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Japanese verb conjugation

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Jump to: navigation, search This is a list of Japanese verb conjugations, including what in English would be covered by adjectives. Almost all of these are regular, but the conjugations of the very few irregular verbs are also listed. Japanese verb conjugation is the same for all subjects, first person ("I", "we"), second person ("you") and third person ("he/she/it" and "they"), singular and plural. The plain form of all verbs ends in u. In modern Japanese, there are no verbs, at least in the plain form, ending in zu, fu, pu, or yu, and 死死 (死死, shinu; to die) is the only one ending in nu. This article describes a set of conjugation rules widely used in order to teach Japanese as a foreign language. However, Japanese linguists have been proposing various grammatical theories for over a hundred years and there is still no consensus about the conjugations. Japanese people learn the more traditional "school grammar" in their schools, which explains the same grammatical phenomena in the different way with the different terminology (see the corresponding Japanese article).

A revision sheet visually summarizing the conjugations and uses described below.

• • • • • • • • • • • •

1 Imperfective 2 Perfective 3 Negative 4 i form 5 te form 6 Potential 7 Passive 8 Causative 9 Causative passive 10 Provisional Conditional eba form 11 Conditional ra form 12 Imperative

• • • •

13 Volitional (Presumptive) 14 See also 15 References 16 External links

[edit] Imperfective
In Japanese, the basic verb form is an imperfective aspect. It is broadly equivalent to the present and future tenses of English, and is sometimes called the "non-past tense". The imperfective form of a verb is the same as its dictionary form—it is used as the headword, or lemma—and no conjugation needs to be done. For example, using the verb 死 死 ("do"):

(死死)死 死 死 死 死 (watashi wa) kaimono suru: "(I) shop", or "(I) will shop". (Japanese pronouns are usually omitted when it is clear about whom the speaker is talking.) (死死)死 死 死 死 死 死 (watashi wa) ashita benkyō suru: "Tomorrow, (I) will study".

In most cases, the base form of the imperfective aspect cannot be used to make a progressive statement, such as in the English sentence "I am shopping". Rather, it can only be used to express habit or other actions that are expected to continue into the future, such as in "I shop". To convey the former, the te form with iru must be used.

[edit] Perfective
The perfective aspect, on the other hand, has a specific suffix. The basic pattern is the -ta (or -da) ending, but various phonetic changes are made, depending on the verb's last syllable. The perfective is broadly equivalent to English past tense, and is often called past tense in treatments of Japanese grammar, but it is not restricted to any single tense: Examples Perfective Irregular verbs 死 死 suru (do) した shita (no others) 死 死 kuru (come) 来た kita (no others) 死 da (copula) だった datta (no others) 死死 desu (copula, でした (no others) polite) deshita 死死 iku (go) 行った itta (no others) 行きました -死死 -masu (polite -ました 行きます ikimasu (go [polite]) suffix) -mashita ikimashita Regular 死死死死 godan doushi (consonant stem) (v5) verbs / type I verbs -死 -u -っっ -tta 死死 tsukau (use) 使った tsukatta (See Usage) -死 -u -うた -uta, 死死 tou (ask) 問うた tōta Type of verb Perfective

[edit] Negative . -っっ -tta irasshatta go [honorific]) いらした irashita[1] Regular 死死死死 ichidan doushi (vowel stem) (v1) verbs / type II verbs 死 死 miru (see) 見た mita -っ -ta 死 死 死 taberu (eat) 食べた tabeta Adjectives 死死 yasui (cheap) 安かった yasukatta -か っ た 死死死死 (polite) 安かったです (polite) -だった 簡単だった kantan 死死 kantan na/da (easy) -datta datta N. and it follows that it is then either godan or irregular.[2] Usage of the perfective aspect follows the same pattern as the imperfective aspect. etc. For example.: A verb not ending in -iru or -eru in its Latin transcription is not an ichidan verb.) Note that the perfective conjugation for verbs ending in -死 more commonly follows the second pattern listed above for speakers of Western Japanese. Consequently.-死 -ku -死 -gu -死 -su -死 -tsu -死 -nu -死 -bu -死 -mu -死-ru -ota -いた -ita -死死 -ida -した -shita -っっ -tta -死死 -nda -死死 -nda -死死 -nda -っっ -tta 死死 yaku (grill) 死死 oyogu (swim) 死死 shimesu (show) 死死 matsu (wait) 死死 shinu (die) 死死 yobu (call) 死死 yomu (read) 死 死 hashiru (run) aru special class (v5aru) 焼いた yaita 死死死 oyoida 示した shimeshita 待った matta 死死死 shinda 死死死 yonda 死死死 yonda 走った hashitta -死-ru -死-ru -死 -i -死 -na いらっしゃった いらっしゃる irassharu死(be. terebi o mitari shita (I read a book.B. The 死 in the perfective ending -うた may be pronounced either as an u or as an o depending on the preceding vowel. or 死死 iu → いうた iuta. in Kansai. Usage • Non-exhaustive list of actions (like A 死 B is used for non-exhaustive lists of objects): 本 を 読んだり、テレビを見たりした hon o yondari. according to regular Japanese phonological rules. one may hear forms such as 死死死 tsukau → つこうた tsukōta. 日本に行く nihon ni iku (I go to Japan) becomes 日本に行った nihon ni itta (I went to Japan). watched TV.

The basic pattern is u becomes anai (informal). Type Negative 死死死 shinai 死 死 suru (do) (死死死 sanai) Examples Irregular verbs 死 死 死 死 benkyō suru (study) 死死死 aisuru Negative 死死死死死 benkyō shinai 死死死 死 aisanai 死 死 kuru (come) 死死死 konai 死 死 aru (be. 死死 kantan (simple) 行きません ikimasen 死死死死 tsukawanai 死死死死 yakanai 死死死死 oyoganai 死 死 死 死 shimesanai 待たない matanai 死死死死 shinanai 死死死死 yobanai 死死死死 yomanai 走らない hashiranai 死死死 minai 死死死死 tabenai 死死死死 itaku nai 死死死死死死 kantan de wa nai 簡単じゃない kantan ja nai . 死死 nai 死死死死 de wa nai 死 da (copula) じ ゃない ja nai ではありません de wa arimasen 死死 desu (copula. polite) じゃありません ja arimasen -死死 -masu (polite 行きます ikimasu -ません -masen suffix) (go) Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs -死 -u -死死死 -wanai 死死 tsukau (use) -死 -ku -死死死 -kanai 死死 yaku (grill) -死 -gu -死死死 -ganai 死死 oyogu (swim) -死 -su -死死死 -sanai 死死 shimesu (show) -死 -tsu -死死死 -tanai 死死 matsu (wait) -死 -nu -死死死 -nanai 死死 shinu (die) -死 -bu -死死死 -banai 死死 yobu (call) -死 -mu -死死死 -manai 死死 yomu (read) -死-ru -死死死 -ranai 死 死 hashiru (run) Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs 死 死 miru (see) -死-ru -死死 -nai 死 死 死 taberu (eat) Adjectives -死 -i -死死死 -ku nai 死死 itai (painful) -死死死死 -de wa nai -死 -na -じゃない -ja nai The 死死 nai ending conjugates in two ways.

1. o Requesting someone to cease/desist: 食べないで下さい tabenaide kudasai "Please don't eat (this)" o Joining a subordinate clause: 食べないで、寝た。 tabenaide. is very regular." [edit] i form The i form. neta. These include: . I went to bed." 2. As an i adjective. and in almost all cases it is formed by replacing the u with i (and making any necessary phonetic changes: 死 su to 死 shi. There is a special te/naide form made by adding 死 de. Type i form Examples i form Irregular verbs 死 死 死 死 benkyō suru 死死死 benkyō shi 死 死 suru (do) 死 shi 死 死 kuru っ ki 死 da 死死死 de ari Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs -死 -u -死 -i 死死 tsukau (use) 死死 tsukai -死 -ku -っ -ki 死死 yaku (grill) 焼き yaki -死 -gu -死 -gi 死死 oyogu (swim) 死死 oyogi -死 -su -死 -shi 死死 shimesu (show) 死死 shimeshi -死 -tsu -死 -chi 死死 matsu (wait) 死死 machi -死 -nu -っ -ni 死死 shinu (die) 死に shini -死 -bu -死 -bi 死死 yobu (call) 死死 yobi -死 -mu -死-mi 死死 yomu (read) 死 死 yomi -死-ru -死 -ri 死 死 hashiru (run) 死死 hashiri aru special class (v5aru) -死-ru -死 -i 死 死 死 gozaru 死死死 gozai Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs 死 死 miru (see) 死 mi -死-ru – 死 死 死 taberu (eat) 死死 tabe Usage The i form has many uses. and went to bed. For example the past tense of 死死死死 tabenai is 食べなかった tabenakatta and the te form is 食べなくて tabenakute. "I did not eat. neta "Without eating. and 死 tsu to 死 chi). typically as a prefix. o Joining main clauses: (死死)食べなくて、寝た。 tabenakute. or ren'yōkei.

." When followed by the verb -死 死 死 -yagaru in yakuza speech. 死死 tsukau → 死死死死 tsukaimasu.• • • • • • • • To form polite verbs when followed by the -死死 -masu ending: 死死 iku → 行きま 死 ikimasu. (Used with children. To express excessiveness when followed by the verb -死 死 死 -sugiru: 死 死 死 死 死nomisugiru: "to drink too much". Similarly with 死死 nomu (to drink) and 死死 kau (to buy). to express affronted contempt (a conjugation of opposite polarity to the honorifics) showing disrespect in the form of hatred combined with haughty/macho disdain for the doer/subject of the action/verb: 死 死 死 死 死 koroshiyagaru: "to have the <expletive> gall to kill ___" (e. (sugiru can also be used with the stems of adjectives. without my permission). with っ ni: 食べに行きました tabe ni ikimashita: "I went there to eat".) To express that something is easy or hard when followed by -死死 -yasui or -死死 -nikui: したしみ易い shitashimiyasui: "easy to befriend": 死死死死死 wakarinikui: "hard to understand". This is called the infinitive of purpose. To express a wish when followed by the ending -死死 -tai: 食べたい tabetai: "I want to eat it". For some verbs.g. such as: • • • To express purpose. 行きたい ikitai: "I want to go". (The -tai ending conjugates as an 死 -i adjective. To form a command when followed by o -死 死 死 -nasai: 死 死 死 死 死 死 死 死 kore o tabenasai: "eat this". which means "a bet". anna tokoro "no way I'm going someplace like that". The i form of 死 死 死 kakeru (to bet) is a word on its own: 死死 kake. When followed by the suffix -ながら -nagara. o -死 -na: 真 っすぐ帰りな massugu kaerina "go straight home": 死死死死死死 nakayoku asobina "play nice". For example: • • The i form of 死 死 死 taberu (to eat) can prefix 死 mono to form 死死死 tabemono (food). あそこ へ 行きなさい asoko e ikinasai: "go over there". the i form also forms part of related words in ways that are not governed by any general rules.) To express doing something in conjunction with something else. o 歩 きながら本を読んだ arukinagara hon o yonda: "I read a book as I walked. (The te form can be substituted for the i form.) To express a strong negative intention when followed by -死死死死 -wa shinai: 死 きはしないよあんな所 iki wa shinai yo. the verb becomes an adverb that means doing something while doing something else. In formal honorifics such as お使い下さい o tsukai kudasai: "Please use this". In conjunctions in formal writing. etc.) The i form also has some uses on its own.

it is formed by changing the -a of the perfective aspect form to -e. For all verbs. Type 死 死 suru (do) 死 死 kuru (come) 死 da (copula) 死死 iku (go) 死死 tou (ask) Becomes して shite 来て kite Examples Irregular verbs 死 死 死 aisuru (to love) Te form 愛して aishite 死 de 行って itte 問うて tōte 死死 kou (request) 請うて kōte -まして -死死 -masu stem 死死死死 akemasu (open) 開けまして akemashite -mashite Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs -死 -u -っっ -tte 死死 tsukau (use) 使って tsukatte -死 -ku -いて -ite 死死 yaku (grill) 焼いて yaite -死 -gu -死死 -ide 死死 oyogu (swim) 死死死 oyoide -死 -su -して -shite 死死 shimesu (show) 示して shimeshite -死 -tsu -っっ -tte 死死 matsu (wait) 待って matte -死 -nu -死死 -nde 死死 shinu (die) 死死死 shinde -死 -bu -死死 -nde 死死 yobu (call) 死死死 yonde -死 -mu -死死 -nde 死死 yomu (read) 死死死 yonde -死-ru -っっ -tte 死 死 hashiru (run) 走って hashitte aru special class (v5aru) いらっしゃって いらっしゃる irassharu -死-ru -っっ -tte irasshatte (polite) いらして irashite Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs 死 死 miru (see) 見て mite -死-ru -っ -te 死 死 死 taberu (eat) 食べて tabete Adjectives -死 -i -くて -kute 死死 yasui (cheap) 安くて yasukute -死 -na -死 -de 死死 kantan (simple) 死死死 kantan de . Adjectives behave slightly differently. This originally came from the combination of the "i" form described above plus the particle "te".• 死死 hanasu (to separate) can be suffixed to the i form of kiru (to cut) to form 死死死 死 kirihanasu (to cut off). [edit] te form The te form of a Japanese verb (sometimes called the "participle") is used when the verb has some kind of connection to the following words.

" With the verbs : o 死 死 iru: Forms a progressive or continuous tense. and easy to understand. 持 っ て 死 死 motte iru: "I have". smart. which applies to the person doing the writing rather than what is written. so 待っている matte iru becomes 待ってる matteru and 知って 死 死 shitte iru becomes 知ってる shitteru. atama ga yokute. Colloquially. the "i" often disappears (also in the past tense). the "e" often disappears. For example: o 薬 局へ行って薬を買う yakkyoku e itte. 知っている shitte iru: "I know". o 死死miru: It means "to try doing". o 死 死 kuru: Can express continuous action or a change of state in the past. wakariyasui: "That person is kind. For example. "I am writing". o 死死 oku: It means "to do in advance". To combine clauses or adjectives. usually unintentionally or accidentally or unexpectedly and sometimes expressing that the action is contrary to right or correct action: 片 付 けてしまった katazukete shimatta: "I have finished tidying". For example: 待って 死 死 matte iru: "I am waiting"." o あの人は親切で頭が良くて分かり易い ano hito wa shinsetsu de. Colloquially. Contrast to 書いている "kaite iru". o 死 死 aru: This forms a kind of passive when used with a transitive verb." o 死死死 Yonde: "Read. お弁当を作っておいた obentō o tsukutte oita: "I've made a boxed lunch (for later)". 死 死 死 死 死 死 死 死 koko ni sunde iru: "I live here". so 作っておいた tsukutte oita becomes っ っ と いた tsukuttoita. It can also suggest a regrettable situation: 私の鍵が消えてしまった watashi no kagi ga kiete shimatta: "My keys have disappeared". o 死死 iku: Can express continuous action or a change of state in the future." • . as if by the English conjunction "and". "I forgot my mobile phone!": "keitai wasurechatta!" "死死 忘 れ ちゃった! " The -de shimau form is shortened to -じゃう -jau or -死死死 -jimau in colloquial speech. っ こ に文字が書いてある koko ni moji ga kaite aru: "There are some characters written here". It shows that something was left in a certain state. in this form.Usage • • • As a simple command: o 食べて Tabete: "Eat. in this form. o 死死死 shimau: This implies something is completed or done. The form -死死死死 -te shimau is shortened to the very very commonly used and casual -死死死 -chimau or -ちゃう -chau with the same consonant doubling as the te form." In requests with 死 死 死 kureru and 死死死 kudasai. kusuri o kau: "(I am going to) go to the pharmacy and buy medicine. o 死 死 死 死 死 死 死 死 死 : "Please read the book.

arieru -死死-eru -死 死 -keru -死 死 -geru -死死-seru -死死-teru -死死-neru -死 死 -beru -死死-meru -死 死 -reru -死 死 死 Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs 死死 tsukau (use) 使える tsukaeru 死死 yaku (grill) 死 死 死 yakeru 死死 oyogu (swim) 死 死 死 oyogeru 死死 shimesu (show) 示せる shimeseru 死死 matsu (wait) 待てる materu 死死 shinu (die) 死ねる shineru 死死 yobu (call) 死 死 死 yoberu 死死 yomu (read) 読める yomeru 死 死 hashiru (run) 死 死 死 hashireru Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs 死 死 miru 見られる mirareru . 食べてはいけ 死死 tabete wa ikenai: "You must not eat this".) o -死死死死 -te mo ii: "You may do/It's ok if you do".. such as だめ dame.") With particles in formations such as o -死死死死死死 -te wa ikenai: "You must not . "Being cheap. 食べても 死死 tabete mo ii: "You may eat it".• 安くていいね yasukute ii ne: "It's good that it's cheap. For example." (lit.". For example. Type Potential Examples Potential Irregular verbs 死 死 死 死 benkyō 勉強できる benkyō suru dekiru 死 死 死 sassuru (guess) 死 死 死 aisuru 察せられる sasserareru 愛せる aiseru できる dekiru 死死 suru (死 死 死 死 (死死seru) serareru) 死死 kuru 死死 aru -死 -u -死 -ku -死 -gu -死 -su -死 -tsu -死 -nu -死 -bu -死 -mu -死-ru -死 来られる korareru 死死死 koreru あり得る ariuru. it is good. can be substituted for ikenai.. o -死死死死死死死 -te mo kamawanai: "You may do/I don't mind if you do" o -死死死死 -te hoshii: "I want you to do (for me)" o -てすみません -te sumimasen: "Sorry for making you go through the trouble of" o [edit] Potential The general pattern is u becomes eru. (Other words of prohibition.

It is also used to request some action from someone. a more polite form is used. So. 「恐らく降る」 osoraku furu "It probably will rain". i-adj: 「旅行は高いかもしれない」 ryokou wa takai kamo shirenai "The journey is perhaps expensive. the potential is not often used to express permission (as in the sentence "Can I eat this apple?") as it is almost always understood to mean "Do I have the ability to eat this apple?": 「このりんごが食べられる?」 kono ringo ga taberareru?.. 「たぶん 死死死tabun furu "Perhaps it will rain" [edit] Passive . For verbs: 「明日降るかもしれない」 ashita furu kamo shirenai "It may rain tomorrow.. na-adj: 「大 死 死 死 死 死 死 死 死 taisetsu kamo shirenai "(This thing is) probably important. such as the -死死死死 -te mo ii or more casual -死死死 "-te ii"" usage of the -っ -te form.". it may implicitly be asking (in this case) if the apple is edible. to seek permission. and subjects are often implied in Japanese.. And since the -reru form is more often used in speech than the more correct passive potential form -rareru. The potential -ru ending conjugates as a vowel stem verb.. resulting in something literally more like "Is eating this apple OK?" 「このりんごを食べてもいい 死 死 死 死 死 Kono ringo o tabete mo ii desu ka? or 「このりんごを食べていい?」 Kono ringo o tabete ii?. ?" is used interchangeably to make requests. in the exact sense of the English "Can you .. sometimes in English "Will you. Direct objects are marked with the particle 死 ga instead of 死 o. There is no potential equivalent for 死死." Using adverbs.. Unlike in English.?" and "Can you .死死死 -死 Usage -死 死 [3] (colloquial form. For example 日本語が読める nihongo ga yomeru: "I can read Japanese".". it is very casual and might also mean simply "Are you buying/Will you buy coffee?" in very dry factual sense. other constructions for expressing may-be situations are used: • • Using 死死死死死死 expression. Though it is possible in Japanese. ?" For example 「 コーヒー買える?」 koohii kaeru?: "Can (you) buy (some) coffee?" However. so-called "ra-nuki kotoba") taberu 死 死 miru 死死死 taberu 食べられる taberareru 死死死 死死死 死 The potential is used to express that one has the ability to do something. 死死死死死死 死 死 死 koohii kau?.

-っ -te.The general pattern for the passive voice is -u becomes -areru." as a suffering passive. For the -死死 masu form. This conjugates as a vowel stem verb. 死 da. The copula. Usage The passive is used: • • • as a passive: このテレビは東芝によって作られた kono terebi wa Toshiba ni yotte tsukurareta: "This TV was made by Toshiba. . the -死死 -masu is added to the passive of the plain verb. indicating that a regrettable thing was done to someone: 私は友達にビールを飲まれた watashi wa tomodachi ni biiru o nomareta: "I had (my) beer drunk by a friend" (and I am not happy about it). or polite forms can all be added to the verb. and ru becoming saseru for vowel stem verbs. as a form of respectful language: どちらへ行かれますか dochira e ikaremasu ka: "Where are you going?" [edit] Causative The causative forms are characterized by the final u becoming aseru for consonant stem verbs. does not form a passive. Type 死 死 suru 死 死 kuru (come) -死 -u -死 -ku -死 -gu -死 -su -死 -tsu -死 -nu -死 -bu -死 -mu -死-ru Passive 死死死 sareru Examples Irregular verbs 死 死 死 死 benkyō suru (study) Passive 死死死 死 死 sareru benkyō -死-ru • • • 来られる korareru Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs -死 死 死 -wareru 死死 tsukau (use) 死 死 死 死 tsukawareru -死 死 死 -kareru 死死 yaku (grill) 死 死 死 死 yakareru -死 死 死 -gareru 死死 oyogu (swim) 死 死 死 死 oyogareru -死 死 死 -sareru 死死 shimesu (show) 死 死 死 死 shimesareru -死 死 死 -tareru 死死 matsu (wait) 待たれる matareru -死 死 死 -nareru 死死 shinu (die) 死 死 死 死 shinareru -死 死 死 -bareru 死死 yobu (call) 死 死 死 死 yobareru -死 死 死 -mareru 死死 yomu (read) 死 死 死 死 yomareru -死 死 死 -rareru 死 死 hashiru (run) 走られる hashirareru Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs 死 死 miru 見られる mirareru -死 死 死 -rareru 死 死 死 taberu 食べられる taberareru The -死-ru ending of the passives becomes the new verb ending. Thus past.

Adjectives are made causative by using the adverb form plus saseru.Type Causative Examples Irregular verbs 勘弁する kanben suru Causative 勘弁させる kanben saseru 死 死 suru (do) さ せ る saseru 死 死 kuru (come) -死 -u -死 -ku -死 -gu -死 -su -死 -tsu -死 -nu -死 -bu -死 -mu -死-ru -死-ru • • • • 来させる kosaseru Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs -わせる -waseru 死死 tsukau (use) 使わせる tsukawaseru -かせる -kaseru 死死 yaku (grill) 焼かせる yakaseru -がせる -gaseru 死死 oyogu (swim) 泳がせる oyogaseru -さ せ る -saseru 死死 shimesu (show) 示させる shimesaseru -死死死-taseru 死死 matsu (wait) 待たせる mataseru -なせる -naseru 死死 shinu (die) 死なせる shinaseru -ばせる -baseru 死死 yobu (call) 呼ばせる yobaseru -ませる -maseru 死死 yomu (read) 読ませる yomaseru -死死死-raseru 死 死 hashiru (run) 走らせる hashiraseru Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs 死 死 miru 見させる misaseru -さ せ る -saseru 死 死 死 taberu 食べさせる tabesaseru The -ru ending of the causative form becomes the new verb ending. Thus. Letting someone do something: 外で遊ばせる soto de asobaseru: "(I) let (him) play outside". [edit] Causative passive ." The honorific forms さ せ て 貰 う sasete morau or させ て 頂 く sasete itadaku using the verbs 死死 morau or its humble equivalent 死死 itadaku. This conjugates as a vowel stem verb. for example. A shortened causative form exists where the final -u becoming -asu for consonant stem verbs. and -ru becoming -sasu for vowel stem verbs. Usage The causative is used for: • • • • Making someone do something: 宿題をさせる shukudai o saseru: "(I) make (him) do homework". Negatives are not normally made into causatives. a negative ending is added to the causative of the verb. With explicit actors: 先 生 が子供に勉強をさせた sensei ga kodomo ni benkyō o saseta: "The teacher made the children study. Tabesasenai: "Do not let eat". Instead.

nor for the irregular 死 死 suru and 死 死 kuru. but colloquially. would become 待たされる matasareru. the causative passive is used to express causation passively: 両 親 に 勉強させられる ryōshin ni benkyō saserareru: "(I) am made to study by (my) parents". Because words such as 待たせられる mataserareru are considered to be difficult to pronounce. Type 死 死 suru 死 死 kuru 死 da (copula) -死 -u -死 -ku -死 -gu -死 -su -死 -tsu -死 -nu -死 -bu -死 -mu -死-ru Conditional 死死死 sureba Examples Irregular verbs 勘弁する kanben suru Conditional 勘弁すれば kanben sureba -死-ru -死 -i 死死死 kureba 死死死死 de areba Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs -死死 -eba 死死 tsukau (use) 使えば tsukaeba -死死 -keba 死死 yaku (grill) 死死死 yakeba -死死 -geba 死死 oyogu (swim) 死死死 oyogeba -死死 -seba 死死 shimesu (show) 示せば shimeseba -死死 -teba 死死 matsu (wait) 待てば mateba -死死 -neba 死死 shinu (die) 死ねば shineba -死死 -beba 死死 yobu (call) 死死死 yobeba -死死 -meba 死死 yomu (read) 読めば yomeba -死死 -reba 死 死 hashiru (run) 死死死 hashireba Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs 死 死 miru 死死死 mireba -死死 -reba 死 死 死 taberu 死死死死 tabereba Adjectives -死死死 -kereba 死死 samui 死死死死 samukereba . 待たせられる mataserareru (I was made to wait).The causative passive form is obtained by first conjugating in the causative form and then conjugating the result in the passive form. it is frequently contracted to 買わされた kawasareta. [edit] Provisional Conditional eba form The eba provisional conditional form is characterized by the final -u becoming -eba for all verbs (with the semi-exception of -tsu verbs becoming -teba). Another example such as "(I) was made to buy (something)" would formally be 買わせられた kawaserareta from the verb 死死 kau. Usage As its rule suggests. That is. frequently in colloquial speech. the middle part of the causative passive would contract. This abbreviation is not used for vowel-stem verbs.

" ." The nakereba negative conditional form means "if not X" or also "unless X". which makes it more formal. "It would be good if I did what?") 死死死死死死 wakareba ii: "As long as you understand" (lit. you'll know"). ba can be further added to that. you'll know" = "if you see. Usage The -eba provisional conditional form is used in conditionals where the emphasis rests more on the condition than the result. It is obtained by replacing the final -i of the plain negative form with -kereba. It can be used to mean more like "if and when". it implies more certainty about the condition. instead of with 死死死死 de areba. Usage The conditional ra form can be used in the same way as the provisional eba form.-死 -na 死死 kantan 死死死死死死 kantan de areba Negative 死死 nai (negative) -死死死死 -nakereba 死死死死 ikanai 死死死死死死 ikanakereba • na adjectives and nouns are usually used with the なら nara conditional. it is good. and is typically preferred over the eba form when this meaning is more accurate. and therefore places more emphasis on the result than the condition. • The 死死死死 nakereba form used for the negative form can be colloquially contracted to なきゃ nakya or なくちゃ nakucha. For example: • 日本に行ったら、カメラを買いたい。nihon ni ittara.") 時 間があれば買い物をしよう jikan ga areba. then (when that has happened) I want to buy a camera. "If you understand. kamera wo kaitai: "If (when) I go to Japan. For example: • • • -死死死死 -de areba 死死死死死死死 nani sureba ii ka: "What should I do?" (lit. [edit] Conditional ra form The conditional ra form (also called the past conditional) is formed from the past tense (TA form) by simply adding ra. because the implied condition is "provided that X happens" (mireba shiru: "provided that you see. However. let's go shopping. (tabenakereba: "if I don't eat" or "unless I eat") The conditional is also called the "provisional form" in some grammars. kaimono wo shiyō: "If there's time. Thus 死死死死死死 ikanakereba can become 行かなきゃ ikanakya.

-っっ -eyo . For example: • 喫 茶 店に行ったら、鈴木さんに出会った。 kissaten ni ittara. [edit] Imperative Most of the imperative forms are characterized by the final u becoming e. Type Becomes しろ shiro 死 死 suru っっ seyo (っ se) 死 死 kuru 死死 koi 死 死 死 kureru 死死 kure masu stem -ませ -mase Examples Irregular verbs 勘弁する kanben suru 死死死 aisuru (love) Imperative 勘弁しろ kanben shiro 勘弁せよ kanben seyo 愛せ aise いらっしゃいます irasshaimasu (come. Suzuki-san ni deatta: "When I went to the cafe. it means "when". In such situations. go) いらっしゃいませ irasshaimase 死 da (copula) 死死死 de are Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs -死 -u -っ -e 死死 tsukau (use) 使え tsukae -死 -ku -死 -ke 死死 yaku (grill) 死死 yake -死 -gu -死 -ge 死死 oyogu (swim) 死死 oyoge -死 -su -っ -se 死死 shimesu (show) 示せ shimese -死 -tsu -っ -te 死死 matsu (wait) 待て mate -死 -nu -っ -ne 死死 shinu (die) 死ね shine -死 -bu -死 -be 死死 yobu (call) 死死 yobe -死 -mu -っ -me 死死 yomu (read) 読め yome -死-ru -死 -re 死 死 hashiru (run) 死死 hashire aru special class (v5aru) いらっしゃる irassharu いらっしゃい irasshai -死-ru -死 -i 死 死 死 nasaru 死 死 死 nasai Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs -いろ -iro. -死 着替えろ kigaero っ -iyo -死 死 -iru. I came across(deatta) Suzuki. -死死 着 替える kigaeru (change -eru 着替えよ kigaeyo -っっ -ero.".The conditional ra form can also be used when the main clause is in the past tense. and carries the additional implication that the result was unexpected.

where a polite request may be reported using a plain imperative: kashite kudasai (direct) kase to iwareta (he told me to lend it to him). gozaru. Usage The imperative form is used • • • in orders.• The rule for polite verbs ending in -ru applies to the consonant-stem honorific verbs irassharu. in set phrases such as nani shiro: "no matter what". whose imperative forms are the same as their irregular i forms. or to inferiors. or in textbook exercises. ossharu. in reported speech. such as in the military. [edit] Volitional (Presumptive) Type Volitional しよう shiyō 死 死 suru (do) (死死 sō) 死 死 kuru (come) 来よう koyō 死 da (copula) だろう darō 死死 desu (polite でしょう deshō copula) 行きます ikimasu (go. -死死死 着替える kigaeru -死 死 -iru. and nasaru. polite) Regular consonant stem (v5) verbs -死 -u -死死 -ō 死死 tsukau (use) -死 -ku -死死 -kō 死死 yaku (grill) -死 -gu -死死 -gō 死死 oyogu (swim) -死 -su -死死 -sō 死死 shimesu (show) -死 -tsu -死死 -tō 死死 matsu (wait) -死 -nu -死死 -nō 死死 shinu (die) -死 -bu -死死 -bō 死死 yobu (call) -死 -mu -死死 -mō 死死 yomu (read) -死-ru -死死 -rō 死 死 hashiru (run) Regular vowel stem (v1) verbs -いよう -iyō. kudasaru. -死死-eru -eyō (change clothes) Adjectives -死 -i -かろう -karō 死死 chikai (near) -死 -na -だろう -darō 好 き suki (liked) -死死 -masu stem -ましょう -mashō 行きましょう ikimashō 死死死 tsukaō 焼こう yakō 死死死 oyogō 示そう shimesō 死死死 matō 死のう shinō 死死死 yobō 死死死 yomō 走ろう hashirō 着替えよう kigaeyō 近かろう chikakarō 好きだろう suki Examples Irregular verbs 死 死 死 死 benkyō suru (study) 死死死 aisuru (love) Volitional 勉強しよう benkyō shiyō 愛そう aisō .

ne. Aeron Buchanan's Japanese Verb such as in these cases: • • • • Negative 見えない mienai -なかろう -nakarō (invisible) 見えなかろう mienakarō In volitional ("let's" or "I shall") statements: 勉強しよう benkyō shiyō: "Let's study" or "I shall study". 1999. 2.教えて!goo [What is the past tense of "tou"? Other (Lit. kana. Retrieved 2011-01-19. To ask volitional ("shall we") questions: 行こうか ikō ka: "Shall (we) go?" To express what one is thinking of doing. 2010. volume 2.Tell Me! goo]" (in Japanese). a concise summary of all Japanese verb conjugations on one sheet of A4 • • • • . 犬 が 吠え ようとしている Inu ga hoeyō to shite iru: "The dog is about to bark. & Edu. via 死死 omou: 死死死死死死 kaō to omou: "(I) am thinking of buying (it)". http://oshiete. ^ Eri BANNO et al. and kanji output. online tool with romaji. p. ^ "‘死死’死死死死死死死死死死 . The Japan Times.) . Genki—An Integrated Course In Elementar Japanese. Retrieved May 19. ^ Herr.html. "死死死死hyeon 死死死死死死死死 死死死死死死死死死死死死死死 死死死死 死死死死→買うた(こうた)」 「合った→合うた(おう た)」 死死死死→言うた(いうた)」 「揃った→揃うた(そろうた)」 「構った →構うた(かもうた)」 など、ワ行五段活用動詞+「た」の組み合わせだと、 死死死死死死死死" 3. 2002-06-18. University of Alabama. the volitional form expresses In the form しようとする shiyō to suru: be about to or be trying to. online tool giving all forms for any verb Japanese Verb Conjugator. 10 [edit] External links The Wikibook Japanese has a page on the topic of Verb conjugation table Step-by-step lessons on learning various usages Japanese Verb Conjugator.darō 死死 nai (negative) Usage In general.死死死(死死死死死) . John [1] Nihongo Web." [edit] See also • Japanese consonant and vowel verbs [edit] References 1.

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