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Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008, 1, 29-44

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A Selective Review on Recent Development of Displacement-Based Laminated Plate Theories
Chen Wanji* and Wu Zhen
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang 110136, China
Received: August 27, 2007; Accepted: October 19, 2007; Revised: November 9, 2007 Abstract: This paper reviews the recent development of displacement-based theories for laminated composite plates as well as corresponding finite element models. Discussion focuses on the accuracy and efficiency of various theories, and the detailed expression of typical displacement theories used herein is also presented. To objectively assess these theories, Pagano’s cylindrical bending problems are chosen for comparison of various theories. Numerical results show that the global-local theories are more suitable for prediction of transverse shear stresses directly from constitutive equations in comparison with other theories. However, the zig-zag theories satisfying the interlaminar continuity of transverse shear stresses are still unable to accurately predict transverse shear stresses directly from constitutive equations, in which in order to obtain satisfactory transverse shear stresses, 3D equilibrium equations have to be adopted. In addition, free vibrations and stability of soft-core sandwiches are also considered to further assess various displacementbased laminated plate theories. Numerical results show that the global displacement theories will encounter difficulties to accurately predict the dynamic and the buckling response of so special structures. However, the global-local theories satisfying the continuity of transverse shear stresses at interfaces are still suitable for the dynamic and the buckling problems of soft-core sandwiches. In addition, this paper also includes some information of recent patents on the processes for the fabrication of composite metal object as well as functionally graded materials, and the methods of making nanofibre yarns, ribbons and sheets et al.

Keywords: Displacement-based theories, laminated plates, finite element models, interlaminar continuity of transverse shear stresses, constitutive equations, 3D equilibrium equations, thermal/mechanical loads, free vibration, buckling, soft-core sandwiches. 1. INTRODUCTION Due to their high specific strength and low specific density, laminated composite and sandwich plates were widely used in the aeronautical and aerospace industries. Numerous investigators had used various models for the analysis of laminated structures. Moreover, research on laminated plate theories can be found in early review papers [1-10]. Recent review articles, such as Kant and Swaminathan [11], Carrera [12], Reddy and Arciniega [13] and Mittelstedt and Becker [14, 15], covered much of the previous research on laminated plate theories in the past decades. Although research on laminated plate theories has been widely reviewed in previous articles above mentioned, the present article aims at the recent development of the displacement-based equivalent single layer plate theories as well as the corresponding finite element models. The contents on the layerwise theories as well as the mixed theories based on the Riessner mixed variational theorem can be excluded in present work. Readers interesting in theses theories can refer to following excellent review papers by Reddy and Robbins [10] and Carrera [16], respectively. In the year of 2007, the new patents [17-21] on composite metal object and Functionally Graded Materials et al. have been reported. Herein, these patents will be introduced. The patent [17] showed the methods for fabrication of the composite metal object comprised ductile crystalline metal particles in an amorphous metal matrix. The invention [18] provides processes for the fabrication of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by a controlled Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD). The novel non-linear vinyl polymers are composed of a multifunctional peroxide, and a cross-linking agent and/or a chain transfer agent, and methods of making such polymers have been given in the patent [19]. The patent [20] indicated that a single piezoelectric is excited at a first frequency to cause two vibration modes in a resonator producing a first elliptical motion in a first direction at a selected contacting portion of the resonator. Patent [21] presented the methods of making the
*Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang 110136, China; E-mail: chenwj@dlut.edu.cn Contract/grant sponsor: National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (No. 50479058, No. 10672032) 1874-477X/08 $100.00+.00

nanofiber yarns, ribbons, and sheets. These patents are only introduced simply, as the focus of this review is on the recent development of laminated plate theories. Considering the scope of this review as well as the limitation of author’s knowledge, authors feel regret that numerous works may have been neglected in present review article. 2. DISPLACEMENT-BASED LAMINATE THEORIES As far as the development of displacement-based theories for laminated composite structures is concerned, four approaches are usually adopted in published literature. The first approach, which is generally called as the global displacement theories (GDT), can be obtained by expanding the displacement components as Taylor’s series in terms of the thickness coordinate z. The second approach is the improved global displacement theory (IGDT) called here, which can be obtained by adding a zigzag-shaped C0 function to inplane displacement components of arbitrary global displacement theories mentioned above. It should be indicated that this theory is still unable to a priori satisfy continuity of transverse shear stresses at interfaces. The third approach is zig-zag theory (ZZT) which can be constructed by superimposing linear zig-zag field to the global displacement field. By imposing both continuity of transverse shear stresses at interfaces and free surface conditions, the number of unknowns in this model is independent of the number of layers. Herein, last approach is called as the global-local displacement theories (GLDT) in which one can be obtained by using double superposition hypothesis proposed by Li and Liu [22]. By employing interface continuity conditions and free surface conditions of transverse shear stresses, the number of total unknowns is independent of the layers of laminates. Characters and recent development of various theories mentioned above will be detailedly introduced in following sections. 2.1. Global Displacement Theories Typical theories in the first approach are of the first order shear deformation theories [23-26] which assume a constant transverse shear strain across the thickness direction. Therefore, the shear correction factor is generally used to adjust the transverse shear stiffness of laminates. By using the first order theory in conjunction with a postprocessing procedure, Rolfes et al. [27] have predicted
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Sheikh and Chakrabarti [49] proposed a six-node triangular plate bending elements for static analysis of laminated composite plates. this six-node triangular element was employed to predict buckling response of laminated composite plates [50]. However. Nayak et al. Kant and Babu [45] also extended the corresponding elements to predict thermal buckling response of skew laminated composite and sandwich plates. [48] expended their finite elements to analyze the buckling and vibration of laminated composite and sandwich plates subjected to initial stresses. In addition. Kant and Swaminathan [40] used the higher order theories to predict the dynamic response of cross-ply laminated composite and sandwich plates. Improved Global Displacement Theories To obtain a laminated plate theory for accounting the variation of the zig-zag form of in-plane displacement components along the thickness direction. Carrera and Demasi [69] also proposed the classical and advanced multilayered plate elements based on the global displacement theory including the zigzag function as well as other theories. Based on the global displacement theory including the zig-zag terms. discussion on why the third order seems to become the upper limit of laminated theories has never been reported. [31] proposed a meshfree Galerkin method based on first-order theory to analyze the buckling of folded plate structures. [38] further assessed the accuracy of several higher-order theories. Recently. In addition. Liew et al. To obtain accurate transverse stresses. they showed that the constitutive equation approach is more attractive compared to the equilibrium equation approach. Based on the third order theory as well as the first order theory. 10]. At the same year. By combining both zig-zag shape function and Legendre polynomials to approximate in-plane displacement fields. compared to first-order theories. Moreover. Therefore. Nayak et al. Vol. Sze et al. [47] have respectively constructed both four-node and ninenode higher-order quadrilateral elements by assuming interpolations for the shear strain. the equilibrium equation method is usually adopted. the higher order theories lose capability to accurately calculate transverse stress components directly from constitutive equations. In addition. Swaminathan et al. At the same year. Matsunaga [51] proposed a ninthorder theory named as HSDT-98 herein. Subsequently. based on a higher-order theory neglecting transverse normal strains. To verify the effects of higher order displacement components on the dynamic and the buckling responses of thick circular rings. Murakami [65] proposed to add a zigzagshaped C0 function to in-plane displacement components of arbitrary global displacement theories. these elements were used to analyze the static response of multilayered plates [70]. To assess performance of this theory. Swaminathan and Patil [41] extended the higher order theories for the free vibration analysis of antisymmetric angle-ply plates. with the help of numerical examples.30 Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008. [28] used finite element model based on first-order theory as well as postprocessing procedure to predict the interlaminar stresses of laminated plates. the higher order theories are unable to account for the variation of the zig-zag form of in-plane displacement components along the thickness direction as well as violate interlaminar continuity at interfaces for the transverse stress components. Kant and Khare [42] proposed a C0 Lagrangian isoparametric faceted quadrilateral element to analyze the static behaviors of the general laminated plates and shells. higher-order theories can yield improved results over the available first order theory. Numerical results showed by increasing the order number of inplane and transverse displacement components. Babu and Kant [44] constructed two quadrilateral elements to analyze buckling behaviors of skew fibre-reinforced composite and sandwich panels. this higher-order theory (HSDT-98) as well as other higher-order theories is used to analyze the dynamic and buckling behaviors of arbitrary angle-ply laminated composite beams and plates [52-59]. by analyzing the bending behaviors of simply-supported sandwich plates with arbitrary angleply face sheets. At present. Khare et al. One of advantages in higher-order theories is that the shear correction factor is not needed. the higher order shear deformation theories have been widely developed. Further. However. With development of global higher-order theories. Ge and Chen [29] proposed a three-node triangular plate element for bending problems of laminated composite plates. More comments on first-order theories can be found in following review papers [7. respectively. Numerical results showed that higher-order shear deformations surely have an important effect on the natural frequencies and the buckling stresses of thick rings. Moreover. Demasi [71] proposed a multilayered plate element . Considering transverse normal strain. 2. the higher order theories can yield greatly improved transverse shear stresses over the available third order theories mentioned above. [43] extended this higher-order facet shell element to analyze the dynamic behaviors of laminated composite plates and shells. the corresponding elements have been applied to predict the natural frequencies of isotropic. [30] proposed a four-node quadrilateral element for analysis of laminated composite plates. Moreover. Recently. the use of the zigzag function proposed Murakami [65] in the global displacement theories. Reddy [46] proposed a four-noded nonconforming rectangular element for static analysis of functionally graded plates. In addition. Based on Reddy’s theory. Moreover. to predict transient dynamic response of laminated beams. they analyzed the cylindrical bending problems of laminated plates. The major problem in constructing finite element based on first-order theory is how to eliminate shear locking for very thin laminated plates. in-plane and transverse displacement fields of the third order theory consist of third-order polynomial in global thickness coordinate z. Toledano and Murakami [66] developed an improved global displacement theory. laminated composite and sandwich plates. No. Swaminathan and Patil [39] also employed several higher-order theories for the stress analysis of antisymmetric angle-ply plates. in which the in-plane displacement field consists of 9th-order polynomial in global thickness coordinate z whereas the transverse deflection is represented by an 8th-order polynomial of global coordinate z. Thereinto. this triangular element is free from shear locking problem. Based on a higherorder theory satisfying free surface conditions of transverse shear stresses [36]. By gradually adding high-order terms of transverse coordinate z to the in-plane and transverse displacements. By employing the re-constituting shear strain technique.2. Kant et al. In addition. Matsunaga [60-63] expended these higher-order theories to predict the static response of laminated composite and sandwich structures. The corresponding nonconforming element has seven degrees of freedom at per node. In addition. in which the in-plane displacement field consists of third-order polynomial in global thickness coordinate z whereas the transverse deflection is represented by a second-order polynomial of global coordinate z. For example. Carrera [68] presented C0 multilayered plate elements. In addition. It can be found that this theory is surely able to improve the accuracy of in-plane response. It should be indicated that the two elements may overcome the shear locking. based on Reddy’s theory. [33] proposed a third-order theory to predict the dynamic response of laminated composite beams. 1. Based on first-order theory. Further. Kant and Swaminathan [34] employed the third order theory as well as other higher-order theories [35-37] to predict that static response of laminated composite plate. It should be shown that this element is free from shear locking problem. Cho and Kim [64] have discussed in details the equilibrium equation approach. a conclusion has been drawn that introduction of zig-zag function is more effective than improvement of order number in global displacement theories. Carrera [67] also discussed. Cen et al. which is also able to avoid shear locking problems. Marur and Kant [32] presented a higher order theory. Subsequently. numerous finite element models have been also proposed. 1 Wanji and Zhen transverse thermal stresses in composite plates. Recently. the higher-order theories mostly used in the literature are the third order theories. Subsequently.

this model is used to predict the static behaviors of piezoelectric sandwich beams [90]. Subsequently.78]. Sze et al. In addition. [95] used a zig-zag theory as well as global displacement theories to analyze the bending. which satisfies the free surface conditions and the geometric and stress continuity conditions at interfaces whereas the electric potential is modeled with layerwise theory. thermal and electric behaviors. To obtain accurately transverse shear stresses. in order to accurately predict the transverse shear stress. Li and Liu (1997) developed the third-order global-local theory [22]. To accurately predict transverse shear stresses. [96] and Kapuria and Achary [97]. 3D equilibrium equations are employed in this work. Moreover. Di Sciuva [78] adopted the post-processing approach of integration of equilibrium equation. the equilibrium equation method has to be adopted. is unable to a priori satisfy interlaminar continuity for transverse stresses. Further. Moreover. To this end. the number of unknown variables in this model is independent of the number of layers. Di Sciuva and Gherlone [79] developed a third-order Hermitian zigzag model. Compared to the linear zig-zag model. Numerical examples show that third-order global-local theory is accurate for the bending problems of laminates when the number of the layers of laminates is less than six. Because the transverse shear stresses of external surfaces of the laminate are used as unknown variables. and Chen and Chen [102] constructed triangular plate elements. More discussion on Murakami’s zig-zag function can be found in following articles [72-75]. the higher-order zig-zag theories considering transverse normal deformation are also developed to predict the response of laminated beams and plates under thermal loads by Kapuria et al. the number of variables in this theory is independent of layer number of laminated plate. Subsequently. By enforcing the free conditions at upper and lower surfaces and interlaminar continuity conditions of transverse shear stresses. Icardi [99] also presented the C0 plate element for global/local analysis of laminated plates based on a zig-zag model. However. In addition. thermal and electric loads [82. respectively. Chakrabarti and Sheikh [87. this zig-zag model is able to a priori fulfill the continuity of transverse shear stresses at interface.3. To obtain accurately transverse shear stresses. No. discussion on whether the stress smoothing technique is suitable for the irregular meshes can not be reported in their study. Di Sciuva [76] firstly proposed a linear zig-zag model which can guarantee the continuity of transverse shear stresses at interfaces. The in-plane displacement field in this theory consists of third-order polynomial in global coordinate z along the thickness direction and order 2 power series in local coordinate  within each layer whereas the transverse deflection is constant along the thickness direction. Icardi [98] proposed an eight-noded plate element. To predict accurately the detailed response of multilayered plates. this theory is unable to satisfy the conditions of zero transverse shear stresses on the upper and lower surfaces. Kapuria [89] proposed a coupled zig-zag model for the static analysis of laminated composite beams with piezoelectric layers at surfaces. Recently.4. in which Murakami’s zig-zag function is added to global displacement theories. the improved global displacement theories and the zig-zag theories will encounter difficulties to accurately compute transverse shear stresses directly from constitutive equations. 1. Moreover. However. 2. Moreover. however. In addition. In addition to the above zig-zag theories mentioned.88] developed the sixnode triangular element to analyze the static behaviors of laminated and sandwich plates. 12]. Numerical solutions show that the zig-zag models above mentioned are able to accurately calculate in-plane stresses. it is desirable to present a model that can predict the transverse shear stresses directly from the constitutive equations. the coupled zig-zag model has been extended to analyze the static and the dynamic behaviors of piezoelectric laminated plates [92-94]. Zig-zag Theories In the early stage of the development of these models. the relations between the order of the global component in global-local theory and the accuracy of solutions have been studied by authors [105]. it is found that the global displacement theories. 2. Although. respectively.Duplex Stainless Steels Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008. Vol. Based on the third-order zig-zag theory. the mechanical component is modeled by the third-order zig-zag theory. previous research [106. Numerical results showed that the third-order theory as well as the first-order theory obviously overestimates the critical loads and natural frequencies of laminated beam with arbitrary layouts. the third order global-local theory can’t be cared until Wu et al [103] and Wu and Chen [104] developed the laminated plate elements based on this model to predict thermal/mechanical response of laminated plates. the cubic zig-zag model as well as the corresponding triangular plate element has been developed by Di Sciuva [77. However.107] showed that the global higher-order theories obviously overestimated natural frequency for laminated composite plates with different thickness and materials at each ply and soft-core sandwich plates because these higher-order theories violate continuity conditions of the transverse stress . in the cubic zig-zag model the transverse shear stresses obtained directly from the constitutive equations are still less accurate in comparison with the three-dimensional elasticity solutions. Li and Liu (1995) firstly attempted to propose a laminate theory based on the global-local superposition hypothesis [100]. Recently. [101] have constructed a three-node beam element. the cubic zig-zag model can improve the accuracy of transverse shear stresses. In view of this situation. this theory is still unable to predict transverse shear stresses directly from constitutive equations. this approach can not computed transverse stresses directly from constitutive equations. Global-Local Displacement Theories From a review of the above literature. buckling and dynamic behaviors of laminated composite and sandwich beam. the stress smoothing technique within whole domain is adopted in regular meshes. a three-node triangular finite element based on the third-order zig-zag theory has been proposed by Oh and Cho [84] to predict the mechanical. this model is suitable for analyzing the laminated beams under the distributed tangential loads on the external surfaces. After these work. Subsequently. this model in conjunction with a sublaminate approach was used to study the interlayer slip problems of laminated beams [80].83]. For this model. Based on the zig-zag theory proposed by Cho and Parmerter [86]. Based on the zig-zag model proposed by Cho and Parmerter [81]. the higher order zig-zag theories considering transverse normal strain have been developed to predict the deformation and stresses of thick smart composite plate subjected to mechanical. Kapuria et al. Therefore. However. Cho and Kim [85] have also presented a four-noded finite element in conjunction with postprocess method. Based on this global-local theory. by improving the order number of local displacement in conjunction with the double-superposition hypothesis technique. the fifth-order globallocal theory [105] should be adopted. [91] also used the coupled zig-zag model and several global displacement models to predict the static response of the hybrid layered functionally graded beams subjected to themo-electromechanical loads. the number of total unknowns does not depend on the layer number of laminates. 1 31 based on the displacement theories by introducing Murakami’s zigzag function. However. the threedimensional equilibrium equations are still needed to compute transverse shear stresses. It should be indicated that the approach. Kapuria et al. In-plane displacement components in higher order zig-zag theory consist of both a local linear zig-zag function and a global third-order displacement field. The third-order global-local theory has the potential to accurately predict the transverse shear stress components of laminated structures without any postprocessing methods. More discussion on zigzag theories can be found in following review articles [6.

y ) i=0 where M (z) denotes the Murakami’s zig-zag function.2. Vol. y ) i=0 2 (6) w ( x.1. this theory can automatically satisfy the zig-zag shaped variation of in-plane displacement along thickness direction. y ) + M ( z ) vM ( x. First-Order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) The first-order shear deformation theory [26]. Displacement Fields of Improved Global Displacement Theory Proposed by Murakami [65] According to the approach proposed by Murakami. Reddy [36] proposed a higher-order shear deformation theory which can satisfy the transverse shear stress free boundary conditions. DISPLACEMENT FIELDS OF SEVERAL THEORIES To objectively assess displacement-based theories. 1 Wanji and Zhen components. 3. predicts constant transverse shear stress through the thickness of plate. which can be given by u =  ui z i i=0 3 M ( z ) = (1)  k in which. we will detailedly discuss the free vibration and the buckling problems of soft-core sandwiches. Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory (HSDT-33) To approximate the three-dimensional elasticity problem to a two-dimensional plate problem. y. Both in-plane and transverse displacement fields of HSDT33 consist of third-order polynomial in global thickness coordinate z. this theory is unable to a priori fulfill . This theory. z ) =  z i vi ( x. the following higher order shear deformation theories already published in previous literature are also employed for comparison. this theory only comprises 5 unknown variables. (2) 3. can be detailedly written as follows 3 Displacement fields in Reddy’s theory only consist of 5 unknown variables. in principle.1. Matsunaga proposed the following higher-order theories to analyze the static behaviors of laminated composite and sandwich plates. several typical theories are chosen for comparison.1. namely laminated composite plates with variational thickness and materials at each layer and soft-core sandwich plates. In fact. No. y ) + M ( z ) u M ( x. 3. w =  wi z i=0 i Without any formula derivation. 3. Moreover. the displacement fields can be expanded as a Taylor’s series in term of the thickness coordinate. y. Displacement fields of HSDT-54 are 5 u =  ui z i i=0 5 v =  vi z i i=0 4 (4) u = u0 + zu1 v = v0 + zv1 w = w0 (1) w =  wi z i i=0 A shear correction factor of 5/6 is adopted in computed results using the first-order theory. Displacement fields of HSDT-33 can be given by 3 u ( x. the improved global theory is given by adding a Murakami’s zig-zag function to global displacement fields. Displacement fields of HSDT-98 are 9 u =  ui z i i=0 9 v =  vi z i i=0 8 (5) u = u0  z w 4z3 + ( z  2 ) x x 3h w 4z3 v = v0  z + ( z  2 ) y 3h y w = w0 w =  wi z i i=0 This model includes 29 unknown variables. y. commonly known as Mindlin plate theory. However. Displacement Fields of Several Typical Global Displacement Theories 3.3. y ) i=0 3 v( x. our research [108] indicated that the thirdorder global-local theory is suitable for dynamic problems of so special structures. Reddy’s Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory (HSDTR) In addition.32 Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008. This model includes 17 unknown variables. Displacement fields of firstorder theory can be written as This model consists of 12 unknown variables. In following section. z ) =  z i ui ( x. is local thickness coordinate at kth ply. Displacement fields of Reddy’s theory herein can be written as. which is named as IGDT-M herein.1. z ) =  z i wi ( x. respectively. Several Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory Proposed by Matsunaga [60] In addition to higher-order theories above mentioned. 1.1. 3. 3.1.4. By increasing the order number of the in-plane and the transverse displacement components. Kant and Swaminathan [34] have proposed a higher order shear deformation theory which is named as HSDT-33 herein. (3) k (7) v =  vi z i i=0 3 k 1   k  1 .2. By expanding the displacement components in term of thickness coordinate.

The free conditions of the transverse shear stresses on the upper and the lower surfaces are employed. bk = k +1 z k +1  z k zk +1  zk (8) w k = w0 + zw1 + z 2 w2 where. y. y. y ) + zu1 ( x. By enforcing the displacement continuity conditions proposed by Li and Liu [22].3. and the number of the independent unknowns is reduced from 15 to 11. Because these zig-zag theories mentioned can almost predict the same results. z ) =  k3v3 ( x. y. 3. ak = z + zk 2 . y. y. Thereby.2. zk ) total number of the unknown variables is 7 in zig-zag theory. (9) w k ( x. z ) where uG . 1 33 the continuity conditions of transverse shear stresses at interfaces. zk ) (12) where k = 2. z ) + u ( x. The starting displacement field can be written as follows: k ˆL u k ( x.  k where 1   k  1 .3. y. 3. the zig-zag theory proposed by Cho and Oh [83] is only considered herein. 2(n-1) degrees of freedom can be limited. (1). y. y) +  k u 2 ( x. y. y. 1. y ) + z 3u3 ( x. y ) + zu1 ( x. vL k ˆL and u k ˆL v TRANSVERSE SHEAR STRESS CONTINUITY CONDITIONS Using linear strain-displacement relations and three-dimensional constitutive equations for cross-ply laminated plates.82. u L and k are of two-term local groups. z ) = u0 ( x. y ) + z 3u3 ( x. y. y ) k k ˆL v ( x. y.3. L n . y. zk ) = u L ( x. The DISPLACEMENT CONTINUITY CONDITIONS There are 6n+9 degrees of freedom in the above displacements.4. By using transverse shear stress continuity conditions at interfaces as well as transverses shear free surface conditions. z ) + u Lk ( x. (1). zk ) (15) x z2 z1 1 − st ply Fig. y. the transverse shear stresses for the kth layer can be written as k k  xz ( x. the final displacement models for cross-ply laminated plates are These global components may be written as follows . Total number of unknown variables is only 13 in this model. y. z ) = w0 ( x. z ) =  k u1k ( x. x+  4k w2. zk ) = vLk 1 ( x. y. finally. y ) The local components can be written as k 2 k uL ( x. y ) wG ( x. The transverse shear stress continuity conditions are ζk k k 1  xz ( x. y. 4(n-1) degrees of freedom can be constrained. z ) = Q44 k xz ( x. y. y. z ) =  k v1k ( x. y. zk ) = v ( x. y +  3 w1. zk ) = u ( x. where Qijk are the transformed material constants for the kth layer. This especial continuity conditions can be expressed as follows k k 1 uL ( x. y. Displacement Fields of Several Refined Theories 3. y. y . y) k k ˆL u ( x. the superscript k represents the layer order of laminated plates. Schematic figure for the laminate segment. y. zk ) =  xz ( x.83]. z ) = vG ( x. z ) = uG ( x. Zig-Zag Theory Satisfying Continuity of Transverse Shear Stresses at Interfaces The zig-zag theories. y. y. y ) (10) (11) u k = u0 + 1k ( z ) u3 + 2k w0. z ) = u0 ( x. which satisfying continuity of transverse shear stresses at interfaces. z ) = Q55 k yz ( x. z . y ) uG ( x. y. z ) k k  yz ( x.1. vG and wG are global components of displacement k expansion. the number of total degrees of freedom is reduced to 15. z ) + vLk ( x. y. y. At present. expressions of ik and  ik can refer to reference [83]. z ) =  k3u3 ( x. y. the transverse shear strains are w0 k 2 k + u1 + 2 zu2 + 3z 2u3 + ak u1k + 2 ak k u2 + 3ak k u3 (14) x  w k  yz ( z ) = 0 + v1 + 2 zv2 + 3z 2 v3 + ak v1k + 2ak k v2k + 3ak k2 v3k y k  xz ( z) = z z n +1 zn z k +1 zk n − th ply k − th ply By imposing the continuity conditions of transverse shear stresses at interfaces. z) vLk ( x. y +  4 w2. The global coordinates associated with the plate are x . zk ) k k 1 ˆL ˆL u ( x. have been proposed by superimposing a cubic varying displacement field on a zig-zag linear displacement [77. z ) = wG ( x. The relations between global coordinate and local coordinate can be seen in Fig. y. Vol. y. y. y ) + z 2u2 ( x. y where  k = ak z  bk . y ) 2 k vLk ( x. y . zk ) k k 1 ˆL ˆL v ( x. x k k v k = v0 + 1k ( z ) v3 +  2k w0.Duplex Stainless Steels Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008. z ) + v ( x. x+  3k w1. final displacement field of zig-zag theory proposed Cho and Oh [83] can be rewritten as follows uG ( x. y ) + z 2u2 ( x. Third-Order Global-Local Theory Discarding Transverse Normal Strain (TGLT-30) The global-local higher-order theory proposed by Li and Liu [22] can a priori satisfy displacements and transverse shear stresses continuity conditions at interfaces. The zig-zag theory proposed by Cho and Kim is named as ZZTC in the present study. The local coordinates for a layer are denoted by x . y) +  k v2 ( x. z ) (13) are of one-term local group. y. zk ) =  yz ( x. The reference plane ( z = 0 ) is taken at the mid-plane of the laminate. y. z) k ˆL v k ( x. zk ) k k 1  yz ( x.3. No.

x k 1 k k k v k = v0 +  1 v1 +  2 v1 +  k 3 v2 +  4 v3 +  5 w0. the third-order global-local theory considering transverse normal strain is also considered in this paper. z )/ q0 . authors have proposed a fifth-order global-local theory [105]. subscript L signifies the direction parallel to the fibers whereas subscript T denote the transverse direction. this model includes 15 unknown variables which are independent of the layer number of any multilayered plates. Thus. (2). y +  7 w2. which considering transverse normal strain. Expression of both  ik and ik can be found in reference [109]. these acronyms used will be explained by Exact: Three-dimensional elasticity solutions based on the Pagano’s method [110] have been renewedly computed by the authors. NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Among available numerical examples. HSDT-76: Analytical results based on the global higher order theory HSDT-76 proposed by Matsunaga [60]. The material properties and the thickness of each layer are uniform. Expression of both  k i and  k i can be where. The material constants. x +  6 w1. y Wanji and Zhen (16) theories see Fig. No. with increasing of layer number. IGDT-M: Analytical results based on the improved global displacement theory proposed by Murakami [65].4.5 ET .34 Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008. y q = q0 sin(πx / a ) z b h w k = w0 (17) where. GTT = 0. both free vibration and stability of soft-core sandwiches are also considered to assess various theories. HSDT-54: Analytical results based on the global higher order theory HSDT-54 proposed by Matsunaga [60]. w k = w0 + zw1 + z 2 w2 (18) where  ik and ik are the function of material constants and thickness of laminates. acronyms have been introduced to represent the different analysis in all figures and the analytical results for all following theories have been renewedly computed by the authors. x +  7 w2. Laminated plate under sinusoidal load.3.25 are the function of material constants and thickness of laminates. y +  6 w1. 4. GLT = 0. Third-Order Global-Local Theory Considering Transverse Normal Strain (TGLT-32) In addition. x k 1 k k k k k v k = v0 +  1 v1 +  2 v1 +  k 3 v2 +  4 v3 +  5 w0. are simply given by k 1 k k k k k u k = u0 + 1 u1 +  2 u1 +  k 3u 2 +  4 u 3 +  5 w0. Herein. 1 k 1 k k k u k = u0 + 1 u1 +  2 u1 +  k 3u 2 +  4 u 3 +  5 w0. Fifth-Order Global-Local Theory Discarding Transverse Normal Strain (FGLT-50) Numerical examples showed that third-order global-local theory (TGLT) is very accurate for the bending problems of laminates as the layer number of laminates is less than six.  x =  x (a / 2. EL = 25 ET .89GPa . accuracy of TGLT will be gradually down. Displacement fields of the global-local higher-order theory.3. TGLT-32: Analytical results based on the third-order globallocal theory considering transverse normal strain [109]. the total number of the unknown variables is only 13 which is independent of the number of layers in any multilayered plates. expression of both  k i and  k i can be found in reference [105]. 3. To analyze the detailed response of multilayered plates. Example 4. Thus. with usual notation are [110] w = w0 where k ET = 6. FGLT-50: Analytical results based on the fifth-order global-local theory [105]. z ) / q0 h . ZZTC: Analytical results based on the zig-zag theory proposed by Cho and Oh [83]. y a x Fig. x k v k = v0 +  1k ( z ) v11 +  2 ( z) v1 +  k3 ( z) v2 +  k4 ( z) v3 +  5k ( z) v4 +  6k ( z) v5 +  k7 w0. HSDT-33: Analytical results based on the global higher order theory HSDT-33 proposed by Kant and Swaminathan [34]. is firstly chosen to assess several laminated plate To convenient comparison. The displacements and the stresses are respectively normalized as follows found in reference [22]. Moreover. However. Pagano’s cylindrical bending problem [110] seems to be suitable and simple. the laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending are firstly considered. . HSDT-98: Analytical results based on the global higher order theory HSDT-98 proposed by Matsunaga [60]. subjected to a sinusoidal transverse loading q=q0sin(  x/a). the Pagano problem is often used to assess various laminated plate theories.1 Cylindrical bending of multilayered plate [ 0o / 90o / 0o / 90o / L ]. h is the thickness of lamination. Vol.3. TGLT-30: Analytical results based on the third-order globallocal theory discarding transverse normal strain [22]. This theory is suitable for predicting response of laminated plates subjected to thermal loading of uniform temperature. the total number of the unknown variables is only 11 which is independent of the number of layers in any multilayered plates. 1. y u = E2u (0. HSDT-R: Analytical results based on the global higher order theory HSDT-R proposed by Reddy [36]. 3.  xz =  xz (0. z )/ q0 in which a is the length of laminated plates.  ik and ik  LT =  TT = 0. Therefore.2 ET . Subsequently. The fifth order global-local theory can be expressed as k u k = u0 + 1k ( z ) u11 + 2 ( z) u1 + k3 ( z) u2 + k4 ( z) u3 + 5k ( z) u4 + 6k ( z) u5 + 7 5k w0. Thereinto. (2 ).

However. In addition. 4 .0. As a whole.0. (5). 5 0. 2 .33 HSDT. which denotes transverse shear stresses are calculated from equilibrium equations. 3 . 2 .35 Exact FG LT.0. 3 .30 0. 3 0. 2 . distribution of Transverse shear stresses obtained from the refined displacement theories are also presented in Fig. TGLT30 and ZZTC) are more accurate than other theories used herein. 3 0. 4 0. Exact FG LT.0. 5 z h Exact IG DT. 2 z h 0. It should be indicated that these stresses are computed directly from constitutive equations. (7).1. TGLT-30 and ZZTC as well as IGDT-M proposed by Murakami [65] can describe the zig-zag shaped variation of inplane displacement along the thickness direction. variation of in-plane displacement obtained from various theories through the thickness of four-layer plate is plotted in Figs.33 HSDT.10 0. To obtain accurately transverse shear stresses.M HSDT.0. (5) and (6). 1 . by increasing the order number of in-plane and transverse displacement components. 4 0.0.0. 4 . u Fig. It is found that these transverse shear stresses calculated directly from constitutive equations are unable to satisfy the continuity at interfaces. the results obtained from the global theories (HSDT98) are gradually close to exact solution [110]. 0.0. Distribution of in-plane stress obtained from several displacement theories through thickness direction of four-layer plate (a/h = 4).0.50 TG LT. (3) and (4 ). 4 . 5 0 ZZTC 1 2 σx Fig.0.2.M HSDT.0. (8). for the prediction of in-plane stress components.Duplex Stainless Steels Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008. 1.0.0. 5 . 1 . It can be found that the displacement theories such as FGLT-50. 2 0.R FSDT . Firstly. 2 z h 0. the refined displacement theories (FGLT-50. u Fig. 5 . 1 0 . 5 0 10 20 30 σx Fig.20 . the equilibrium equation method is adopted. No. Distribution of in-plane displacement obtained from refined displacement theories through thickness direction of four-layer plate (a/h = 4). Moreover.0. 5 0.15 5 25 z h ZZTC . 5 0. 1 0 . (6).0. 1 35 FSDT: Analytical results based on the first order theory FSDT [26].30 . 3 0. 5 Exact IG DT. (4).0.98 HSDT. 5 . Distribution of in-plane displacement obtained from several global displacement theories through thickness direction of four-layer plate (a/h = 4). In addition.54 HSDT.0.0. a suffix -E.30 . Subsequently. Vol. Thereinto. globallocal theories such as FGLT-50 and TGLT-30 are more accurate in 0.50 TG LT. In addition. 5 0. 1 0 . 2 0.0. 1 .R FSDT 1. 2 . has been also introduced to the acronyms.0. 5 0.98 HSDT.54 HSDT. these results obtained by integrating 3D . 4 0. transverse shear stresses obtained from other theories are plotted in Fig.0. 3 . Distribution of in-plane stress obtained from refined displacement theories through thickness direction of four-layer plate (a/h = 4). 4 . 1 . the global third order theories (HSDT-33 and HSDT-R) as well as the first order theory (FSDT) are less accurate.3. Other acronyms without any suffixes represent that results are computed directly from constitutive equations. comparison with other theories mentioned. 4 0. Numerical results show that the zig-zag theory (ZZTC) proposed by Cho and Oh [83] can a priori satisfy the interlaminar continuity of transverse shear stresses whereas this theory is still less accurate than the global-local theories such as FGLT-50 and TGLT-30. 1 0 -4 -3 -2 -1 . 5 0. 5 . 3 . 3 in-plane stresses along the thickness direction is presented in Figs. (3).

5 0. 3 .  y . In addition. τ xz Fig. 0.0.  L = 0. The static behaviors of 14-layer plate are also considered for comparison. both improved global displacement theory (IGDT-M) and HSDT-98 are in good agreement with exact solution. 5 0. (9). 4 .E HSDT.0.3 .98.0. 5 2. (9 ). HSDT-33 and HSDT-R) as well as the first order theory are still less accurate. Firstly.0. 1 Exact FG LT. 00 1. 5 0.50 TG LT. 5 0. 2 .49 . y.E 2. z ) = T0 sin(x / a ) sin(y / b) in which the temperature is uniform across the thickness direction.0. obtained from 3D equilibrium equations.0. 2 . transverse shear stresses. 5 1. equilibrium equation have been given in Fig. 2 z h 0. 5 0. 5 0. 0 1. are plotted in Fig.E FSDT. a and b are the length and the width of laminated plate (a= b).0. 3 0.g.015  10 6 .3356 . Distribution of transverse shear stress obtained directly from constitutive equations through thickness direction of 14-layer plate (a/h =4).0.5 .0. 50 1.. 1 0 0.0. 2 . Vol. 3 .0. τ xz Fig. Material constants [63] are given as follows EL / ET = 15 .  TT = 0. where.0. 5 0. 1 . 4 Exact FG LT. the fifth order global-local theory (FGLT-50) is able to predict satisfactory transverse shear stresses directly from constitutive equations. 5 0.0.0. 0 1.98 HSDT.M -E HSDT. 3 0.2 A simply supported laminated plate ( 0o / 90o / 0o ).33. subjected to thermal loading T ( x. 9 Exact IG DT. 00 z h 0.0. 4 0. (7). 0 τ xz Fig. GLT / ET = 0. 1 . 4 0.54.M HSDT. 4 0. 1 0 0. h is the thickness of lamination. 2 . 1. 5 1. (11). Distribution of transverse shear stress obtained directly from constitutive equations through thickness direction of four-layer plate (a/h = 4). 4 . 1 . However.30 ZZTC 0. the third order theories (e.R. 2 z h 0 0. 4 . 9 0. the results of transverse shear stress.50 TG LT. (8).  xz .  yz ) = ( x .36 Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008. 2 z h 0.54 HSDT.  xz .  y . Numerical results show that even if the equilibrium equation method is used. 3 . 1 Wanji and Zhen 0. (10).30 ZZTC 0. 5 Exact IG DT.0. 0 . 1 . transverse shear stresses computed from refined displacement theories are compared with exact solution in Fig. No. are also given in Fig. 00 .0. respectively. 9 1.R FSDT 3.0. Distribution of transverse shear stress obtained from equilibrium equations through thickness direction of four-layer plate (a/h = 4).  yz ) / (T T0 E0 ) .0. 1 0 .0. T = 10 6 The obtained results are nondimensionalized as follows: ( x . 2 0. (10). 5 τ xz Fig. GTT / ET = 0. ET = 10GPa . 0 . 3 0. 50 2.E HSDT. is analyzed. 3 . (12). namely TGLT-30 will encounter some difficulties for multilayered plates. Distribution of transverse shear stress obtained directly from constitutive equations through thickness direction of four-layer plate (a/h = 4). 9 2.33 HSDT. 1 . Further.  LT = 0. which computed from global displacement theories by using constitutive equations. 1 . Example 4. However. 3 0. 0 2.E HSDT. 4 .1.0. Numerical comparison shows that the third order globallocal theory.

E HSDT. the third-order global-local theory discarding transverse normal strain (TGDT-30) will lose capability to accurately predict in-plane stresses. 3 0. 4 0.0. 3 0. 4 0. 2 . 2 0. predicted from ZZTC.0. 1 . 4 . in-plane stresses computed by using the refined displacement theories are plotted in Fig. In addition.R FSDT Exact TG LT. and the material constants are [111] ET = 6.0.0.0. 5 0. (12).25 .0.0. 4 . 5 0. 5 0. HSDT-R and FSDT.0.0.98 FSDT 0. Therefore.0.33. 5 1. 2 0. 3 . (14). Even if 3-D equilibrium equations are adopted. The material properties and the thickness of each layer are uniform. 1 37 0. z h . 0 1. Numerical results show that the third-order global-local theory considering transverse normal strain (TGDT-32) can accurately predict in-plane stresses. 5 0. E L = 25 ET . 5 1 where. 0 2.98 HSDT. 5 0. 5 0. (15). 1 Exact IG DT. z h obtained from several global displacement theories are compared in Fig. 0. 4 0.E HSDT. 7 0 . Subsequently.0. 2 0. 8 τ xz Fig. GTT = 0. 3 . 2 . 3 0. No.E FSDT.E HSDT. It can be found that transverse shear stresses. 5 the fibers whereas subscript T denote the transverse direction.M -E HSDT. Vol.  LT =  TT = 0. 1. 5 1. 4 . 1 0 .89GPa .0. 1 τ xz Fig. However.0. 1 z h 0 . (13). 3 .R IG DT. 5 0. (14).3 A simply-supported plate [ 0 o / 90 o / 0 o ] under sinusoidal transverse loading q = q0 sin ( x / a )sin (y / b ) is analyzed.0.32 TG LT.0. E 0 = 10 GPa. 5 2.R. Distribution of in-plane stress obtained from refined displacement theories through thickness direction of three-layer plate (a/h = 5). 5 -1 0 .0. 2 . 1 .Duplex Stainless Steels Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008. are zero.30 ZZTC 0. 3 0. 5 Exact HSDT. (13).0. in-plane stresses Example 4. GLT = 0. Distribution of in-plane stress obtained from several displacement theories through thickness direction of three-layer plate (a/h = 5). Firstly. 5 . (16) it can be found that transverse shear stresses calculated using HSDT-R as well as FSDT are still unable to satisfy free surface conditions. transverse shear stresses computed using different theories directly from constitutive equations are plotted in Fig.E σx Fig. 2 . 4 0.33 HSDT. respectively. direction parallel to the fibres and the transverse direction for laminates. 2 . a three-layer plate under uniform temperature is considered.0.0.54 HSDT. subscript L signifies the direction parallel to .98.0. 2 . 5 z h . Distribution of transverse shear stress obtained from equilibrium equations through thickness direction of 14-layer plate (a/h = 4). a conclusion can be drawn that the transverse normal stain effect on the thermal expansion problems of laminated plates is very conspicuous.0. 4 0.5 ET .0.M HSDT. 1 . 0 . 5 . 3 0. 0 0. 1 Exact IG DT.M HSDT.0. To further assess the performance of different theories used herein. 5 2. (11). and L T signify the thermal expansion coefficients along the σx Fig. in Fig. Distribution of transverse shear stress obtained directly from constitutive equations through thickness direction of 14-layer plate (a/h = 4).1.0.54. 3 .2 ET .1. 2 0.

5 0. 25 . 0. 15 z h .0. Vol. 2 0. h is the thickness of lamination. (16).0. FSDT-C&S: The finite element results based on the firstorder theory are given by Chakrabarti and Sheikh [87] from constitutive equations. The three-noded triangular bending element has ten z h . Several displacement-based finite element models are chosen for comparison. 1 z h Exact TG LT. 4 .0. 05 0. For this example. The displacements and the stresses are respectively normalized as follows  x =  x . Firstly. 15 0 . 1 . 3 0.0. 2 0. This example shows that the accuracy of displa-cement-based finite element models depends on the performance of the displacementbased laminated plate theories. subscript L signifies the direction parallel to the fibers whereas subscript T denote the transverse direction.32 TG LT.38 Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008. 4 0.0. The 55 mesh density is used. 1 Wanji and Zhen 0.0. The 88 mesh density is used. Exact: Three-dimensional elasticity solutions presented by Pagano [111]. The three-noded triangular plate element has thirteen degrees of freedom in each node. The ninenoded quadrilateral plate element has seven degrees of freedom in each node. 5 τ yz Fig.0.0. 5 τ yz Fig. 06 . 14 0 . (0. 1.0.C&S 0. Distribution of transverse shear stress obtained directly from constitutive equations through thickness direction of three-layer plate (a/h = 5). 2 . degrees of freedom in each node.0. ZZTC-Di Sciuva: The finite element results are given by Di Sciuva [78] from constitutive equations. 2 . z )h 2 / q0 a 2 . the 88 mesh density is used.E IG DT. 7 σx Fig.98. 1 0 . The 88 mesh density is used.0.0. 1 .0.R IG DT.0.E FSDT. 3 0.E 0. 2 . This plate problem is often chosen to assess the performance of the displacement-based finite element models. 3 0.0.30 ZZTC HSDT.0. 4 . are more accurate than other finite element results. which are calculated from the triangular plate element proposed by Wu and Chen [103] based on the global-local higherorder theory. Numerical results show that transverse shear stresses Wu&Chen in Fig. Distribution of in-plane stress obtained from several displacement theories through thickness direction of three-layer plate (a/h = 4). Exact W u & Chen Cho & Ki m ZZTC. 5 0.M HSDT. Cho & Kim : The finite element results are given by Cho and Kim [85] from constitutive equations. The 22 mesh density is used. (18).0. 4 . 5 0. (17). 3 .M -E HSDT. 2 . They are Wu & Chen: The finite element results based on the globallocal higher order theory [22] are given by Wu and Chen [103] from constitutive equations. The six-noded triangular bending element has seven degrees of freedom in each node. Distribution of transverse shear stress obtained from equilibrium equations through thickness direction of three-layer plate (a/h = 5).1.0.0. The 88 mesh density is used. 3 . 16 . 3 0. in-plane stresses computed from different finite element models are compared in Fig. 4 0.0. 3 . 2 0. Subsequently. 2 . Reddy-C&S: The finite element results based on Reddy’s theory [36] are given by Chakrabarti and Sheikh [87] from constitutive equations. 8 where.  xz =  xz (a / 2. 04 0.0.0. z )h / q0 a in which a and b are the length and width of laminated plates. (17). 1 Exact HSDT. 5 0. (15). No. ZZTC-C&S: The finite element results based on the zig-zag theory [86] are given by Chakrabarti and Sheikh [87] from constitutive equations.0.98 FSDT 0. 1 . The 88 mesh density is used. 05 . (18) shows the comparison between transverse shear stresses obtained from the finite element models and the three-dimensional elasticity solution [111]. Fig. respectively. Carrera : The finite element results based on the global displacement theory including the zig-zag function are given by Carrera [68].R.0. 4 0. The six-noded triangular bending element has seven degrees of freedom in each node. .

this example can still prove that present analytical method is valid.R FSDT Reddy [ 40] FSDT [ 40] K&S [ 40] 40 50 tc/ tf Fig.30 HSDT. v23 = 0. It can be found that results TGLT-30 agree well with exact solutions [107].0. The following material properties in the direction of principal material axes [107] are adopted: o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 a/h Fig. K&S [40]: Based on the third order theory considering transverse normal strain. analytical solutions are given by Kant and Swaminathan [40]. Vol.0. Example 4. In addition.  = 1627 kg / m . However. tc and tf are the thickness of core and face sheet. Analytical results from other researchers have been selected for comparison. (18). Distribution of transverse shear stress obtained from constitutive equations through thickness direction of three-layer plate (a/h = 4).4 Free vibration analysis of a five-layer ( 0 / 90 o / core / 0o / 90o ) simply. 2 . analytical solutions are given by Kant and Swaminathan [40].22 .  = 97kg / m 3 .205GPa . 4 0. ( 0o / 90o / core / 0o / 90o . Therefore. the % error of various theories relative to exact solutions is plotted in Fig. v12 = v13 = 0. other global higher-order theories as well as the first order theory overestimate the natural frequencies.0. o o ( 0 o / 90 o / core /0 / 90 .Duplex Stainless Steels Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008. G12 = G13 = G23 = 3.30 HSDT. (19). (20). a/h = 10). 5 0. Table 2 presents comparison of the fundamental frequencies for varying thickness of the core to thickness of the face sheet (tc/tf). Fig. 1 39 0. Here again.895GPa . respectively (a= b). Due to unobvious difference.C&S Car r er a Reddy.C&S 0. Moreover. FSDT [40]: Based on the first order theory [26]. where the subscripts 1. Reddy [40]: Based on Reddy’s third order theory [36]. TG LT. [107]. respectively.0.R FSDT Reddy [ 40] FSDT [ 40] K&S [ 40] Example 4. Table 1 presents comparison of fundamental frequencies of simply-supported soft-core sandwich plates for varying length-to-thickness ratios (a/h).3. 6 indicated that numerical integration along thickness direction is adopted to compute the stiffness matrix and the mass matrix in present work. Firstly. No. 1 0 . a and b are the length and width of laminated plate. 900 800 700 600 Error % .5 Buckling analysis of simply supported soft-core sandwich beams subjected to axial compression.34GPa . 2 0.supported soft-core sandwich plate. 2 and 3 represent the direction of principal material axes. Comparison of fundamental frequencies obtained from various theories for varying length-to-thickness ratios (a/h). 3 0. a bit of difference between the results (Reddy [40] and FSDT [40]) presented by Kant and Swaminathan and the present results (HSDT-R and FSDT) can be seen in Table 1. v = 0. v12 = v13 = v23 = 0 . tc/ tf = 10). the results TGLT-30 are very close to exact solutions [107]. It should be 700 600 Error % 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 TG LT. the % errors of various theories relative to exact solutions [107] are also given in bracket. 4 0 0.49 . The following material properties [112] are use: Isotropic aluminum face sheets: E = 70GPa. G12 = G23 = 6. 2 z h 0. E2 = E3 = 10. The natural frequencies are normalized as  = a 2 (  / E 2 )1f/ 2 / h . Comparison of fundamental frequencies obtained from various theories.45  10 3 GPa On the other hand.Di Sci uva Cho & Ki m ZZTC. (19) presents the clear comparison of the % error of various theories relative to exact solutions. 4 Exact W u & Chen ZZTC. Face sheets: E1 = 131GPa . . h is the thickness of laminates.0. (20). They are Exact [107]: Exact analytical solutions based on the propagator matrix method are given by Rao et al. In addition.89  10 3 GPa . respectively. 1 . G13 = 6. 3 . In this case. 5 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 τ xz Fig.C&S FSDT. analytical solutions are given by Kant and Swaminathan [40]. Core (isotropic): 3 E1 = E2 = E3 = 6. 1.

5636) The number in bracket () is the % errors of various theories relative to exact solutions.4242) 15.3272) 12.8594 (162.5286) 11.8223) 7.9700 (3.3268) 4.0866) 20 2.8978 (40.8779) 15.1959 (289.2565) 3.7953 (48.4585 (109. 1 Wanji and Zhen Table 1.4836) 2.6965) 15.4264) 16.3943) 15.2169) 30 5.2586) HSDT-R 10.1198 (149. a/h =10) tc/tf 4 Exact [107] 1.1288) 15.4242) 13.3885) 11.4967) 15.8492 9.1883) 13.3408 11.8481 (22.8694 (650.5146 (7.2726 (36. tc/ tf =10) a/h 4 Exact [107] 0.6606 (5.3734 (105.1524 (3.4325 (74.4180 (228.1903 (3.1264 (108.3474) 11.2293) 7.1013 (231.8118 10.1845 (64.4975) HSDT-R 3.3654) 15.2560 (52.3544) 13.9466 (2.8546) 70 9.5234) Reddy [40] 10.3868 (73.9545) 8.0719) 15.1959 (289.6694 (8.5955 (147.1435 (47.4404) 16.0866) 20 3. No.9825 (217.5295 (346.0920 (95.9190 (629.2664 (223. .0561 (19.3474) 4.8279) 16.7409 (462.5087) 15.6716) 4.9155 (215.9493) 16.2882 (4.8250) K&S [40] 2.8946 (505.4390 (123.3150 (358.9442) 7.7977 (50.1612 (82.7872) FSDT 14.40 Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008.9680 (3.5295 (51.0312 (864.2263) 16.6569 (2.1991 (52.2419 (65.2036 (353.8724 (39.9972 (657.2672) 14.1943 (29.0339v 12.0610) 11.1005) 15.1814) 11.5993) 10 1.1260) 2.6143) 14.2203 (83.2382 (2.2861) 3.7632 (4.6495 (59.9948 (371.8480 1.5093 (29.9420 (5.2827) 10.9363 TGLT-30 0.0735 (19.8625 (11.2831 (7.2505) 3.2968) 16.1307 2.2505) 60 8.9150) 16.9760 (413.9420 (5.4634 6.8594 (162.2930) 16.3443) 3.5337) 2.3964) 15.1778 (239.4815 (49.8256) 40 2.9655) 16.5204 (124.9723 (33.3763) 3.2657 (43. 1. Vol.4967) 15.4800 (167.8309) 13.0577 (148.2141) 13.3998) 7.9545) 3. Table 2.8936) The number in bracket () is the % errors of various theories relative to exact solutions.7660 (48.6615 (315.0193 (511.0017) 10 1.7355 8.3380 (35.9850) 40 6.6368 10.1090) FSDT [40] 13.1526) 30 2. Comparison of Fundamental Frequencies of Simply-Supported Soft-Core Sandwich Plates with Cross-Ply Face Sheets ( 0o / 90o / Core / 0o / 90o .1582) 14.9584) 15.3885) 4.4791 3.7708) 10.5755) 11.6640 (171.8153) 15.6134 (59.9750) 14. Comparison of Fundamental Frequencies of Simply-Supported Soft-Core Sandwich Plates with Cross-Ply Face Sheets ( 0o / 90o / core / 0o / 90o .0363 (635.2077 (42.2213) 15.0473 (281.8694 (650.0323 (94.6030) FSDT [40] 9.4012) 16.2463) 3.0937 (418.6106 (348.9400 12.6899 (76.1824) 15.5658 2.2957) 16.2864) Reddy [40] 3.4713) 80 10.6384) 50 7.7714) FSDT 9.8687) 13.3497 (62.3287) 15.7873) 100 11.0371 5.1847 (109.2175 (35.4726) 16.9084 TGLT-30 1.0981 (120.4000) K&S [40] 8.6289) 16.1166) 50 2.2462) 15.6558) 15.5626) 13.7777 (8.5557 (311.8959 (470.8480 1.0473 (281.5009) 13.3321 2.5087) 12.1137) 90 11.5344) 16.2026 (882.1119 (42.8266 (14.6821 (96.1036 (124.0643 (4.4690 2.9522 (33.9972 (657.1664 (28.

the maximum % errors of global higher order theories are gradually reduced. In addition. 5.266GPa . Based on current literature survey and numerical comparison. The results for various values of tc/tf and L/h are compared with analytical results obtained from the mixed layerwise theories [112] in Table 3. the following conclusions have been drawn by 1.30 ZZTC HSDT. this paper firstly reviews the recent development of both the displacement theories and the corresponding finite element models. Numerical results show that the maximum percentage errors in GLHT are less than 10 whereas the maximum % errors in HSDT-33 as well as HSDT-R are more than 1000.54 HSDT. 2. In fact. the fifth-order global-local theory (FGLT-50) should be used. By increasing the order number of in-plane and transverse displacement components.Duplex Stainless Steels Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering 2008. No. we can draw a conclusion that the FSDT as well as the third-order theories very much overestimate the critical loads of the soft-core sandwich beams. 3D equilibrium equations have to be adopted. where L is the length of sandwich beam. only both the global-local higher-order theories and the zig-zag theories can a priori satisfy transverse shear stress continuity at interfaces. To obtain accurately transverse shear stresses. respectively. 5 G12 = 0. Reddy’s theory (HSDT-R) as well as first-order theory (FSDT) is still unable to accurately compute transverse shear stresses of both moderately thick and thick laminated plates. Vol. the global displacement theories with very higher order shear deformation (HSDT-98. HSDT-76 and HSDT-54) should be adopted.R FSDT % Error 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 25 50 tc/tf Fig. it is difficult to obtain the transverse shear stresses by integration of the 3D equilibrium equation. (22). Comparison of critical loads of various theories relative to analytical results obtained from mixed layerwise theory for soft-core sandwich beams (L/h = 10). Orthotropic core: The critical buckling stresses are E2 = 1. for bending problems of multilayered plates.76 HSDT. this theory is unable to satisfy interlaminar continuity of transverse shear stresses at interfaces. global higher-order theories as well as first-order theory obviously overestimate the natural frequencies and the critical loads of so special structures. namely D&D(LW) [112]: An analytical results obtained from the mixed layerwise theories for stability of laminated beams is given by Dafedar and Desai [112]. 3. . CURRENT & FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS To efficiently assess displacement-based theories. tc and tf are the thickness of core and face sheet. It is well known that mixed layerwise theory (LW) [112] is accurate enough to predict buckling response.33 HSDT.54 HSDT.76 HSDT. Therefore.30 ZZTC HSDT. Moreover.33 HSDT.98 HSDT. Even if 3D equilibrium equations were adopted. the maximum % error of HSDT-54 is 101. normalized as  =  L2 / E2 f h 3 . 1 41 E1 = 1  10 8 GPa . However. Comparison of critical loads of various theories relative to analytical results obtained from mixed layerwise theory for soft-core sandwich beams (L/h = 2). the part results in Table 3 are plotted in Figs.1 whereas the maximum % error of HSDT-98 is only 34. the global-local theory (TGLT-30) proposed by Li and Liu discarding transverse normal deformation will lose the capability to accurately predict in-plane and transverse shear stresses. 1200 1000 % Error 800 600 400 200 0 0 25 TG LT. 5.09GPa . but neglecting the continuity condition of transverse normal stresses at interfaces. h is the thickness of laminates. the thirdorder global-local theory (TGLT-30) proposed by Li and Liu has capability to predict satisfactory transverse shear stresses directly from constitutive equations without any postprocessing methods.98 HSDT. if global higher order theory is considered to predict the critical loads of softcore sandwich beams. so the percentage errors of various theories relative to the results of mixed layerwise theory have been given in bracket of Table 3. (21). For example. However. (21 and 22).R FSDT 50 tc/tf Fig. authors propose to use TGLT-32. For all two-dimensional displacement-based theories mentioned herein. In addition. several numerical examples are chosen to verify the accuracy and efficiency of displacement theories discussed. Subsequently.72. the displacement-based theories satisfying simultaneously the continuity of the transverse shear stresses as well as trans- 4000 3500 3000 TG LT. Therefore. the maximum % error of FSDT is even close to 4000. 6. To clearly compare the % error of various theories. the improved global displacement theory (IGDT-M) proposed by Murakami can automatically satisfy the zig-zag shaped variation of in-plane displacement through thickness direction. As the layer number of laminates is less than six. For the thick laminated plates under uniform temperature. To accurately predict the thermal response of laminated plates under uniform temperature. the global-local theory is able to predict accurately the dynamic and the buckling response of soft-core sandwich structures. v12 = 1  10 . HSDT-98 should be at least employed. an analytical solution obtained from the mixed layerwise theory is chosen for comparison. The zig-zag theories (ZZTC) satisfying interlaminar continuity of transverse shear stresses at interfaces is still unable to accurately compute transverse shear stresses directly from constitutive equations. 4. Without any formula derivation. 1. To obtain satisfactory transverse shear stresses. Due to inaccurate in-plane stresses. However.

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