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Central Processing Unit (CPU) or the processor The Central P rocessing Unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer

--it is the 'compute' in computer. Modern CPU's are what are called 'integrated chips'. The idea of an integrated chip is that several processing components are integrated into a single piece of silicon. Without the CPU, you have no computer. The CPU is composed of thousands (and soon billions) of transistors CPU Components • • • • • • • • • • • Execution Core(s) Data Bus Address Bus Math Co-processor Instruction sets / Microcode Multimedia extensions Registers Flags Pipelining Memory Controller Cache Memory (L1, L2 and L3)

Motherboard The motherboard or the mainboard is the core of the computer set, each part of the computer relies on the mainboard to work its part correctly. One of the main functions of motherboard is to maintain connection between each computer parts and make sure that components are working well between them.

The important constituent components of an ATX Motherboard are given below: 1. Mouse & keyboard: Keyboard Connectors are two types basically. All PCs have a Key board port connected directly to the motherboard. The oldest, but still quite common type, is a special DIN, and

3. scanners. RAM has been packaged in many different ways. 40-pin ribbon cable. also called the microprocessor performs all the calculations that take place inside a pc. and even printers. most PCs that use the mini-DIN for both the keyboard and mouse clearly mark each mini-DIN socket as to its correct use.most PCs until recently retained this style connector. USB (Universal serial bus): USB is the General-purpose connection for PC. You can find USB versions of many different devices. Parallel port carry data on more than one wire. 4. . although some CPU manufactures sell the CPU with a fan permanently attached. SCSI drives show up in high end PCs such as network servers or graphical workstations. such as mice. You can insert or remove them without restarting your system. PCI slot: Intel introduced the Peripheral component interconnect bus protocol. which in turn connects to the motherboard. 2. but these are fairly rare compared to the PS/2 connection keyboards. PCI bus has replaced the ISA bus. being replaced by the smaller mini DIN PS/2-style keyboard connector. Parallel ports are directly supported by the motherboard through a direct connection or through a dangle. A floppy controller is one that is used to control the floppy drive. which in turn connects to the motherboard. The PCI bus is used to connect I/O devices (such as NIC or RAID controllers) to the main logic of the computer. 8. USB has a number of features that makes it particularly popular on PCs. 5. USB devices are hot swappable. RAM is measured in units called bytes. First. IDE controller: Industry standards define two common types of hard drives: EIDE and SCSI. as opposed to the serial port. 9. IDE controller is responsible for controlling the hard drive. which uses only one wire. Modern CPUs generate a lot of heat and thus require a cooling fan or heat sink. The most current package is called a 168-pin DIMM (Dual Inline Memory module). RAM slots: Random-Access Memory (RAM) stores programs and data currently being used by the CPU. the PS/2-style mini-DIN is also used in more modern PCs for the mouse. Fortunately . Parallel ports use a 25-pin female DB connector. CPU Chip : The central processing unit. Although the AT connector is unique in PCs. CPUs come in Variety of shapes and sizes. 7. a USB connector's distinctive rectangular shape makes it easily recognizable. Motherboard may contain some slots to connect ISA compatible cards. You can use an AT-style keyboard with a PS/2-style socket (or the other way around) by using a converter. The cooling device (such as a cooling fan) is removable. 6. The EIDE drive connects to the hard drive via a 2-inch-wide. Some keyboards have a USB connection. The AT-style keyboard connector is quickly disappearing. ISA slot: (Industry Standard Architecture) It is the standard architecture of the Expansion bus. keyboards. Parallel port: Most printers use a special connector called a parallel port. Majority of the PCs use EIDE drives. Floppy controller: The floppy drive connects to the computer via a 34-pin ribbon cable. cameras.

you will almost certainly notice a single connector that looks like a PCI slot. Such PROMs are used to store programs permanently. Because data stored in ROM cannot be modified (at least not very quickly or easily). Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory where the word static indicates that. These batteries mount on the motherboard in one of three ways: the obsolete external battery. or erasable programmable read only memory.10.e. 13. at random). and unlikely to require frequent updates). AGP slot: If you have a modern motherboard. Dynamic random access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access memory that stores each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit. but is still volatile in the conventional sense that data is eventually lost when the memory is not powered. 12. Random-access memory (RAM) Is a form of computer data storage. The key difference from a strict ROM is that the programming is applied after the device is constructed. unlike dynamic RAM (DRAM).3-Volt DC power. "Random" refers to the idea that any piece of data can be returned in a constant time. You also probably have a video card inserted into this slot. 11. and built-in battery.. it takes the form of integrated circuits that allow stored data to be accessed in any order (i. it is nonvolatile. 2. Be sure to plug in the CPU fan's power. So remember if it does not go easily. Special notches in the slot make it impossible to install them incorrectly. • EPROM. +/-5-Volt. the information eventually fades unless the capacitor charge is refreshed periodically. Power supply plug in: The Power supply. Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym. In other words. the most common onboard battery. • Programmable Read-only Memory (PROM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse. it is mainly used to distribute firmware (software that is very closely tied to specific hardware. regardless of its physical location and whether or not it is related to the previous piece of data. It is an array of floating-gate transistors individually programmed by an electronic device that supplies higher voltages than those normally used in digital circuits. Computer Memory Types: (Volatile) 1. and 3. the power supply takes standard 110-V AC power and converts into +/-12-Volt. Since real capacitors leak charge. it does not need to be periodically refreshed. it is probably not correct. ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. as SRAM uses bistable latching circuitry to store each bit. Today. provides the necessary electrical power to make the pc operate. SRAM exhibits data remanence. CMOS Battery: To provide CMOS with the power when the computer is turned off all motherboards comes with a battery. CPU slot: To install the CPU. but is slightly shorter and usually brown. (Non Volatile) 1." "double-e prom" or simply "e-squared") stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices . • EEPROM (also written E2PROM and pronounced "e-e-prom. This is an Advanced Graphics Port (AGP) slot. is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off. just slide it straight down into the slot. as its name implies.

which are fundamental to 3D graphics rendering. PCRAM.. and solid-state drives for general storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital products. 2. such as accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D graphics. faster write performance and a much greater maximum number (exceeding 10 16 for 3. The main attributes of the GPU are the core clock frequency. with the application of heat. Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage technology that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. 2.3 V devices) of write-erase cycles. calibration tables or device configuration.g. in early flash the entire chip had to be erased at once. Recent versions can achieve two additional distinct states. e. Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory is a non-volatile computer memory (NVRAM) technology that has been under development since the 1990s. crystalline and amorphous. 4. Many video added functions. storage capacity limitations and higher cost. USB flash drives. 3. Video card Is an expansion card whose function is to generate and output images to a display. which has a number of practical problems these replacements hope to address. Components: store small amounts of data that must be saved when power is removed. light pen. FireWire. The processor is designed specifically to perform floating-point calculations. such as PC games. which typically ranges from 250 MHz to 4 GHz and the number of pipelines (vertex and fragment shaders). FeRAM disadvantages are: much lower storage densities than Flash devices. Continued increases in density of existing memory technologies – notably flash RAM and DRAM – kept it in a niche role in the market. Phase-change memory (also known as PCM. 5. It is primarily used in memory cards. or the ability to couplet monitors (multi-monitor) Other modern high performance video cards are used for more graphically demanding purposes. Ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM or FRAM) is a random access memory similar in construction to DRAM but uses a ferroelectric layer instead of a dielectric layer to achieve non-volatility. effectively doubling its storage capacity. PRAM uses the unique behavior of chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide RAM and C-RAM) is a type of non-volatile computer memory. FeRAM is one of a growing number of alternative non-volatile memory technologies that offer the same functionality as Flash memory. which can be "switched" between two states. PRAM is one of a number of new memory technologies that are attempting to compete in the non-volatile role with the almost universal Flash memory. Video BIOS . which translate a 3D image characterized by vertices and lines into a 2D image formed by pixels. It is a specific type of EEPROM (electrically-erasable programmable read-only memory) that is erased and programmed in large blocks. MPEG2/MPEG-4 decoding. becoming a true universal memory. but its proponents believe that the advantages are so overwhelming that magnetoresistive RAM will eventually become dominant for all types of memory. Graphics processing unit (GPU) A GPU is a dedicated processor optimized for accelerating graphics. TV output. video tuner adapter. FeRAM advantages over Flash include: lower power usage. Ovonic Unified Memory. PRAM.

converts digital signals to analog signals for use by a computer display that uses analog inputs such as CRT displays. Around 2003. 4. It is also a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. it often uses special high-speed or multi-port memory. the converter will be able to support different computer-display refresh rates. SGRAM. The effective memory clock rate in modern cards is generally between 400 MHz and 3. including cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal displays (LCD). with one or more buttons. Depending on the number of bits used and the RAMDAC-data-transfer rate. Keyboard Is an input device. these images are displayed onto the directly connected monitor. When a video card or g raphics card converts binary information from 1s and 0s into images. to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. GDDR3. among others. etc. RAM. It may contain information on the memory timing. and other information. although this is typically only done by video card overclockers and has the potential to irreversibly damage the card.The video BIOS or firmware contains the basic program. Since video memory needs to be accessed by the GPU and the display circuitry. to enable factory-locked settings for higher performance). There are different types of monitors. though very few cards actually go over 1 GB. Computer monitor Is a display adapter that displays information processed by the computer's video card. It is sometimes possible to change the BIOS (e. Mouse Is a small device that a computer user pushes across a desk surface in order to point to a place on a display screen and to select one or more actions to take from that position. which is usually hidden. A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. manufacturers moved towards DDR2. partially modeled after the typewriter keyboard.8 GHz. Monitors have display functions that include powering it on and off. Video Memory The memory capacity of most modern video cards ranges from 128 MB to 4 GB. and even GDDR5 utilized most notably by the ATI Radeon HD 4870. or Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter. Physically. a mouse consists of an object held under one of the user's hands. that governs the video card's operations and provides the instructions that allow the computer and software to interact with the card. In a modern computer. such as VRAM. A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen. contrast and position. WRAM. in order to minimize flicker.g. the video memory was typically based on DDR technology. controlling brightness. operating speeds and voltages of the graphics processor. text editor or other program. it is best to work over 75 Hz and never under 60 Hz. With CRT displays. 3. RAMDAC The RAMDAC. which uses an arrangement of butto ns or keys. The RAMDAC is a kind of RAM chip that regulates the functioning of the graphics card. . During and after that year. GDDR4. It is also used to type text and numbers into a word processor. the interpretation of key presses is generally left to the software.