandayudhah3 gurulomavarma5 ma<dhya>§ma§ane adyah // 29 // sthito mrgakhye'kr§amurtir 5 dlptadyutir nllapi§acadantah6 vapusman8/ prabaddhavarmasi§iro7 kurvannadibandhatadagavahan // 30 // mrge dvitiyah paricancariti pravidaritasya srastagrake§i9 IO lambOdarllO raktakr§ayatariglll / pasagrahastal2 damstrakaralol3 I5 mrtacailadhatri 3I // viditendrajalol4 makaretrtiya // himsabhirama niStrim§akarmajinaVlraVaSal6 / malinardhake§ah nilambudabhol5 prathamonrkumbhe// aksudrabhavah 4 krtamurtir viditendrijalo 1 H4Ia 2 32 // 6 pravrddhavarmasisiro 9 pravidaritasya sastragrakeNi cf. H4Ib and 4sa 6 16 BJ3Ic 7 12 5 D3d BJ28a 4 H38c 3 H38c BJ27b H40d BJ28a 11cf.THE INDLAN IGONOGRAPHYOF THE DECANS AND HOUS 239 5 himsrahlnarah kancanavarmadhari2 ca / bile3 nidhanestavikarmatha§ astame'ntyah 'stravid5 bhagnavrateccho4 santapyatesvair musitahsahayaih// 25 // davego7 hayacan. vyakrstacapo6 / kratubhandadhari8 rathastra§iksah adyo narah kancanadam§itango9 // 26 // kancanakundalarcih9 dhanurdhare nari vilasarpitacaru§obhal° bhadrasanasthall kanakam§UgaUrll2 / IO ratnakarehemamayamsamudga<m>l3 <ud>ghattyal4dane 'bhiratadvitiya // 27 // vilasi kurcil5narah §yamatanurl6 kau§eyavasal7 I5 madanaturatmal8 / alambavaksa keyuramuktagun. D8c and 20a 7 H34d cf.

astavastrabharanal5 virauti vastrarthini minayugedvitiya // 36 // I2 ratnakarangavi I3 °kali IO kauseyavasikarabhusitangi 1 H45a 2 H4a 3 cf. H44c and 48d BJ28c 5 H34c BJ28band IOC 7 BJIOb 8 H35b 9 H45a 10H44d 11H44b BJI2c 12 H46b BJ3sa-b.nubandhaih 1 H49a 2 vidarsana I6 eseva BJ36c 3 H48c .t . togradams .ro3 vrtas ca pasadigun. asvabhavah/ tesam phalam krtsnamanunasaktam tathaivasarvarthaparikriyasu // 40 // I2 8 cintasrayasvaprakr . air4dvitiyah // 33 // nanayudhahkancanacandramali5 naro varahakrtighoramurtih6 / raktan prakurvan malaye7tapasvi8 kumbhetrtiyahkapipingake§ah9 // 34 // narl sukayavipulayataksil° kauseyacamikarabhusitangill / IO I5 potena santirn. amaharn. I2b and 22b 13 BJI2a cf. HI8C 4 cf.240 DAVID PINGREE pradiptasastrah kapilardhake§ahl kapalamalakulabaddhacarma2 / 5 sandhyaghanabho 'pasr . dal4 nari vivastral5sitalohakali/ pran. 34d. 34a-b 14 H49b 15 BJ36band 22a 6 a(bhl)racihnabharanal ^ ^ *^ ^ ^ vike§i @ 5 IO I5 nari viravamprakarotibhita2/ srgaWamarJ aravaraa zarupalr vibhusita3bhutaganair jalastha // 37 // ete niruktayavanairmahadbhir horarthatvammasu-tvidbhiradyaih / drekkabhidhana bhavanatribhagas cintasrayaih ssatrakr<ta->nubandhaih // 38 / am§esvaramsagrahadarsayoga vikalpanadindriyadrstir esa / jagaty anekakrtibhagalingair nidarsanakaran. ato yathartha// 39 // ksetramsakale gadita visesa grahasyaye va karan. avasthal2 ratnakararthel3 ca jhasadvayadya// 35 // kalau karalapramukhipracan.

and cosmetic powders. IO. Two. He thinks fearful-faced of destructionand ruin (?). Halves of the signs in the circle of (zodiacal) constellations by the name of their seriesHoras.pharmacology. ing bright-coloured surroundher body. 4 vidharmam 5 vidhidhair 42 // I rasesva of theHoras. this blazing one. She is filled with 7.distinguishing like the Sun flaming is 2.and forms. and mounted on a goat. and her feet tinkle with anklets. The first Hora in Aries wears red clothes and Half of his hands. Drunkon draughtsof somajuice.but in detail. Bearing a sword and (elephant's)skin. and his clothesare black. Enteringthe forestwith his swift thieves. The first Hora in the third sign holds a lyre in his hand. tu anyonyasamyogavikarajam vidusa kramena// 4I // rupamvidharSram vividhairvikarair grhagrahamsair ahuh / navamsakasyakrtilingam rasesca rasikramasamnivesad ahuh // bhavana<rtha>m bandhatisaktam asvarupastrtiyah // yavanajatakedrekkan. His bow blazes with arrows. thin face. togetherwith their variousshapes. This is a man-shapedcreaturewhose crsris loud and who has a long. She has garlands.insignia. he wears the diadem (of Siva). 8. TheForms Chapter are called I.and is fond of all sortsof food. He is bound with a halfgirdle. has handsomehips. Her face is like that of a horse.this man.and the arts.rising up with an axe in her hand. He holds a sword has raised who man a fierce He is of gold. His limbs are adornedwith snakes. She appearsin an assemblyof farmers. Standing in the midst of flocksof goats and sheep. he rules his host. He has the strengthof an elephant.perfumes. she speaksin a lovely voice. She plays and swingsgracefully. She is intelligent. The first Hora in Taurus is a woman who carriesa pitcher of cow's milk and clarifiedbutter. and pale with the beallty of campaka-flowers. pendant girdle. marks. She is four-footed. and wears a bright.THE INDIAN ICONOGRAPHY OF THE DE>NS AND HORAS 24I 5 grahasyarase§ca yad iritam prag alaksanamca / rupamsvabhavogun. Girdle-strings thirst. 6. 9. The second Hora in Aries wears a garland of skulls. splitting open the highest peak with his bolts. are ear-rings his and hair is tawny. His complexion is the colour of a parrot'stail-feather. The second Hora in Taurus is a youthful woman with pleasing eyes. She is adornedwith garments of silk. 4. sake for the of Death the staff 3. his in a firebrand and at Doomsday. and of terrible figure. he lets loose destruction.sacrificingher body to Brahma (?) like a woman in childbirth. I will describethem briefly.wearrobes. She is beautifulwith her heavy breasts. 5.She knows the rules of sciences. He is an artisticman whose . She is pre-eminent. of protection.

She is made naked by thievesin a park..but is broughtback by meansof an armedconflict. charmingand wise.. I I. His firm chest is wounded. as being a very pale I6. He is a eunuch. He stands in the has upward-curving midst of battles between Nisadasand thieves.he slays (?) deer in mountaincaves. he protectswomen. of Brahma(?). Raisingher arms. his garmentis a deer-skin. She is besiegedby the leader of an army in a war. person. Clothedin red. The first Hora in the fourthsign is a woman who holds a blossoming lotus in her hand. 24. Together with the robbersof his band he shoutsterriblyand shrillyin the desert. Desiring to taste flavours.she criesout when she is robbed. She is pale and redlimbed. Her necklacetrembleson her girdle and breasts. She standsin the water. She criesin the forestamong the serving-girls and withoutmoney. His teeth are like those of the lord of elephants. Impassioned. is He Cupid's. as as bright is body his on ointment I8. has intercourse she loves. she recalls to mind her beloved. She is wet with her menstruation with the man She thinksof fine clothes. desiringa son. and is like Yama and Kala. He wears a beautiful and spotless garland of blossominglotuses.. bearinghis armourof gold. The secondHora in the fourthsign is established and who has a weapons bright man in the middle of a garden who seizes by playful beautiful made is radiance whose neck like a horse's. The second Hora in Virgo is said to be a man pale as moon-beams who knows how to write. wide-spreading I 3.242 DAVID PINGREE clothes hang loosely and whose nature it is to love singing. go. The hair on his body is long. Seated on a cane chair he composespoetry. The second Hora in the third sign is establishedas being a woman whose actions are charmingand glowing with youth. The first Hora in the sixth sign is a black and white woman who is and has filthygarments. ee. I9. Her upper-garment limbs are adornedwith the splendourof full and half necklaces. . He as terribleas a lion's. The firstHora in Leo is to be spokenof as a bold man whose form is of change. I4. He has bound on his quiver. his forth glances. leaning e3. He is handsomewith teeth as bright as the rays of the Moon. Her flower. and. He is blazing and fierce the restrainer tusks. 2 I . a very reprehensible I2. His bow is drawnback. The I7. Holding a lotus. she wears a danglingred necklace. The secondHora in the houseof the Sun is a fierceman who delights in battle. He wearsvariegatedgarmentsand ornaments remembered. on a branchthat is in full fruit and leaf. clever and grateful. He is not much of a bllsinessman. and listening(to music). He runs afterwomen and is cleverin love. She is in distress and her body is stretchedout. the belovedone pours at Doomsday(?). He is bald-headed and gat-toothed. pale as the colourof a campakaand ornamentsare pale like moon-beams. destroyerof gentlenessand beauty. I5. Leaning on the branch of an asoka-treein a garden. dancing. but. He is a lover complaints. She has attainedbeauty. His sides are bound in the but he is a embraceof a maiden'sarms.he touches the genitals of a man or a woman.

He adores his beloved. He raceswith his horse. and is moon-faced. He slays living creatureswith poison and a swordlike Mahesvaraangry at Doomsday. and playfulness. fierce. etc. He is remembered.this protectorof the sacrifice. he carries bright-colouredarrows. His eyes are as wide as lotuses. .battles. He is a smasherof houseswhose seal is an injury to others. a sword. she createstumult and qllarrels. He has prominentteeth and is violent like Death. His hair is erect. He has prominentteeth. and sway. writhe. consistingof a dart. he dons his armourwhich is bound with serpents.slaying the race of the Dasyus. She is the cause of (the llse of) weapons. 3X. 34. A pleasing man. and of all sorts of coins. 36. is accepted. he is eloquent and clever in crafts.he wears a bright and handsome garland. a blanket. and . and the weaving of garlands. The first Hora in the eighth sign is a man of terribleform blazing. e8. He guards his iron. and her teeth are flashingand she makesher snakes swell.and who shines like gold. a knife. The second Hora in Sagittariusis a woman of handsomebrilliance who is full of motion. His seal. With spotlessointmenton her body as she gazes at the jewels from the sea. e9. and most dreadful.he jingles a bell and causesfright among the people. He stands in penance in the forestof asceticismand on the peaks of mountains. His hair is bound with gold. He is in control of grain. 27. his slaves.and wearsa garlandof gold. is artful in (the use of) poison and weapons. 30. and. and is steadfastin the five duties. 37. 39. she shines like Laksmlwith splendour. His limbs and his eyes are red. He knowsthe properuse of each element of the Vedas and the sacrifice. The firstHora in Capricorn is a man withjagged teeth who is hideous and fierce. Yearningfor battle. The second Hora in the eighth sign is a level-standing(?) woman with a black body who has poisonousmouth and hands. this wearerof a deer-skin. standing in ... Biting her lowerlip. Her girdle consistsof stringsof jewels. . diseases. He breaksthe peace. 3I. and a drawn sword (with which to assailhis enemies). and his buffaloes. and gives clever advice. She is filled with anger. The second Hora in Libra is one who is accustomedto pitiless and manly deeds. 35. . The firstHora in Libra is a man who is black and white. and he observesa vow without limit. He carriesa pair of scales. Hating the accomplishment of protection.and dangers. Seated on an auspiciousthrone she looks at an excellent casketfilled withjewels and other riches. his hair like nllmerollsswords. He is clever and knows spells. Her neck is clllng to by greatserpentsproudof theirpoisonousbreath.THE INDIAN ICONOGRAPHY OF THE DECANS AND HORAS 243 25.and accomplishes all his desires.. The first Hora in Sagittarillsis a man whose bow is drawn to the limit. 38. She understandsmagic. .dances. Crying aloud in the market-place.. Standing within the market-place. and an arrow. well as in the use of a needle. He wears the Moon in his diadem. pride. e6. armedwith a club like Death at Doomsday. He delightsin injury.

are describedby the whereintheir forms. Her body is adornedwith a blue having (all) the coloursin the world (?). and his hands are employed in many crafts. necklaceand with girdle-strings was made in the land of the Abhlras.insignia. 4X. 43. Brightlycoloured. devotedto him. Surrounded risenup from the shoreof the Great Sea.. He is beloved as one who desiresto defend (his friends). of Night the with together Fate restrains she Water-Raksasls. 4I. e. Her belly hangs down. Thirty-six I colours. sacred the in learned is She lotus.and her limbs are covered with garments. She shines 49. I .in blue robes. defendshis black grain. a as wide as Her eyes are is by nature She wild. and wears the beallty of a skin.244 DAVID PINGREE the water. her limbs adorned all her objectives. are robes Her with silken garments.. He knows many desired arts. he is a suitable leader of those whose emblem is a pot. His teeth are dreadful. and qualities (of natives). She shines with blue unguents. 48.and is without miswith red garments. (^£XAVOt) characteristic their with beginning qualities their all with them will describe signs. Doom. His hands hold dice for gambling. TheForms Chapter as are the thirdsof the zodiacalsignswhich are called Drekan. she is shining and moon-faced. he bears (the attackof) the Mlecchasand the chief Can. by women who are pleasingin every way and who have 47. The second Hora in Pisces is said to be a woman wearing ear-rings made of the superiormetal of the Pisacas. Standingon a path beside the Great Sea. The first Hora in Piscesis an excellentlady who is loved by one who has crossedover (the ocean). His thoughtsare covetous. and her teeth are dile's. Her laughtercauses a tremblingand a graceful movementof her armsand breasts. Letting loose the rough thieveswho are dalas. They have namesin accordancewith their natures. Entering the water and standing at Mare's Mouth (the Entranceto Hell). places of origin. Her throngsof by surrounded and intoxication of stage final the in Being clever. she (raises?) her voice again and again.. He is black. A pot is on his shoulders. and tall is body 45. While carryingher metals in wagons and by foot. Three. she is robbedin the woods by blazing thieves. and forms. The second Hora in Capricornis a woman with loose of rest the that say a red face and red armsand who standson one foot. The firstHora in Aquariusis a man who glistenswith blackunguents. to be a woman adorned 44. dreadful.she is adornedwith ornamentsmade of the metal of the Pi§acas. The first Decan in Aries is a man garbed in red and having a red . 46. Her llpper-garment forth. they crocoa like dreadful her is black. various have They by the Greeks. has who hair 40. whose purpose resides in (the determinationof) the thollghts.and ornaments Greeksby meansof illllstrations given. and reddish hair her black. are successively of theDecans. clothes. she shinesforth. texts. These Horas. her and black. She accomplishes fortune. The secondHora in Aquariusis remembered hand grasps a noose. 50.

4. IO. and his eye-ballsare like a bull's. Round her neck she wears a garlandfull of kadamba-flowers.and delightsin gardensand woods.and he knowsthe purposesof mineralsand mercury. He is like Death in battle. and her girdle hangs to the end of her buttocks. 5.Her brows are lovely. She is pre-eminentas she standson one foot holding a jar. Armedwith a -lub. and in story-telling. He is clothed in white. . 3. and she is graceful. 6. Holding a lotus in her hand. He is the chief of a multitudeof men. The secondDecan in Ariesis a pale-huedwarriorwhoseeyes are pitiless to his enemies. She has a bull's hump. He is strongwith leaps (?). His limbs are heavy and hairy. armedwith a sword. She is barren. The second Decan in Taurus is a red-facedwoman whose arms and lower lip are also red.and arrogantwith his mightystrength. Her nature aboundsin politenessand affection. He is fierce. I I.Her eyebrows are fair. violent and fierce. a fierce man whose limbs and hands are wounded and who attacksin anger. 9. He has a garlandof blue diadems.THE INDIAN ICONOGRAPHY OF THE DECANS AND HORAS 245 complexion. I 2. Her body is bov-ed down to by singing. She is alwaysintent on eating and drinking.and he wears a diadem and armour. The firstDecan in the third sign carriesa bow. 7. The secondDecan in Geminiis a blackwomanwhosegirdleis beautifi and whosegarmentsare brightlycoloured. Her body.and his necklace is pendant. Her upper-garment is of silk and (adornedwith) brightjewellery. The tip of his staff is red (with blood). she is as pale and fair as a campaka-flower. He bears golden mail and bright arrows. His deeds . The third Decan in Gemini wears red clothes and a red. I 3. She delightsin the arts. He knowshow to use swordsand missiles. with a tenderbody. The last Decan in Taurusis a woman . He has arrowsfor weapons. The firstDecan in the fourthsign is a womanwhosewordsare beautifill and full of grace. adornedwith jewels.She wears a single white garment.and his hand is upraisedwith an axe. . happy as her mind is agitatedby sidelongglances (?).but puffedup with pride in her beauty. 8. and his hand is bright with arrows. he is fierce. He is pale with red limbs. Holding a lyre. The first Decan in Taurus is a black woman. The first Decan in Leo has a belly and a body like a lion's.She shinesforth holding an axe in her hand. His head is like an elephant's. Pining with love. He bearsa sword and missiles. is beautiful. she stands in the water. and wears a garland bright with campaka-flowers. He is adornedwith a garlandof many colours. I4.and her garmentsare of a pale hue. pendant necklace. The third Decan in Aries wears dark blue garmentsand has a dark blue body. The secondDecan in Canceris a girl seatedon a snake-throne. The third Decan in the fourthsign is set down as a svoman who is the colour of a darkblue lotus and is pleasingto the eyes. she is pleasedand delighted. having a mediumform (?) and beauty. The instruments of his craft are prepared.

and he desiresspicy food.and story-telling. 26. ee. she callses . Her face is smiling. He knowshow to use weapons..having been robbedby his companions. He is attached to beauty and skill.. Her one braid of hair is adornedwith asoka-flowers. mines.. his body is black and his eyes beautiful. and treasllre. She is on a mollntainpeak. her collntenancemoon-like. 20.246 DAVID PINGREE are terribleand cruel. The first portion of Virgo is a black man who possessesa subtle knowledgeof craftsand who knows the rules of calculating. The secondDecan in Sagittarius is a woman who is charming. 23. His sword is drawn. She is robbedby thievesin the forest. She loves a man in secretfor the sake of a child. The third Decan in Libra is a man about to attack. Standingin a hole. I9. I5. his armouris of gold. 24. The secondDecan in the sixth sign is a beautifulwoman whose limbs are polluted by her menstruation. Terrible. she considers(?) the murder of her enemies. and is determinedin his purpose.. . strivingon behalf of the people. She wearsbrightgarmentsand a bright. The last Decan in the eighth sign is a cruel man wearinga goldensuit of armour. and beautiful. her actions are like those of a monkey. The second Decan in Leo is a bold woman with loosenedhair. I8. 27. business. The secondDecan in Librais a fair-waisted womanwho has learneda little of the crafts.but is tormented. proudin takingaway the wealth of others. With black body and completelynakedshe rllnsswiftlyfrom a bandit. She is clever in the oEce of an intermediary(betweenlovers)for the sake of the bridegroom. Seated on an ivory throne. His places are those where there are gold. his flames are fannedby anger. The thirdDecan in Virgo is a womanwho is naturally coquettishand graceful. Her actionsare like those of roguesand cheats. 25. merchandise. The first Decan in the eighth sign is a blazing man whose staff is fierce to his enemies. The firstDecan in Libra is a man in the market-place with the implements of his trade prepared. and bearsthe instruments for the sacrifice.graceful. His limbs are covered with silk and bright ornaments. he is clever (in obtaining)treasureand what he desires(?). He engagesin the tricksof rogues. He carriesa bow and wears armourand a turban.pendantnecklace. and his ear-rings flashwith gold. He wishes to follow a vow that is broken. I7.or jewels. . and her stepsseem to stumblewith intoxication. He sportswith serpentswhose poisonis sharp. and the hair on his body is long. His body is protectedby gold. She is learned. The second Decan in Scorpio is a woman with loose hair who is bound with snakes. He has knowledgeof chariotsand weapons. 2 I . The third Decan in Leo is a womanwhose actionsare marvellous and who is cllnningin respectto machinesand to undertakings involvingthe arts. He has many fingers (?). She is seated on an auspiciousthrone. The tops of his teetll are far apart.cleverness. callingout terriblyand shrilly. The firstDecan in Sagittarius is a man whosebow is drawnand whose speed is as violent as a horse's. she journeys to a foreigncountry. I6. and is pale with a .

35. he has the natureof one who is not insignificant. 28.the navamsasthemselves. She delightsin injury. Clothed in silk and pining with love.this perceptionof the organs of sense is combinedwith (the eSects of) the lordsof the navamsas. She stands by the Great Sea. together with their various shapes.and aqueducts. 30. His is the colourof sllnset-clouds. 36. and a bracelet is on his upper arm.THE INDIAN ICONOGRAPHY OF THE DECANS AND HORAS 247 golden-huedbody. he is graceful. she takes pleasllrein distributing(its contents). He is handsome.she sholltsout. and wearsa winding-sheet. By the great and authoritativeGreekswho know the . and the aspects of the planets.and the translation is very dubiousin places. He is covered with the stringsof noosesand so forth. His actionsare pitiless. The second Decan in Capricornis a man of blazing splendourwhose teeth are dark blue and like a Pisaca's. 39. her colour is white. and a hangingbelly. tanks. Producing red (sandal-wood?) in his garden (or Mollnt Malaya). Her body is adornedwith silk and gold. cats. red. The firstDecan in Capricorn is the colourof collyrium. 3X. a gaping mouth.the foremost one. He stands in the middle of a cemeterywith an armollrof heavy hair and a strongbody. The third Decan in Sagittarius is a beardedman with a black body. (The followingverses are to a large extent still obscure. His is the colour of a dark clolld. She stands in the water adorned by troops of spirits having the shapesof jackals.sword. and his actionsare like those of Time and Death. Her garmentsand ornamentsare destroyed. He desiresmllsic and perfume. The third Decan in Capricornis a woman with loose hair.) 38. Her red body is tall and thin. He is armedwith a staff. he is an ascetic whose hair is reddish-brown like a monkey's. of horoscopy these thirdsof the signswhich are called Drekkasare describedtogetherwith their thoughtsand originswhich are connectedwith their natures (?). 29. Coveredwith garlandsof skulls. and has no clothes. . She is fierce. The secondDecan in Piscesis a womandreadfillin strife. and black. and turban (sirastrana). The first Decan in Pisces is a woman with a beautiful body whose eyes are expansiveand long. Garbedin an antelope-skin. She shrieks as she is frightened.desiringclothes. . Opening a golden casket in a heap of jewels.having bound on his armour. Half of his hair is tawny.his formfrightful. Becauseof its doubtfillness.He wandersabout constructing river-embankments. The first Decan in Aqllariusis a man who has dreadfulteeth. 34.he wears armour. and half of his hair is filthy. which she has crossedin a boat for the sake of a heap of jewels. On his breast hangs a string of pearls. His shapeis boar-like. The second Decan in Aquariusis a man with a shining sword. . The third Decan in Aqllariusis a man with variousweaponswearing a garlandof golden Moons. His teeth are as terribleas a crocodile's. 37. 33. She holds a noose in her hand. He knows how to practisemagic. The third Decan in Piscesis a woman whose hair has been loosened and who wears ornamentsbearing the emblem of the Abhiras. and boars. 3I. and his protruding teeth arefierce.

see T. cf. LV fig. a Hora also holds a lotus in her hand (the firstin Cancer. (The point seems to be that what has been said about the Decans is to be modifiedwhen applied to the native in accordancewith the influencesof the other elements in the horoscopewhich are describedat length in the Yavanajataka. 40. and the first in Capricorn)and one Drekana (the secondin Aqllarius). the first in Scorpio. the firstHorasin Leo and Capricorn.the sword (the second Hora in Aries. they have the natureof being instrumental callses. the second in Libra. 80 Iconograthy.the navamsas. 2nd ed. Calcutta. . the third Drekana in Aries. DR 30. N.the firstin Leo. Madras. I956. the third in Gemini. Siva's axe is graspedby three of these deities (the first Hora and Drekan. as in Scorpio)as they do that of Bhairava. quality. the third Drekanain Aries. the second Decan of Aries in the Liber Hermetis. a of Cancerremindsone of Gaja-Laksmi beingshowered by her pair of elephants. I 959. and the firstin Capricorn). Snakesadornthe bodies of five images (the second Hora in Aries and the first and secondHoras and Drekan. The womanholdinga lotus and standingin the water who is the firstDrekan. Their entire effect is in full force in actionsfor all purposes(?). What was said previouslyto be the form.and (other)portions(of a sign). I I O-I 2 and Ancient India. and pl. the first in Scorpio. 4I. and Banerjea. the second in Libra. Elements of Hindu pp. 42.and Bhairava's protruding teeth are attributedto four Horas (the firstin Leo. the first in Scorpio. p.248 DAVID PINGREE portions. A. A. The characteristics of a planet have been describedwith regard to the signs. Banerjea. I 03-220. and distinguishingmarkof (each) planet and sign is to be determinedby a wise man as the form which arisesfrom the changesdue to their mutual combinations in order. ii. 446-88 and passim.and time.36Other imagesbear a resemblance to the goddess of wealth.) It will have been noted that the second Hora in Sagittariusis compared to the goddessLaksmi. a in Taurusand the firstDrekan. and the firstin Scorpio.. and the first in Capricorn).and characteristic marksin this world.and the first Drekanain Aries and the third in Capricorn). Vatukabhairava's red body is sharedby four images (the second Hora in Gemini and the first in Scorpio.and the thirdDrekanain Gemini. But far more frequentis a resemblanceto giva in his variolls samharamurtis. I 9 I 6.planets.pp.37Mahesvarais even named in the descriptionof the first Hora in Scorpio (for Kala and/or Yama cf.xv. and EP 30). and before two other female figuresappearsa casketfull of jewels (the second Hora in Sagittariusand the secondDrekanain the same sign). pp. They say that the formand distinguishing markof a navamsaundergo sarious changesbecauseof the signs. from its entry into (each) sign in the orderof the signs they say that it is very strongin combination(?) and has the significanceof a sign (?).the pasa or noose (the secondHora 36 See is real fromthe illustrations and forms (?). a in Aries). and other Saiva weaponswhich appear are the staff (the first Hora in Aries.and the secondin Capricorn). The Development of 37 For the iconographical featuresof giva HinduIconography. nature. GopinathaRao.

nu. an epithet also applied to Bhairava. which is said by the Liber Hermetis to have 'elephantorum promuscides duos' (tusksbeing confusedwith trunksin a poor drawing). An axe is held by the 38Banerjea. 39 p.firstin Leo. the deity of the first Hora of Sagittariusis called candrakirltamall. Finally. and third in Pisces. where Nandi? And why are the attributesof variousmanifestations of the god indiscriminately combined in one figllre. In fact. which. third in Libra. the antelope-skinonce (the first Drekana in Aquarius). If these were in fact descriptionsof Siva. the hara or necklacetwice (the first Hora in Cancerand the third Drekanain Gemini). third in Libra. is to identifyas many as possibleof the originalobjects whichlie behindthe Saivaattributes. the first in Sagittarius. and second in Scorpio.the first and secondin Leo. DP 2) 32) and 34. first and third in Cancer. and the firebrand(the first Hora in Aries). The For Egyptianiconographical elements Gods of theEgyptians.and especiallywith the dvipendradanta of the description of the firstHorain Leo.the thirdin Libra. 3I) and 33. Ispx B5Bog first and third in Cancer. With the protrudingtusksof Bhairava. And the first Drekana of Scorpio is describedas krodhavimurchitarci.E.THE INDIAN ICONOGRAPHY OF THE DECANS AND HORAS 249 in Aquariusand the third Drekanain the same sign). A. 'one whose flames are fanned by anger'. I7 . LiberHermetis third in Aries.and the second in Aquarius). namelythat the Hindu elementsare interpretations of similarattributes which appeared in the illustrationsin Yavanesvara'smanuscript. There are other elements in these descriptionswhich are a part of the normalvocabularyof Hindu art. and POxy 465 AquariusI6°-20° and Pisces II°-I5°). But can any of these Horasor Drekanasbe said really to representpurely Indian subjects? I think not. the second in Cancer. though more freqllently borne by Vis.39 are naturallyassociated with numerous Decansin the Westernsources(DR I9. one can comparethe firstDecan of Taurus. or given to creatureswhich are definitely not gaiva? The answermust lie in the hypothesis set forthtowardsthe beginningof this paper. W. besidesBonnet. Other images hold the jar with which Siva is portrayedon the early coins of Ujjain38(the firstHora in Taurusand the secondDrekanain the same sign). a clear referenceto givwa in his Lingodbhavamurti. secondin Virgo.the first and second Drekanas in Aries. I904.are also carriedby giva as Tripurantika. II7 see. Our task. first in Leo.the firstin Scorpio.a commonEgyptiansymbol.the firstand secondin Gemini. but nothing of the sort is knownfrom the Greco-Egyptian material. and the kirita or diadem follr times (the second Hora in Aries and the firstin Sagittarius. Serpents. the garlandof skullsan equal numberof times (the second Hora in Aries and the second Drekanain Aquarius). This theory is supportedby the fact that psychological interpretations of the deitiesare given in the Yavanajataka and in the texts derivedfrom it. which seems to be the equivalentof Candrasekhara. Budge.therefore. the first Drekanaof Aquariusis darklike a rain-cloud. and the first in Sagittarius.appearoften (the second Hora in Aries. The deer-skinis found te7ice (the second Hora in Leo and the second in Capricorn).the third Drekanain Aries and the first in Gemini). The bow and arrow. the second in Libra. The garments and ornamentsof the figures are also often gaiva. where is the trisula.

and IO. thusin severalDecansin the West (DR 34. . thus: 'caput eius ad similitudinem of It should be remarkedhere that the adjective xn5 x<paS sXv9.uxcowed.Scriptores pp. 'IzpaBt5tog Hermetis Taurus. 35. Other attributesin Sphujidhvaja's imagescan be traced to the same source. and DP 35). but perhapsit is significantthat the obvioushad been Leo is not surprising. third in Virgo.and Aquarius. and 36. Sagittarius.clear that many of the gaiva elementsin the descriptions Grecothe in though admittedlynot all. And bows and arrows appear as weapons of several of the Greco-Egyptianimages ('Izpa Bt5Bo5first in Sagittariusand third in Caprisecondin Gemini and firstin Sagittarius). in first in Capricornand 'crines habens in Scorpio) has a parallel in an image in the LiberHermetis in Taurus). Similarly. Westermann.but a reference Lunae' (firstin Virgo). mirabilium 40 Quoted by Psellusin his sspl rcxpRoRs rerum isxyss. DR 3. A sword is held by two Decans describedby the Liber (the first in Gemini and Capricorn)and by one in the 'IspaBt5>os Hermetis of (the secondin Capricorn). house the is Leo astrologically for Hermetis. anticipatedin the two Hermeticworks (see also EP I7. EP 4. IO) 32. 8. second in second in the last.this is not Sphujidhvaja u. second in Capricorn. and third in Aries. second the also see Gemini. Many other animals appear in the Greco-Egyptiantradition I839. Liber third in Aries and first and also of not uncommon occurrence ('Ispa J365Ros secondin Aries and firstin Libra). The appearanceof a lion-like deity as the first Hora and Drekan. Graeci. The pasa or noose may be a misinterpretation the ankh in the hands of the second Decan in Aquariusaccordingto the 'Ispa Bt5Bo5. in third (the attrahit' inde hinc quos calls the third Drekanaof Aquariusvarahakrti. and POxy 465 AquariusI6°-20° and PiscesI °-5°). is But what is especiallystrikingwhen we recall the epithet candrakirltamall that the second Decan in Leo is describedin the 'IzpccB5Bog as having 1 Similarly. 6. 34. A. DR If2. first in Taurus. therefore. Hermetis second in Libra. Libra. and firstin Scorpio. but a descriptionof the god Seth who appears the Boar Avatara of Visn. Egyptian material which has survived.Liber second in Aries). but the ass-faced and the LiberHerfirst Decanlof Gemini accordingto both the 'IzpjBt5>og a of metis. DP I2. and 20. The dishevelledhair of the second of the solar rays which Hora and Drekana of Leo is a misunderstanding to both the 'Irpdc according Leo of Decan first emanatefrom the head of the of the Sun. and the Liber Bt5Xog Hora (second Sanskrit the in elsewhere appears which hair And the unkempt second and Capricorn in Drekana third Scorpio.and firstin Libra. can still be found the Yavanajataka. 'Ispa Bt5Bo5third in Gemini. Liber Decansin the Western A diademor a crownrestson the headsof numerous tradition (DP 6. 'IspjBt5Xog third in Taurus and first in Pisces). and 38. 37.250 DAVID PINGREE of Teucer40 and in the descriptions Bianchini firstDecan of Ariesin the Tabula A staS or sceptreappearsin the handsof many Decans Hermetis.and the jar is Hermetis corn. LiberHermetis Cancer. and the Liber first and second in Aries and (EP 7 and 3I. and Pisces) whichis appliedto two Horas(the firstin Sagittarius 'moon-faced' and one Drekana (the third in Virgo) is perhapsnot a conventionalIndian Hermetis to a I)ecan like the one describedin the Liber epithet.secondin Gemini. I47-48.the horseHermetis and Liber faced Hora in the first half of Taurlls is not a Kinnara. Cancer. 4.

and so forth. and 30. But more significantare the second Hora of Capricornand the secondDrekanaof Taurus. and Liber Hermetis third in Aries and in Taurus). this is evidentlya misunderstanding of a representationof the side-viewof a god standingwith his feet togetheror. as comparedwith four Decans in the Western tradition (DP 27 and 36. LiberHermetis first in Cancer. Again one has a featurein the Indian descriptions which can only be due to a mistakeninterpretation of an actual picture. But the winding-sheetof the third Drekana of Capricorncertainly indicatesthat she is a mummy as are two Decans in the Liber Hermetis (firstin Taurus and third in Virgo) and one depicted in the pronaosof the temple at Esne (EP 3I). EP 30. an ibis (Liber Hermetis second in Virgo). But the vulture of Nekhebet or Mut (Liber Hermetis second in Aries. and Liber Hermetis second in Libra and first in Sagittarius)robes is not strikingexcept in those sevjeral instanceswhere a WesternDecan is dressedin garmentsof the same hue as those of his Indian counterpart.THE IND1*AN ICONOGR*APHY OF THE DEC*ANS AND HORAS 25I beetles ({I£PABL5BO5 first in Capricorn and LiberHermetis second in Capricorn). the teeth of the second Hora and the first Drekanaof Capricornare likened to those of a makara. and POxy 465 Aqllarius I6°-520°) and the dog of Anubis (I£paslxOs first in Virgo. The only additional one which may be reflectedin the Yavanajatakais the crocodile of Horlls (LiberHermetis third in Leo). dark blue (the second Hora in Pisces and the third Drekanain Aries. and I£pOc sl5xOs second in Leo). in addition. the secondin Gemini. This is a circllmstanceto which reference will be made again later. based on illustrations which adornedthe Greek manuscriptutilized by Yavanesvjara. bllt that their interpretationhas been . an ichneumon (I£paslxos and LiberHermetis second in Sagittarius). and the nakednessof the second Drekanaof Pisces (cf.and Aquarius) are found among Varahamihira's Decans. see also the second in Taurus and Libra and LiberHermetis third in Tallrus and second in Libra and Scorpio). £CT&G CU0TCOUG (third in Virgo. and POxy 465 Pisces I °-5°). So it may fairly be concluded that the figuresdescribedin the Yavanajataka are. DR 30. DP . The garmentsworn or not worn by the images sometimesgive a clue to their relationships with Egyptian models. Postureis a final criterionof comparison. the second Drekanasin Gemini and Libra. That divinitiesin both traditions are clothedin red (the firstHora in Aries.both of which are said to stand on one foot. also the second Hora in Gemini and the second and third Drekanasof Scorpio) is matched by his counterpartin the I£pa sl5xos(see. and Cancer. as the 'Irpoc Bl5Bog puts it. and the first in Pisces. I£pisl5xOs first in Cancer. Sagittarius. Gemini. the first Drekana in Aries and the third in Gemini. And three Horas which stand in water (the first in Cancer and the first and second in Capricorn)have their prototypein the second Decan of Libra as described by both the 'I£pa BL5BOG and the LiberHermetis. for the most part. or vjariegated (the firstHora in Taurllsand the secondin Cancer. The raising of her hands by the second Hora in Gemini is paralleled by similar poses of two figures in the 'I£pa BL5BOG (the firstin Aries and Libra) and one on the pronaosat Esne (EP 6). 'I£pa BL5BOG and LiberHermetis first in Pisces). 29. Two Horas (the firstin Gemini and the secondin Sagittarius)and three Drekanas(the secondin Cancerand Sagittarillsand the third in Leo) are seated.

aside from the Yavanajataka. who is also mentionedin Brhajjataka I. though he cites the opinion of and even borrowsa pada from Sphlljidhvaja when he assigns planetary lords to the Decans. In additionhe has incorporated some materialwhichseemsto have been derivedfromanotherSanskrit text depending on a Greco-Egyptian source. xl.who has combined the elements of the corresponding images in his descriptionof the Decans. CII 4.the Abhirasof Khandesh. pp. This fact was noticed by Varahamihira. EI. Kosambi. terms. He has made other changes in Sphujidhvaja's figuresas well. svadvadasaikadasarasipanam// I 97-204. Sircar. see also D. 50-7I and M. C. jnah kramasas trayo 'tra // pp. 'Nagarjunivanchanti labhadhipater dvitl^yam / konda Inscription of the Time of Abhira dreskanasam.. pp.D. The second Hora and the third Drekanaof Pisceswear respectivelygarmentsand ornaments manufactured by the powerfulneighbollrsand sometimevassalsof the WesternKsatrapas. the Horas and Drekan.44 And. I 955. I 955. clothes two Horas (the second in Taurus and Aquarills)and four Drekanas (the third in Cancer. I2: 42 A * A . Year 30'.ffournal of svadvadasalkadasaraslpanam theBiharandOrissa Research Society. The silk which. History and Culture'. It is clear from a study of the history of astrologicalideas in India that Varahamihira's main source for his knowledgeof Hellenisticgenethlialogy. the third in Sagittarius. xxxiv. Deshpande. The thieveswho must have infestedthe foreststhroughwhich the trade routes extended in the WesternGhats42accompanythe second Hora in Aries and the secondin Leo and have robbedtwo other Horas (the second in Gemini and Pisces) and a Drekana (the second in Scorpio). 30. jnam api varnayanti Vasushena. N. pp. drekanasam. 44 See my thesis. Materials for the Studyof On thesetraderoutesseeD.xv. Mirashi.45he prefers the theory of Satya. The most obvious of these is the upsettingof the strictbalance betweenthe sexesmaintainedin the Yavanajataka for both the Horas and the Drekanas. of the Yavanajataka. kecit tu horam prathamam bhapasya xxxi-xl. the first Hora and Drekan. and especiallySaiva. V. and these figuresare immigrantsor tradersfrom Egypt or the PersianGulf. The best treatmentnow is that Brhajjataka I. and follrth centuries A.mitted to Harvard University in I960.Inscriptions of theKalachuriChediEra. I 96I. I 959. Ootacamund.'The Rock. This cut Caves of Pitalkhora in the Deccan'. 'The Abhiras: their Antiquity.4l was a staple item in the trade between Bhrgukaccha and Alexandria. a of Pisces have just crossedthe maharnavaor Great Ocean or are with others rho have just done so. 41Periplus64.252 DAVID PINGREE colouredby an attempt to understandthem in Hindu. Tllis is a referenceto the Arabian Sea. 45 Yavanajataka I. I954. I2: of V. the Transmission of Greek Astrology to India.A A .the firstin Libra.43Finally.sub'Dhenukakata'. N. 66-93. as of any one sign are very similarto each other.46 the inscription. But it must be added that they have also been subject to additions reflectingsocial conditionsin WesternIndia in the second. was the lost poem of Satya. 3gc-d: 43 See B.S. Prakash. As was remarkedtowards the beginning of this paper.Varahamihirahas changed this equality to a ratio of two to one in favollrof males. pp.and the first in Pisces). according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sed. A . subject will be discussed further in the edition Ancient India. third.XBBRAS. D. Sircar'sdate cannot be accepted 46 Satva is quoted by Bhattotpala on becauseit conflictswith the known dates of RudradamanII. 249-65.

'having long feet'. I 958. Indian Culture. Greek. syuh . I957. Classedes Lettres. 3. p. A similar tendency on the part of Westernauthorsand the Yavanajatakahas already been alluded to. second in Libra. 482- 48 On Abu Ma'shar's use of Sasanian sources see the passages cited in my article in Isis mentioned in footnote g above. Kane. C. Fleet in Indian is also evident that Varahamihira has felt free to redistribute the characteristics of the Decans as he saw fit. pp. Abu Ma'shar translates this by 539 ar-rijlintawilhuma. and the Latin translationof Ibn Ezra's Hebrew version. mamdud arrijlin. 8I-82. the Latin translationof John of Spain. But he cannot be dated before 850 becauseof his quotations fromKalyanavarman. Neugebauer.49 But those elementsin Abu Ma'shar which are not found in Varahamihira cannot be takenfrom the commentary of Bhattotpalaas has been suggested . 'having feet like a camel's'. Not being the mostpowerfuldivinitiesin eitherthe Greco-Egyptian or Indianpantheons.'having white feet'. Sphaera. But where Varahamihira uses the adjective sarabhanghri(the first Decan in Cancer) DyroS reads abyad ar-rijlln. Bhattacharjee. In support of the suggestionthat the unknownsource of Bhattotpalaand the Sasaniantranslator may be Satya is the fact that the drekanesaof the third Decan of Arieswhichboth mention.'his feet are long'. . N. V.48Many of his changesare due to his own errorsor to those of his Sasanian predecessor. occurs only in the Oxford manuscript. they were granted no opportllnity to defend their identities against the imaginationsof those who wished to invoke them. and first in Aqllarills)and the dog (firstin Leo and in Sagittarius).47presumablyusing a lost Pahlaviversion.but there was no fixed sequenceof their occurrence. svabhavanasutatritrikonadhipanam // 47 Ed. Varahamihira says that the third Decan in Taurus is is a reasonablehypothesisto assumethat his deviationsfrom the Yavanajataka in his descriptions of the Decans are due to Satyacarya. In this he is supportedby one of the Arabic manuscripts. F. This license was not so sweeping for Abu Ma'sharwhen he translated Varahamihira's descriptionsof the Decans into Arabic. The manuscriptsused by all the translators-Latin. I34 n.but Varahamihira does not. K. is lord accordingto Satya'sreckoning. Dyroff in Boll. and Hebrew were corruptat this point. 49 An interesting example is the following.S. de l'acad. 4 I-43.THE INDIAN ICONOGRAPHY OF THE DECANS AND HORAS 253 Therefore. The most importantof these divergencesare those which have alreadybeen mentioned.'Dates of Bhattotpala and Kalyanavarman'. I 890. xxxiii. roy. The correct the deviationsfrom the Arabic in the ByzantineGreektranslationcan be traced to omissionsor faulty readingsin the manuscriptused by the translator.Bull. The only other Indian known to have writtenon the iconographyof the Decans is . I945-46. pp. and there is much in the De conianctionibus and the Introductorium maius which probably came from the same source.50ratherBhattotpalaand the Sasanian tatha ca satyah / ojesu raver hora prathama yugmesu cottara sesah / indoh kramaso jneya janmani cestau svahorasthau rasih // taddreskanas tatpancamanavamabhavanapatayah syuh / tesam adhipatayah syuh svadreskane graha balinah // This system is given by Varahamihira in Brhajjataka I. However. gBBRAS. . the vulture (firstin Leo. se Ser. pp. the Byzantine version. and P. The collectionof possiblethings to say abollt the Decans did not vary to any large degree. I47-49. de Belgique. xliii. and D... pp. I I c-d: martandendvor ayuji samabhe candrabhanvos ca hore dreskanah . His date had been doubtedbeforeon astronomical groundsby J. Xii. More evidence has been found in the Greek translation of his De revolutionibus nativitatum (Kitab al-ahkam tahwil sini 'l-mawalid). 50 See O. 'Date of Utpala'. xix.

and he slavishly imitates VaraHoramakaranda(thirteenth or fourteenth hamihlra. But the further paper. havebothuseda lostSanskrit translator of theseastraldeities journeys ofthe history poemof Satya. .254 DAVID PINGREE againthe astrological perhaps source. is beyondthe scopeof the present Gunakara in the thirtieth chapter of his century ?).

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