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BY: Er. Amit Mahajan

ATM ± definition

A transfer mode in which information is organized into cells; it is asynchronous in the sense that the recurrence of cells containing information from an individual user is not necessarily periodic".


High-speed transfer technology for voice, video, and data over public networks.


As the speed and number of local area networks (LANs) continue their relentless growth, increasing demand is place on wide area packet-switching networks to support the tremendous throughput generated by these LANs. X.25 was designed to support direct connection of terminals and computers over long distances. X.25 packets may be of varying length,whereas ATM packets are of fixed size. X.25, with its substantial overhead, is being recognized as an inadequate tool for wide area networking.




especially voice and video. . The need to support mixed-media traffic.ATM VS FRAME RELAY y y y ATM is normally utilized for high bandwidths of 34 Mbps and upwards. There are two main drivers that caused businesses migrate from frame relay service to ATM : 1. 2. called cells. ATM transmits only fixed-size frames. At speeds of 2 Mbps and below. not variable-sized frames as frame relay do. Frame Relay is more bandwidth efficient than ATM. The need for greater capacity than frame relay can handle.

Frame relay was developed as part of the work of ISDN ATM was developed as part of the work on broadband ISDN y y y .25. and can support data rates several orders of magnitude greater than frame relay.y Both frame relay and ATM take advantage of the reliability and fidelity of modern digital facilities to provide faster packet-switching than X. ATM is even more streamlined than frame relay in its functionality.

ATM VS SONET y y y y y y y The industry offers two solutions for achieving a large integrated network: SONET/SDH and ATM . If the ATM protocol is used. SONET/SDH is a physical transport medium that occupies the two bottom layers of OSI model. while ATM is a transmission protocol. ATM is a high-speed packet switching technique suitable for LAN. It handles transmissions from 51 Mbps to 10 Gbps. wide-area network and broadband ISDN. The SONET is a globally accepted. non-proprietary standard for broadband transmission through fiber-optic cables. a transport medium is still needed to carry traffic over the network . SONET is a physical structure.

ARCHITECTURE:ATM Devices y y An ATM network is made up of an ATM switch and ATM endpoints. and video coder-decoders (CODECs). y y ATM Network Comprises ATM Switches and Endpoints . routers. It then reads and updates the cell header information and quickly switches the cell to an output interface toward its destination. An ATM endpoint contains an ATM network interface adapter. ATM switch accepts the incoming cell from an ATM endpoint or another ATM switch. Examples of ATM endpoints are workstations. LAN switches.

called the Virtual Path Identifier VPI. called the Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI).cable.ATM virtual connections y y y A Transmission path (TP) is the physical connection (wire.and so on) between an end point and a switch or between two switches A Virtual Path (VP) transports ATM cells belonging to virtual channels which share a common identifier. Connects two switches. A Virtual Channel (VC) provides the transport of ATM cells which have the same unique identifier.satellite. ATM virtual connections .

which provide cell transport capabilities ranging from a T1 rate of 1. coaxial cable. ‡ ‡ ‡ . and fiber-optic cable. Types of physical media specified for ATM include shielded and unshielded twisted-pair. The original design of ATM was based on SONET because high data rate of SONET¶s carrier . the boundaries of cells can be clearly defined . SONET specifies the use of pointer to define the beginning of a payload.544Mbps to a SONET range of 622Mbps.ATM protocol reference model The Physical Layer ‡ This layer describes the physical transmission of information through an ATM network.

extracting the five-byte header from each cell. the ATM layer performs a reverse operation. Thus.The ATM Layer ‡ ‡ The ATM layer represents the physical interface between the ATM Adaptation layer (AAL) and the Physical layer. and in the opposite direction from the Physical layer to the AAL for use in an endpoint. . the ATM layer is responsible for relaying cells from the AAL to the Physical layer for transmission. the ATM layer is responsible for generating the five-byte cell header for each cell. When transporting cells to the Physical layer. When receiving cells from the Physical layer.

The UNI header is used for communication between ATM endpoints and ATM switches in private ATM networks. An ATM cell header can be one of two formats: UNI or NNI. y . Each cell consists of 53 octets. or bytes.ATM cell header format y y ATM transfer information in fixed-size units called cells. The first 5 bytes contain cellheader information. and the remaining 48 contain the payload (user information). The NNI header is used for communication between ATM switches.

Cell Loss Priority (CLP)²Indicates whether the cell should be discarded if it encounters extreme congestion as it moves through the network.ATM Cell Header Fields y Generic Flow Control (GFC)²The 4-bit GFC field provides flow control at the UNI level. Payload Type (PT)²Indicates in the first bit whether the cell contains user data or control data. the cell should be discarded in preference to cells with the CLP bit equal to 0. and the third bit indicates whether the cell is the last in a series of cells that represent a single AAL5 frame (1 = last cell for the frame). it is set to 1. 1 = congestion). y y y y y . If the CLP bit equals 1.The ITU-T has determined that this level of flow control is not necessary at the NNI. Header Error Control (HEC)²Calculates checksum only on the first 4 bytes of the header. If it contains control data. the bit is set to 0. HEC can correct a single bit error in these bytes. If the cell contains user data. thereby preserving the cell rather than discarding it. Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI)²VCI is 16-bit field in both.In conjunction with the VCI. identifies the next destination of a cell as it passes through a series of ATM switches on the way to its destination. The second bit indicates congestion (0 = no congestion. Virtual Path Identifier (VPI)²The VPI is an 8-bit field in a UNI cell & a 12-bit field in an NNI cell.

The ATM Adaptation Layer y Was developed to enable two ATM concepts. AAL maps the data stream originated by the higher-layer protocol into the 48-byte payload of ATM cells. the AAL receives the payload of ATM cells in 48byte increments from the ATM layer and maps those increments into the format recognized by the higher-layer protocol y y y . In the reverse direction. with the header placement being assigned by the ATM layer. This layer is responsible for providing an interface between higher-layer protocols and the ATM layer.

Class D services are the so called connectionless datagrams. Class C services are those carrying data messages on established connections. Examples include compressed video. as Class B. but instead of being locked to a regular data rate they send 'peaks' of data at some times. Examples include many traditional local-area networks such as Ethernet. wide area networks and the new switched multimegabit y y y Class A B C D Timing Relationship Yes Yes No No Bit Rate Constant Variable Variable Variable Type of Connection Connection-oriented Connection-oriented Connection-oriented Connectionless The ATM Application Classes .y Class A services are data streams with a constant bit rate. running over established connections. Class B services are similar. Examples include X. These are inherently variable bit-rate.25 and Frame Relay. where a packet of data is sent into the network and contains its own destination address. and little or none at others.

in effect providing a forward error detection and correction capability. limiting the actual payload to 47 bytes per AAL1-generated cell. y .y In AAL1 cell payload the Sequence Number Protection (SNP) field protects the Sequence Number (SN) field from the effect of bit errors occurring during transmission. y AAL1 is designated for transporting constant bit rate (CBR) data. such as real-time voice and video traffic. First byte in the normal 48-byte cell payload is used for cell sequencing and protection of the sequence number.

y y y .25. such as Frame Relay. In comparison.y y The AAL2 was intended to support a VBR . AAL3/4 uses four additional bytes beyond the cell or fax .ex mobile telephony. X. The use of those bytes makes 44 bytes in the cell available for transporting the actual payload. providing a minimum 10% enhanced throughput in comparison to AAL3/4. But now used for low-bit-rate traffic & short frame traffic such as audio. AAL5 uses all 48 bytes beyond the cell header to transport the payload. AAL3 is designed to transport delay-insensitive user data. or IP traffic.

Data transfer can then begin.THE ATM CONNECTIONCONNECTION-ESTABLISHMENT PROCESS y y ATM signalling uses the one-pass method of connection setup that is used in all modern telecommunication networks. which is forwarded to the first ATM switch (ingress switch) in the network. First. which sends a connect acknowledge message back to the destination to acknowledge the connection. The signaling request is propagated across the network. The exit switch (called the egress switch) that is attached to the destination end system receives the setup message. and the ATM end system sends a connect message if the connection is accepted. . a source end system sends a setup message. such as the telephone network. This switch sends a call proceeding message and invokes an ATM routing protocol. The egress switch forwards the setup message to the end system across its UNI. The connect message traverses back through the network along the same path to the source end system.

5 Token Ring LAN.3 Ethernet or an 802.ATM LAN EMULATION LAN Emulation (LANE) is a standard defined by the ATM Forum that gives to stations attached via ATM the same capabilities that they normally obtain from legacy LANs. . ‡The LANE protocols make an ATM network look and behave like an Ethernet or Token Ring ‡LANE requires no modifications to higher-layer protocols to enable their operation over an ATM network. The LANE protocol defines mechanisms for emulating either an IEEE 802.

LEC sends a special frame to the LES. y y . address resolution.When a station receives a frame to be sent to another station using a physical address . LES²The LES provides a central control point for LECs to forward registration and control information.It is an entity in an end system that performs data forwarding.LANE Components y LAN Emulation client (LEC). The server creates a virtual circuit between the source & the destination station. An ATM end system that connects to multiple ELANs has one LEC per ELAN.The source station can now use this virtual circuit(& the corresponding identifier) to send the frame or frames to the destination. and registration of MAC addresses with the LAN Emulation Server (LES).

The server can also deliver a unicast frame by sending the frame to every station.the frame first goes to the bus. The LECS maintains a database of LECs and the ELANs to which they belong.It has well known ATM address that is known to every client in the system.The server creates copies of the received frame & sends a copy to a group of stations or to all stations.If a station needs to send a frame to a group of stations or to every station.In this case the destination address is unknown. y y y .this server has permanent virtual connnection to every station.y Broadcast and Unknown Server (BUS)²Multicasting & Broadcasting require the use of another server called the broadcast/unknown server(BUS). This server is always waiting to receive the initial contact.This is sometimes more efficient then getting the connection identifier from the LES LAN Emulation Configuration Server (LECS)²This is used for the initial connection between the client & LANE.simulating a multicasting or broadcasting process.

ATM QUALITY OF SERVICE Quality-of-service (QoS) that guarantees traffic contract. The switch can measure the actual traffic flow and compare it against the agreed-upon traffic envelope. limit peak data rate. ATM switches can use traffic policing to enforce the contract. it can set the cell-loss priority (CLP) bit of the offending cells. user related attributes. When an ATM end system connects to an ATM network. If the switch finds that traffic is outside of the agreed-upon parameters. Setting the CLP bit makes the cell discard eligible. y Traffic contract specifies an envelope that describes the intended data flow. and smooth jitters so that traffic will fit within the promised envelope.& network-related attributes. and traffic policing is based on the service class . Traffic shaping is the use of queues to constrain data bursts. based on QoS parameters. which means that any switch handling the cell is allowed to drop the cell during periods of congestion for the multimedia applications and provide overall optimization of network resources y y . traffic shaping. it enters a contract with the network.

it is desirable for switches to minimize delay and loss as much as possible. Depending upon the state of congestion in the network. CBR applications are quite sensitive to cell-delay variation. the source is required to control its rate. unspecified bit rate (UBR) This class is a best effort delivery service that does not guarantee anything and is widely used today for TCP/IP. Examples of applications that can use CBR are telephone traffic . this minimum rate can be exceeded. Although the standard does not require the cell transfer delay and cell-loss ratio to be guaranteed or minimized. available bit rate (ABR) This class of ATM services provides rate-based flow control and is aimed at data traffic such as file transfer and e-mail.If more network capacity is available. This class allows users to send traffic at a rate that varies with time depending on the availability of user information.ABR is particularly suitable for applications that are bursty. The users are allowed to declare a minimum cell rate.Service Class Quality of Service Parameter It is designed for customers who need real time audio or video services. The cell rate is constant with time. Multimedia e-mail is an example of VBR±NRT. constant bit rate (CBR) variable bit rate±non-real time (VBR±NRT) variable bit rate±real time (VBR±RT) This class is similar to VBR±NRT but is designed for applications that are sensitive to cell-delay variation. videoconferencing. It is designed for those users who need real time services & use compression techniques to create a variable bit rate.It is designed for those users who do not need real time services but use compression techniques to create a variable bit rate. and television. . Examples for real-time VBR is interactive compressed video.

The user¶s cell rate can sometimes reach this peak. the network must guarantee that the sender can send atleast long as the SCR is maintained. MCR : The minimum cell rate defines the minimum cell rate acceptable to the sender.User related attributes y SCR : The Sustained cell rate is the average cell rate over a long time interval.000. PCR : The peak cell rate defines the sender¶s maximum cell rate.if the MCR is 50.if the CVDT is 5 ns .000 cells per second. y y y .The actual cell rate may be lower or higher than this value. but the average should be equal to or less than the SCR.For example.this means that the difference between the minimum & the maximum delays in delivering the cells should not exceed 5 ns.For example. CVDT : The cell variation delay tolerance is a measure of the variation in cell transmission times.

The maximum CTD & the minimum CTD also considered attributes. if the sender sends 100 cells & one of them is lost.For example.Network related attributes The network related attributes are those that define characteristics of the network. CER : The cell error ratio defines the fraction of cells delivered in error.The following are some network related attributes: y CLR : The cell loss ratio defines the fraction of cells lost(or delivered so late that they are considered lost) during transmission. CDV : The cell delay variation is the difference between CTD maximum & the CTD minimum.the CLR is CLR = 1/100 = 10-2 y CTD : The cell transfer delay is the average time needed for a cell to travel from source to destination. y y .

& then reassembled into IP packets at the receiving end. y Each entry/exit point is a router. y .IP over ATM When IP works with ATM . An ATM backbone can span an entire continent and may have tens or even hundreds of ATM switches. the IP packets are segmented into fixed length cells of ATM. transmitted through the ATM network. y Most ATM backbones have a permanent virtual channel (VC) between each pair of entry/exit points.

and the router will have an ATM address. The router interface will have an IP address. n(n .For n entry points. y . Examines the destination address of the datagram. the backbone appears as a single logical link²ATM interconnects these four routers just as Ethernet can be used to connect four routers. the physical address of the next-hop router must be determined. y Consider now an IP datagram that is to be moved across the ATM backbone To four IP routers.´ y The entry router does the following: 1. 2. ATM) the datagram along with the ATM address of the exit router. Indexes its routing table and determines the IP address of the exit router 3. Each router interface that connects to the ATM network will have two addresses.1) permanent VCs are needed to directly connect n entry/exit points. y Let us refer to the router at which the datagram enters the ATM network as the ³entry router´ and the router at which the datagram leaves the network as the ³exit router. To move the datagram to the next router. as usual. IP in the entry router then passes down to the link layer (that is. which is essentially a LAN address. 4.

Recall that IP in the entry router passes the datagram down to ATM along with the ATM address of the exit router. ATM in the entry router indexes an ATM table to determine the VCI for the VC that leads to the ATM destination address. All of the cells except for the last cell have the third bit of the PT field set to 0. ATM uses AAL5 to provide a more efficient way to segment and reassemble a datagram. . and reassemble the cells into the original datagram at the receiving side of the VC (that is. Each chunk is placed in the payload field of an ATM cell.y y y y y y ATM must now move the datagram to the ATM destination address. Segment the datagram into cells at the sending side of the VC (that is. The AAL_indicate bit is used to reassemble IP datagrams from ATM cells. This task has two subtasks: Determine the VCI for the VC that leads to the ATM destination address. AAL5 then creates ATM cells out of the IP datagram: The datagram is encapsulated in a CPCS-PDU using the format in fig. The CPCS-PDU is chopped up into 48-byte chunks. at the entry router). at the exit router).

the ATM cell is processed by the ATM physical and ATM layers. At each switch the VCI is typically translated and the HEC is recalculated. they are directed to an AAL buffer that has been put aside for the particular VC. AAL5 then passes the cells to the ATM layer. For each cell. The ATM network then moves each cell across the network to the ATM destination address. The TC sublayer then inserts the bits of the cells into the PMD sublayer. the TC sublayer calculates the HEC and inserts it in the HEC field.y The last cell has the bit set to 1. Finally. The CPCSPDU is reconstructed using the AAL_indicate bit to determine which cell is the last cell of the CPCS-PDU. but not by the AAL layer. ATM sets the VCI and CLP fields and passes each cell to the TC sublayer. When the cells arrive at the ATM destination address. At each ATM switch between the ATM source and the ATM destination. the IP datagram is extracted out of the CPCSPDU and is passed up the protocol stack to the IP layer y y .

such as TDM. ATM is a cell-switching and multiplexing technology that combines the benefits of circuit switching (guaranteed capacity and constant transmission delay) with those of packet switching (flexibility and efficiency ). y y y y y . ATM is more efficient than synchronous technologies. Fixed-length cells enables low-cost hardware to be developed to perform required cell switching based on the contents of the cell header. Simplified Network Management. without requiring more complex and costly software Fixed-size cells allow ATM to support quantifiable QoS Because of its asynchronous nature.ATM Advantages: y Provides scalable bandwidth from a few megabits per second (Mbps) to many gigabits per second (Gbps).

but runs into delay problems with voice transmissions. .ATM disadvantages y y y y Overhead of cell header (5 bytes per cell) Complex mechanisms for achieveing QoS Congestion may cause cell losses ATM handles data traffic smoothly.

especially for medium-speed. It also provides the high amounts of bandwidth that businesses are increasingly demanding for data and other applications. the combination of the two will drastically alter future corporate LAN design y y y y y y . Combining the ATM & SONET offers scalability and flexibility. While Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) technologies are still emerging technologies. The decision of when to use ATM and when to use frame relay largely depends on the applications businesses want to run over their enterprise networks. Frame relay. It provides scalable bandwidth from a few megabits per second (Mbps) to many gigabits per second (Gbps). widearea network and broadband ISDN (integrated services digital network) transmissions. data only applications. ATM provides no retransmissions on a link-by-link basis. continues to be a highly economical and reliable choice. on the other hand. ATM is ideally suited for converged voice.CONCLUSION y ATM is a high-speed packet switching technique suitable for LAN. the amount of bandwidth they need and their performance and video networks because it assures quality of service.

com for ATM standards document-28/3/09 Ginsburg. Solutions for Broadband ISDN (Prentice-Hall.npac.24/4/09 Behrouz A Forouzan. CCIE Professional Development: Cisco LAN Cisco Press.S. and Kevin Hamilton.ISDN & Broadband ISDN with frame relay & ATM(PrenticeHall.html15/3/09 CRC Press. 1993) -19/2/09 William David.atmforum. Boston: AddisonWesley Publishing Co. www. 1999.pdf-5/3/09 edition. Asynchronous Transfer Mode. Neelakanta A Textbook on ATM Telecommunications.REFERENCES y Martin De Prycker. 2000 ISBN 0-8493-1805-X. Principles and www.Data communications & networking y y y y y y y y y y y . Kennedy. ATM: Solutions for Enterprise Internetworking. 1996-3/4/09 Clark.