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LmIGH UNIVERSITY  AMERICAN INSTITU'I!Bl OF STEEL CONSTBDCTlON
I·'
l~
Sum mer C0 u r s e Lecture Notes
PLASTIC
DESIGN
IN by
STRUCTURAL
STEEL
Lynn S. Beedle, Bruno Th~rlimann and Robert L. Ketter
(NOT FOR PUBLICATION)
fRlTl ENG\NEER\NG lbABORATORY LIBRARY
September, 1955 Fri tz Engineering Laboratory Department of Civil Engineering Lehigh University :Bethlehem, Pennsylvania Fri tz Laboratory :Report No •. 205.32
Copyright 1955 by Lynn S. Beedle Bruno Thurlimann Robert L. Ketter Lehigh University Bethlehem,' Pennsylvania
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205.32
TAB L E
Introduction
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CON TEN T S
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Page 0.1 1.1 2.1
1. Fundamental Concept
2. Flexure of Beams . .
3. Upper and
Low~r Bou~d
Theorems 4.1
4. Equilibrium Method of Analysis
5., Mechanisrp. Method of Analysis . . . . . • . . . • . . •
5.1
6. Application of Mechanism Method
6.1
7. Application of Mechanism Method
8. Calculation 0f Deflections 9. Modifications to Simple Plastic Theory. . . . • . . .
10. Connections, Design Details
7.1
8.1 9.1
10.1,
11. Problem of Structural ,Safety 12. Rules of Des'lgn I .
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11.1 12.1
• 0 • • • • • •
13. Analysis and Design Examples 14. Analysis and Design Examples
Nomencla ture .
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13.1
14.1
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15.1
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205·32
0.1
I N T ROD U C T ION During the past twenty to twentyfive years a considerabl~
amount of research has been conducted on the ultimate The'se studies have reve,aled
strength of ste,el structures.
possibilities for the use of maximum (plastic) strength as a basis for structural design. new, it is size
"
While the subject is by no means
tha~
on~y
in recent years
sufficient tests of large
str~otural
members and frames have been performed and
adequate analytical techniques developed to make the method of practical use. Many investigators have contributed prominently to the application of plastic analysis to structural design. Some of the more recent advancements are due to the efforts of
J. F. Baker, J. W. Roderick, M. R. Horne, and B. G. Near at
Cambridge University, England; and W. Prager, P. S. Symonds,
and D. C. Drucker at Brown University in this country. Since 1946 a program of research has been underway at Lehigh University under the sponsorship of the American Institute of Steel Construqtion, the American Iron and Steel
~nst1tute,
i
the Welding Research Council and the Navy Department
(Office of Naval Research, Bureau of Ships, Bureau of Yards and Docks). This program has included studies of the component
parts of rigid frames, an examination of possible modifications to the "simple plastic theory I!, and development of practical design procedures the program being supplemented where • necessary by suitable tests using asdelivered rolled structural shapes.
205·32
0.2
Vih2reas
tlv~
traditional basis of design for construc
tion purposes has been the lI e l as tic limit ll load, it has long been known that rigidly connected members possess a much greater loadcarrying capacity. The capacity of structural steel to
deform. plastically allows an indeterminate structure to draw upon the reserve strength of its less heavily stressed portions. The application of plastic design is justified, first of all, since it offers a satisfactory explanation of the observed ultimate strength of steel structures. By plastic
analysis the engineer is able to determine the true loadcarrying capacity of the structure. On the other hand, by
conventional elastic methods the true factor of safety against ultimate strength can and does vary significantly from one structure to another. In the second place, plastic design has an appeal on the basis of its simplicity. Most of the timeconsuming
analysis of equations necessary for an elastic solution is eliminated. Further, lIimperfections ll that seriously affect
elastic limit strength of a structure (such as spreading of supports, sinking Of supports, differences in flexibility of connections, residual stresses) have little or no effect upon the maximum plastic strength. Finally, these techniques promise to produce substantial savings through the more economic and efficient use of steel and the savings in design office time.
etc. The authors wish to express their sincere appreciation for the helpfulness and cooperation of all members of the Fritz Laboratory staff in the preparation of these lecture. As a matter of fact. this is usually not the case.) may actually constitute the basis for design. Therefore it can be expected that plastic design will find considerable application. These lectures are supplemented by a series of demonstration tests of actual structures to illustrate the principles. industrial frames.criteria other than maximum plastic strength (such as fatigue. particularly in continuous beams. however. In ordinary building construction.205·32 Plastic desi~n will not replace all other design procedures. * * * * * * * In the following fourteen lectures the fundamental concepts of plastic analysis are presented. and also in tier buildings. . At the end of each lecture are as are appropriate to the topic. since in some instances . instability. it has been reported that upwards of 175 industrial frames have been designed in England by the plastic method .also a school building and a fivestory office building. limiting deflection. notes. giv~n such references A list of general references is also included at the end of the notes. Specific plastic design techniques are described together with examples to illustrate their application.
Director of Engineering and Research. R. S. D:Lrector of Fritz Engineering Laboratory. Among these were George C. I . E. J. A. W. Errera (Engineer of Tests). Y.\~~nt and.c'. Huber. Estes. B.. R. Driscoll (who had immediate charge of the demonstrations).32 I'i..205. W. C... FUjita. . Chapman took charge of individual tests. G. Final~y. M. the authors wish to thank the American Institute of Steel Construction for making possible the offering of this summer course and to acknowledge the helpful assistance of Professor W.4 Geor'ge Heimberger prepared the drawings. The review of the manuscript by Mr... J..... Miss Patricia Torres typed the manuscript and Miss Lucille Fox and Mrs. J.. Research Engineer.. The demonstrations which supplement these notes were prepared by members of the staff at Fritz Laboratory. 0. of the American Institute of Steel Construction was most helpful and is gratefully acknowledged. Walther reproduced and assembled the notes.. R. and Mr. Haaijer. Harpel (Foreman) and his staff.. White.. Taylor (Instrumentation). Head of the Civil Engineering Departl·. Kenneth R. Eney. T. Higgins.
. from elastic range to yield level. 1. 4. The Figure is selfexplanatory./es of different types of steels which have structural applications: 1.st'ra.205·32 Lecture No'. Carbon (A7) r"layari .e. Ultimate strength of several types of structures computed. Historical notes given on development of plastic design. ~illCHANICAL fROrERTIES OF STEEL CONVENTIONAL ELASTIC DESIGN CARRYING CAPACITY OF STRUCTURES HISTORICAL NOTES 3.1 The ductility of steel (basis for plastic analysis) is illustrated. s t'res s .1 sho\ilS typical tens"iJ. 2.R otiscoloy Tiva Silicon Tl Note sudden change Extension bet't'Jeen 2. .1 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STEELS Fig. OUTLINE: 1. 1. 1 FUN DAM E N TAL SCOPE: CON C E P T S 1. Conventional (elastic) design described and examples given to show that even these procedures are often based on implicit assumption of plastic action under overstress. 6.. 3. 5. 4.in~'cu:c.
est = 7tlJ IS common J . :.....1(. 92. > I<OOx 10..si) E/1'10. I' I\) .si) Cmax ~lGO){IO3 QA :(03 c..3 f2A 60 == 4G> % Tiva (<J"Ult.. 20 .3 ~J.Fi9' 1. :: 50..S K.) Emo)(.5 k.1\) 1'0 • V1 w I\) I' • 100 ~ Silicon (crult.5 k..\ TYPICAL (JE CUI2VES '\ l'Jote = A yieid level.5 very pronounced. \0 40 20  QA :(00°10 Corbon (OUIt: :: 57..~ o 4 11. > 1(00)(.S'.10...
2 CONVENTIONAL ELASTIC DESIGN Example r: Elastic Analysis: tt_'Z/~~L 8 Ml = 8I PL M 2 ~J~ l:::p~__::"'" Y3 L ~ (1. It may be mentioned that experimental evidence is almost exclusively collected for structural carbon steel. 1.. ·l. other types of steels. ductility up to the point at which strain hardening commences (E = Est).205. as shown in Fig. elastic design does not make a Itconsciousll use of this remarkable property. But.l should lead essentially to the same result. Remarkable is the Ordinary (1.1) ductility (varies from 16% to 26%) at fracture..32 1. llPlastic Design lt proposes to make use of the.1) = _2 PL 27 Allowable (working) Stress Maximum Stress ~ Allowable Load: Load Producing Yielding: .3 yielding and strain hardening varies from about 6 to 16 times elastic strain at yielding.
the most stressed fiber has just reached the yield stress cry. 1. Connections: Some examples: /' AS5uFr:med forces in rivets (eCJuol) Actual force in rl vels The same 'is true for welded connections.) is increased to F x Pw. Basis of design is not maximum stress but the strength of connection as a wholel . mean? If the applied allowable load Pw' acting on the idealized structure (assumed dimensions. simplified stress distribution.2) Factor of Safety: F = 1.205·32 (1. material with minimum prescribed yield point etc. What is know about the actual carrying capacity? Before answering this question let us examine whether or not elastic design actually adheres to the principle that no yielding should ever occur.4 Yield Stress Allowable Stress F~ What does ordinary factor of safety.
205.:> l Loading stresses Loading + Residual Stress * ( f = shape factor. .. ._ '" ~ Residual Stresses ... co::: .. Cambering. ...2 Y 2. Cold Bending * . . Residual Stresses: (Cooling residuals) Possibility: crr = from 1/3 to ~/3 cry Bending produces yielding of rlange tips at loads less than working load 1 .32 (1.r .. . Welded specimens show crr up to 80% of yield stress.2... See Lecture No. . 3. Straightening.
cated.~)lVe .2) 4.205.. However~ no real concern is necessary. "Erection" Stresses: 1. 5~t( ~ vok. Future lectures will show that elastic design constitutes a "possible . could be cited.6 Forcingin of ' members during ereqtion causes stresses not: accounted for in analysis.32 (1. Pn.7 3. 4. Maximum stresses are very often larger than crw ' AyrUj Design of connections is actually based on failure load~ not on elastic concept. Why not take the next step~ and introduce ductility ·in main member design in a "conscious" manner? These examples should be sufficient to cause reader some concern about adequacy of present elastic methods. Many more cases~ 100 long secondary as stress / concentrations~ stresses etc. 2. As justification~ ductility of material is advo . Conclusions: 1..
Such is 1.7 equilibrium solution"which solution is always less than" (or at most eq~l to) the true ultimate load.'.VlINATE:iSlJffiUCTlJRES . (See Lecture No..1. Neglect purposely any possibility of instability . l..the actual carrying capacity of a structure is best described by considering the ductility of the material.32 (1. {This is called a 1Ilower bound 11 of the ultimate "loa'Si . . .205. the basis for the fOllov'ling' section.4) (1..3 CARRYING CAPACITY OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE AND STAT:rcALLY INDETERJ.rbrittle fracture. In the meanwhile it should now 'be evident that .9) Simple schematic examples: 1.2) . Tension Bar: (Determinate System) Stress: L A (J = P A PL EA  (1.5) Elongation ~~ P Unrestricted Plastic rlow I : I 5frain(e) Elostic Range .
p . 3Bar Truss: (Indeterminate System) 1. force of Acry .6) i2 = 6. Ll = P (1.10) = 2 +'V2 Acry 2 b) ElasticPlastic Solution: Like statically deterniiilate . L2 P 2 +12 T2 Py = T2 2P 2 +"(2 = = 2P 2 + 1/2 (1.9) 1.707 Acry (1.32 (1.3) 2..8 Areas: Al = A2 = A3 Lengths': Ll' = L3 = =A 'f2L2 = 12L a) Elastic Solution: Equilibrium: Compatibility: Solving: Tl = 2Tl cos 45 0 + T2 6.system but with constant .205.8) ? Elastic Limit"': Yield Load: Acry = (1.
E.205·32 1·9 (1.12) Deflection at Ultimate Load':' Ultimate Load (1.4l4AOy (1.1 0 Yield Deflection: (6L 2)y = 2cry L E (1.11) Compatibility condition dropped!! d) Loaddeflection Curve: t 6'2 I I'~r"n: Unrestricfed plastic Flow .13) = Load at which unrestricted plastic flow sets in! Note.lostiC l20nge .3) c) Ultimate Load: Forces: Equilibrium: Note: Pu = V2 Acry + Acry = (1 + '(2)Acry =2.that deflection at ultimate def~ection load is same as yield of . ! ~ rr~+: I ! Contained p/asfio Flow t~~~?~~~ . .
yielding penetrates toward corresponding.internal moment is called the "pl as tic moment".205. where ~stiC Pu.14) . Simple Beam in Bending: 1. Rectangular.10 t LIz.3) 3. Mmax crmax ~f = PL LiZ f c 4 PL = 4s Py = 4 S cry L a) Yield Load: (1.15) . L M =  bh2 cry = zcry Modulus b) Ultimate Load: = 4 z cry (1.~ h n At Pg :4f Pu Cross Section Stress Distribution With further load increase. and for the rectangular section is defined by the equation.32 (1.
2) Section ~ will pickup . Lecture No.32 1. * The term "pl as tification"!· means attainment of yield stress on the entire crosssection.Indeterminate Beam: Rectangular Cross section Elastic Analysis: a) Yield Load~ See Eq.11 (103) c) Ratio: "Plastification 11 *of cross section resulted in an increase in load of 50%. ... )...... (1..205. (1........ . .. ~ .2) If P is increased further~ section (Se~ (g) starts to yield and simultaneously will rotate at a much faster rate than previously. Note that this ratio depends only on crosssectional dimensionSl 4.2) (1.1) Eq... Statically ..
16) c) Ratio: Pu = 25 = 2 08 Py 12 .). . above Figure: 2Pu L = (1 + ~) M p 9 3 p = 15 bh 2 cr P = 15 M u 2L 8 L y (1.3) more moment until a final state is reached with plastic moments at Sections 1 and 2 (M l = M 2 = M p )*':.moment convent:i:on:~:}.. Z 3 Mp Mz=Mp Z 9 Pl/L b) Ultimate Load: The corresponding ultimate load Pu can directly be obtained from the . PlastificatioR of determinate cases) 2.12 (1. Redistribution of Moments (possible only in indeterminate cases) st~tically cross~section (as in statically * See "Nomenclature" for .205·32 1. This increase is due to two effects: 1.
. ElasticPlastic Analysis General Interest.: 1936 1941 Girkmann . 1926 Gr~ning ~ Difficulties with general loading (Shakedown problem).13 It may be of interest to indicate how "Plastic Design" developed to its present state.Discusses Portal Frames.3) In the following lectures general methods for determining this ultimate loadcarrying capacity will be given.Design procedures utilizing ultimate load capacity.. Baker and Van den Broek Co1le~gues. Prof..4 HISTORICAL NOTES 1914 Kazinczy . Cambridge University.Congress. Berl~n. Bleich H. 1928 MaierLiebnitz . 1931 1932 1936. 1.Tests on indeterminate beams. :' "Shakedown" Problem. 1. IABSE .1. concept of "yield'. 1917 U" " .Tests.  n I Kist .. .205·32 (1.. hinge 1.
Prof.205.Theory of inelastic bending. Prager and Colleagues. Investigations. Lehigh University.32 1.4) 1946 1946 Brown University. leading to design applications.14 (1. 1948 Hrennikoff . .
e.'plane" sectior'. Since their effect on ordinary engineering structures is usu~lly small.32 Lecture No. 4. 5. they are treated later as modifi cations to Simple Plastic Theory (Lecture No.205. 2.1 ASSUMPTIONS AND CONDITIONS 1. the resulting stressdistributions are described. 3. Strains proportional to distance from neutral axis ('. OUTLINE: 1. . ASSUMPTIONS AND CONDITIONS BENDING OF RECTANGULAR BEAM BENDING OF WF BEAM PLASTIC HINGE CONCEPT REDISTRIBurION OF MOMENT' SHEAR AND DIRECT STRESSES 2. Since structural members and frames are usually acted upon by shear and direct forces (in addition to bending moments)..s).9).2 FLEXURE SCOPE: 2.1 o F B E A M S Objective is to determine how a beam deforms beyond elastic limit under the action of bending moments. what is MomentCurvature (M¢) relationship? It is shown how procedures of plastic analysis are based on the formation of plastic hinges and subsequent redistribution of moment. 6. i.
1IfJ.tetmion.) IFIg 'l. 2.J. : r:' 2 : ZO \.~r ..in.__11...I._C_f2_0n_9_le_.::"o::":x 101.l1....5T12AI N ~.:compresai!ron:::aFe::lthe same as:these ..:===:'::.. I I t I/) : ~ 19· .........)~ l§.L..+.... :A:'5=""'O""'..::.0 b : 30 r.I_~ I L_.:E../in. * 20 .· 205'~32 2.:::::~ ''" rn 4...' DIAGRAM (Al STEEL) I tf) : 10 10 I I L..c_ .. Behavior of fibres in bending is the same as in tension.. iJ cr = E€ cr = cry Propert1~s (0 <: € (€y < €y) € <00) < (2.~:= ~~ : I I ~Actuo' Assumed ~€5t o LJo. Idealized stressstrain relationship: ..1) ....}=~ 2~x'O2 5tra in E ~n.?__ ~J ro .L.q IDE LIZED 5TQESS..".1) .2 (2. ')? COM PLETE 5TJ2ESS . o 5 StrQln E: (In·/In. AN DIAGQAM ~_r_P_'O_s_t. 2. .Z.Io.
I Deformed Beam .1 I  a . dA Section Stress 4.4) . Equilibrium donditions: Normal Force: Moment: M= f (J A (J"' ~ y .3 (2.205..32 2.. Unit r I . Deformations sufficiently small so that (0' = curvature). ¢ = tan ¢ 2. I I ~ I I Length I I 1\ L b . BENDING OF RECTANGULAR BEAM Elastic Bending \ Deformation: Q. Section Curvature: Strain (Def.2 l~. ~L X 1 ¢ .ormation in Unit length) ¢ = p = y = Ey 1 € (J (2.1) 3..
dA Momentcurvature relationship (Eq. 'llie. (2.:sitvadn distribution is first selected . 2. +% a.5): (2.6) Graph of Eq. eY2 y .6: I I 1 M I v I I lPy ¢ Yield Moment (Eq. stress. Plastic Bending. The following sketches show the development of strain.2) Moment~ 2. 2. and yield distribution as a rectangular beam is bent in successive stages beyond the elastic limit and up to plastic limit.4 M = J.205. 2.32 .4 and 2.5):  2.
..:r? (2. 2.2) Resulting Stress Distributions: Yield Distributions: 2:)5. stressCorresponding momentvalue is obtained by "...5 or assumed and this fixes the stressdistribution...1.a IFig...... * . (2.* integration of stressareas.4J ?.p:ular. distribution .' ... 5 Curva givE3n stage is obtained froJ:Tl part.2) Strain Distributions: (Assumption No. . The express'ions for curvature and moment (and.ur~"Cl:~... the stress varies linearly with strain....... thus.1) CD ® @ (Assumption No.... the resulting M¢ curve) follow:directly from Fig.. the stressdistribution diagram is used since~ in the elastic range..3~ 2...'?:... 2.205..  Even though curvature is a measure of strain distribution. p.4..  .
. '"yo' 2 bdy f  y bdy Se S'l1bsoX'1pt d~notes ~. tfe tt denoteselastlc part '.2) a) 'Curv~ture: .3.9) ~tIbe"~~ t4 :Pe81il'tarm.' .0 . ..= 2 '. 6 . 2.8: 111ade:up_~ aneJ#stic part 2.2 .' .2 (2.(~D1P~e:$tage 2) d .B) M = fA = a • y • dA' (2. 4Y ..5 at neutral axis· % + 1. 2 Yo ~ y2 .c01byc~'$ +2 f' '_ ~ G"~.2. 0 Moment.t1'e:~'inodulUib .1.005.y. of stressareas of Fig."'pft S= plastic part ot crosssection. Thus: section modulus" .'t/fcro$&sectlon.(~1g. 2.!!:L ¢ EY o (2..8) blMoment: (Fig. = .~'aplast1c paJrt_ ..' .(.~. cy d/2 f .~<"==(Plas.5) .6): M' .% Gy.e '.
14) Nondimensional relationship is obtained by dividing both sides of Eq.15) (¢y< ¢ <00) d .10) M = cry Moment in terms of Z: Maximum Moment: ("Plastic Moment ll ) (z .~(%")~ / i (2.diagram below: > ~ [1 .Ze =4 bd 2 (2.) 3 .205.:::.2) Section modulus.1L.efer<enc.. Z: =  222 by 0 = . 2.12) c) Momentcurvature Relationship: In terms of Yo: In terms of ¢: (Eq. S. ~) '1. J (2..Ze 3 3 Zp Z = Z .13) (2..14 by ~ = cry S and by r. 3E 2¢2 (¢y< ¢ <00) (2..32 (2. Z . to . and Plastic modulus.4 2 M = cry (Z _ byo ..:::.11) IMp = cry.. bcr 2 ) M = cry (Z .e.Ze) 3< (2.
2'~ 7 correspond to "stages II of Fig. 2. variation of width of section with depth.2) .::...I.. Shape Factor f =~ = My z S (2. separate expressions are necessary when yielding is limited to the flanges (case 1) and when yielding has penetrated to the web (case 2).50 BENDING OF "(!JF BEAM 1.8 t ..3 f = bd 2 /4 ~ bd 2 /6 = 1.. represents complete plastic yield of crosssection. two approaches are possible: one is to compute M ancf ¢' .Me 1..S 2. 4 9 10 Note: There is a in strength above computed elastic limit (Stage 1) due to plastification of cross section.2. approached as a limit. Stage 4.. . 2.=:.. Due to See Eqs..205·32 (2.==ET=~ @ ( E~. 2.:.M.t5 NON DIMENSIONAL .. 3.:::.0 M¢ CURVE (f2ECTANGLE) o 2.. Also. 2. M~ r M!J _L .7. (Numbers in circles in Fig.16) Rectangle: 2.. Plastic Bending Development e'ssentially the same as for rectangle.6. Elastic Bending Same as rectangular beam. 4).
2.~ ¢y = cry E<V2 (2..12) . Initial Yield b) Curvature: ¢ Flange Yield Yield 'to ¥4 depth Yield to ~8 depth Complete Yield See Fig .I. 2.9) (2. 2.6 and Eq.205.3) at certain discrete strain stages(2.4 See Fig.5 and Eq. in this discussion. = .4 1.8. 2.32 (2. cry cry Se Z (2. a) Successive stages of plastic yield Strain Distributions: Stress Distribution: Yield Distribution: (Assumptions 1 and 2) The latter approach will be used See Fig.2)~ the other is to 2·9 obtain general expressions for M in terms of ¢ for the two abovementioned cases..17) + cry Zp (2. 2.III ® ® CD Fig.9'. 2.. 2:8] @ CD .8) ¢ = d/2 Yo ¢y c) Moment: M = M p = See Fig.I.5!1L Eyo .
6) (2.t)<::yo< 2 d d (2.7...18. ld. t t y..10 =I Ie I .t) 2 .20) • (l<¢ W.~ dk Yo I p = bd 3 _ b (2yo)3 12 12 Z = bd 2 _ by 2 P 4 0 In terms of Yo: M=cry 2 3 d/2 bd S . 28: Se 2. 2. 2.8.Ip = Yo Yo S ~ rL1 L . 2.205·32 (2. 2 In nondimensional terms: (Eq.+bd Yo 12yo 4 [ b~02] (2 . < d/2 ) (d .18) In terms of ¢: (Eqs. 2.t).8) M = E~d (S _ ~ 2 ) + cry b ( ~2 _cry 2 ) 3E2¢2 d/2 ) (¢y< ¢ <¢y (d . 2.18 and 2.3) d) Momentcurvature relationship: Case 1: Yielding in Flange For use in Eq.
2.3) Case 2: Yielding in Web 2.11 _ 2 "3 wy 0 2 = 3" Ze 2 (yield within web) (2.205·32 (2.24) . 2.22 and 2~17) (¢\T) 2 ¢ (Eq.22) (o<Yo<~ .k) In terms of ¢: M = cry (2 _ w ~) 3 E2¢2 (2.2 .21) Note: Due to uniform web thickness.11) In terms of Yo: M = cry (Z _ wY02) 3 (2. 2. (Eq. 3 . these expressions are similar to those for rectangular section.8) (¢ M Z w d2 My =.23) d/2 (Eq.123 y (d _ k) 2 <: ¢ <=» Nondimensional: (Eq.My M = f (2.16) .
2.. ~ 10 II 11. 2. IS.111 Note: 1.2t'tJe  My M t Q' t~=F==o_e__ '. Average value of IIfll for all WF beams= 1. w elos Ir. .pe factor is smaller than rectangle (Compare Fig.14..32 (2. 2.NSIONAL M¢ CUI2VE (w= 5HAPE) 3 4 5 ~.25) ~ Z . 3. t:L. Sha. 4..e. 2. Z.205. l. Mp = 2 fA 2 cry dA • Y Mp = cry • 2 fA ydA (2.20 Equ. . ". . NON DI ME.7). 1. Rapid approach to Mp ( Compare Fig.7J. d s:a. Calculation of Z The plastic modulus.. equals twice the static moment about the neutral axis of the section) ltq. Fi'3. ( 2 .3) Plot of M¢ relationship for WF shape: Equ.12 (Example: 8WF13) Z.5) :.. 3. 1 ¢4j .IJi 14) 1F= _ b C d I I I I I I I IIi i iJ '2.
. What is the plastic hinge? What is its importance? What factors influence its formation? 1. Features 1) M¢ curve is characteristic of plastic hinge (Fig.t) + * (d .26) An approximation that Z ~ n~glects fillets: bt (d . 2.2t)2 (2.16): 2. idealized stress ¢ at constant M. Y (2.13 From splittee properties (given in AISC Handbook) Z = 2 Ast .3) 2.4 IZ = 1.1 (2.27a) PLASTIC HINGE CONCEPT The reason a structure will support the computed ultimate load is that plastic hinges are formed at certain critical sections.11) 2) Rapid approach to M = M p = cry Z 3) Indefinite increase in a) Idealized M¢ curve Assume material concentrated in flanges.27) An approximation that makes use of the average shape factor (f) for WF IS: (from Eq.14.205·32 (2. 2.
2. member acts as ir it were hing~d except with constant restraining moment. rotation occurs at 00 reaches M p. 00' n< )Up .12 is basic to plastic analysis.:I2.205. UnL :FJ(} 1.4 ) strain relationship (Fig. M p• 2.e.t2. constant moment.14 t M~ M Actuol Hinge Mp iDEALIZED M¢ CUI2VE ' 't Qototion. Examples: Fig. a) Shape Factor Ratio Mp depends on shape of crossMy section. i. 2.13 L:::"'~D ~_o 11 ~¢y' [Y~~~~.EI 1 \ J (2.32 .1. Factors Affecting Bending Strength and Stiffness (M¢ curve) Several factors influence the ability of members to form plastic hinges. ¢p) ! = EI¢ = M p r'l (¢p<: ¢<~) .. In certain cases. some are important from the design point of view and are treated in Lecture 9. member remains elastic Thereafter. ::.28) Note.: The behavior shown in Fig.~J .2): Plastic Hinge i 2. 2.~i JYl I ¢(0<' ¢ <. ~ntil According to it.
all tending to reduce carrying capacity. d) StressConcentrations (Ref. 2.15 is an approximation. effect. Lectures 9 and 12 . See.e' deflections. ¢st ~ 15¢y (Fig.2. f) Shear g) Axial Load h) Local Buckling i) Lateral Buckling 1 I J ! Important factors. 2.2. Variation in proportional c) Residual Stress limit~negligible (Refs. j) Unsymmetrical Crosssections Introduces combined bending and torsion.7) Annealed c061~ng.205·32 (2.15 effect. 2.1. Residual stresses due to coldbending. 2.7) Similar to residual stresses. They have M /t With "  Residuals negligible effect on bending strength. 2.4) b) Material Properties (Refs.1. welding.7) Variation in strength~direct 2. 2.2) prevents hinge from ll running away". Fig. 2. ! Treated as "modifications". only . e) StrainHardening (Ref. Consider. reduce proportional limit in bending and tend to increas. symmetrical sections.fect..9) Hardening at Beneficial Ef.2.
Consider only main 2.205. m) StressDistribution Beneficial effect that is ignored. the plastic hinges form at discrete points at which all plastic rotation occurSj hinge lengthflPO. In actuality "hinge" extends over a length of member that is dependent·on loading and geometry.32 (2.5.16 3. Distribution of Plastic Hinge (IIHinge Length ll ) For the idealized M¢' curve of Fig.•. Examples: Rectangular beam: WideFlange beam: "'. 1) Brittle Fracture Specify proper material.4J k) Ehcasement Beneficial effect that is neglected. 2. See Ref. Hinge Length = AL = Length of beam in whichM . 2."" ~ My .2 and 2.12. workmanship. design details. frame.
(4) The shape factor (f = S) is one source of reserve strength beyond the elastic limit. equals cry z. ¢ diagrarrl replaces the M diagram EI in deformation analysis. 2.tre 8. (Ref.5). Capacity" of structural .element .9) M ______Adequa+e '" (2) It is the foundation of deformation computations. Principles (1) (2) Plastic hinges form at po~nts of maximum moment A plastic hinge is characterized by large rotation at near ... See Lect1. ' Z Application of plastic hinge to analysis is outlined in the next article (2.205'·32 2.17 (2. M p . 2.4) '4.constant moment. .ability of a structural member to rotate at near maximum moment. it has a twofold role: {l) Characterizes "Rotation . 5. Importance ofM.12) M¢ curve is basic to plastic analysis.¢ Reiationship Asindica'ted in Section 1 above (Fig. In addition to providing a measure of strength.. The plastic moment.
205.32 (2.5) 2.5 REDISTRIBUTION OF MOMENT
2.18
A second factor contributing to reserve of strength (statically indeterminate structure) is redJ.str':tbution of moment When the plastic moment is reached at a critical section. This moment remains constant as section rotates (action of a plastic hinge). Thereafter, mOInent is redistributed to
0
other portions of structure, thus allowing an increase in load. Example: (How does a plastic hinge allow redistribution and subsequent increase in load? ) Fig. 2.19 shows uniformlyloaded, fixedended beam. Deflected shape, moment diagram, loaddeflection and M¢ relationship is shown at 3 stages of
ill<;~
~/ft
W:.wL
A
L
 B
~~LL' ~t:l~~y"oAf7l~8 My'
. '
1 ' r . M
T
.
.::>l,;HHt'nilI"rf':::1
M p

loading (numbers in circles): Stage 1 (Elastic Limit) .Yield point reached at ends 'By elastic analysis, wL 2 M A = 12 wL2 M!, = 24
t w
~~)Mp
L?J~~
M
IENDSI
'A reserve of Moment at r 'L
of 50% still exists (M¢ c~rveh
¢
"I
¢
IFI9.l.19 I ! i
1
205.32 (2.5)
Stage 1  2 caMoment capacity at ends is exhausted.
2.19
The beam "hinges"..
_Deflection increases at somewhat faster rate (simplysupported beam). Stage 2 (Ultimate Load, W u) .Hinge just formed at
~
.Total moment capacity is exhausted. Stage 3 (Arbitrary Deformation) Beam continues to deform at constant load tAction of plastic hinges creates a "mechanism" or "Hinge system", all .further rotation occurring at joints. Note: Shaded portion of moment diagram (Fig. 2.19) represents increase in load due to redistribution of moment .' The ultimate load, W u ' is reached when a mechanism ~~~ forms. Load Computations By equilibrium (from moment diagram of Fig. 2'.19) the yield and ultimate loads may be computed. "Yield" WyL = 3 My 2 . 8 WuL = 8
(2.29)
"Ultimate"
(2.30)
20.5.32
(2.5.)
2.20 Reserve strength due to redistribution
Wu = l6Mp/L = 4 !:!2. w l2My /L 3 My y
(2.31)
Note: In idealization we assumed M p = Reserve: Redistribution + shape factor
My.
Principles (1) Plastic hinges are reached first at sections sUbjected , to greatest deformation (curvature).' (2) Formation of plastic hinges allows a subsequent redistribution of moment until M p is reached at each critical ("maximum II) section.
(3)
The maximum load is reached when a mechanism forms.
2 .6
SHEAR AND DIRECT STRESS Thus far the analysis of flexure of beams has neglected shear and direct stresses. present. (1) These are practically always
Two questions ,are of interest:
What is distribution of shear and direct stres's in the inelastic range? See hext';pages.
(2)
How do these stresses influence ability of a member to form plastic hinges? Lecture #9
Distribution of shear and direct stresses is outlined here,
p~rticularly
as it affects flexural stressdistributions.(mg.2.4)
205·"~c
2.21
(2.6)
1. Shear Stress
Principle: (Ref.
In the regions made plastic due to flexural yielding.
I xy
2.4, 2.8)
= 0
Result: Example:
Shear stresses are carried in the elastic core.
Fig. 2.20 shows ca.ntilever WF beam with Typical flexure stress and distributions shown.
cor~esponding
M>My . shear stress
'~~rr7'""V"77_:k;
~v
YIeld
Zone
I
(1)
.
~
®
Elastic
®
~lange
©
Partially plastic and yield at .1., due to shear
'"J Fig' L . 2.20 .__ .
ing possibilities:
Plastic
The stress distributions of Fig. 2.20 point to the follow
Yielding in the region of the flangeweb juncture due to combined flexural and shear stresses
,
(Distribution "A") .
205.32 (2.6)
2.22
(2)
Yielding at midheight due to shear stress (Distribution
C).
(3)
Combination of (1) and (2) resulting in a yield zone effec.tive1y limiting ability of member to carry further shear force.
Note: After complete strainhardening, shear stress tends to redistribute according to distribution llA ',' .
2. Direct Stress
The problem is simpler than that of shear distribution since only normal stresses must be considered. Fig. 2.21 shows
stress~distribution
at various stages of
deformation due to M and P:
Elastic Limit Two parts of Distribution llD":
Partially Plastic
Complete Yield
JFlg. 2~~:il
I
~Ji)=
"(f)
Jfl
" ,Stress .due to M
+
~l
Stress due to P
,(t)
\Total Stress
. Johnston. Y. II". FRAMES". (Progress Report #5) . 205s. R. REFERENCES 2. B. S. Luxion. L. VanNostrand. Roderick. A. 2. p. 1951 and 1952. i~' 2. (Progress: Report #4 . JUly. 538s November. Colston Papers (Br. VOL. . S..). New York. 362383.6 Timoshenko. and 31(11 . G. P. N. 1949..3 2. 32(5) 225s to 232s.4 2'<!5 . B. Weldin Journal 30(7). S. W. C. W. Beedle. "THEORY OF PERFECTLY PLASTIO SOLIDS" John Wiley and Sons.TO THE EFFECT OF SHEAR FORCES". Progress Report #8). 27(11). N.1 Johnston'. Prager. pp. M.205·32 (2. depending on the magnitude of direct stress present. 1/20. Inc. L.6) Conclusions (1) 2. B. H.9 Toprac. Phillips. pp. STEEL BEAMS". B. "CONNECTIONS FOR WELDED CONTINUOUS PORTAL Johnston. weldin~ Journal Yang. 1953. 1941. Academic Press. British We. 1950) 2.23 Yielding on one side of section will precede that on the other.1950. S. 2. "RES IDUAL STRESS AND THE YIELD STRENGTH OF Yang.. New York. Hodge. Beedle. the total bending moment capacity theoretically will not be available. (Progress Report #1).2 2. A. "PLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF WIDE FLANGE BEAMS" Welding Journal. Inc. "PLASTIC THEORY OF BENDING WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE . p. p. "STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. "CARRYING CAPACITY OF SIMPLYSUPPORTED MILD STEEL BEAMS". 1948. 4454~ 1949. Welding Journal. April~ 1952. Nadai. 353370. 31(4). H. Johnston. L. 30(8)~ Beedle.lding Research Association #WE."AN EVALUATION OF PLASTIC ANALYSIS AS APPLIED TO STRUCTURAL DESIGW'. "THEORY OF FLOW AND FRACTURE OF SOLIDS 11 McGrawHill. Y. G. 1949.8 Horne. A. (2) In the presence of direct stress. (Also published as "Engineering Structures". G. C.
4. 3. ASSUMPTIONS PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENT UPPER BOUND THEOREM LOWER BOUND THEOREM S1J1VIlVIARY 3. i. 2.1 ASSUMPTIONS' 1. Connections provide full continuity such thatplastic moment M p can be transmitted (does not exclude actual hinges). (See Lecture #10) .205.3 A N DL O. First order theory.REMS :(Theor.1 Lecture No. ultimate load (very often the case. 5. OUTLINE: 1. however attention required to such problems as lateral buckling). deformations are small such that equilibrium conditions can be formulated for undeformedstructure (same as in elastic anal~sis). MomentCurvature relationship as established in Lecture 2. Rather than make a general approach.32 3. No instability of structure will occur prior to . 3. a simple example is used to derive the theorems.ems for Fixing Upper and Lower Limits of Ultimate LoadCarrying Capacity for Frames Structures) SCOPE: Purpose of lecture is to establish two fundamental theorems giving an upper and lower bound for the ultimate load the structure will carry.e.W E R B 0 U N D U P PER THEo. 2. 4.
equals the work done by the internal forces. Small.ey increase in fixed proportions. independent increase can be Definitely allowed. it approaches zero.~the total work done vanishes. 1. e.2 PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL DISPLACEMENTS Principle: If a system of forces in equilibr1um is subjected to a virtual displacement. However..32 (3. provided no local failure occurs.::eorces work done . 3.1) 5. (See Lecture #9) 3. all loadS are fixed by single parameter such that th. Geometrically possible. excluded is repeated loading. 2. Piecewise continuous within structure . i.nal. ) In subsequent paragraph this principle is used to determine external load such that equilibrium is established. Influence of normal and shearing forces on plastic moment MP are neglected (see Lecture #9 for nec~ssary modifications). . .205. the by.e. Virtual Displacement =. (This means that a "kink" may be assumed at a hinge. i. . Loading is proportional. 6.the~exteF.
Assume plastic hinges for mechanism. J l . Compute loads to establish equilibrium. Always 'IMI ~ M p.3 Under what condition is IMI Lower Bound: 1.Mechanism L ~Mp' 1. 2. When does.205·32 (3.plastic Moment M p Plasticity Condition \M~ ~ ~ 5 el I 2 (b) Assumed Hi!1ges at 0J 1 . 4 P' L 4 (a) Beam.5Mp (c) Plasticity Condition vio1.2 and ® . 3. Keep at any state equilibrium.1<07 Mp lated between' Mp {r__ t_ _+_ _ +_1. 2. ~ 3.. (d) 'Reinforced Beam J fig.2) The basic ideas behind the two concepts to be discussed are as follows: Upper Bound: 1.3 UPPER BOUND THEOREM Example: b. p J. M p. 3? b..::M~P ® and ®.::.structure become mechanism? 3.
rr3t t)8 the:~:.rned Hinges at @ and ® . .205·32 (3. FLu't. Froblem~ IF~~il iJ{t1at is the ultimate load Pu that the beam will sv.sta:tn'? As the load is increa.1astic  moment l\iln ~ developed' atone seetion.y possible nega.w will e\Tentually pr'oduce a hinge at another sec.ncrease is possible.tiol1 0 Prom here on no f1.3) (a) Assu. ® to ®? ® AssuIT!ptio~~ MeehanistYi i:rit)l Hinges CD and as shown in Fig.11 fj.:'ther load l.0 ..1J.30 Mp (b) All iM\ = Mp Mp Beam i3hown is 1. hence it Hinges will form. 3. times stati.sed.. %'1.hep increase in load over this va:l"".Mechanism 1 1.l(b).tive one. since under this condition the structure is reduced to a mechanimn ("first order!! movements possible without incpease in load)! itJhere will hinge form? Hinge CD Arbitrary is the onl.:.a1Jy indeterminate.
33 ~ 3 11 Moment diagr. 3. Equilibrium would result in same Pj Virtual Displacement only an easy means to compute P.5 P(~ 8L x 3 + . \M\ ~ M p hence Furthermore number of hinges is sufficient such that further deflection is possible without an increase in load. 3.32 (3. . not ~e i 2 and 4 is will Hence the assumed mechanis~ the one that is developed.. (Fig.x 1) = M p (e + 28) 2 Mp L Moment diagram shows that nowhere plasticity condition is fulfilled. strengthto 1.205. p = 1 ' ~ = 2.25 M p will ening of beam between ® and ® produce assumed mechanism.3) Virtual'Displaeement*: .am shows that M between greater than M p.2(a)) Displacement: x 3 P P (*" = + e~ x 1 + ¥. ~ 6L x 1 + fu 8L x'l)= _ ' Mp(8+ 4 G) 3 or. * Use of Virtual Displacement is not necessary. 3.l(d)) Second Assumption: Mechanism with hinges Virt~al G) and @ (Fig.. However.
that the following 'theo:rem <can ·be~ f:ormulated: _.b (a) (b. ~ = 2.. arbitrary equl1ibrlum . . . "A load computed on the basis of an assumed mechanism will always be greater or at best equal to the ultlmate 'i~§.32 (3. corresponding load will be ultimate load. Generalizati'on is' possiblesucn...d. '.205.. configuratic>hL. .4 LOWER BOUND THEOREM Previ·ouS example.' 3.with :"M' = M p . . • . P ". ." .5 ~ L Conclusion: Mechanism 13 will actually develop.. c.3) Further Assumption: Mechanism with hingeR Result: . ~5t po~~ible~'utioh sIble equilibrium 6olutlon (0) Assumption of . . p = ~.: ' .•. ~ " ..) statically determinate system.' I' CD and L @. Upper Bound Theorem:. .· .
g. M p at·· ® and G). an arbitrary value for the redundant moment Ml is introduced.hinge forms. hence is not a mechanism. however has only one plastic hinge at CD.g. Structure is still in equilibrium. IMI ~ Mp. Increase in load changes only statically determinate bending moment diagram.u . Theorem: "The load corresponding to an equilibrium configuration with arbitrarily assumed values for the redundants is smaller than or at best equal to the ultimate loading . External (3.previded that all IMI ~ M p. Mp . 3.7 The system is made statically determinate by introducing a hinged support at~the left end.205. (Fig.provided all Generalization: Lower BounQ.32 3.3 (c) ) Disregarding the condition of zero slope for the deflection line at the left support.4) loading produces a definite moment diagram 'e. Maximum load is reached at moment when second plastic. e. Conclusion: Any equilibrium configuration ~th arbitrarily assumed values for the redundants corresponds to a loading below the ultimate loading .
" :.32 ..' I.ement) 3.:>'1 "'Yl1 J..j ./L..205. .'! _ . """'k ()...~ 0 8 StTIYiHARY Compar:lson b{::t1lloen elastlc f.sm (tnsu.' (Upper Bound) Fulf':Llls : 1.'fic:ient lVlu IS) ~ \ fiIay viiDla te . '. •.nr.Fulfills: ]. "Plast:iei t~tll Gond:ition: nIIp·c'f"". Mechanism (is presupposed) ~ rJIpo 1M' (possibl"y IMI :> Mp ) Assumed "Eaui.ibrium presupposed) Mechani. n c.I~1 '::L_.1 f "Plastic" Solution: To f'ul.an" p1a8tic sCilu:t:i.on and upper."li~"'I .ilibr'f:U:r.briurn Solution II ('Lower Bound) .fill~ 10 Ecm.' .olr'''''l''' " u.·.rtual Di.2. 3 v .libr1.i. Sol·u. ~3 0 :.tion ~ . Hnd lower bound.. IMt ~ Np lastic.. 1 r'lF'I"''J'~r"~. 11 .1 0 < Equ.:. . < k••."'.eoI"ems Elastic.. tb.splac. ."""p <""'_'.i<:..:f.iechani.:O\oluti._.st!i Solution '. Equil. Equi.1ibrlum .'Lo J'.um (PrInciple of' V1..1..) " _ (a.h. May v:t01ate 2." Assumed.l.~ ""._ t.
P. Neal.·. t . ~05. Each of the methodstbf solutions tha't~W1l1 be disoussed during the rema:lnder of these le.(Lower Boui:ld Theorem) leads tost'ra1ght forward solutions (Lecture #4). ~ .. In simple caseat~~ "Equil~ br. '·13 ~5) . "RECENT PROGRESS IN THE PLASTIC METHODS OFSTaUCTURAL ANALYSIS" ~ Journa~ of ' the Franklin Institute..wiilbe: based on one oftbese "two theorems. . for more com plicated cases the "Mechanism Method" (Upper Bound Theorem) becomes much m~re powerful. 59i' Pebruary I 1951. 1 < • . B.1um Method" .3e .'. References 3. However. .. .ctUr.ee . 3.. . G.·.. J. S.1 Greenberg. 25 I ' No. 2· Symonds. 5 and 6.ager" w •. : .' "~' Separate NG.. "ON LIMIT DESIGN OF BEAMS AND FRAMES" I ~.'. 1951. . Vol.·•. H.
4 E QUI LIB R I U M 4. Select the redundant. Draw moment diagram for determinate structure (neglecting redundant) 3. Draw moment diagram for redundant .basis theorem.(keeping redundant moment values in general terms) 4. Compute value of redundant(s) by solVing equi'librium equation OMI= M p at sections of maximum moment) 6. Check to see that there are sufficient hinges for mechanism and that IM1~Mp' .{s) .) 2. the general method of attack will be illustrated.32 Lecture No. etc.(can be moments.1 METHOD o F ANALYSIS SCOPE: Calculation of ultimate strength of continuous beams and singlespan frames:i'on . based on the Lower Bound Theorem (Lecture #3). Sketch composite moment diagram in such a way as to insure formation of mechanism (still keeping redundant in general terms) 5. In each case the following approach will be used. of~lower boun<tt By solving several sample problems. Given the structure and loading 1.205. forces.
Find the maximum value of P in terms of the plastic moment.. The corres.I... . ~ . (b) Momen t .205~32 f 4.. 4.ii @ A r B J}..1 EXAMPLE (Fig... .. lA l'tlp Mp  M P to be equal to the full plastic moment.2(e).~_ I (d) now combined as shown in Fig.. .ULJULI.. ABc Ij) Eo (f) ....J..1) A two span continuous beam of uniform crossseetion: ~o .... ! I..IoI!:L......2(a) and (b). ~ E Z L L ok 2... C.¥..... IIi (e) ..lU...J.. 4..~ mamen t diagram .(C) diagram due to deteniiinate loading i ponding moment diagrams are given in Fig. For these Composite ...lI.J. If these are I Moment diagranl/ due to redundant loading I ..TT1>'!''''''''"'TT"77~7"'i"'lT'I''':'':''i''T!rv.u.1) 4.il.. 4...... Selecting the moment at L "e..2(c)\ and (d). . it is noted that moment values are maximum at sections B. C @ 1: L r . M p.Redu..D L 'Z..tLt A7\.I. the determinate and redundant loadings are then a$ shpwn in Fig. and D..VX""'"'lIA Loading A Me.as the redundant.da.u.I"l..n'""""". 4.2 (4..Mp ' .!..lI~~.
2 in Eq. it is observed .2 EXAMPLE Flg. (b) in terms of M p .32 (4.'lifolm load r~ Nowhere is M> M p. Selecting MA and M D as the redundants. uniform loads.3(b). 4. 4.1) "4 and PL _ M c = M p 2 (4. Rather than Determinate moment due to p (c) attempt to draw the composite moment diagram for these conditions. the plastic moment. the moment diagrams will be as shown in Fig.205.' . (c). Here.e to w. Determinate moment. "G" and IlD" is s'ufficient to produce a mechanism.dp.3 shows a Fixed Ended beam subjected to both concentrated and . 4. 4.. and (d). p Ie L (0) the object is to determine ~"P'U~= I. 4. 4.2(f):indicates that the formation of plastic hinges at sections lIB".1 Pu = M p 6 L A consideration of Fig.1) (4.2) This then gives on substitution of Eq. again.
is then given by the equation.32 (4.M (Note: This assumes M n negative as shown) A and M .M (X) x M L L2 1 .5) For the left hand side to be a maximum (1 + 5 X L  6 x2) L2 should be a maximum or (a consideration of the shear diagram will give this same result.L .or (4.205.L c nL A 1 . Maximum positive moment will occur somewhere within the structures. MA M n = M p ~.) Therefore x = 5/12 L (4.2) that maxim~m negative moment occurs at each end of the beam. say at some point (c). = 'Z 3 PL (x x 2 ) + '4 1 PL ( x ) .4) (4. which located at a distance~from A.6) Assuming now that the beam is of uniform crosssection. . = M·o  M p . i~ Moment at this point. .
it is desired to determine the value "kif. since these joints can only develop the strength of the .·9 o . 4.LJ PL = "_.3(e).=:__ or 2 M p = 2Mp 49/24 (1 + 5 x_ 6~) L L (4. the ratio of . . (d) I : ' Composit~Moment ..6 in Eq. (b) Moment piagr~ (C) mine the load at which this occurs.lues and Eq.. 4.I:l. I A~. it is evident that a mechanism can form and the necessary conditons for a "plastic" solution are therefore satisfied. Diagram . ~~F. D (e) ..3 EXAMPLE For this example. Furthermore. 4. 4.the plastic moment of the end spans to that of the center span. From symmetry the redundant moment at "G" will equal that at liE:. (a) A l. Also deterRedundant Moment Diagram Determinate . for the ' case where ultimate strength is realized simultaneously in all spans.205·32 (4~2) Substituting these va.8) From Fig.5 gives r.
3...10) fit sijould be noted that IIB ll .I.(e) ' .rt of the span from A to C as shown in Fig. M = + k: Mp = Determinate Moment at B Moment at llB!! ...J.L.u..UJ.U~')fMp= Me C (o} f_~ L ~_ll2gA ."\ Diagram .6 me..J.11) Mc..4(d) M D =T or Mp PL . . I MC R A . To determine the location of this section consider a free body diagram of that pf. ~>: (4. .u.mber~ (4.:.5... P 2 (4.'.205·32 4.... 12A I tUU~. 4.. 1S k Mp Momen t ..llB ll  Redundant .9) = 4 (l+k) PL Also from this Figure.k M p =M p (4. = k M p k Mp L v 'tJ Shear Diagram (b) = .u.J. 4. the section of max'imum positive moment is not at the center of the span AC.:.3) weakest joining Therefore from Fig.
4. .13) where wI = P/L.10) (4. J.205. 4. or (4. (E _ k MPH~ 2 L c.524 (4.15) or k = 0.13 gives the following Eq. (4.3) Therefore to determine the distance to the section of zero shear and ·..12) The moment at "B I ! then equals (using this computation in place of Eq.there13y' maximum moment RA . RA is as given by Eq.: x is given by Eq.11) and .16) . 2 = 0 where wI = L p k ~.12) Substitution of these values in Eq.32 (4. • j • k ~) PL L _ ~(¥. (4. "'.)(12· c.(p ) (x) L L = 0 .J P)2 L2 _ k M L p =k M p (4.14) which reduces to (4. .wI (x) p.
.. ': <J. 0.524.. the next problem.. (This method.. "::"':"". as w±ll be shown in subsequent lectures..::.3. as determined from Eq.) Consider for example. Not only beam type problems but also those of the· frame type am.. may not be the easiest or qUickest.18) therefore suggests one possible technique of designing for minimum weight in continuous beams.524 1. of P == 6.17) plastic hinges will form simultaneously at sections B.32·· . ~.12 x == . (4. ".) :'::: .. 4..000. this load was carried by the least weight of material. 4. and F..8 " .::.205. ".be solved by this Equilibrium method of solution. (4. ..1 Mp u L Note: Since all hinges form simultaneously.. D."': . E. C. . however. 4.9. and 0.. Then from Eq.:". at a "Pu" value. . This procedure (4.' ..414 L Restating Results: For a ratio of plastic moments of Span AC Span CE Span EG 0. .
" .. For ease of [ i I Di~gram 1 ~ i I (0') (b) illustration the legs have been "opened" as shown in Fig.L"L. ! i  ReduiidaJitMomen t 'Diagralh' ~~~~~~.oIJ. ~. COmpositeM()me!It/~..J..7 for three different stiffness relationships..32 (4..6(b).k '2. 4.I. ! 4. I " ' . Assuming that the frame is made up of the same section throughout  'DeterminateMom~t i .~) 4.1 \ \ (e) then from Fig. (dJ ' and ....U..U~! (C) .L. Diagram ..l.. .9 "1 EXAMPLE L P ..205. 4. 4.6(b) and (d) or (4..14) If the columns had different stiffnesses than the beam the result would be somewhat as shown in Fig.l.L.L.l.J.J. 1" ~..4 For this problem the horizontal reaction at 5 will be assumed as the redundant..
From Fig. = Ph . 4. now..4) ~) (b) G. 4.4a EXAMPLE Consider.1__ .7 (C) (d) (e) and M 2 I I I' ..L '{~I'I"I.' select the horizontal reaction at "5" as the redundant. Detenninate Again....8..' Jrl(C)~ I 4..205·32 4.8(d) it is evident that hinges will form at sections 2 and 4 with . : .I ~: (b) .l ..11 ..'~' . Fig 4.".. Ph' ! . this same structure sUbjected to a horizontal load at section (2) as shown in Fig..10 (4.M P =+ M P \ ..
.~. compo~::== .16) \ (4'4: 2) .. 4. It is necessary to compute the composite case as if it were a new problem.."' " . · .. \ Therefore p=~ 2 M ' (4.:.'iiLi 2 Mp . (e) Pu '. . . _ :(4...it should be remembered that SUPERPOSITION ISNOT:VAL[D. ' '.... ' ••  ·"h'.. .4b EXAMPLE p Again select the horizontal reaction at 5 as the redundant..•..15) h In 'considering the infl~ence of a combination of both a hori zontal and a vertical force . I I or . Redundan t (b) Determinate (c) . I I i_ .... r 3 L .. ..:....' ..r:=fl~.(4~4a)· ·'~05..h ! ~' :~h ta) 4... .:.... Noting from Fig~ ... . ?.. :"..~?··· 4..~ ~ (d) . ..9(d) that hinges will form at section 3 and 4 with .11 ':". . ...
at sections 1 or (b) Determ.. 4.therefore Eq. 2..10. I I t M p = PL  2.. the solution is as shown in Fig..5.. Since the A • (D) 2L A B I 8 "hinges" form at points 1.5~ I ! $ubs t i tut ing ~ as deter mined from Eq. 4. EXAMPLE 4. ~ L the L 5 horizontal reaction at B.19 ) .19 is the correct solution.. 4.5) 4 .25 M L (4. nate 5 I and at sections 2 and (4...10(d)). as the redundant. 4.... 4..17 into Eq.12 L P 1L Selecting ~... 4.. 4.  I I I (e) .~OMp I i ...J. . and 5 (see Fig. I From Fig.'~fUf p = 2.18) _~~ 'Z.10 it is evident that a mechanism has formed and.205·32 (4..18 gives Pu ~5=:t=====~~mtT.
1952. 5. d~pending on which is given) canbe'"com . References 4..' Summarizing :" 4.. Then from EqUilibrium considerations and a knowledge that the full plastic moment values are realized at these critical sections. PUblication No.1 "THE COLLAPSE METHOD OF DESIGN".':.20!)·32 Uf . . Con~. ' This method of solution is primarily concerned with the selection of redundant moment values such that the necessary plastic hinges are formed at critical sections throughout the structure.".13 The examples that have been presented in this section are "Equilibrium" solutions and are based on the Lower Bound cept. British Constructional Steelwork Association.5)' . the unknown ultimate carrying capacity (or size of member puted.
hence hinge position is not known. M at V = 0.1(b)." EXPJVIPLE 5. hence the'structure is subjected to a more severe loading condition and as a result the ultimate load will be somewhat smaller.t the one for the actual distributed loads Fig. 'instance) (See Example 4 . The example will be solved for the concentrated loads. Concentrated ( Loads~ Max. In Summary.livalentconcentrated loads. .205·32 Lecture No. 5. 5. hence position of hinges is ·fixed! Distributed Loads: Max.1 METHOD o F ANALYSIS determina SCOPE: Assumption of plastic hinge mechanism. tion of corresponding load by method of virtual displacement. for The concentrated load produces a moment diagram circumscribed a. the reason being that the exact location of a hinge in case of distributed loads causes some mino:r.1 . o:t: Upper Bound Theorem: "A load computed on the basis of an assumed mechanism will always be greater or at best equal to the ultimate load." difficulties. M under Loads.5 M E C HAN ISM 5.bou.1 is subjected to indicated loading~ The actual distributed load is replaced by eq't. spanframe as shown in Fig. More about this later. mechanisms. I A 2.ation Possibilities of local and combined Development of systematic procedure.2. RecapituJ.
. 5.833PL M (Concentrated P) 1 '7. t..1.~ i : I~ ~~~ .. three local mechanisms Actual load dlstn bution What is ultimate load..m (0 Mech. @ 'ZL t__ ~_L_~~ (b) . TIl ) (9) (Comb.1 ) The plastic moment values of different members are indicated in Fig. ill ~N Mech. n {e) c e "1 I e Mech. ~M (DIstributed p) IO.3.l .ll FIC} S..205·32 (5. concentrated loads '....e' ~_. (C) (d) g 7:. ~t'" 1Ir'"4 (o)@ 'l.=:~=~ 7ie M~ch.. I 1 je ... of the Equlv. IT. structure? Assuming an arbitrary mechanism will give upper bound to Pu by methods of Lecture No.. Pu .. Mech'..
205.e.1(f)).1) P eL(b + 2 + 5) = M p e(l + 2 + 1) _ 9~ PI  M S ~=10. the work done by the plastic hinges sho~ld be reduced. 5.3) ~ feL = M p e (1 + 2 + 2 + 1 + 2 + 2) = 20 Mp L Combinations of these three local mechanisms are possible.1) Mech. connection it is advantageous to consider a rotation of joint 678 also as a local mechanism (Fig. 5. 3 + 1 . I: j 5. M 5 L L Mech.32 (5.3 Failure of Beam 46 1 1 1 (5.60 M = 33 .8L Mp Mech. II and III the joint will be turned such that only one hinge at 6 forms (Fig. any combination the joint should be so oriented as to produce the minimum amount of internal work. hence such combinations should In this be investigated which eliminate plastic hinges. III:: Sidesway of Frame (PanelMechanism) (5.l(g)): . 2) 3 3 p p = 6. To reduce P the internal work. Combining In Mech. i. II: Failure of Beam 810 peL (l + 1 + l) = M p e (1 ·3 + 2 . and hence should be investigated.
the equivalent concentrated loads iliead.2 0 5 ..II gives the smallest load or Pu __ P 6 6 Mp II = . 5.1(d)). III. for Mech. .:~~' ~~ Not so EqUilibrium check (Lecture #7) " . Hence it must be concluded that Mech.102 13 MLP = 7. 3 2 5 .":<"..7) pV .. requires special attention. 4 (5. II.... load (Fig.. Mech.84 MLP Further trialcombination will not produce any load smaller than PII. .. V (Fig. ".. . and IV peL(~ + ~ + 1 + ~) = M p 6(1+:2+ ·2+1+ 1~·2·3:+2·2)·:' (5. . (2) Equilibrium check for Mech. 5. because system is determinate.2). II is applied to distributed ._. V: Combination of Mech. 0 L Example was purposely chosen to fail in this manner for 2 reasons: (1) The statement often encountered that n + 1 plastic hinges are required to transform an ntimes statically indeterminate structure into mechanism is wrong.1) Mech..2 DISTRIBUTED LOAD As indicated.. 5..to conservative results.1(g)) is trivial.' .. II (Fig. 5.
12) Comparison with Eq.3S .2 Location of hinge is fixed by parameter x. M o Pu = 7.: No hinge within columns is possible as shear is constant. Fig.. hence .5·5 . 5.. Virtual displacement x ( 2 e gives: x ) p 8 3 P8 "2 = M 1'3 +2:'f'3 + 2Lx' 2 (5.045 L P.11) (x = 1. Location and Number of Possible Plastic Hinges The ~ spanframe had 10 possible locations of plastic « hinges.1(a). 5. labled 1 to 10 in Fig. as it is not known. 5.4 shows that equivalent concentrated load gives result which underestimates the carrying capacity by about ~~%. L (5. minimize (5.5.~ With four equivalent concentrated loads the error is about 2%..3 SYSTEMATIZED PROCEDURE 1.10) To find minimum value of or few trials For x = 1.04SL).
1 jointmech. for to each elementary mechanism there corresponds an equation of equilibrium. 1 panel. This is simple if mechanism . Possibility of hinge within beams 5.3) M max . IV corresponds to equilibrium equation expressing that sum of moments connecting 'into a joint is zero. (For example Equation 5. This is no accident. III expresses the equilibrium between horizontal shear and applied horizontal load P/2j Mech. Rule: N = number of possible plastic hinges X redundancies (NX) elementary mechanisms These plus any combination of them should be investigated to determine smallest possible load. Experience leads to However in complicated cases one never Hence equilibrium is quite sure if smallest P is found.6 exists as shear may change through zero.32 (5. Indeterminacy 'Frame is 6 times statically indeterminate~ 3.) In case of N possible plastic hinges and X redun dancies there must be (NX) independent eqUilibrium equation and hence (NX) elementary mechanisms. Mechanisms The number of local mechanisms is four (2 beams. check becomes necessary.) corresponding to the difference between the possible number of plastic hinges and the number of redundancies. 2.205.5 for Mech. is at ends. many shortcuts.
1951. . 'Journal of the Franklin Institute. References 5. II. Fig. Vol. The above rule will be tested in subsequent cases.32 5·7 reduces the structure to a statically determinate system (e.205. B. P. G.l(d)) will be treated in Lecture #7.. Mech. ! "RECENT PROGRESS IN TF. Fig.1 SYmonds.l{g))~ (5.g. 5. No. V. 5.3) A case in which structure is still statically indeterminate (as Mech. 252. 5 and 6.E PLASTIC METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS". Neal.
.:.'.S nowhere exceeded.32 Lecture No.. di.echanisms· and com~ binations therefrom).6 A P P LIe A T ION 6. then the solution is the correct one for the loading conditi. it is necessary that an equillbrium check be carrled out for this supposed correct case to determine if the plastic moment at any secti.ructure a virtual amount and compute external work..y the selection of combina tions of possibl.:.:.... 18 che..:rect mechan:!..re then is as follows ~ I.. Select possible mechanisms (elementar'y m.splace the st. 2. METHOD The MECHANISIJI J.stic moment :1..s be'en investigated....ieal load and the mode in which the structure will ev.l:~le mechanism .:.:.a.205..e plastic hinges into geometrically possible mechanisms. Determine the locations of possible plastic hinges.~. ..in crit. the corr'esponding internal and 4. For each possj.s demonstrated in the preceding l\~ctur'e....on assumed..lysis....1 o F M E C HAN ISM . From the Equation EXTERNAL WORK (WE) = INTERNAL WORK (WI)' compute the critical load. 3..:mtually fail 'l!ifill correspond to the lowest critical load. If the ple.r'c?cter:tzed t. Each of these mechanisms will have associated with it a certa. The procedv... to be sure that the cO:i.~...ons wi thtn the structu:L'e has been exceeded..tlETHOD of ana. However..sm h. a.
) . several examples will be considered in this section. To illustrate this method of analysis.32 6. EXAMPLE .2. <0·'1 2p z. Select the lowest critical load and thereby the correct mechanism. 4. 2.205.1 ~etermination of in p The problem is the determination of the maximum load. For ease of solution. 6.2 5. (The L IFlq. 2p 2 P ~CD CD resulting design will be slightly more conservative than the one that deals directly with the uniform load. Gable Frame Industrial Frame These are: 3. Pu ' that the structure shown in Fig. the uniform load will be concentrated at the quarter points as shown in Fig. Carryout an equilibrium check to ensure that. 6. Portal Frame Gable Frame Multispan. Also in this lecture will be introduced the concept of the instantaneous center of rotation for the ternal and external work expressions. 6. 6. 1.1 can sustain.0'.
number of possible plastic hinges 1 . For this one time indeterminate structure. trated loads.205·32 (6.~ 5. 6. 6 gives 4 . also points of possible "hinge" formation.3.tne". as numbered in Fig...V ® Beam ELEMENTARY MECHANI5MS I Fig 0. moments again may be maximum. maximum moments in the columns will occur' only at the upper ends.. CD '~. of possible plastic hinges then is 4.elementary mechanisms These are shown in Fig..redundant 3 .2.3\ . 6.equatlon on page. Therefore these are points of Under each of the concenThese are The total number possible plastic hinge formation..1) Since shear is constant between the base of the frame and the beam connections.
the external and internal " work associated with each of these 6 possible mechanisms.and ® (0) (6.1) Combinations of these elementary mechanisms are also possible and should be investigated~..@.COMP05tTE MECHANI5MS IFlg. 4 (6.1) . 4[ The next step is the computation of .P for each case.. ] ME~:ISMJ PLASTIC HINGES llt<D. ····0. These are shown in Fig.. 205·32 . from the equation WORK EXTERNAL == WORK INTERNAL Then \ determine the critical load . 6.' .4 ®=CD+@ . (Q.
' I p =~  5.331 (6... . ®.ASTIC HINGES a t and CD.. . 4. . ~ . (G) I P(~L) = Mp 8 + 'v. BEAM MECHANISM 2 PLASTIC HINGES a t and 6.". ~.2) PANEL MECHANISM 3 p~ PLASTIC HINGES at CD and ® . ~t J... . ..3) ~~ e fi .. ': ":.4) . ."". ~ .:' ... 4.".. "'"1 .. .1..:" COMPOSITE MECHANISM 4 P1.5 CD ...331 ViE '= VI I (6.' at 1 4 J p = ~ 0).. l "4 or L I p =~ 5..000 l ® (6. .....@ :' '(: ® (b) ....... or .  '..J M p8 Hinge Hinge at L or.  ' ~ .
. To elimina te this possibility.51 ~ or· P ::: 4. of possible hinges investigated. +3S.?ll possible combinations have been considered and that no arithematic mistake has been made. 6. <0. 6.6. 1 and 5.6) From these calculations of P values for each of the 6 combinat. the next step is to compute the m9ment'diagram for this assumed correct case.J.b .ions.® 4 (f) e IFig. '. composite mechaniSm .00 Mp L (6. The structure and loading to be considered is as shown :Ln Fig.6 COMPOSITE MECHANISM 5 .6. which combines elementary mechanisms lowest allowable load.PLASTIC HINGES at and@ ® eL 4" WE = WI (e) COMPosmTE MECHANISM 6 p PLASTIC HINGES a t and ~ . gives the Therefore Fig. 3.'.5(e) is the correct failure mode PROVIDING.
1 fSv ~ or Then for the structure as a whole AH = 0.67 Mp With this information the moment diagram can be plotted as shown in Fig. .. 6.:..1) 4 Mp rOO~ Considering moment equilibrium of the right hand column A tAv . 6f:a. how good is this approximat~on. : 5.· concentrated loads for this one particular case (pinbased). Equation 6.uniform. ~A" L B . .5 is the correct solution for the structure loaded as shown .by. . But the loading assumed in this figures is not the The question actual .2.7. Since the plastic moment value.33 Mp L L (6.32 (6..load . in Fig .205. then is. M p . But just how much is the error involved? Rather than discuss the question of the amount of error associated with the replacement.. 6. It has been shown in previous lectures that it will be on the safe side since the structure will be subjected to a moment diagram which is greater than the actual one. . is nowhere exceeded in the structure.one to which the structure is subjected..8) AV = 2.f.67 Mp L  Bv .
that if the value m. ~ M p Mp Mp roMp ~I: L ~I ~~ J~ M p I (a) ~ case where m = 1. concentrated load (b) app~oxima(c) tion. which.8(b) . relates the plastic moment of the bottom beam to the other members of the frame.el [m + 1. it can be demonstrated that the correct failure mode is as shown in Fig. 6.L)  ~)( 1 + 1 + 3~) (6. P x u = ~r. the failure mode is given in Fig. For the quarter (P01nt. 6 . however. 333J ME (6. this checks Equation For the uniform load.32 (6. that this equation contains the parameter x which defines the distance to the plastic hinge in .8(a).0 the structure is fixed at the bases insefar as the developed mechanism is concerned. with Pu = 2 j Fig. 4 [m L l(1 (1 .co.205.9) 6~5) (Note that when m = 0.8(c) with . equals zero the structure is pihbased as considered in the previous example.10) It w~ll be noted. For the Mp 6. 6.1) consider the structure shown in Fig.8 It should be noted  p .
32 (6. 2 1/2%.9 the l1exact l1 load it is necessary that Equation 6.9 and 6.beam.11) A plot of these equations (6. To determine the correct distance and thereby 6.0 1.1) the upper. 6.0 .205. The following equation results: (6.10 be minimized with respect to this distance x.0 4.0 ~. 5. For the pin based case the error introduced by the quarter point approximation is 10%: For the fixed base.10) is given in Fig.o 1.9.
Method of Solution In computing the internal and external work expressions 6. (Redrawn in Fig.2l the only conditions known are that point 2 moves in a direc~ L tion perpendicular to a line between A and 2. Thelast~ L t part 4B~rotates about hinge B. 4 part 4B~ A12~ part 234 and part The first of these. part A12 can rotate about hinge A as shown. 6.b. (The location of this point is determined from geometrical considerations..205.32 (6.) The chosep" mechanism is composed of essentially three "movable parts"~ J. its instantaneous center of rotation for the position considered. and that point 4 moves along a line perpendicular to line 4B.1) INSTANTANEOUS CENTER . 4 .. information~ With this however. Consider for illustration the mechanism shown in Fig.10.10 associated with any given mechanism a knowledge of the instantaneous center of rotation may prove of considerable help. For part 234 4 . it can be shown that member 234 rotates about point C.) ..5(e). 6.) (It should be remembered that these solutions are based on a first order theory that considers equilibrium of the undeformed structure.
point 4 moves to the right an amount e~~.10. e [~] (6.times 'that of 2 to A. Since the distance from 4 to point C is equal to ~ L. . 6. the rotation at C of member 234 will be equal to e.11 given a virtual clockwise rotation e about point B. Hinge 4 rotates through 8/3 (due to rotation of 234 about C) plus e (due to rotation of 4B about B). 2 . The 3P/2 force acting at point ® acts ' on both parts A12 and 234 so that ·the work computed from considering either rotation 4 For the 3P/2 force at pOint~ external work equals 3P/2·L/4·e/3.1) From Fig. Furthermore since the' 223 distance from C to 2 is 3.12) For EXTERNAL WORK: the horizontal force P acting at 1 moves through a distance equal to e .32 (6. Hinge 2 then rotates through an angle equal to e (due to the rotation of A12 about A) plus 8/3 (due to the r~tation of 234 about C). L ::2 L or G. it is noted that if member 4B is 6. FOLLOWS~ INTERNAL WORK IS COMPUTED AS at Hinge ®  M p M p 4G 3" = at Hinge ®  4G 3 ~. L/2 .205. namely 3P • e. 'member A12 will have a rotation of e about A. about point A or C should be the same. G or the work equals PL ~. L.
15) which is the same as Equation 6. desired to compute the maximum load. there are 7 possible .. .5. EXAMPLE 6.12 P. assuming a constant section throughout. this distance is equal to the virtual angle change times the perpendicular distance from the instantaneous center to the. L ZL cated. As indi1 . 4L 7 number of' possible hinges 3 redundants . e+~ e + ¥. L = 6.13) ~J (6.14) 2.1) Therefore EXTERNAL WORK Using the equality Wexternal = Winternal' PLe = Mp·e [ or P =~. force in question.205·32 (6. 6. Using the instantan~ous center. In using this method of solution it should be remembered that instantaneous centers are determined from a consideration of the undeformed structure and that external work is equal to force times the distance the force moves in the direction of the force.iS. 4 elementary mechantsms . hinges. e = PLe (6.2 For the single span gable frame shown in Fig.667 (6.e z..Pu.11. it'.
<P.17) I PLa':.:2:_+  @.M~G . r .00)1 (6.205.16) I 1.285) I (6.I ZL p = ~ (2 .2) 6.19) IFIg."Mp8 ~ + i + .a BEAM MECHANISMS or = Mile D'~ + 2 +: . MECHANISM I MECHANISM e»1 ~.I'l.J2 (6.L PANEL • . +l]=.~ Ip PLe = ~ (4.Q) and@t . MECHANISM ®[ ~:£ 2:+.000) I (6 .13 ELEMENTARY MECHANISMS lMECHANrSMs". g MECHANISM~ Comb ina tion of Mechanisms CD and (3) or 4 ~e .L. p.1 + J] = P ¥ (4.
~ FH = 0 (6.'he.f.. ® . 2Mp = Br1 (2L) (6.23) v 0 AV = 2. i t i s now necessary to carryout an equili briumcheck..213 ME . Z'T~ 1..285 ~P 4 L 6 + . .:c0l?rectmechanism./43 ~ L 2.32 >(:6.2)' !_.14 'A~suming that this combination CD plus Q) (Mechanism ®) is '. member about @.357 L Mp (6. 3 1 @ 'lL tA I Aff ~ v AL IFig.20) or Now considering the structure as a whole. 6.21) Bv ~F = 2.. 13 1 Conside~ing Fig.'" :205'. summing moments (0.CD.22) (6. " 6.13 (b) .
since the moment I.+ . 1..418Mp have been plotted on the tension side of the members..+l L S 1 ~ 11 18 19 11.. M p ' in terms of the applied loads.._L_ .Elementary Mechanisms . . 6.~ (:Con~t~nt Section} M1fltiSpan Gable Frame."" ..14. 23 .A.205. L...3 P P . L P 'lL 3 L L do r r r r r II /3 ~l.32 (6.2) I 6..00Mp is nowhere greater than M p. It is assumed that the frame will be constant section throughout.J Fi9~ (0.15 The problem is to determine the required plastic moment. P.... and length parameter.COMp '.15 The moment diagram using these values is shown in Fig.19 is therefore correct. o L __ 4L I 4 L_. The moments o.Number of possible plastic hinges 7 .Redundants 16 .4_L ~~"'.· Equation 6.1. EXAMPLE 6. 2L 7777? A D 11.
e maximum required M p is sought.3) 16 = 3 Joint Mechanisms 4 Gable Mechanisms 1 Panel Mechanism I Due to symmetrY. Note~ Up to this point the Virtual work equations have been solved for the load Pu .will need to investigate only one half structure. will carry. the latter procedure has been used.' CD ® (j) Beam Mechon isms \.32 6. the other half will react the same. M p ' so that. a section may be se. Pu ' th..ected. However. in design it is the loads that are given and the problem is to determine the required plastic moment. problem.205. the maximum load the structure .J. In this Instead of looking for the minimum load.I .16 8 Beam Mechanisms (6.NTAI2V MECHANISMS Goble Mechoniems IFitj" CD..\" "' Panel Mechanisms ELEME.IG r ® y @ y @ 'I @) JOint Mechanisms .
250 PL ~ = PLe (6. 6.470 PLI .COMBINING MECHANISMS (F ig.25) L MpQ '2. 26 ) (Fig.17 (b) ) [3 + '8 = + 6J FIB [2 + ~ 'l.:. however.470 PL I( J.L @ [3 + 4+ 2J p = PLQ [2 jM 1COMBINI~G l"L(*) = 0.® ) 1 Mp e [~ + 2 . ® = and @ l 6 . jMp PL (~ 0 .444 PLI 1l 4L MECHANISMS. that this'does not mean that it cannot combine with other elementary mechanisms GABLE MECHANISMS I @ = and @ I +~ (6. (It should be noted.205.24) Since there is no external work associated with elementary Mechanism ~. this pattern of hinge combinations need not be considered.000 = 1 p PL~" I 0.3) FCH ~l'HE 6.17 BEAM i· IMECHANISMS. 1 7 ( c ) ) Mp 0 0 = and . Mp 8 6. ( Q)' through .27) [7 = + PL 8 + 2] FL0 (6 Ip M (~) = 0.L . or M = 4.@ I + ~ (6.32 (6.
17(d:)) M p 8 [~2+7+8+~ =PL8 [1+1+6+~ 'l.205.29 ) Note that Equations (6. (6.27) and (6.30) It 1s now necressary to.470 PL [(6. 6. carry out an equilibrium ch§ck.32 (6.470PLl or P = 2. .3) I 3L COMBINING MECHANISMS ® + @ + @ l (Fig. 6.13T Mp (6.17(e)) Mp 8 [fr4+7+8+~ =PLe [3+1+6+~ I ® Mp=PLf2t2:v)= 0.29) give the same size of member. equations.L ] COMBINING ME CHANISMS (D+ 0+ @+ @ l ~p (Fig. Assume that the correct value is given by these I Mp = O.26).
_13~' TMP M AH p 1{1~) Mp Mp ~ } I L 1.3) 2_.OOMp A B c M p = 0. ..265 ~ .19..205032 6.125 Mp BV = 4. tev ] Fig.G.l5f By considering equilibrium of various parts of the above structure the following reactions are computed AH :.e. I.I3L" ~ L13~ 1.o  tAv fBV .[ .~~{ ~ ~ Mp 'l. 0. 6..19 (6.DaM p I.: .500 ME L BH = 0 } A v = 2. (6·3l) The moment diagram is then as shown in Fig.470 PL Thesolution therefore is' the correct one: i. Mp 1L BJ!.
6~2l. L JI Fig.f 2 lP Zp .. To simplif.32 6. 'l. . 2:.p . !> 3" '2 L 2.E 'Z. 'l. of possible hinges 5 .E ..e:::'l. '2 .20 (6... 3 17 ..L ~ z...3 _ 7T11TT mT1T j sibility that 17 hinges may form.20 it is desired to obtain the maximum load. ~'2.L~L IF i '3'. Therefore.."4 L L .Joint Mechanisms These are shown in Fig. L I. J.(0.! p @ \ L @ 4: 1:.elementary mechanisms 7 . 1:.. 6..10 I L . 'l@~4 G 5 14 '~(Q 11 @ @ L @ L @ _...4 ~ For the structure shown in Fig.(0.Beam Mechanisms 12 3 .redundants 12 . L A' p ..2 2. ..y the solution the uniform: vertical loads have been assumed as concentrated ones as shown in Fig. 7 8 @~ 10 1\ ..  ~ Mp lIlTIIImITIIIl M p 2Mp 2M p M p M p .205. 6.Panel Mechanisms 2 .. ~ 3Mp 2Mp 2M p L . Pili to which it may be subjected. 111 ~I .4) EXAMPLE 6.no.£ P P 11 I~ L z.L For this pos~ loading there is a J~.
+6 ® 12 13 ~ It Joint Mechanisms ""'Cc @ FOR BEAM !MECHANISMS G): ..5 +~~ = Mpe [2 + ~8 + ~J (6.33) @> ~e .6. @ ® Panel . 3 '2L ··r r r 3" FOR BEAM !MECHANISM ®I p .21 ® Beam Mechanisms  .@ e (6.b.2Z[ Mpe ~ p t IP ~ PL8L4 + fl 3 .nd CD) = IFig. 4J il Ip=8~l (Note: hinges value 2 Mp .) (6. <O. Mechanisms .31) 7. will have a 2PLe [~ +.34) 1. and ®I (Also @ 1 q. .... and 11.. ..
67 ¥l . l~~ p =16 ~[ COMBINATION OFIMECHANISMS p @+@ + @ I @ @ fJ ~t PL8 ~+~== Mpe[1+1+2+2+1+~ (6...9 e .8 . + 2 + 2 + ~ (6. = 2.e == Mp 8 [2 ~ (6.205.35) PANEL MECHANISM PLe == Mp 8 [2 I (2)1.36) lp = 8 ~] @ + 4 +.£ '2.22 PANELIMECHANISM(§)l .".32 ··.L~) 6.(6.38) I p = ~ 1:'. (6. 1 + PANEL MECHANISM ~ I.37) j ...
32 (6.205. 6 ..39) Assuming thiS is the correct solu'tion. .4) 6.19 ~ I (6. 24.23 @+®+®+®+(2)+@l Using instantaneous centers or I P = 2.reaetions will be detenn1ned from Fig..
" Cv = 8 0174 Mp/L CR = 1.19 L In the following lecture (No. .on is the correct one I L. BV = 9. P Mp = 2. Such cases arise when the mechanism is a local one and portions of the structure remain statically indeterminate at ultimate load. 6.. soluti.4?>4...4) CONSIPERING EQUILIBRIUM OF _THE VARIOUS PARTS reaction valu~s 6. .25. V ·=0.e. tooMp The equilibrium l.00 Mp Therefore.346 Mp/L ~ Dv = 40127 .Mp FmmtmrrmTlnnrlmW1===:j2.(6040) Mp/L = 0.000 Mp/L diagram is then as shown in Fig.7) cases will be treated in which the equilibrium check cannot be made by use of equations of statics alone.516 Mp/L AR =0.937 Mp/L . A Mp/I.24 the following are obtained.205.32 (6.927 Mp/L mo~ent % = 1.253 .
..5 I i I 1.. Q3 I ~  ~ I rr0 w ... Sf.25 ...Note: A = La  [&1 I I I~ L I ~I I DESI GN CUQVES[ I I I 0.32 APPE:NDIX 6. l~··I I A II '\ r.... r  t t ~..::::::: t 0. ~ I r~ I .. ! _. r".205.r.1 I '\.r t..r.\ I P :Cij:~ I ..r c: rr.. .10 .. ~ l " ..( y..r... I I +.r~ ~ 0. '. "' 111111111111 onel Mechanism r':::: 0.'. .trr ~l"... ! I ' I _ ' 111111 ~ :c::L I rI I "'" . '\. QI ~  r..0 a b .15 r ~ l " I" ~ c~mposlte MeChanl5m~ III " I· ....  '... I I 1'.
7 A P P L I CAT ION 7·1 o F M E C HAN ISM METHOD (Equilibrium Checks on Solutions Determined by Mechanism Method) SCOPE: Determination of equilibrium solution as a check on the analysis obtained by the Mechanism Method . Is load determined by the "Mechanism Method" the actual ultimate load? overlooked? Was no favorable combination PROBLEM: Since the Mechanism Method gives too high or at best the ultimate load. 5.4) It is desired to find a possible moment distribution throughout structure.• then it can only be the correct solution.205. is established. neglecting a more favorable combination could result in overestimating the true loadcarrying capacity.32 Lecture No. establishing a possible moment distributfon throughout the structure. To make sure. Referr~ng to the example of a 2 span frame of Lecture #5.1. APPlication of equilibrium check to previous examples. .1). Pu Mp = P II = 6. 5.60 L (5. out of the 10 possible plastic hinges Mechanism II (Beam 810) . A case will be considered which cannot be solved by the procedure used in the previous lectures (equation of static equilibrium). Fig. If no IM\>Mp then a lower bound Since the computed load thus becomes both an upper and a lower bound . the frame failed by beam mechanism 810 (Mechanism II). an "equilibrium check!' is needed. Referring to the example (Fig.
I)  Il ! 1 A Determinate M= 1 1= 0 . M = 2. I = 0 ! IFig" 1. (7 .L For the present case: X = 6 M= 3 I = 6 . M = 3. and 10. M = 3. I = 0 .1 It ' x = 2.(Ml) = remaining redundancies As illustration to rule. Hence the structure is still 4 times As a rule it can be stated~ stati~ cally indeterminate. I = .developed 3 plastic hinges at 8. independent equat~ons Out of the 4 of equilibrium (corresponding each to a local mechanism) 3 are left over to determine the remaining 7 bending moments. Rule: x = redundancies of original structure M = developed plastic hinges for given mechanism I = X .(11) = 0 t ~ x = 1. .(31) = 4 . 9.x = 3.
5) Mio = ~~ M. Ultimate Load Developed Moments Pu = P = 33 Mp II 5 L MS Mg 7..2(a) the following expression can be written down: .' ~ Mz.9 3Mp ~o (0) 2Mp M p Moments positive as shown M.( )( M. 2 ) (7..205·32 Using a momentsign convention as shown in F. Ms )( Me M Mo Gl M.3) = = 3 M p 3 M p 2 M p (7. '. n }. 7.3 (7.:.l. .g.4) (7....J M~ (b) I .
1) and determine the remaining values from tne equilibrium equations.3) to (7.M (7. The aim is to find a possible moment distribution which does . For Ex a solution a judicious choice of 4 moment: values is made.1 1 5 M5 = 2: M4 + '2" M6 + 30 Pu L (7.32 p 7.h Z· (b) (c) Cd) Equations of Equilibrium. (7. ) . The .4 IIIL(" L 'C ~ j~) Me (0) Z L (.7) (7. Beam 46 Joint 67S Sidesway.S) relate 10 bending moments.' 7.205.S) 6 eqs.1 TRIAL AND ERROR METHOD One approach is to guess "I" redundant moments (Eq. 7.6 ) M6 + M S =0 7 . perience will cut down on the number of trials that must be made.
2140.2(b). then the mechanism under consideration does not correspond to the actual ultimate load. (Journal Institution of Civil Engineers. Very often the indeterminacy is only 1 or 2.7) and are M6 = .5 not violate the plasticity condition: Assuming: Ml M 2 M3 M7 = = = = ~ .) .7. only be the correct solution. 19501951.M p M p 4 = 10 M 3 (7. such that a few trials .(7. Vol. hence the solution is a lower bound. will immediately lead to a result. If no distribution with IMI ~ M p can be established. pp.5) to (7.moment diagram is shown in Fig.M p + M p  2 M p the remaining 3 moments are determined from Eqs. 35. For more complicated cases it may be Being already an upper 'bound it can preferable to use a "method of inequalities" as applied by Neal and Symonds. Note that nowhere is the plasticity conditlilon'violated. 7.10) M = 17 M 30 p 5 The corresponding bending. The presented procedure leads only in relatively simple cases to easy solutions.
l. is subjected to a central load P and end moments M L taken positive when acting clockwise (as shown). In short. Moments within beam . end moments can be superimposed without disturbing the equilibrium.are taken positive when producing' tension in lower fiber. Before taking up the example of the 2 span frame. the method is a . Result: Similarly for M R (diagram (d)). S1.32 (7. Following table gives influence of unit changes in moment (carryover facto~s) . provided the reactions ~ can be taken by the supports (moment diagram (c)). English) that is much simpler than the use of method of inequalities. Beam and L~R MR. AM ·1 1 0 0 1 1 i 0 2 1 / .2) 7.6 can be made (Horne.3). Equilibrium for the load P is established by P (b) and the reactions 2.fioment r· balancing process.per a simple beam moment diagram imposing end moment M L does not disturb equilibrium of P. Fig. having members intersecting at right angles (as in the present case) an equilibrium check 7. (7.205.2 MOMENTBALANCING METHOD For rectangular frameworks.. On a given moment diagram in equilibrium.. th~ equilibrium of a single span beam is investigated. having some resemblance to moment distribution'.
.32 (7.IMI ~ Mp. Mp. positive moments within beams produce tension in bottom fiber. = 1 etc. 5 6 hence M4 = .60 ~ corres M8' M . Change in reaction at right support is L(~ML +AMR ) • With this information the example of 2 span frame is investigated. Note that no consideration to continuity is All that is desired is a possible moment diagram in equilibrium with applied loads and fulfilling the plasticity condition .46 M column moments are determined from the horizontal (sidesway) equilibrium: Since columns '27 and 3. moment distribution is given. M p .. and M 10 have their respective 9 plastic moment value . + 2 Mp.0.205. it is assumed that . .46 M p . The sign convention is that positive end moments turn the end of the member clockwise. and M6 = + 0. given. C' then M "1 ' MR. 7.The 5 = + 0.10 have twice the plastic moment value of column 14. M R not at all.4(a) a starting For load P = 6. p. ponding to Mechanism II In Fig.3 M p .1 Unit change of nML may change MC by 2 . moment of 3D PL = 12 M p. + 3 M The loads on beam 46 produce a statically determinate bending.2) 1 7. 5 11 The arbitrary assumption is made that the end moments M4 and M take half and M the otherhalf.46. (Mechanism II). Or it it is desired not to change M L = 1 will require.
08 o.. Z. =~ 2"  .Gl~ 0.2) 1£ t3 5 ~ e O.83 I.BSI 0. 5 1 + 2. 34 Z 0.?> .50 0.205·32 (7. 7.11) one gets 1 M .~~ 7 ~ 1.'..00 \ e>.34 2 O.00 Moment diagram tensile side (b) 0.<OG 10 .ICP .50 +0.57 I to.31 . IC.col 11.••••••••• M 1 .(DGl +3 9 10 +2.G.so 1+2.>1 I a.<0" I'L.'2.13) .33 ~ L (7.4 [ Replaced in (7. \ 3. [ FIg.1<0 I 0.oo 0. ~M 1 O.GoGo ///1 ' / / 3 0.001 11.//77" 7li7r ' " (0) / 3 O.25 ~ o.50 0./'.4.
66 to the column and +0.25 to the column • As the changes in column moments affected the horizontal equilibrium.00+3..50) = 3.6 .50:.040.g M6 + 1 1 5 3D PL = M p (Oi.. M2' and M3 are required such that the 'sum of all changes ~ AM = O.... PL * Note the difference in sign convention to Eq.2.57 to M l ..g.00) = 0 M 2 + M 4 + M l ":+ M IO + 2" 7 + M 3 + M = M p (0'.. A record is kept of the change in column moments in a separate .)831.003..5 0+O.. The final moment values are obtained .34 to the column.. 7.00 M M6 +M 7 + M8 = 0 = M p (1. changes in M l .8.00+~. 0.. M2' and M3 does not produce moments in excess of the plastic moments and results in LM i= 0 (see table in Fig.08+2. = 0.7.4(a))..  .50.9 2 ). and 0.2) Except for the Joints..* Beam 46: M5 = "2 M4 ...32 (7. .54. Next joint 10 is balanced by adding 1. Adding +0.46 M p B~am 810: Joint 678: Sidesway: M p 9 = ~ M8 .table.30)= 0. 7. moment.205.0.20 is to add +2..~ MIO+... Adding 0.50..  As a routine check the equilibrium of the different parts is investigated. 5 hence M4 = +0..00.9 Joint Considering that the plasticity con dition should not be violated the only possibility to balance 3..00+5. nothing carried over."1..161..23.. moment M4 balances joint 4. 7. The latter is carried over such that no change in M occurs. 678 is balanced first.54 to the beam 46. PL =Mp(1. by adding up. the structure is in equilibrium..
Actual solution (precise moment values) is of no interest.2) The balancing:process produced a bending moment distribution which is in equilibrium with the loads and which does not violate the plasticity condition L 7. (7.The location of the new hinge becomes apparent . However it should be kept in mind that all conditions of continuity can be disregarded. Remarks: The balancing process appears to be quite arbitrary.32 (7. Cases where no moment distribution can be found such that \M\~Mp indicate that the assumed mechanism does not correspond to failure mechanism.205.. . violating every rule known from the Cross Moment distribution. Both are possible equilibri~m solutions. (7. A little routine is needed to apply the procedure.4(b)) differs with ~ig. .during balancing process.60 M therefore the correct failure load.10 \M\ ~ M p.2(b)) is of no concern. Hence the load p is also a lower bound for the failure load and is p = 6. The fact th~t the diagram shown in Fig.
Transactions. M. 7.32 (7. 1954.1 Horne. R. p. Proc.2) References 7. Inst.205. 7. Vol. M.11 "A MOMENT DISTRIBUTION METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF STRUCTURES BY THE PLASTIC THEORY". . 119. J. 1143. April 1954. ASCE. "DESIGN OF FRAMES BY RELAXATION OF YIELD HINGES".2 English. p~ 51. of Civil Engineering.
5· LOAD ROTATION CAPACITY S. ." Since knowledge of' deflections .it must not deform too much out of shape. since a structure proportioned by plastic methods has restraining moments that are not present in conventional "simple beam'! design. LEe T ION S ·Plastic design is concerned direetly with loadcarrying capacity. .mary design requirement . 3.205. . OUTLINE: 1. beyond elastic limit a.Method :"'.stic design .8 C AL C U L A T ION SCOPE: o IiI D E F.l IMPORTANCE OF DEFLECTIONS Prj.ct~.tions to estimate deflections .stru.::. Proolem of deflections is r:.pplieation of slope .ot critical to pla.. IMPORTANCE OF DEFLECTIONS FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS DEFLECTION AT ULTIMATE LOAD DEFLECTION AT \~ORKING 2. . applied to computation of required rotation capacity ~\p. The frequent result is that I1 s imple beam" deflection is usually greater'than that of a structare designed by plastic methods.nd at ultimate load. .deflection . .'M¢ curve makes possible a. t hinges. ~.' .rable. equa.1 Lecture No.is sometimes des:l..lre must carry the load Secol1clary requirement . this lecture presents a Idealization of . 4.method of obtaining estimates. .~"..32 8.
EI. Idealized M¢ relationship (Fig.1) Purpose of Deformation Analysis 1. Estimate of deflection at working load In certain cases.2 Determine approximate magnitude of deflection at ultimate load Load factor of safety does not preclude the rare overload. (c) unlimited rotation is possible at hinge sections (M = Mp ). What is corresponding deflection? 2. Assumptions and Conditions (In addition to the assumptions inherent to plastic analyai~:: (a) . .12). (b) each span retains its flexural rigidity. design may limit deflection at Pw ' 3.32 (8. 8. Research purposes Does a test structure behave as assumed in the theory? Preliminar'y to study of tolerable deflection limits . 8.205.2 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1. consequently. for the whole length between hinge sections. A check on hinge action (Rotation Capacity). . 2.
205·32 (8. b * See.4) are considered in the analysis. (b) Secondorder effects tend to increase deflection and decrease strength.ections..e· b. Limitations None of the "Factors Affecting M¢ Curve" (Art. just as the structure attains the computed ultimate load there is continuity at that section at which the last plastic hinge forms. the slopedeflection equations may be used to solve for relative deflection of segments of the structure. Stage 2" Fig. 2.M = H . Illustration: " \ " )H Ignm.2) An important principle: r. Since the mmments are everywhere known (Lecture #7).* Although "kinks" form at the other hinge s. 2. . 2. (a) Catenary forces Also ignored are: tend to decrease deflection and increase strength.19. for example.
2.Methods of Analys is DefortI1..eB. .6).4 ex J: ¢ dx and6x = J: ¢ • x dx. for example. The M ¢ Curve: Note.205·32 (8.2) 3.cs It form .a_d_ _ * """T I p 1 Plastic Tgeory \ 2 I deal i zed M¢ 3 StrainHardening ("Hinge Method ll ) Note: For a linear moment distribution.' 8.= E~ in the elastic range. ~~diagram isa Assumption 1t21t simplifies calculations of e and ~ . Eq.8tion analysis is based on M¢ curve (¢'. in the expressions. M¢ DIAGQAM (3 ASSUMPT'ON~) Effect of assumptions on ¢diagram for simple beam: LO. . the rotated plot of the M¢ curve. Comment on. the term ¢ = . Member is elastic except at hinge sections where l'kinJ.
2 (8.4 for nomenclature.8.'. 8.'205. throughout (see Fig. Pu SIMPLE ~_.@ IFig. 4. SlopeDeflection Equations The following form of the slopedeflection equations will be 'used.32.1 ) e~ (+) .3\ gives reasonably precise approximation to loaddeflec·tion curve.L~ /.5 (. M eel A L A = A + L + 3EI ( M ' BA) AB.2) Influence of assumptions on loaddeflection curves: /0). Clockwise M and e are +) 8. <7 <7 t:.onclusion: The "Hinge Method IT . p "P~ " p t BEAM C. 8.
1.sl . Examples IEXAMPLE 8.11 (Fixedended beam. namely (a) (b) (c) Ultimate load and moment diagram (from plastic analysis) Slope'deflection equations (Eq. calculate the deflection' on the assumption that each hinge.8.i) 8.32 8.~0) .) 2. 8.5 IFlg..3 The information needed for computing relative deflection of segments at ultimate load is now available.and thus the last .205. a few examples will demonstrate that a simpler method is available. uniform vertical load. is the last to formo (d) The result: The correct deflection at ultimate load is the maximum value obtained from the various trials. s. (a) ulttmateLoad. .6 DEFLECTION AT ULTIMATE LOAD (8. (From Fig. in turn. However. CD (wL:W ® ~ II I I I I! I! W u (b) Mc?m~nt _ l6Mp L I! ® I I Iii iii I I~ L Diagram:' and Mechanism: .3) The principle of continuity at "last hinge" (see page A somewhat complicated But which is the last hinge to form? elasticplastic analysis could be carried out to determine the stepbystep formation of hinges .(Eq. 2~19)' Fig.3) 8. hinge.
2).. OV2 1 M12 8 2 =82 + . Mp ~ 2) 6 ] V2 =+ .+ .ulat. . what is the effect of incorrect assumption? F:ree body: I Slopede~lection Equation for 12 (8 1 = 0): I bVl . i}2 .1.:._'.ed: valueSitl terms "of idad.(M 2l ...82 = 0): P ~_ _(l. assumed at Section 2 L72 Mp ~V2 L/2· Mp + 3EI (." ... l2EI .ms at 112".'.(.205.1M2. 5c<f1ortal:D. .~ . CD { ~:::=tMl'l. 3EI P 2 * See Ref 8.l2EI + _Mp L deflection with continuity.3) (c) Computation of Vertical ~Deflection ITRIAL AT SECTION 2 l (Section 2 a~sumed as last hinge to form) 8. 61 = 81 + ~ +3EI (M12 M21) 2 o = + ~ + [VI + 12EI L/2 (M + l'IIP ) L/2..: Slopedeflection Equation (. 1 3EI e~ = Simple beam end rota tion* =  6V2 = Vertical o .32 .' j TRIAL AT SECTION 11 Even though it is obvious that last hinge for..Mp ~~E~ .~""_.6 fo~2l: Freebody diagram: Fig.
6\Jl' 1 (M 6 2 = 8 2 + 1.:IJ. .< . = deflection ..' . .205.f · (2) A "Kink" has been removed at Section 1 (compare wt'th. 8. b~ '.'Fig.3) Note: (1) A lesser deflection was obtained for the incorrect as~umption.' . L/2 ( Mp Mp. 8.' . By rigidbody' rotation th..32 ".)J.8 (8.. ". (8 )(~) = .5) (3 )A: 'lIhe.rough the angle 8 0 (Fig.Mp L + 0 + . .7).2 e This is the basis of an alternative method for computing the deflection .. 2 ~ MoL 6E:I Rigid body'rotation: bVl~ deflection computed on basis of incorrect assumption =0 due to rigld body rotation L .)  = .+ 3EI 21 82 M~2) . (opposite to (2) = . the f_ kink is removed and correct deflection may be obtained: Slope at Section 2 (82): .' . I ._. +.".gativel' slope discontinuity has been created . l2EI ~ . ~O . . <~" 8.
8.8(b)) 'p u L _ 9f"1p ~CI\ ! ~i_P_ _ 3 2L @~ (0) ~ M p (b) (b) Moment Diagram and Mechanism (Fig.205·32 (8.8) (c) Computation of Vertical Deflection (c) ITRIAL AT SECTION If (Member 12. 9EI 821 = 823 . concentrated load offcenter) (By equili Ultimate Load brium. Freebody: Fig. 8 . 8.81 = 0) Fig.+ 3EI M 12 .3) ~XAMPLE~I (a) (Fixedended beam.10 Slopedeflection Eqs.ssumed at Section 2: 8 21 = 8 23 ). ~ VI 1 ( o =0 + ( _ 6Vl L/3 + L/3 (M + I'>1p) 2 3EI p Mp L2 oVl .9 '\ Freebody: Slopedeflection Eq.+ 54EI ITRIAL AT SECTION 2[ (Continuity a. for 21 and 32: 8 8 21 23 = 6V2 + L/3 (f"1 L/3 3EI p i1""'+~~=___ M~~" b\ll en ) + Mp +~) 2 = 3~V2 _ ~p L L l8EI IFig.: 8 1 = 8 1 + 7. 8. 8. Fig.10) = ~V2 + 2L/3 2L/3 3EI (M _ Mp) p 2 =3~V2 2L + MpL.
. are impossible) and produce smaller deflections . MAXIMUM DEFLECTION (LAST HINGE) The maximum deflection occurs when last hinge is assumed to form at Section 3..3) JTRIAL AT SECTION 31 Freebody: Fig.32 (8. 8. 2. . by comparison with correct mechanism. for 32 (83 = 0). 83 = V3 + _1_ (M32 1 3EI J M 23 ) 2 p) M o ~ = 2L/~ ~ V3 +2L/3 (M 3EI 2 ·M L21 p 2 f('v' "3 = + 27 ir .. All other assumptions result in "negative kinks" (Which. (b) The largest (and correct) value is obtained when the correct assumption is made as to the last hinge.and thus a lesser deflection.10 Slopedeflection Eqs.11 (Continuity at Section 3) 8.205. . Conclusions and Summary of Procedure Conclusions: (a) A wrong assumption as to which hinge forms last introduces a "negative kink" . . (c) The correct deflection may be determined from a wrong assumption through mechanism motion. .
205. Further Example EXAMPLE 8. (2) Compute the deflection of the various frame segments assuming. (This is also an alternative procedure.l2) (a).analysis) (b) .32 (8.8.3 (Rectangular Portal Frame.(c) Moment Diagram and Mechanism Freebody Diagrams Fig. Solve slopedeflection equation for assumed condition of continuity. (4) A check: From a deflection calculation based on an arbitrary assumption" comp~te the "kinks 11 formed Remove the "kinks 11 due to the incorrect assumption.3) Summary of (1) Pr6cedure~ 8. Ultimate Load (by plastic.l2(b). that each hinge is the last to form (a) (b) Draw freebody diagram of segment.) 3. 8.11 Obtain the ultimate load$ the corresponding moment diagram and the mechanism (from plastic analysis). (3) Correct deflection is the largest value (corresponds to last plastic hinge). 8.l2(d) . by mechanism motion and obtain correct deflection.(c) Fig. Fixed Bases) (Fig. in turn.
3) (d) Computation of Vertical Deflection ..l' L 8... (923 J h=~ (0) = I 921) .32 (8.. 3EI P " 61 = 0) o= ~Hl 0 + J HI L/2 + L/2 (M + 0) =+ p12EI M L2 .:.. Continuity at Section 2. _ 26V2 + Mp L 23 ... L ~Vl £ ( MBA) AB ..12 p... ~) 2 \ . 2 (c) ~ e 26V2 L = 2&H2 + lVIp L L' 12EI M L 12EI M L _ 26H2 12EI L p p ++ IT I .A. 1. ___.(M p ] TRIAL AT SECTION 1 I : Member 12.= 0 6 21 21 + bH2 + L/2 (0 + Mp) L/2 3EI .205 .L12EI .... ..~ 6 A = eA + + 3EI M r I (6) e 6 23 = 0 + L/2 ~V2 + L/2 (0 + 3EI ..
.M PL . if at all possible. for example).32 (8. The Method: (1) Divide computed ultimate load by F. the load factor of safety.2L mI ITRIAL AT SECTION 5l Similar procedure using 6 5 = 0 ~V5 = M pL2 24EI (Last hinge at Section 1) M L2 Correct Answer = l~EI 8.3) 8. I TRIAL AT SECTION 3[ G32 = G34 bV3 L/2· 632 = 0 + L/2 + 3EI (M p + 0) 6 4 3 = = L 2~V3 MpL . solutions are already available (AISC handbook.13 .205. For certain standard cases of loading and res~raint. But it is desirable to avoid the elastic analysis.6EI p ) =2!::N3 + MpL 0 _ bV3 + L/2 (M _ M L/2 _ 3EI P 2 L 12EI 832 = 6 34 M PL2 bV3 = 16EI jTRIAL AT SECTION 4l Similar procedure using e43 = 645 ~V4 2 . (2) Solve for working load deflection from tables.4 DEFLECTION AT' WORKING LOAD 1. Beam Deflections at Working Load Usually the structure will be "e l as tic" at working load.
= 12 ~ (8.13 (dashed line) a crude approximation may be obtained from: ~u ~w = F t (8. they may often be estimated and the above technique employed..14 ~XAMPLE~I (Fixedended beam.4) 8. 3..  From . 2. ( WL3 0= 384EI (w = o M L2 022. General Nature of LoadDeflection Curves' The "Hinge Method" provides a convenient means for visualiZing (and calculating) loaddeflection relationships. 2).lL. .88 L Note: W. A Crude Approximation ("Last Hinge" Approximation) As illustrated in Fig. 8.5 T 1. uniform load) From Fig. WW .Wu F Wo B f This is the point calculatecl in previous examples Mp Ww =(16Mp) (~) = 8 . W t \Nfl W.' (2:~BO}"<. EI Note: When end restraint conditions are not known.8~13a.3) The error will be greater than 100%.205.tables.32 (8. but it gives upper limit to 6w and indicates when more refined calculations are necessary.nd Eq.
(2.Elastic .W)L3 0 384EI (8.'hinge: Phase 1 (OA). From Eqs.5) By comparison with Eq.2 it is seen that the slope of portion AB (Fig. 8.15 ~XAMPLE 8.Represents slope of deflection curve of structure (a) Phase 2 (AB)'Represents slope of deflection curve of structure (b) Phase 3 (B~C) c 0 i o it:) AT f .2).4 ) the slope of the loaddeflection curve beam~ is the same as that of a simple ( _ 5 (6.Mechanism IEXAMPLE 8 .51 (Fixedended beam of Example 8. 8.2) Consider the structure as load is gradually applied and .61 (Fixedended~ uniformly~loaded beam) deflectiQn~ b.205.29) and (8. .just prior. to. ~) ~(c) Represents slope of deflection curve of cantilever (structure (C)) Phase 4 (CD).4) 8.32 (8. formation of . .13) is 1/5th of the portion OA.each .t (0) . the "elastic limit" J is 6Y' Above the yield load~ = p M L2 32EI (8.
R.L 384EI Ju Conclusion: = M p L2 12EI [CheckS with Example 8. From Fig. ¢A' to ¢ at yield.6) or R ¢B =~ .32EI + 3 (12Mp ) ( 5L3 ) .Each portion of the curve represents the P6 curve of a ll new ll structure containing one less redundant than previous one.5 ROTATION CAPACITY 1.16 (8.W y ! = 3" 1 (W y) {See Eq. corresponding deflection increments.13 is given by Where 6W = W u . 8.205·32 8. 8.4) The total deflection. (2) Deflection curve may be computed by determining . from Fig. is the ability of a structural element to absorb rotations at nearmaximum moment after reaching the hinge condition.31J Thus ( (j _ MpL2 u . It is expressed as a ratio of average unit rotation. 8. ~ (1) . Definition: Rotation capacity. 2.15 R "¢A =wy (8.
205·32 (8. H. for example. (b) Factors that may reduce the rotation capacity of a joint or section: Local and lateral buckling.~ I ~ ~ ~ r Average Unit Rotation 2. ¢'J .. general instability.5) Closely associated is the Mp 8. 2...8) . ¢st ~ 12 Rmax . Note: Selecting as ¢A the value ¢st as the maximum probable requirement? then from ad~quate Eq. required at a plastic hinge in order to realize the computed ultimate load. (c) Computations of "Hinge Rotation" are.'""WY  (8.6. M~ I :. 8.17 Hinge Rotation: the rotation..+:~.~ . Importance: (a) The plastic moment must be maintained at the first hinge to form while hinges are forming elsewhere.normally not required in design since rules of practice will assure that structural joints possess "Rotation Capacity". fracture..19. See Fig.
L¢p AL ""'AL"" 8Mp + ¢p EI.2) ~p Plastic Rotation at Joint l~ The first hinge to form is at Section 1 and thus will rotate the most. Assume: . 2. 8 1'2 + ( 812 = ~V d ( _ M2l) d + 3EI M 1 2 ~.27EI i Example 8.6 L + )Up ..205·32 (8. 8 1 = ® 'ZL 3" From Eq. (Example 8. f18 l . 8. _ 2MpL2 .6.1. extends over a short length of the beam.5) ]. .17) 16 L = 48 Average ¢B ¢B UnitRotation~ = Plastic limit = deformation = + unit angle change up to elastic 6e l + 6. Actually it (See Fig. ¢B = .18 ~XAMPLE 83 What is the ltHinge Rotation" required at Section 1 of the fixedended beam shown.1.2: °v d:: 3 ~ _ 2MpL2 1 L/3 Mp .6L = length of beam in wl1ich l\L = d M~My. Examples and Procedure 8.( 27E I) t/ + 3EI (Mp + "'2) 3 L Mz. 6.:=M p !1le1 = ~I Hinge Length: Above value assumes all rotation at a point. :. A8l rI.
5) Hinge Rotation: H .E:. p. May.Mp/EI References 8. Beedle. July {With Symonds 31(1). K. H.5 Roark. L. DEFORMATION OF Journ9.3 Knudsen. C." Journal of Franklin Institute. G. 30(7). 252(5). p. S. IIPLASTIC STRENGTH AND DEFLECTION OF CONJohnston. ETC. B.205. Welding p. Neal.' TINUOUS BEAMS II . 240s. 1951.2 8.1 Symonds. . G. 1951. L. 338. B' G.19 8. 8.8Mp/EI + 1 .¢B . IIINTERPRETATION OF FAILURE LOADS.32 (8. H 8". January.l. C. E. "PLASTIC DESIGN AND THE STRUCTURES II. H. 348s.dition. 1954.. P. "RECENT PROGRESS IN THE PLASTIC METHODS." Neal. 32(5) Beedle. "FORMULAS FOR STRESSES AND STRAIN II . Yang. P. Symonds. Discussion b~ January 1952). ETC. B. S.' Yang. McGraw Hill Book Company."wp . 15. Journal Aeronautical Sciences. 3rg. Welding Journal..4 8. R. 1952. S. J. 19(1). 1953. S.
OD I FIe A T ION S S IMP L E TO THEORY P LAS TIC Reduction of plastic moment due to axial load and/or shear...9 .. INFLUENCE OF SHEAR PROBLEM OF LOCAL BUCKLING OF FLANGES PROBLEM OF LATERAL BUCKLING POSSIBILITY OF PROGRESSIVE DEFORMATIONS UNDER VARYING LOADS.1 will be con(Note that if A F = 0 the section is a rectangle. For generality.. 9. While the simple plastic theory offers a satisfactory expanation of the observed ultimate strength behavior of proportionately loaded mild steel beams. there are several factors that it does not directly take into account. Instability problems such as local and lateral buckling..1 INFLUENCE OF AXIAL THRUST . b 9. 1. INFLUENCE OF AXIAL THRUST (a) Reduction in M p (b) Stability 2.205........ . .32 Lecture No. Possibility of progressive deformation under repeated loading. the section shown in Fig. SCOPE: M. 5.) sidered. 4.. of these will now be considered. Several 3..
..... and a bending moment~ the progressive change in stress distribution across a section as these loads are increased will more than . 5tres5 Distri bu+ions .~_ r. tan ¢ =¢ Equilibrium (from stress distribution) P = M= f cr A dA Y dA (9.e. Reduction in M p (Influence of axial thrust on plastic moment capacity) If a member is subjected to both an axial thrust.1) f cr A (9.2) Small deflections~ i. 9.. ... 9." A (J"~ " (0) (j~ Increo'S.1) The following will be assumed: (a) (b) (c) (d) Plane sections remain plane Idealized cr E 9.32 (9.2) E1.205.n9 Loeds ~ ...3.... likely be of the form shown in Fig.2 relationship (see Fig..
(modified in that it includes the influence of axial thrust) will be determined from a consideration of stress distributions (d) of Fig. 9. the MODIFIED PLASTIC MOMENT. For this fully plastic stress distribution.3.1) Since a I1 9·3 p l as tic hinge condition l1 is dependent on an infinite ¢ value.1 Since .9·41 The assumed stress distribution is shown in Fig. (j~ Yo (0) +' (b) <ry ~?~o (c) ]Fig. 9. supplies the axialthrust resistance and the (c) distribution supplies the bendin$ moment resistance.205. or (b) distribution. M pc . two possibilities exist: CASE I CASE II Neutral axis in Web Neutral axis in Flange ( 2y o ~ CASE I: Neutral Axis in Web dw) ~'D~t _ N. (and stress distribution (b)) Therefore from Equation 9. ". 9.A.32 (9. for ease of computation this has been divided into the two parts shown in Fig."' These have been chosen such that the first.4(a)j however.4(b) and (c).
cr=cIW) 1 + AF .4 [~.4 Mpc . ~.3) for Yo and substituting in Eq.5l '= = cry [Aw + AF AF (1 .fA cr Y dA = cry 9.2) and stress distribution (c) of Fig."JWi (1 . (9. 9.5 and Eq.d=:w)]' and since Py 2A cry [Aw + AF] P 1 Py = + . AFdF +} Awdw .205. gives PC MM p = 1 _ [pP (1 y + AAF ) w J 2 lr(1 + 2 A FdF) Awdw 6.NeutraJ Axis in Flange (i." (9..'= CASE I I . t) A''~A Stress DistrTbution (b) From distribution (b) Fig.32 From Eq.1) p (c) 1F'<3. (9.e.6 ) AW .bY:] Therefore since (9.4) Solving equation (9. (9. 9.4) .
205·32 (9.1)
From Eq. 9.2 and distribution (c) of Fig. 9.5 AF. 2A t M  ),d l:i) ; and pc = ( (JY 2 . ddw or
. Mpc
9.5
Mp
=
cry [ 2
AF (d+dW)
2
+ '4
1
Awd\'fJ
1
=
~ (d l:i)
2A
Mp
!(d+d) + 1 Awdw 2 w 2~ (Resulting Mpc/Mp will be slightly larger than the correct value)
Neglecting A in the expression (d 4) Eq. 9.7 gives
!
(9.8)
Substituting value for D. from Eq. 9.6 in Eq. 9.8 gives . . the .fbllowing interaction curve equation
Mpc
·M p
=
1
w 2_cr _ _.:+ (1 + ~) AF dw A w
d
[~~  Vy
(1
+
~~)  ~]
hqwever,
For general considenations, interaction equations 9.6 and 9.9 are best suited. For individual section computation,
equations can be written in the following more usable form.
(9·10)
CASE II:
[t  (1
In this discussion Eqs.
{9~6)

:)J
y
[d 
t+
(1  : . ~
y
(9.11)
and (9.9) will be used.
205·32 (9.1.)
9.9
dF d For' most rolled WF sections the average values of d and a:; are w dF d w
= 1.05
and'~
d
= 1.10
Substituting these values in equations (9.5) and' (9.9), the following curves result.
t
1.0
IFig.9.lD [
205·32 (9.1) 'l'hese curves are used in the following manner: Given that
i
9.~
p = 45 kips M = 1100 inch kips,
,/
determine the lightest section capable of sustaining the load. 1. Neglecting the influence of P and assuming cry = 33 ksi. M p = or
(l.lL~)
S cry = 1100 in. kips
1100 3 S =  = 29.2 in. (1.14)(33) (lightest section in Section Modulus Table) S = 34.1 in. 3
2. Tentatively select l2WF27 A = 7.97 in. 2 ,
A = 1·94 w
AF
3. For the assumed member
4. From Fig. 9.6 for this value of p/py pc = 0.95 M
~
which means section can only deliver 95% of its full plastic moment .
.
'Sreq. = 29.2 = 30.8 in.3 0.95
5. Therefore,
and tentatively selected member is okay.
205.32
\
(9.1)
2•
Stability ...
(Axial Thrust Plus Bending)
While Fig. 9.6 is a plot of the internal ability of a section to sustain conbinations of thrust and moment at a fully plastic stress condition it is necessary that internal stiffness be related to external moments. In so doing, deflection (and
thereby length) enters the problem, since the moment at any section will be composed of two parts: one inqependent of/and the other dependent on deflections. It should be pointed out that tests results have shown that when the maximum moment along a member occurs at its end, strengths can be predicted comparatively well from Fig. 9.6. For the case where maximum moment does not occur at the end of the member the possibility of instability must be considered. For illustration consider the beamcolumn loaded as shown in Fig. 9.7. The moment at
~Me
L
any section along the column is given by the equation
Mx
= Me + Py
The most critically deformed section is at the centerline where Eq. 9.12 becomes
9.9
If it is postulated that the behavior of the member is governed by what happens at this one critical section (i.e. assuming a deflection curve based only on the parameters length and centerline deflection), then by assuming strain distributions across the centerline section (an~thereby stress distributions) expressions can be derived which relate the quantities, P, Me and For example consider Fig. 9.8, which shows three different stages of loading of the same member. Also sketched are the
8.
corresponding stress and strain distribution patterns at the centerline section. For each.of these positions the centerline
dis~
moment, M m, and thrust, P, can be computed from the stress tributionandEqs. 9.1 and 9.2. from a geometric consideration of the stress distribution.
Curvature, ¢m' can be computed
I _
I
l
1
,
I
, ,
(
I
(O)
I
~
/
I
61
Assumed strain Distributions at centerline
61
~3
ResUlting stress Distributions +L~ at centerline
for example.16) Rearranging terms. however. Eq.205·32 9·10 (9. since If.1) Curvature. can also be related to the centerline deflection since (9. where all quantities are known but Me. Me.18) t 8 . can also be related to the deflection. It's obvious that (Me)cr corresponds to the maximum point of this curve where d Me en0 (Me)cr (9.9 (note that Me has been plotted versus &).17 could then be plotted as shown in Fig. it were assumed that the member deformed according to the equation Y then = d cos 1rX L Moment at the end. Assuming that the problem were chosen such that P was held constant at some given value and Me was increased to collapse. 9. 9.
4) uses this procedure and arrived at the following equations for rectangular crosssections (these are rewritten in the notation of this section).Y 1 h <Jy [p Jcr = E¢ 1T 2Ebh [R 2Me 7. 9.1 . These are based on the same concept but involve a semigraphical determination of cer.11 (9. b . While this· type of solution is readily adaptable to the rec.l.tain of' the interrelationships. can also be made to include the influence of residual Solution stresses~ .. 905)..... computations for the wideflange shape becomes rather involved and other means prove more workable..J. tangular section..<:. (Ref.1) Jezek (see Ref..===l P Py Ph 0. pn ELp 1 (~) 2 r J h ~.1 (L)2J 2 p] [ ~ [ Py=[Py_ _4M~J3 Cy P ! EcP I=~...:. .205·32 9.
<3. the folloWing curves were obtained for the 8WF31 section bent about its strong axis. Using such a procedure.1 . 33. The yield point stress was assumed as 1.000 psi.0 M p IFIg.1) A slightly «ifferent means of arriving at the same end result is given in Ref. Therein a means is' developed where incipient instability is determined by equating internal stiffness to external change in moment associated with a virtual displacement of the loaded member. 9.6.5 ~ ~ 0.11.205.0 *Me P ( I8W31 cr~ ~ 33 ksi t~· P strong AXIS 'BendIng t 0.32 (9.5 Me \.
) 5. 1. Select l4WF30. r = L 3.2 = 34.83 . Neglecting influence of P and L. G:"83 (12WF27 is therefore not strong enough. kips. 3 Sreq. 9. 0.41 •8 in . 3 ).8 0.2 in. this section the following are computed P P Y = 0.~or ~ .0 in. Therefore 2 = 35.re p = 45 kips". consider the previous example.12 7.1) To illustrate how these curves are used.1 in.17.13 but now assume that the member is bent in single curvature and has a length L = 20 ft.e.2 in.l2 Me M p 4.• 3) . 2. From Fig. Ssupplied = 34. M = 1100 in. P/Py = 15. a 12WF27 is tentatively selected (Sreq.. 9. 3 . 9.86 and the l4WF30 section is okay.wh. = 29. From Fig.. 6. .32 (9. Therefore 3 Sreq.5 Me/Mp = 0.205.86 and L/r = 41.(s supplied . = 29. =29.
14. stressdistribution at section AA will be examined and it will be assumed that yielding has penetrated into the web of th'esection.i = L and the p~incipal 'stress (due to both normal . It is possible.l5.~. however.). from equilibrium consideration. The L The +(x) AI. direc~ Moreover.2 INFLUENCE OF SHEAR (or PLASTIC MOMENT) When discussing the infl~ence ! 9.14 of axial thrust ..205. A solution will be t. the influence Such is not of ea.13 and 9.ch of these conditions could be separated.32 (9.2) 9.an "ultimate strength" solution could be formulated since both bending and thrust cause normal stresses in the same tion. the case when considering shear versus bending moment and present theories of plasticity are not sufficiently advanced to allow a direct solution of this problem.. 9. I I x stressdistribution is then a~ shown in Fig.~ ~ W obtained for the case where . 9. to obtain a clearer insight into the behavior of members subjected to this condition of loading. by solving certain simplified problems. The problem to be considered is that shown in Figs.
15.. Plane .. 8.2 (M = will equal f cr.. . gives ~X + ~Y = aT .Stress Problem 2. * This is proven in Refs.. Equilibrium. t)oy 0 Summing moments at section AA of Fig. Maximum Shearing Stress Criterion For Jielding (also Mises' Yield Condition) 4. and Fig. 9. Assumptions 1....'.  ....* 3..A Elastic Part of Section Carried Shearing Forces....32 (9.... the moment at A A ' " .. 9. 9..205....ydA). Equilibrium (Note: Solution does not consider compatability) From assumpt'ion (1) (' Therefore condition (4). 9.2) and shearing...stresses) reaches a critical value.13 From Eq. O~ly ljo ~ StresE! Distribution at Section A.  . 7 and 9.
205. (9.24) Differentiating Eq.22 y~ =  l. Yo = Substituting Eq.25 between the limits cry .28) .32 (9. "2 (2 1] ) where Y'l I =L Yo Equation (9. 9.26) 'r 3 p = 4 wYo (9. (9. 9. cryw (p.X .2) Fi'om Eqs.. 9.25 ) Integrating Eq.~:~J +yand Yo 1 Yo ( 1 9 .21 and 9. (9.23) is then differentiated with respect to X 2 YoYo I or .) Yo (Note: cry = yield point stress) (9.M ) P Also from Fig.24 rYoY] L yo2 which when substituted in Eq.15 it is noted that crx = cr y (2.19) gives :~ ~ 'r == cry ~ .27) into Eq. 9.
AFdF AWdwJ M p = [ 2.30) 3D P (9.23) gives p2 0. i. = cry 3 .2) 9·17 Using a maximum shearing stress theory (and assuming that cry =0) 'rmax . 9. w .29) Considering the section shown in Fig.563 p .+ ~ cry 9.31) Since PL is the applied moment at the wall PL/Mp is the reduction factor due to shear.l~ . will occur when "'l = O. (9.31 and simplifying gives AF which can be solved for various values of A and dw/L.' . (9. or Yo = 4wcry Substituting this value back intoEq.e.205·32 (9. Since 'rmax .PX wcry = M For the case where X = L (9. SUbstituting this value into Eq.
.2 14 2 2 3Yo (2 )2 2 2 ')' 1)2 _ y~ 1 ("1 1: +""'"4 >J 1 1 = "'7 .._.. Mises' yield condition. ...Y~ 'is .2 .... 9. This then would give or. on substituting in values for the stresses. .0 "'l indicating IFIg.. + y~ ~2 {'YJ Since a direct solution of this equation for assumed yield at certain points of the web will be of the form (" .B3 . Solution will be of the form where B = 1.563. A.1. lO ..5 7J ~ '.versus .. J2 = k 2 .16 and shows that the value is almost constant over a large range of 0." 9 . could have been assumed.00 '71 .of Y6(and.1(01 .B 2 4 + B4" 8 +. ..J rd 2 (1 + 2AFdF) \~ W) 'Awdw and for convenience can be expanded in a Maclurin series of the following type M :.' _) • i.. + B2 .' .shown' in Fig'. it is first of all necessary to d~t~rminethe plinimum'value. ]" Instead of using the maximum shearing stress theory. = [ 1 1 .of 'yielding) plot of ~ ... thereby 'hav~ the 'first' possibility.l.
10 the curves shown in Fig.36) Assuming as before that ~ dF == .0 G.2) that once yield.0 'LO 3. Using the value Yo == 1.~. .'.u. p i 9.1 AWct'lIJ'!VIp . ..ing starts there will not be much reserve in strength.90 tvrp "> 0.r . (9.205.l.'d·r:1 1:1 1\1l =: 0 (9.50 .~'5 an d d d w =1._' 0.).8'=' 0.50 M \t.0 5.325 w /"6 (_'::)''.19 Mp:::t? d 2 (1 + 2 .1' A·t. ~ dw 1..o 0.32 (9.'L) .17) are obtained.0 ~~=F=F 4.) + (L 1)8_) .95 t M ps 0.
20.. tration just fills this condition For the case where pene One other condition however. Therefore this figure may be used for other conConsider. the continuous ditionsof loading.205. 9. For this case M ps = M p . . .2) 1 9. I he limitation on Eq.36 is that yielding was assumed to have penetrated through flange into web.cry and .38) ". only the magnitude of the moment and shear at the wall section were considered. .·'1 '4 1 Awdw = PL (9. P = V :!JL =A w 13 .32 (9. .that where the flanges take all the bending and the web takes all the shear. can be determined . L dw where In obtaining the curves shown in Fig. lJ!lese:'give ..17.'for example. 9.
shear will pass through zero at this section ~ Drawing the moment diagram it is seen that a point of zero moment occurs midway along the segment. 9. thus increasing its ultimate moment capacity.( V j I) Mp (c) Cd) (e) n/2. 9. / Note: Since combination of high shear and high moment can only occur where the moment gradient is high. whose failure mechanism is shown in Fig.32 (9. shown in Fig.l8(b) . (c) .l8(e) with a in Fig. Isolating the segment BC is as the free body diagram .17 equaling P 9. (Note that since point C is a point of maximum moment. yielding wi.205.18(a). ! B !C i I £: 0 (0) i I (b) M*. 9.ll be restricted and the section may go into strainhardening. The equivalent cantilever is then as shown in Fig. It is therefore not expected that shear will have too . 9.21 "  A W ilY\.2) beam shown in Fig. or n = 2a Design using these curves would be carried out ih a manner s'imilar to that described earlier for the axial load cases.
Since for most typical cases the required hinge The question for discussion then is rotation is below the ratio of Est/€y' if a flange can be strained to strainhardening without local buckling.205·32 (9. Obviously this is not possible. however. and 2.. How much rotation is required to develop the necessary hinges. (The advantage of using this procedure is that in the strainhardening range properties are again linear as in the elastic range.2) 9. I. then it is satisfactory for plastic hinge action. it is evident that this value will change for each structure and each loading condition considered.3 INFLUENCE OF LOCAL BUCKLING OF FLANGES It was assumed in all previous lectures that the cross section kept its . in regions of constapt shear where the web may be subjected to shearing stresses near the yield value. The problem does become serious. What geometric proportions of member'segments can supply this amount of rotation without the occurance of local flange buckling.'orj. two fold. Considering the first· of these.ginal geometrical shape regardless of the amount of deformation to which it was subjected .22 great an influence on the actual maximum bending strength of beams.) .. 9.
(From Ref.3) Regarding the second question. the determination of the necessary geometry of the section such that this condition can be realized.43) =. a detailed discussion will not here be attempted other than to point out the basic differences. 9.205·32 (9.9).J y The main differences develop at this point with regard to the assumption of the properties.. Each has essentially been based on the following differential equation: 04w d4 W D . mnter~relationship between the basic material These have been summarized in the following chart for several of the presently available theories.J x Dy + 4 Gt I Etx I Dy and 2H (9.. w 2H Dx + + y oy4 2 2 4 2Jx QX y 4 a =t (J X W  d2 ax 2 (9.. availabl~ theories of Since there is at this time apparent disagreement between these various solutions. / .42) where Dx = lV V x y = Ety I lVx V y Dx + . the solution of this problem is dependent on the acceptance of one of the presently plasticity.
ec 4E Et E + 3Et Esec 3 1 '2 Hande1mann Et Prager' E 2(1+.9 ) '~ \ / 'Ar: bitrarlj /0 0.. 0 \0 0 y(EqU \ 1I.J 1 1 3 Et +2 2 ~sec Bij1aard Ilyushin Stowell Et Et 1 +3~ 4" 4 Es. V'F bending test EJ 'IF compression test A Angle compression test.32 (9.j )(E + Et ) ..205.Jx \Jy .ich Kaufmann Etx Et Et Ety E E Gt iE Et 2.) 1) E 2 [Et ( 2J 1) + E] 2E E +3Et Rather than discuss the merits of any of these.19 which is a plot of test results compared to two of these theories._.J~ EEt ~ J~ Et .V) Et (2. 9. r1. consider Fig. rrheony B1e. Curve t Stowe I \ ~..3) r·······_·_..(1 +11) E Et (1 +.12ef 9..__..rr b ~ r=tt r=4 . 10 30 .
20 it is observed that if Ecr is to equal Est then ~ ~ 17 will provide sufficient hinge rotation characteristics. More often will be the case where all that is desired is that the section reach the elastic limit with the flanges remaining straight. however. i. It should be remembered. For 43 will be the governing value. however. d Ecr = Ey ' ~ ~ For this condition.e. 9.. It is ex the case of web buckling due to pure bending this value has not as yet been determined. to be considerably higher than 40. A similar consideration of web buckling indicates that for Ecr = Est. .3) From a consideration of Fig. pected.32 (9. that seldom if ever will a member need to be compressed into strain hardening.205. d = 34 will suffice when the section w is subjected to pure compression.
.~ __ . for the sYmmetrical I or WF shape.44) ____ From Ref.gJ OI I (9.32 9. the following equation defines the critical moment.nges to be strained to strainhardening while still remaining in the plane of applied bending moments. Equation 317).205.20. M cr .26 (9.L~ PROBLEM OF LATERAL BUCKLING In considering the problem of lateral buckling in the inelastic range of stress. a procedure similarto that employed in the preceding discussion will be used. .) L ~ CL 1=E.•_ ~I .4) 9 .fl&. assumed that for the nece~sary That is. 9.13 (page 160. it will be plastic hinges to develop. The member to be investigated is loaded as shown in Fig. 9. It is assumed that it is pinended in both the strong and weak directions and free to warp. Ct' . Since lateral buckling is the limiting condition under_study. for such a member: where. a solution is desired for the critical length of unsupported member that will allow the . a hinge rotation which corresponds to the ratio Est/Ey is required of the section under consideration.
4) If it is assumed that the section can be represented by two flanges as shown in Fig.44 may.46) Using the following for the values of E.47) = 33 ksi (The value of Est tensio~ the curve shown in Fig.}F I ! Equation 9. () EG () (r~) 3 dF 7r ~ _. 9.32 (9.21 (neglects influence of web) K / 9.) Also shown for comparative purposes is the elastic limit solution.be rewritten as follows: cr y = . 9·22 is obtained. I 4 t 2 (9..average value from a large.~·H~ ranee····. . ~tm.45) Ii I i ' .number of coupon tests. 1s an . Gst was theoretically deduced using this value of Est and other measured'lmechanical properties and initial imperfections. G and cry at the onset of strainhardening Est = 900 ksi ksi Gst = 2.000 cry (9.. 6 = A r y2 ..27 = ~ t2 A 1 .205. Tests to dete~mine Gst directly confirm this value within reasonable limits.f\ ' I '1.M cr 2 A cry dF Iy (9.
however.20) was the first to form.\5 0. 9.: ~ooo I'tt 6!1:: ~3\(s~ 50 L 100 This figure points up the seriousness of the problem of inelastic lateral buckling. should the hinge under investigation be the last to form it would only be required that the spacing of bracing be somewhat less than that required according to elastic limit curve of Fig.\0 a. While such may be the case for a given problem.205.Os ts~ ':0 q00 1'$ l ~t. that a relatively large hinge rotation was assumed (€st/€y)' This implied that the hinge under investigation (total length of member shown in Fig. It should be remembered.22. 9. . since the curve marked lionset of strainhardening" would require that L/r y between bracing members be not greater than about 20.4) D.32 (9.
First of all. it was· assumed that these loads are steadily increased from zero to their maximum value. when sUbjected to an extremely large number of load applications a structure may fail due to fatigue of the material of which the structure is made. Although this case may be approximated for many practi cal problem. these points of maximum moment are usually well braced laterally. .. Since "failure· ' may occur due to variable repeated (nonproportional) loading. in fixed rela tion one with the othe·r. Furthermore.32 More often than not. In general this is an elastic design problem and will therefore not be covered herein. it is important that each of the other modes of failure resulting from varying loads be considered. the loads re~in proportional loading. at a conn~ction etc.5 POSSIBILITY OF PROGRESSIVE DEFORMATIONS UNDER VARYING LOADS In the preceeding lectures it has been assumed that the particular str~cture under consideration was subjected to That is.205. thus restricting the length of the yielding. Moreover . 9. often the loads may vary independently with respect to each other. the case that will be encountered in practice will be the one where maximum moment (and thereby a plastic hinge) occurs not over a large length of member but rather at a point of concentrated load application.
I I \ '.205..30 A second type of premature failure may occur when certa+n sections within the structure are subjected to repeated cycles of load application that cause it to yield at each cycle: first in one direction and then in another. \ \. c. * .5) 9'./lb) .UR\JA1\.lVC. " o to (a).\' \ \~ / / I f ~_ WPtLL c. The problem is to specify the maximum load for which deflections become stable after a few cycles of load application. The last condition to be examined is . If it is assumed that the load P is first applied in a downward manner the momentcurvature relation at the wall section follows that shown from I I / I I . If at this point the load P is gradually released and finally applied in the opposite direction.32 (9.characterized by an increase in deflection at each cycle of loading.\\O~ 9. there is first of all observed a linear range of M¢ which extends .) ALTERNATING PLASTICITY To illustrate this condition..23.~<. may be thought of as plastic fatigue ~qr This condition alternating plasticity). . consider the cantilever beam shown in the inset sketch of Fig. \ (This load is often referred to as the stabilizing or "shakedown" load.
. 9. At this point. As a f:l. DEFLECTION STABILITY This condition can be visualized from a consideration of the continuous beam shown in Fig. The necessary condition then to eliminate the possibility of ALTERNATING PLASTICITY is where Mi denotes the moment values at any section "i" being il1V2st5~g8.205·32 (9. 6M.24. this value may be revised. yielding commences Finally a point (d) in the opposite direction as shown at (b).5) 0'i8l" 9··31 a value of ~ My.Pmax ' To complete the cycle. however. The point of this discussion so far is to indicate that there exist ranges of M values for which a section behaves elastically regardless of its previous loading history. It will be assumed that each of the load PB and PD can vary independently between . however. loads are then increased with the resulting behavior as shown by the dashed line defa. is reached corresponding to .rst approximation this range of moments.te9. may be taken equal to 2M ~My = 2My = ~ After sufficient testing has been carried out.
In Fig. Band The loads Cd) are first increased to the value PB = PD = W as shown in Fig. F.r===:::!:===i li ! L LOAIJIJ.s the !. When (e) 6:.J6 ® ~~o\r the loads are removed there remains in the structure certain residual moments that try to raise the beam IFig. (b) and (c)).\tlr U) absolute value of the Moment at sections C. versu.25. l. 9.32 the limits of 0 and w. Consider the case where loads are increased proportionally (Fig.205·32 9. 9. .~~========.DI\DI~ (ct.24] . 9.25 is a plot of the load.
24 (d). PB = 0. it will be observed that yielding now occurs under i IFig q. ..through the same reasoning.26. . f . This process could be continued cycle by cycle and thereby allow the plotting of a deflection versus number ofeycles curve as shown in Fig.If the first loading is again applied section c yields causing a still further increase in deflection at D. 9. b e.   _._ p. 9. e. PD increased'" Going ~ ._. .ion and variation . A The' residual moment diagram resulting from this condition is then as shown in Fig.~51 I load PD and thereby results in an increased deflection at this point ..33 off its center support. Assume that 'the structure is now subjected to loading condition (2)" (i. (that depends only on the locat. It would be observed that if W is equal to or less than a certain critical value.W s .205·32 I 9.
load. 9.50) 2· m D2 R :+ M ~.the shakedown load. would be as follows: At section (C) : IT''R + (M Cl ) ~ Mp At section (D) 1. a set of residual moments will be set up in the structure for which all further repetitions of load are carried elastically.205·32 (9.48) where as before the i denotes the section under consideration. then.34 This is the stabilizing or shakedown The problem then is to determine if such a set of residual Neal has stated it as follows: moments is possible. 11 To satisfy this condition. M p Substituting in each of these equations the values of the moments determined by elastic methods in terms of W will result in two simultaneous inequalities which can be solved for M p in terms of Ws. then the structure will shakedown.24) the procedure . 9. "If any state of residual stress can be found for a structure that enables all further variations of the external loads between their prescribed limits to be supported in a purely elastic manner. . For the preceding illustration (Fig. (9. the following inequalities must be satisfied: (9.5) in the applied loads).
24 were carried out at Fritz Laboratory.48).35 (9. 9. This gives at section B 9. the ratio is small. Another point with regard to this problem is that the ratio of live load to dead load for a given structure is important. For the particular section However. For example.205·32 (S". recent tests have shown that it may not be as critical as theory might indicate.::.5 kips.) To be sure that this is the correct answer.7 kips. then it is quite possible that the design will not be governed by the loading condition that includes wind forces even when modified to include the influence of variable repeated loading. the influence of the live load variation If will be of lesser importance. in the tests the actual value was in excess of 15. and loading the compute shakedown load was 13. I .51) With regard to the seriousness of this pr9blem of deflection stability on plastic design. it is necessary that alternating plasticity be check (Eq. however. and if 'it is assumed that smaller factors of safety are to be used when wind stresses are included in the analysis. a series of continuous beam tests of the type shown in Fig. 9. A third point to consider is that if wind stresses are responsthle for the variation in load.
55. B. Journal.F. Jqhnston. .S. 1948. 1953. 31(12) Research Supplement. McGrawHill. Octo'b.8 Prager. New York. L. ~ 9 ·36 "A 'REVIEW OF RECENT INVESTIGATIONS INTO "THE BEHAVIOR OF STEEL FRAMES IN THE PLASTIC RANGE lI . R. Noo 3. A. lITHEORY OF PERFECTLY PLASTIC SOLIDS ". London. 607s to 622's. L. XXXIX.C.Stability Bleich. ppo 156. P. Separate 692.Reduction in 9·1 Baker. Separate 330.5 Ketter. A.Welding Journal..SoC.L. 86. R. E.G. lISHEAR DEFLECTION OF WIDE FLANGE STEEL BEAMS IN THE PLASTIC RANGE lI . July.ELEMENTS OF THE SIMPLE PLASTIC THEORY". Axial Thrust . May. Mag. lIpLASTIC DEFORMATION OF WIDEFLANGE BEAM COLUMNS lI . 1955.S. lISTABILITY OF BEAM COLUMNS ABOVE THE ELASTIC LIMIT lI . Phil.G. January 1949. Univo of Illinois z . Beedle. John Wiley and Sons. Vol.54.51. J. The . 529.W. New York. Series 7.205·32 References Axial Thrust . 9.S. F. 207. 9·3 Ketter. liTHE PLASTIC THEORY OF BENDING OF MILD STEEL BEAM WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE'EFFECT OF SHEAR FORCES lI .7 Horne. November.L. 1951. Proceedings of Royal Society. Stpuc~ Res. J. Beedle. 1951. Series No.E. 9.L. pp. Ketter.8a J. g. 1952~ Roderick. Shear 9. IlCOLUMN STRENGTH UNDER COMBINED BENDING AND THRUST lI . Hall~W. 1952. "THEORY OF PLASTICITY .R.Inst~ of Civil Engrso. M. Hodge.L.E. 19. R.er. Wm. "BUCKLING STRENGTH OF METAL STRUCTURES lI . Kaminsky.
B. Stowell.5. New York. . Trans. F. No.10 9.. Report No. Vol. .15 Neal.·  Lateral Buckling 9.205.SECTION". 205E. L. Phil. "THE LATERAL INSTABILITY OF YIELDED MILD STEEL BEAMS OF RECTANGULAR CROSS. "A UNIFIED THEORY OF PLASTIC BUCKLING OF COLUMNS AND PLATES". "RECENT PROGRESS IN THE PLASTIC METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS".. I!BUCKLING STRENGTH OF METAL STRUCTURES 1. F.. E. 1952. B. Vol. G.5. G. 1951. G. "LOCAL BUCKLING OF WIDEFLANGE SHAPES". 1948. Neal.12 Neal. Thurlimann. G. 9 oJ. "PLASTIC COLLAPSE AND SHAKEDOWN THEOREMS FOR STRUCTURES OF STRAINHARDENING MATERIAL". F.. November.11 "BUCKLING STRENGTH OF METAL STRUCTURES 11.Z... May. 846. of the Royal Society of London. No. S.14 SYmonds. Voli 252.37 9. New York. Journal of the Franklin Institute. 242.1 McGrawHill Book Co.5. Deflection Stability 9. 9.. 1952. NACA Report 898. P. Progress Report X. January 1950. September 1954.. 1950. 17. Journal of Aeronautical Sciences.32 LeGal Buckling 9. G.9 Haaijer. McGrawHill. B. 9. No. Bleich.) Bleich.
1. CONNECTIONS 10.. I."J':. 1. how will compressive elements be proportioned? Requirements for lateral support to prevent buckling. S SCOPE: The design of connections to transmit plastic moments. are the concern of this lecture..1 IMPORTANCE OF CONNECTIONS Points of maximum moment usually occur at connections. PROPORTIONING COMPRESSr~ ELEMENTS 8 .32 10. HAUNGHED CONNECTIONS 5.' ) indicates that 1+1 ) all plastic hinges form at connections except one in right girder. DES I G N D ETA 1. OUTLINE: CONNECTIONS 1. STRAIGHT CORNER CONNECTIONS 4. For instance Fig.1 Lecture No. Further. How do the requirements for structural connections differ from conventional design? How are connections proportioned? In view of possible adverse effects of local and lateral buckling.1 . REQUIREMENTS FOR CONNECTIONS 3. . DESIGN DETAILS 7. IMPORTANCE OF CONNECTIONS 2. 10 CON N E C T ION S.1 (from Example 5. and the design of certain additional details to make sure that the ultimate load is reached. 10. INTERI6R CONNECTIGNS II.205. LATERAL SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS I. at corners the connection must change the I Fig 10.
fUl"l~ welded .10. due~::to.Mp ) .32 10. Conclu~ion: Connections play a key role in assuring that the structure reaches the computed ultimate load.31 3. 10. . 1 and 2.2 Also~ (lO~l) d~rection of the forces (Fig. the connecting q. 1. Column Anchorages 2. Types (a) Method of Fabrication Recent advances in plastic design are continuous construction. Haunched) I FIg. Miscellaneous Connections (Purlins.(M o possibly less than. Girts.. Splices (Beam~ Column~ Roof) 5. . Bracing) same principles apply to other Treat only No.2). Corner Connections (Straight.20~. types.3: 1. BeamColumn Connections 6. or bolts) . (b) Function Fig.evices (\1~lds<. 10.are at points subjected to the greater moments. BeamtoGirder 4. Plastic design also applicable to partially welded (top plate)ind to riveted or bolted connections whenever demonstrated that they will form hinges .'~'.rivets:.
4[ Typical behavior: t M 1r=~ II \:@ LT~oretico\ M p .205.2 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONNECTIONS l~ General Behavior The design requirements for connections are introduced by considering the general behavior ·of different corner connection types under load. .by test. (a) Straight Connections Without Stiffening (Inadequate) Connection joining  ~ . Two classifications are Both are documented .. .goIO..S[ WFI~ .a) 10.32 (lo. considered.l ~+ .Connectionrotates beyond needed hinge rotation but M p is not developed... yield due to shear force commences at low load . ~ ~ 'I (a) Loading < t (b) Deformation IF.Due to insufficient web thickness in most to transmit these forces.Z /1 \ Behavior ® I Il2eq'd I Hinge Rotation Discussion of Behavior I1AII: IFig_ IO.
2) 10. meets requirements eAll failure is by plastic instability (local arid/or Rotation capacity lateral) .4 oElastic deformation is considerably greater than value assumed... " t I e pOint of loteral support ~H I " ..205.. Behavior "B": eElastic stiffness and maximum strength are factory . . Discussion: .Connection buckles prior to realizing needed hinge rotation to assure that all hinges form. (Lecture #8) (b) satis.~..Strength is greater than computed M p OElastic stiffness is adequate. Adequately Stiffened Connections Typical behavior of several designs: Decreo5ing l2adius ..32 (10...
5 To improve H at haunched connections. Note ~ But "R" is poor. 10. They are now discussed in the light of behavior of corner and interior connections. of members joined. (6) (0) . Rotation Capacity. . . 10. . 2t .2) ". design them to yield at end of haunch by increasing inner flange thickness .32 (19. Critical Haunch Po Int section~ f. . 1\ It..205. ~'. Economy. Dissimilar members~ Develop strength of weakest member only. • Lateral support is most effective when placed at point of expected local buckling 2. (a) Strength Connection must be adequate to develop plastic moment.Haunches proportioned by Ref.. Stiffness.::R.H 12.2 have adequate strength. M p .IFi9>16~1 f . Requirements Four princip~i 0 design requirements may be formulated these requirements that are common to all connect:tons: are Strength.
Problems Above discussion focuses attention on two problems that . ~". '.7).:. extra connecting. all connections must be proportioned to develop adequate rotation capacity.. R = 12 suggested as adequate for most . cases . 1" ig. that average unit rotation of connection materials not exceed that of an equivalent length of beams joined. 3._. materials must be kept to a minimum.~. 10. Wasteful joint details will result in loss'ofoverall economy. . '?"" . but not essential. 7 ( a) : (10.~.:.r~ ::·. See Lecture #8.7(b). 10. . ~. .~l. cr'itical or "hinge II section assumed at point H (Fig.6 For straight connections (a). In Fig. critical section assumed at RIo (b) Elastic Stiffness It is desirable.10. (d) Economy Obviously.':"~ •.: .."'.: ~.2) Rotation Capacity To assure that all necessary plastic hinges will form. R.1) Mh eH = EI (0) ~L (10..:'f.~.. 10.....> 7'·'·~··. . Equivalent Length: length of haunch measured along frame line..
..3 STRAIGH'r·CONNECTIONS 1." " . Mh(iT)'. . should not be less than plastic moment..:~.".11+#. 10. ' ..5 which involved shear yielding at low load.. t) [ . How shall connections be stiffened in order that they develop the necessary strength? (2) What proportions of haunches (tapered or curved) will assure that plastic moment will occur at end of haunch? A design guide: Provide sufficient strength in the connection materials such that the critical section is at the end(s) of the haunch. V v=.10..~ "::./ ~ L I I to prevent behavior "A 11 of Fig..2) require solution: (1) . Adequate rotation capacity is more easily assured there.F\ ~ .==..8 Design Objec~ive: I d  v. . . Analysis of Corner Connection Strength (a) Unstiffened Connections Connection and Loading: Fig. Strength Requirement: Moment at which yield commences due to shear force.J.."' . 10.tFt ~o d J l!::::..._". ' . '205." .':..'.7 10. 10. Mpo I Fig.32 (lO.
Stress distribution: Fig.12) ~ 2 ly. 10.3) Assumptions: (a) (b) (c) Maximum shear stress yield condition 10.Connections Two methods are available: Doublers (Fig.10) Diagonal Stiffener (Fig.4) Note: Examination of rolled shapes (using Eq.11)Recommended .'~St1ffened .32 (10. carries flexural stress. Wd 2 cry ( d) Equating to determine required web thickness: (10.Z05. 10.4) shows that all WF's and most I's require stiffening ~o realize design objective for straight connections..9 Haunch moment at shear yield: Mh' ) VI: Flexural strength: (2. flange. (b) _.8 Shear stress is uniformly distributed in web of knee Web of knee carries shear stress. 10. 10.
.32 (10.\0 [ IFig..UJd . 10. 10.11 f w..3) Doubler: ~. 10..5).~UJr +HoouJ Diagonal Stiffener: .. An alternate method results in the same expression (Ref...205.Wd (10.. A check of WF's shows that but a small amount of material is wasted if design t s to equal flange thickness.. Equating volumes of diagonal stiffener and a "simulated doubler" of thickness A IFig.6) Note: 1.. Assume that the stiffener material acts to increase web thickness Find: Required thickness. Aw • d 2 = bt s d {2 Eq.5: ts ~ ~ ~~. t s ' for adequate design characteristics. t. . 10. 2..
10.l .y~(. Since even further economies may be obtained by considering the haunch in the plastic analysis.the product of elastic desigh donc~pt by which material is placed . Types: ~~ = (0) /I (b) If (d) I Fig.oonomy. this should be done if architectural considerations require use of such built up knees.the moment diagram~ to achievegreatest. Function Haunched connections are . in plastic design (through redistribution of moment) material is used to full capacity without necessity for use of haunches.formit.~. On the other hand.10 1. }{AUNCHED CONNECTIONS 10.4) 10 .205·32 (10.w1th'. Other functions: ·Architectural (esthetic) ·Allow use of rolled WF's where otherwise bUiltup members might be required.'possible::_e.in·corJ.I7.
4) 10. Design (a) Requ~rements Strength 1. (b) Stiffness Automatically provided in great majority of cases. Sidewise "kicking out" of inner (compression) flange is prevented by the use of lateral bracing and the requirement that inner flange remain elastic. Th:i. As discussed in connection with Fig . haunched knees may exhibit poor rotation capacity •..11 2. Proportioning the Haunch Given: General shape and size of haunch (determined by architectural considerations or from economical study of various haunches). All plastic deformation occurs in the rolled sections joined..6. Solution: Force formation of plastic hinge at end of haunch by requiring that the haunch proper remain ela. Accom pI ish this by specifying adequate thickness of inner flange. 3. 2. .205. (c) Rotation Capacity None required.stic throughout.32 (10.s is due to inelastic local and/or lateral buckling. lO.
(10. then an increase of 25% should cover both factors.) Tapered Haunch Critical Sections: A. C Flange Thickness: tF = 1.2) Basis: Present rules assure elastic action at yield moment. .. B..6) In the meanAlso check 10. 10..12(b).. since the moment at the end of haunch may increase due to strainhardening. ~ .205. Since M p is further.32 (10.(lO. greater than My by 14%.* Solution: Current study seeks to present design charts with required information based on simplification proposed by 01ander.I) d' *Normally only required for type shown in Fig.12 while... (It is assumed that flanges carry the moment.. the following somewhat arbitrary procedure is suggested.  ...4) Find: Required thickness of inner flange to assure hinge formation at extremities. Increase inner (compression) flange thickness of haunch by 25% over that required by present procedures. My. s0ear stress in knee web..25t (assumes hinge at IIA\.
Shear Stress Use Eq. . 10. using .32 (10. h.4 to check shear stress in the corner. 4. Note that the number of possible plastic hinges is increased by two.2) except to increase inner flange thickness by 25%.15 are shown possible mechanisms for frame of Fig.3. 10. Thus I (c) 1 two additional "elementary mechanisms" are added.. (10.L~ ) Secclon B: Check flange stress on basis of moment at haunch point. and depth d or d i is smaller.14. In Fig. Curved Knee Follow procedures outlined in Ref. 10. Critical sections to be taken at ends of haunch. Effect on Analysis ThE: effect of haunches is to increase number of sections at which plastic hinges may form.205.1. 10. 10.13 whichever as "d" a value corresponding to that shown in Fig.
3 and Depending on their location (top.4) 10. 10. or interior) their function is slightly different but generally the same as outlined in Art. Function and Type These are the connections shown as in further detail in 10. (b) Side Connection: Transmits beam moment to upper and lower columns.. 10. . ~ ..16..14 Same as outlined in Lectures #6 and #7. (c) Interior Connection: Same as 1I a 11 • .205·32 (10.2. Note: Reduced effective span length is an indication that lighter sections may be used when haunched corners are specified. 10.1(0 I Top Connection (Fig. side. 10..5 INTERIOR BEAMCOLUMN CONNECTIONS 1. io" ~ R h "" I..16): Transmits moment from left to right beam (column carries unbalanced moment).. r (b) Side (0) Top (a) (c) Interior IF'9· 10.. 112 11 in Fig.
.15 economy possible if it is required that plastic moment. Some slight 10.:" A rIV . 10. Stiffeners Two types are considered: ~~ 1 lP ""i .16). A. 18 1 t~=·tul1 .. Ws flange thickness. although the latter ordinarily may be counted upon for a hinge moment somewhat less 2.jj. 10.205. 0 as determined from Art 26h. t r .oment and those to transmit shear force. 10.A. stiffener plates to transmit IFig.IO.32 (10.5) Critical Section c Select critical section at H (Fig.18. M p ' must be developed at R. III m.l6(c)) and the topplate beamcolumn connections. (a) "Moment" Stiffeners Three possibilities are shown in Fig. Both types may "f be used.o. 0 Connections without: stiffeners not permitted . t . 'I Ir A ts >. Method of Fabrication The two basic types are directwelded (10. AISC Spec. I (0) No Sh ffener (b) Flange StiFFener (C) Web Stiffener IFlg.
In such a case the column web at the joint is called upon to transmit forces much like those of Fig.16 ItSidell connections (Fig. 6 PORPORTIONn~G C0rIlPRESSlVE ELEMENTS Lecture .!!Shear Il Stiffeners 10.205. 9 provides basis for the procedures suggested here.) . .4 would therefore be desirable in this infrequently encountered case.16(b)) or interior connection with large unbalanced moments may require "shear stiffening ll if the column does not carry much direct stress. In ord~r to meet the requirements of strength and deformation capacity.5) (1. 10. compressive elements must have widththickness ratios such that they will insure against premature plastic buckling. usual moment gradient. An examination similar to that leading to Eq. DESIGN DETAILS 10. greater d/w ratios undOUbtedly would be allowable.* * Tests of 14 and 24 WF connections with d/w = 51 have given most satisfactory curves. Flanges and Webs Referring to the sketchg bit d/w d/w Note: ~ ~ ~ See discussion of rotation w d 17 43 (beams and columns) (columns in direct compression) [Tentative] (Beams' in bending) 56 The above provisions were developed for members In the presence of more under uriiform stress 'or moment. II.32 (10.No. 1.9.10. capacity in Lecture #8. 10.
10". another shape will not solve the The IlBox" type has·adyantage of somewhat higher shape factor and greatly improved lateral buckling resistance .fle (b) Flange : Edge Type (d.205.beams 6 it.tain that choice of pr~blem. 8".* d/w Practically all Ibeams sat±sfactory. . 2. Most WF's sa.19 [  Note: Such devices are expensive.32 (10.6) Adequacy of b/t Shapes~ 10..~~sfactory. Stiffening On the same basis as above. Possible methods of stiffening an shape: (Stiffen in ~egion othe~lise inadequate of expected plastic moment) (a) Flange: Cover ~J..lld be used cer....17 All Ibeams satlsfactory. the widththickness ratio of compression or loadbearing stiffeners should not be greater than 8.. .) ( (3) Flange & Web: Web: Vertical L ongi. 10. tudinal Type Type (e) Flange & Web: "Box" Type 1F'<j. and 12" and 14WF30. . All WF beams except J:i.. only when it is reaso~ably They sho1...
and (in particular) to connections to assure that they will not buckle sidewise either due to lateral buckling or lateral and local buckling.7 LATERAL SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS Lateral bracing must be provided to beams.6) 10. 1. Interior Connections (beamcolumn) On the basis of tests carried out on connections of type shown in Fig. the general philosophy to be followed is to proportion details such that yield stress is not exceeded at ultimate load. 2. . MiGcellaneous Details For design of details not covered herein. "Details" should remain elastic and assure adequate plastic deformation of main framing in attaining computed ultimate load 10.205. 10.18 3.32 (10. Enclosed Structure IEnclosing material provides adequate support.ment. columns.18 without any lateral support whatsoever and in which the columns also were loaded~ [nterior columns provide adequate lateral support to beams sUbjected to the plastic mo. Assume that adequate lateral support is provided when structure is enclosed by walls or slabs normal to plane of the frame.
7) 10. 5. Beams and Girders As will be recognized from treatment of lateral buckling problem in Lecture No.20 . Locate bracing on compression flange near expected hinge locations (connection bracing usually covers this). Corner Connections Positive lateral support required on two connection types as shown by solid circles in Fig. A number of alternatives are open. 10. this will be satisfactory if the girder hinge is the last to form. Additional bracing may be required normal to plane of frame and intermediate between column ends to assure adequate strength in "weak" direction . A ~~ 'r (0) ) tb 4. a firm rule for spacing of lateral supports cannot yet be formulated.7 suggests tentatively that members should be braced such that L/r y ~ / / 100.0 l. (a) I I British Practice: Ref. 10. However. This will assure that M p will be developed.19 3. '2.205·32 (10. pending the completion of current research. . but tests on short beams indicate that it willi" not assure rotation capacity up to strainhardening. 10. .9. Columns IFig.
Bra c j.7) (.205. It is therefore logical to brace at those points at which plastic hinges are expected.20 Hinge Bracing: Yielding markedly reduces the resistance t.o lateral and local buckling.22 (typical of purlinloaded beam) Problem: Is further b·racing required other than that at the point of maximum moment? What criterion is to be used in determining its spacing? .J) 10.ng at Given: 1:. Bracing therefore to be provided at Section 3 (point of plastic moment). Check moment diagram (as follows) to see if' additional bracing is needed at Section 3. then the maximum moment will be at one of them (assumed at Section 3).. 10.::. Since the load is brought into the frame by the purlins.8 hinge A beam loaded with a gradient in moment as shown in Fig. 10.21 shows portal frame with possible plastic hinges at section 2 to 6. Check sections 23 to see that they are adequately protected against elastic lateral bucklihg.32 (10. Fig.
mined from moment diagram at ultimate load) Criterion: As an approximation.205.21 I length of beam in M) which My.9 both based on premise that rotat~on capacity up to strainhardening i~ requi~ed a conservative assumption. . (DeterPorhon of Moment Diagram.8) In a perfect column at the onset of strainhardening (L/r y ) Note: cr '. (10.7) Length of· hinge: ~L= 10.8 and 10. 10.9) Eq. two parameters may be considered or L/r y . Preliminary analysis shows that critical length for onset ofst~ainhardening bears about the same relation to "elastic limit" length as exists in a column. Ld/bt (Tests indicate that the latter may be the better of the two).32 (10.t 15 (10.
32 (10.01 x cry x A If this where A is area of member being braced.10) (10.12) .205.quate bracing? 6. in which case R =' 1.11) (Fig. 10. then.22).10 or (10. value is doubled to account for uncertain field conditions. .22 5 Lu (10. then the required force. L 0 10. T It has never exceeded a value given by = . recalculate of this less severe Lcr on the basis In most cases requirement~ last hinge to form will be in the girder. normal to plane of frame becomes. could be determined from one of the following. buckling has been measured on many tests and has always been small. Design of Bracing (a) Strength and Stiffness Force required to prevent lateral.7) 'llhe critical length.What constitutes ade. that the elastic member can provide at least some restraint Lcr = or Lcr = 20 x r y Note: If the value obtained from (10.11) is less than the purlin spacing or the value 6. T = . assuming.02 cry A (10. If less than 12. check the required rotation capacity. further.
For this reason. taper intersections). compression flange bracing is probably adequate unless required "R" is large. (b) Position Both tension and compression sides must be braced at changes of section (connections.7) The bracing member must have adequate stiffness to prevent sidewise movement.205. In beams. Note: Brac'ing members (the purlins) must themselves be braced with respect to other parts of the roof bracing. fra~e such as by .32 (10. 10.23 normal stresses in bracing merriliers should be kept low.
Report #4). ASCE. Structural Engineer (Br.l' BCSA.T95<lana.. po 2OS: 10. 2065·1F" 19540 Johnston. 195::? . Hendry.. C. 1950. H. J. No. S. I1AN INVESTIGATION OF THE S'I'RENGTH OF WELDED PORTAL FRAME CONNECTIONS 11.D. A. W.).24 10. 10. p.W. 30(8). and 31 (11r.2 10.4 10. 197. A. I1S'I'RESSES IN THE CORNERS OF RIGID FRAMES I1 . 1948.G.' 11'I'HE COLLAPSE J. Salmon.G. L.205·32 (10.A.C.19 ( 1954).l. 1. Johnston.1 Toprac. T.5 10.gan Report No. T~ans . B. Wright. American Institute of Ste~l ConBtructio~.1/38. FE.7) References 10. G •. I1CONNECTIONS FOR WELDED CONTINUOUS PORTAL FRA1\'IES I1 .54. Griffith. \'I1'e1ding J'ouI'nal 30(7). (Progress Beed1e. "THE DESIGN OF KNEE JOIN'rS FOR.<·rg5·2~.V'£THOD OIt' DESIGN '1 . D. Olander.6 I1STRUCTURAL STEEL CONNEC~rIONS"" University Schenker" L.5. 28(10). B.l' April.7 British Constructional Steelwork Association Publication No. A. of l'.3 10.R. B.ichi.. RIGID STEEL FHAMES I1 . :J 19. I1SINGLE SPAN RIGID FRAMES IN STEEL".
given a structure. Plastic Methods of Analysis) are concerned with the determination of sizes of members capable of supporting given loads at their ultimate strength. For design by these methods then..a. however. a list of several references. It is with regard to this question of the desired margin of safety or load factor of safety. .ins. It was considered.the various quantities entering in the des~gn procedure. 11 THE 11. For the sake of' completeness.r'2ty s teppedup l1 by the desired margin of C:l.1 PROBLEM o F S T Rue T U R A L S AF E T Y From the preceding lectures it is evident that the methods of analysis that we have been discussing (i. the determination of its ultimate load carry.e. has been included at the end of this lecture. Or looking at it from the opposite point of view.. One could.t this ultimate strength condition. . ing capacity. for example" start from a basic consideration of the design problem and proceed to develop methods for evaluating structural safety based on uncertainty of. which gives an indication of modern thinking on this problem. it is not unique to plastic design and" should therefore not be included in this short lecture. and that member sizes be determined from a consideration of these prorated loads. that this discussion will be concerned. it is I1 nec~ssary that the given loads be bco.205·32 Lecture No. as it is sometimes called. however. several positions or points of view might be taken. In discussing such a general topic as this.that while this general problem of structural safety is in itself important.
I.C. 11.M.88 times the working load will cause the structure to become a mechanism.) will be 1. Specification.S. the position has been taken that design based on plastic methods should have the same load factor of safety against ultimate strength that the simple beam now has when designed according to the A.14) = 1. Consider the simple beam loaded as shown in Fig.or a wide flange section bent about its strong axis (Lecture 2).T. a load 1.S. ~ Further.2 of this discussion.88 (11. Section 15c3).65 times Mw.C.1) or stating in a somewhat different way. Therefore. the allowable working load.000 psi (minimum allowable for A. A7 type steel).65)(1. since M p is approximately 14% greater than f. Spec. the load Qp will be approximately 14% greater than~. the true load factor of safety of the simple beam is (1.S.and that the yield stress is 33. The corresponding factors are determined and their use is illus~rated.65 times greater than Qw.000 psi (A. ~ (0.I. If it is assumed that the allowable bending stress is 20. since My is 1.1.205·32 For the rer~inder 11. .
2..2) where wD is the design load/ft.t. 11.205.f'etll ~ f urD~(II<'tP/#J(L~<'6) :. l 0\0 G. consider the rigid frame shown in'Fig.~g ~/~+. The problem is to determine the sizes of members required to sustain this load and have a fqctor of safety against ultimate strength of 1.0\ So. along the beam.1).diagram at ultimate load will be as shown in Fig. 2.2(b) with hinges forming at sections 4. ]1 lit I I I II I I I I t I I I I I I II I L.14 My (11. manner in which this factor should be applied.3) ..I. of beam.' Assuming that the frame is of uniform section. L I 1 :3 (a. . It is assumed that the vertical live load plus the estimated dead load equals 1 kip/ft.32 To'illustratethe. Since .ctov. 11.') ~I From equilibrium consideration of this diagram (11. and since M p ~ 1.. 3 ~nd ra.88. the moment .My = S cry.
it is found that the load factor of safety for this case is 1. 3 = REQUIRED SECTION MODULUS The· A.~S = 33.00)(1. 1 (11.88 4 1.I.14)cry (11.5) \.88 But .2 16(1..C.000) sliME FtOfl.S.· (11.88)(30)2(12) (16)(1. .C. A corresponding increase may be applied to the allowable uni t stresses in their connecting rivets. 11..4 = .~16t.2) and (11..6) It can be stated that if design by Plastic Methods is to have the same load factor of safety as a simple beam designed by the current A.. the following load factors of safety should be used: Load Factor of Safety ALL·FORCES (including wind) ALL FORCES wind  1. specifies another condition when structures are subj~cted to combinations of wind· and other forces. WDQ.. provided the section thus required is not less than that required for the combination of dead load.:~.8 in..e. bolts or welds.1. II Going through a procedure similar to that for Fig. From section 15(e): "Members subjected to stresses produced by a combination of wind and other loads may be proportioned for a unit stress 33 l~ percent greater than those specified for dead and live load stresses.41 1. and impact (if any).3) S 11. live load..LOAD rA(10(t of SP\Hi'f (1.I.. Spec.205·32 (Jl.4) or S  .14)(33.33 = 1.S...1) PDINt ~1g.
\> 2 . Pu = 2. M p l\lllllE. I I 2.P\11111 .19 or L Mp (11.P III 2~ 2f. Eq.5 in.4~)(12) (2..(21 .32 ~:. 14) Cf Y 2 .: "oul(J.(24 WF 84) .0 in. = 61.4. (10)(30)(1.3 Assume for L 717ItjnT I m wn for sketch).(16 WF WF 62) 45) (11. . } P = 10 kips (11. 3tJ.40..5 in. . 11. 3 (11.A p_ \\12P III \ I ~p illustration..41) (11..14) cry S( 1.12) ._..11) The various members then require 3 M p = 184. (See Fig. L rm NIp '17T  M p tm '11T ..1_7 (From Lecture #2) a = PuL (1. not just the wind itself.205. 11.5 in.41 is a factor to be applied to all forces when in combination with wind. 6. It \ 2.14)(33) .l.9) But since M p = S (1. 3 ~QUIRED S 1 M = 61.19)(1... .~ . 3 REQUIRED S p .8) From Lecture #6. consider example problem 6. Fo~ .L L the case shown that L = 30 ft.10) Therefore Sreq = .5 :Jr::: noted that this factor 1. 3 REQUIRED S 2 M p = 123.
the maximum unit bending stress Fb. 11. Il]'or columns proportioned for combined axial and bending stresses.32 11. the solution is not complete. and provided that the compression flange shaJ. 12(a) may be taken at 24. since a possibility exists that the beams will fail under only the vertical loads.14)(33)" = 60. Sect.1iJ.13) PL Since this value of Required Section Modulus is less than that given in Eq.I be regarded as unsupported from the support to the point of contraflemre. provided that the section modulus used over supports shall not be less than that required for the maximum positive moments in the same beam or girder. It is interesting to point out that the present A. Fig.88) 3 (3. = (10)(30)(12)(1.00 = S (1 .I.0 in. Specification (section l5(a)3) contain two other allowable bending stress provisions.versus the ratip of end span length to center span length for the continuous beam shown.000 pounds per square inch.14) CJy Sreq.C.6 vn.34 M p = 3.205.88.00)(1. From Eq.S.e for this example case it has been possible to select· member sizes. at a unit bending stress 20 percent higher than above stated. I This condition must therefore be checked using load factor of 1. when this stress is induced by the gravity loading of fully or partially restrained beams framing into the columns. (11.4 is a plot of the actual load factor of safety.12. 6. These are as follows: "Fully continuous :beams and girders may be proportioned for negative moments which are maximum at interior points of support. the former will govern. As indicated there is a range' of k values for which . 11. II Rather than discuss in detail these provisions.
5 \.50 ~4 L ~" a.32 the load'factor of safety aga.I... Specifications will result in a more economical choice of members than a plastic design using 1. In th.4 is also a good example of how a limiting stress des~gn will result in a variable against ulti mate strength.S.oc ~.inst ultimate strength of the 11.C.<.is region.I. 2.C. Fig.5 '2.L~ 0. This is possible only at a decrease in factor of safety over that assumed in the plastic solution.) \. 11.) LS~======Jl\\I\ II! I(lill II lll===~~ 0.72) .S .60 Of' ~~rE\'j fAs(() Ot.7 continuous beam is less than that of the simple beam (Fmin = 1.205.88. design according to the current A.0 \. ~~~c.0 0 t F (LoItID f/l('(O~ \.
~ I ! . Had the frame.II rrf1._ .72.. 11.= 30.) For the continuous beam problem. for example. 5 ) . _.4 may not s'eem to represent a practical problem since the end spans will at 11. 11.. '\ It:l t\ FACTOrLOF .tIG\~ TO loAD : TI1P>i RES~l... r I  2. v I t I os ""'~ S~~€ f'll Of I. .. 3 Sreq.5 'I. which would show a theoretical saving of 8 modulus over the plastic design. (Consider the legs ~s being spread. ~ ". been designed by specification provisions (assuming section l5(a) 3 holds for this case) the required S would have been .2. I ' ! 1C i 1 · . it is possible to vary the ratio of the side span load to its length and thus find I .0 . I _.5~ lI .32 dhLi... i I ~ i I ~ l'\. LE. the frame shown in Fig. it is observed that this condition is approximated by a portal frame subjected to gravity loading.r". . .. I I 1.8 the structure shown in Fig. (See FiJ . I . 11. I ~f'l.. V2% in section (Possible due to the lower other cajses in which the load factor of saretywill be 1.~AN. OF G~O S. .A 0.  .0 Q. \<ATIOS.) Consider.205.  _. _. 3~ c.' II III ' LlT ~ us[11/1Il1l1111111 1l 1l1 A \ .9 in..8 least have dead we. factor of safety.: 2 . I'.ight acting..i I ._. :~+P(~1\ o.
C..eam now has according to the A.205. I. it should be'realized that the former have a variable factor of safety against ultimate strength and that these may under certain circumstances be slightly mended values for plastic design. then the following load factors should be used:' All forces including wind All forces but wind Wh~n 1.32 11·9 SWilllBrizingj it can be said that if a plastic design is to have the same load factor of safety against ultimate strength that the simple b.S. lowe~ than the above recom .41 1.88 comparing "conventional ll designs with plastic designs. spec.
A. IISAFETY AND PROBABILITY OF STRUCTURAL FAILURE II . No. 112. 1954. A. liTHE SAFETY OF STRUCTURES".. p. SAFETY AND ECONOMICAL DIMENSIONS OF STRUCTURE II . A. 12. XXXIV..E.C. 11. Vol. IICONCEPT OF SAFETY IN STRUCTURAL ENGlNEERING". Papers of the 1948 and 1952 meetings of the I. Transactions of the A. A. Vol. Various.5 Institution:. G.5.3 Freudenthal. Stockholm.E. No. "REPORT ON STRUCTURAL SAFETY 11 .B.4 Johnson.1 Pugsley.A.10 Selected references on the! general topic. .S.2 Freudenthal.of 11. Saf~ty.6 [ . 141.S.C. p. 125. Proceedings. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. IISTRENGTH. of Factbr. 1953. 11.I.E. 11.A.' of StructUral Engineers 11. 468.S. Bulletin No..· 11. SWeden. The Structural Engineer. Royal Institute of Technology. 1955. August..205·3~ 11. 1951. 1947. May.
4.: Equations. the "Rules II being numbe. As new information becomes available (particularly with regard to column behavior') they may be revised.1 Lecture No. Figures. 7.32 12. . Articles refer to this set of lectures. summary of procedures.205. "Rules of Design" are formulated.red in sequence' throughout. 8.) Where further development is desirable. OUTLINE: 1. These "Rules" are based on present state of knowledge. this is outlined immediately following the "Rule.'~. reference should be made to the indicated lectures or other articles. 5· 6. In some cases simplifications of more precise expressions are made for convenience. 2~ GENERAL PROVISIONS ANALYSIS DESIGN MODIFICATIONS Iro PLASTIC MOMENT COLUMNS CONNECTIONS DESIGN DETAILS MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS 3. ' and ref~rence to more complete treatment given. 12 R U L E S o F DES I G N SOOPE: On the basis of previous lectures outlining the fundamentals and methods of plastic analysis. This topic is presented in chart form. A~pr0priate notes and sketches are indicated. These guides also constitute a. For examples and illustrations. (Unless otherwise noted.
AWS has prorm:u. men ts are me t. brium configuration (moment diagram) in which M~ M such that a p is f·0rmed. 2.rr0n t research su.t~lisEl Method based on Lower Bound Theorem.hanism is formed (sketch mechanism) (5) Compute value of M p by solvll1g equilibrium equation (Rule 13) (6) Check to see that M~Mp' 1.A. Lecture #11 = !l _ Art. By requiring that a following procedure find an equili. 1. 3.A.1 (J''1 :.gated specificaASTM. Highstrength steels wi th charneeded.88 Dead Load+ Live Load.14) Eq.c~l.aining Equilibrlum equati'ons.12 2.41 (Bu~ldin~. For o the:::' forms of construction. .mechro1ism form it also satisfies Upper Bot~~d ~leorem. F Dead Load+ LL +Wind.5 Lecture #4 ® Equilibrium Method~ (For ~ontinuous beams and simple frames): the By rnc.000 psi. when Fig. 2. 3.2) toughness at lowest service tem~ n~y be used if otner requireperature.d'J5. 2.hod of o1)'(.2 INOTES'I @ Material: AS~A7 IREFERENCE I steel for 1.6.: (1) (2) (3) (4) Select redundant(s) Draw Momentdiagram for determinate structure. Principle of ViTt~ Displacemen t is another me'i:.000 KSL @ Plastic Moment: Mp = cry l.27(a) o Load Factor of Safety: Cons unlCt~on" Loadings according to AlSC) 1. @ Mechanism Method (General application): By the following procedure find a me chani sm (e 1 emen tary 0 r combination) such that M~ M p (1) Determine number and location of possible plastic hinges (Rule 10) Conld . 12.1) 12. Art. Draw Momentdiagram for structure loaded by redu.ndant( s) Sketch composite moment diagram in eueh a way that a rneC'. Z :: plastic modulu..5 Lectures 5.s = f· S (f~ 1.7): C~.26.7 2. This method is based on Upper Bound Theorem. 33. ASTMA373 be used with modifications?. o Ref.J. Yield Stress Level (. to insure weldability and acteristic diagram (Fig.1 2. If M6 M n it also satisfies lower Bound.32 (12. F = 1.7 bridges and mlildings may tion to take care of weldability.ggests :value might be raised to about 36.
:. Art.3 Location and Number of Po ssibl e Plas ti c Hinge s : Plastic hinges may form at concentrated load points..". M. I .nt. the following expression indicates whether or not the structure at failure is determinate. .. X. 2. (5) Solve virtual work equations for Mn (maximum).'YJ.4 ilw...= Forces + Moments required to restore continuity Examples (loads not shown) X=2 =F= =F= =F= 1 X=12 m7r ~ = cut ® Partial Redunda.2) 12.1 structure. ndancies X:: Redunda. redundancies ~ Number of Mechanisms: n = NX Number of Elementary Mechanisms N=N'l1..32 (12. X .3 Art. (6) Carry out equifibrium check to see that .. and at the point of zero shear in a SPOO1 under distributed load. 1 1 __ llULE 205.1cies ¥ Art.ilever action.@ Mechanism Method _.. ~~ • Location of possible plastic hinge 1.rnber of possible p:1:astic hinges X=. ....~ Mp (Rule :U) @ Indeterminacy: To determine the number of redundants.(Ml):::' Remaining I:: Remaining redu.3 =.cy: W~ th a g:J. EaC'Jl elementa::.f =l==:No:::::TE==s=l +21==RE=:FE==RE==N==0E=[_ (Con tinued) 3.Y.'1cies in original Eq. 7. M>: Number of plastic hinges developed. 5. . Number of redundants..nisms...mechanism (2) De termine number of corresponds to &~ independent redundants (Rule 7) equilibrium equation (3) Find number of elementary mechanisms (Rule 9) (4) Select possible (elementary and ~omposite)mecha.ven meChanism. .11daJ. . at the end of each member meeting at a connection. rot sufficient supports and structural members such that all loads are carried by simple beam or ca. 5.Redu.
2. of analysi s .205. parryover factors: (Signs Positive as sh0wr0 t© fjJ ~ML (t.ancing process (Rule 12) ~ MomentBalancing: (1) Compute the total simple 1. (4) Balance joints. .Y1.M L I I ~) AM R 0 '11.A.. DepElnding on whether or not the frame j. det~rmine a possible equilibrium configuration (draw moment diagram) to make certain that the Il pl as tic moment ll condition is satisfied..ssume values for fixedend moments in beams (say!ofM s )· (3) Assume sway moment in columns in proportion to ~ ratio. © 6..lle 8) and determine remaining values from equilibrium equations.11 al~erna te method.2) 12. (2) .32 (12. During joint balancing. Note liEli ting Plastic Momentvalues in each member.heck: (1) For a determlllate structure (try ThLle 8) either determine the reactions and compute unknown moments or solve the moment equilibrium equations (Rule 13) (2) For partial redundancy (Rule 8) there are several possibilities: (a) Assume values for "m unknown moments (I as determined from F.. (Note 3) (5) Carryover in beams (see table) (6) Balance column sway (7) Inspect for M> Plastic Moment.s 81determinatell at failure several methods are available. 0 I I 0 . (b) Use Momen t:BaJ. Lecture #7 span moments (M s ) and total sway moment. a separate record is kept of sway moments for later balancing (Step 6) 3. This is a psuedo momentdistribution process that is a.4 ~ o t"l"D ~" __ :_~L~~_~~I~:_~~~~~~~~I~NO~~~S[~~~~~]~~~~~~~~l~ Equilibrium Check: When it is believed ~hat the correct solution has been found. (See below) Lecture 4/=6 Lecture #7 Methods for establishing equilibrium c.
ll=...0ifE11oned for the soJ:ntion IJf Ij1'O L.m.1.0 boen tai)'ula ted in eharts 5..1l?~ A55urned cone.pl e) .ee c).)0/: ~/. load ma.12..av·e l:H~o):J.. treated wld smuple Locture #60 Cl'18. :tatios for varIous ondmomoD.w.'1i:l fl"a..2 J Ii'> U eQ XI"O G '.ott.. Art. tS cr~t~ts are presented in Appendix to The Lutimate load (or required..':lt to 1llr.r.'1. v J. Fr8Jne s: Callvoni en t C:t:J.Jsained.rlins v dist:.nt.+ Ph:o: 0 o Ref. a...IDRENCES I Joint: I..1 Lecture #5 is ol.Sif'T2. at the asm:unocl p'.0 c Pa..'1d. "'(' . t cO!Hli tioY!. .ned direenl from' such 0 . 0 !!X U ~~III!IIIIIII~~jr"3P I I .6 rna:r be I) . if distri buteo.: Lecture .oo.. broug. . sido 0 Oi:l economy is gained by working out medlanis..:.1..ista:n.<.{ bf...lt)lns A.nel : Ml 11112 M3 M4 + M5 (Sid(.a::.T:ti SD.l ir~ volves hinge in beam. nmn1Jer of cases b. load Whe:ce loarl if:.#.. ".l at tk.eo.y 1)0 comrerte..~t<l f~·~. momen':.1 det(. 14.2) I REF.: +M n~~()d":.):~·· m~.lO outset to actt~~ concentrate~ 10al18 applied..lces tension.s 11..lrlil: spacl:ng o @ P or iial 1).5 (12.l.' L l·oa'~" \ UIJ • 1::> V vt'j 1. load is replaC0Q by equivalent ""o'"CeJl~'"''''' (c.:.~ cal f. f'tlrthor . 7...me oj" pu.n Rof" 70].0 UO}Et: c1.:.x£!.. .l..1...:. ~~ Ii1(~ (~11a. t"'c' '.·i I)u':. M D ) ma. cl.:':"..)sway) + M.
205.32 (12.3)
12.6
I NOTES l
~
Q€neral Desi@G Procedure (1) Determine possible loading condi tions
(2) Compute ultimate load by
1. See Rule 15 for portal frames.
IREFEBENCE I
Lecture #:13 Lecture #:14
multiplying working loads by F (Rule 4) (3) Estimate Plastic Moment ra tio of frame members. (Rule 18 or 19)
(4) Analyze each loading con
dition for maximum Mp (Rule 5, 6, or 14) (5) Select section (Rule 3) (6) crneck the design to see that it satisfies the remaining applicable requiremen ts. (Rules 2l to 42) Ref. 12.2
lllllill!III~IIIIII!IIIIIIII!IIIIII!III!III!II!ll
®
Continuous :Beams ~. Uniform Secyion: Use equilibrium method of analysis (~le 5) supplemented by the following: (a) On the ul tiinate load moment diagram draw the appropriate fixing lines across the end span and the internal span whi ch carry the largest bending moments.
(0) Select the gr3ater of the required M p ' s.
Mp {l2eq'd)
I
.
•
Lecture #4 Ref. 12.2
Me.chanlsm
L .. Formation simul taneouslJT of
@ Section: Continuous Beams  Nonuniform For maximum section
economy, select sections such that, where practicable, mechanism forms in each span: (a) Express Mp:ratios as unknowns and solve by analyzing each of the local mechanisms (Example 4.3). (b) Alternatively, select a section to suit a smaller Plastic Moment requirement and reinforce with cover plates where M>Mp '
local mechanisms does not necessarily give minimum section. Examination of alternate possibilities is desirable.
205.32 (12.3)
12.7
, RULES
~
._..,_.._. _._.1
I
\ NOTES
I
1 BEFEBENOE I
:>'
~..
.
t;;) Preliminary
~
Design (1st choice of Plastic Momentratios): (1) Determine absolute plastic tuomen t values for separate loading conditions. (Assume all joints fixed against rotation, but frame free to sway).' (a) Beams: Solve beam mechanism equation. (b) Columns: Solve panel mechanism equation • .A.ctual section will be greater than or at best equal to these values, (2) Select plastic moment ratios using the following ~ides
(a) Beams: Use ratio determined in step 1. (b) Columns: At corner connec'tions ':Mp(col)=Mp(beam)
Art. 14.1
(c) Joints:
Establish equilibrium.
(3) Analyze for maximum required plastic moment (Rules 5, 6, or 15) (4) Examine frame for further economies as may be apparent from consideration of relative beam and sway moments (M s )'
@
Tier Buildings :(Di~.gonalbracin,g1. .in, wall panels to resist .$ear): 2. Proportion 'beams and girders by ,plastic methods. Proportion coll1m:'18 accordi:!J.g to conventional (ll el as tic 1 ? methods:•.
See also Rule 28 Oomplete plastic analysis may be applied to design of top one or two stories if desired.
Art.
14.3
20~.32
12.8
(12.4) l.2A
lItODI]'ICATIONS TO PLASTIC MOMENT
INO~S
I
IREFERENCE I
Art. 9.1
@ Axial Force: (For strong axis) :
Neglect the effect of direct stress unless P > O.IS P't' Thus:
Required value of S for a member is determined by multiplying the value of S found in the intial design by ratio Mp/~c
Fig. 9.6
) (Ila)
"
Me' :
Mp
" , c9~
"
,
Q
"
,,
Mpc
I ',, " Mye "
. I Sf. '" pt':l....~
"
®
Shear Force (Maximwn Allowable): Maximum allowable shear force in a beam at ultimate load is to be computed from
W :
\.0
web thiCkness
d ':. depth of section Assumes that shear is carried by web.
~
Shear Force(Moment Reduction): The full plastic moment Mn may
be assumed unless the distance
Fig. 9.17
curves from
8
"a" be tween hinge and point of inflection is less than about 3d for beams and 4d for colwnns. Otherwise,
fiq.9.17
.6
Mrs Mp
Bedms:
Mps :. .65 ~ .1\7 Mp
..g...
tl
.4.Z
Columns: ~~s ~ .60 +.\
%
o
Determine new value of S as note.d in Rule 21.
1 NOTES
l
I RElJlERElNOE I
Art. 9.5
G Va~'iable
Repeated Loading: These rules are intended for cases normally considered as "static" loading. Where the full rnagni tude of load on a member is expected to vary, the ultimate load may be modified according to analysis of deflection stability.
1. Several thousand cycles of completereversaJ. of moment· may be expected without reduction in Mp
1:8.5
COLUMNS
V
~
After. frame. members have been eellk\.ea.. ?JlieolUmns . subje.cted O,nly. to ·axialforce.~ shall be cheCked according to:
S1Inple Columns;
.
.
L
= unbraced
length
Select axfs to give maxiIrruin L/ r
P/A= (J"y  120 L/r P A  290,000,000 / (L/r) 2
. __ .(12c) (L/r<llO)   . (12d) (L/r>llO)
,'"
Q V
Framed Columns  Industrial
Buildings~
If axial force is low (p < 15%) and unless the column isYbent 2. Column to be adequately braced in single curvature, neglect to prevent lateraltorsional effec~ of direct stress (Rule 21) buelding. Column 72 of Fig. 7.4 (reproduced in the sketch) is an example of a case that approaches II s ingle curvature"; it is conservative to assume it so. As an illustration of the procedure foX' tbo clxample of Lecture 4/:7, assume w =1.0 k/ft, F·~w :::1.88 k/ft, L= 20 feet. Then the following is obtained: Shape = 1'4WF34 L/rx = 41.2 P/Py = .1152
P
1. Use Fig. 9.12 as a basis for design of columns bent in single curvature.
1)
Mp
.6M p
From Fig. 9.l~. Me/Mp 0.87. A new section is therefore selSbted which will supply the required liMp" on the loaded (reduced) balSis. Thus the new required section modulus is given by
51
=
=S ~ Me
(same procedure as Rule 21)
205.32 (12.5)
12.10
IRlllFERENCE I
ffii":\ V
~ed Columns Three Story:
See Rule 26. Two and This rule presumes that moment due to si~e forces is carried by moment connections in columns and that a complete plastic ~alysis is made of the framework. Where sway bracing is used, see Bu.le 28
~Framed Columns.
Tier Buildings: Where windbracing in tier buildings consists of diagonals in wall panels, columns shall be proportioned by present ( conven tional) methods.
1. Conventional design of columns is on the basis of the design loads, not factored loads.
Art. 14.3
®
Checking the 'tWeak Axis": Check for failure of column in plane normal to principle plane of bending. Use Rule 25, a more convenient form of Eqs. l2(c) and (d) being,
1. Assume columns to be pinned
at the ends.
L/r < 275 (lP/Py ) (p/py > .6) L/r
< Y8800 ' p!p
y
(p/py " .6)
12.6
COm~CTIONS
~ ,Required Web Thickness:
wr :; d 2
Eq. 10.4
2S
@
Doubler:
Eq. 10.5
32 12.1 tima te load should not exceed the following: Tension_and Flexure33. Continuous welds are to be used at all critical sections.. 10.~~r~1:..4 @ "Moment" Stiffeners: Moment stiffeners are required in beamcolumn connections. Art.18 Q V "Shear" Stiffeners in :BeamColumn Connections: In exterior columns or at interior connections with large \. 10.1~::zl.:n' than required by uconventionalll rules.cman t) eJC8~m:~ne· adequacy of web to transmit shear force. 10.6) .2 Ref. 10.American Welding Society:Code will be followed.__.V2 (S wd) t SO (12 Generally. Fig. either of the "fla. 10.205.6 INOTESI IREFEEElJ CEJ I ._++Diagpnal Stiffener: Eq. @ Haunched CO!mections .Inner Flange Thi cknesa: " In order tb'force formation of hinge at end of haunch.:. t s = t i s conseI"V'a tive yet not uneconomic.OOO Shear and Combined Stress22.\=1.5 @ Welds: The applicable procedures of . make inner flange thiclmess 25% ccc:\at. r1.:.nge" or of the llwebstiffener!l type.__.2 Art. 10. Unit stresses at u.400  . Follow other procedures of Ref.:~a .11 (12.
brace at expected hinge loca.ut.3 10."== 12..7 DESIGN DETAILS ® Cross~Section b/ t ~ 17 d/w'= 43 d/w f 50 I NOTES I . Art.. 10. (normal component) shall not be less than 4% of area of member braced.6 @ Stiffening: The widththickness ratio of compression or loadbearing stiffeners should not be greater than 8.32 (12. Art.' tions and Check other portions according to elastic design procedures. IRE]EBENCE I .6 @ Bracing Reguiremen ts : Sufficient lateral support should be provided to prevent lateral buckling. 10. See Art.. 2. Design bracing to provide maximum stiffness."=::"=='"==. Art.7) ==:. 10. 9. See Fig.Proportions: Compression flanges and webs of beams and columns should comply with the following: (Beams and columns) (Columns in direct compression) (:Beams in bending) .7 for more detailed procedures.1G 12..6 ~ Miscellaneous Details: Proportion details (not otherwise covered herein) suCh that the yield stress is not exceeded at ultimate load. In general. 10..1'Bo.7 .19 for possible stiffening arrangements. The crosssectioll"rJ.205. 10. Art.
and mechanism (Rule 5. the following procedure may beused: (1) Obtain Pu ' moment diagr~.8) 12~13 ImTLE [ (~) De~ect1on at Ultimate Load: If conditions reguire the computation of deflection at u1 timate load. No.e obtained. INOTES I SlopeDeflection Eg. in turn. Beedle. @ Deflection at Working Load: If computation of beam deflections at working load is required.~st·ifalu.l·g. 1952.:B  2) Moa! (4) Check by "k1nkremovaJ.hinge is the last one to form. W. BCSA.3 t + 3t' o· (M. this may be done by reference to handbook tables. Art.A.4 An upper limit of the def1ection of a frame at working lo'~d is obtained by dividing the deflection at u1 timate load (Rule 41) by F. S. 6. (3) Correct deflection is l.: GA= 9A + I Art. 32 (:L2.. A.2 Huber.1l process. liTHE COLLAPSE METHOD OF DESIGN II . 8.. Association "BESIDUI\L STRESS AND THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF STEELIl. Welding JournaJ. that each. 1954.1 12. British Constructional Steelwork. December. Publication . L.2')5. References / 12.5. 11) (2) Compute defle~tion of frame se@!lents ass'llIning. 8.':l.
(2) Dead Load + J/2 Snow.88.2 = 1 mechanism . Load factor of safety: Dead Load + Snow: Dead LQad + Snow + Wind: (See Lecture #11) F = 1.1 A.41 Find: Required Section.IG N E X AMP L E SCOPE: Given: Application of derived methods of analysis and design to typical ~ab1ed frame.2).·N D DE· S .88. Fig.2). F = 1. (13.3) TakinG into account symmetry with respect to Number of possible plastic hinges Number of redundancies N X ~ =3 = 2 3 . (3) Dead Load + Snow + Wind. Condition: (1) Dead Load + Snow. (13. F = 1. No. F = 1. Fig. Fig. Gabled Portal Frame with indicated Loading (see Lincoln Arc Welding Series. 129 to 132). Three Loading.41.2). (13.32 Lecture No. (13. 13 A N A L Y S I~S 13.205.88 F = 1.2) and (13. Spacing of frames 16 1 • Constant section assumed throughout frame. Condition (1): Fig.
.9.1 . I .2.71( [J 3'" 28.L_. .41..'__ rf~ 3 ...2.71(' ~II t ~ UI HI I (I) (2..30' .< 14.0/C. /.2 K OL.. 1~. I I ~ I I ..3' ..~ . HIG~ D~:13.'ITIJ DL tS .3 ) F ...~/ "'111111 F· 1.._I__I~ ..2...olc: 40 Iii OJ.88 F= /. 10' ~ l\ + 8 \():z Q M p I M p 1'1 • j 30' .3 x e rn!lillJ .\ I W=b.7k HI IB IH 5~Z 1._I.I.)..1.. I 'II .&.!L~.. 9. J DEAD LOA D 230 14 /ff.3iSt HI 6=21.J.K ~ [J 1*+ w= /2._v"' I I . .I.. f I Fi.~~. 13.L._. L [H DL13.88 IF...) (.11: ~ Ie.205·32 l.\..
The location.4x (60x) 42 + X (ft .k (13.· Hinge 3 will move vertically.32 Fig.. In computing rotation of 13.' here P is given. hence.6 ft.2) X must be determined such that M p becomes a maximum (see upper bound theorem which demands Pmin .3) shows mechanism.3) . hence the instantaneous center is on a horizontal through 33'. The rotation about C is X/3 displacement: 14 e. 3 is fixed by the undetermined The distance (2 to C) =1 3 X by geometry.k) (13. Mp must be a maximum).3 hinges it is advantageous to use the notion of instantaneous center as described in Lecture #6. Either by'differentiat'ing or by working a few trials: For M p = 188.205. hence the instantaneous center for 23 is on line through 12. the resulting center is at C. Hinge 2 will move perpendicular to 12. of hinge distance X. (13. From the principle of virtual o or Mp = 14. through the angle Assume hinge 1 rotates e.
Fig.4 The corresponding moment diagram for condition (1) is shown in Fig.:& M + 41.2~ are r~plaeed by 3 equivalent concentrated loads as shown in Fig.loads of condition (1).2 30 (3 O' _ 2 30 top Mtop = 158 ft.4) ~ I X 1 .5. 13.~k X 2 30 As an alternative procedure the dist:ributed .205. l3..13K j /0' e . (13. 13.32 13.
5) Compared to Eq.k which is smaller than the above giv~n value of Eq. since the shear must vanish at that point. e ( 5 + 15 + 25 ) ( 13.33 l.205·32 The location of hinge 13. 13. 3.5).5 leads to the following equation: p ell M 8 .5 3 must be under one of the concentrated loads.( +. An equilibrium check however. from left) would have resulted in M p = 176. Condition (2): Fig. (13. 4) which yields: M p = 193. hinge Note thatassuming 3 under the middle load (15 ft. ~) 1 .33 + ~18.73 ~ 8.8 ft.2) the equivalent concentrated loads give an approximately 2% higher M p. would show that this mechanism violates the plasticity condition.33 . (13. Assuming it as shown in Fig.2 ft . ·k (13.6) Number of possible hinges Redundancies N = 7 X = 3 73 = 4 local mechanisms . (13.
205·32 ( :.k Q .J!':"~_DL_+5_'""_41_" 2_k 1 l..0K L t tJ z .6) (13.7) Combination with Beam Mechanism 234 will eliminate a hinge at 4 • Hinge 3 is only fixed by parameter X as as shown in Fig. 0 ·15 + 30 41... (13. I X_ 10 30 2 1· 1 (13 8) . 7 e [1 3 . ~ 13. l . t L ! ! I DL::..0 '15 + 41.2 X . II.. 13.2 ( 30X ) ( 30+2~ 30X)j + 7 7 60x 14) p e ( l+l+ro+m+xM 10 = 10 + 60. X . 41 .X . . ." '.6 . .6 ft.2 '15) (13. I Beam flfechanism Beam Mechanism Sidesway Gable 234 456 (b) (c) (d) 1267 2467 r7 r'l Virtual work equation: 7 7 7 7 7 M p e (1 + 1 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10) = 10 M p = 118.. 13. 7 ..8.
7 +/38.13.8 GOx ~i .ZKfl] k4 13·0K 'kl c ~e 10 2 .k ) The maximum value occurs for x = 20.~ 'Rtf x ~ I .1 ft. .28.' M = X(1435 .10) I '.k (13.1' M p = 138.8x) p 84 + 2X ( ft.1 7 47.7 a~ 4/.
1 ft. Using Rule 8 (derived • .k (13011) Shear Equilibrium Sidesway: (13.7 ft..205. .13) M4 = + 47. Assuming moments as positive if producing tensile stresses on inner side of frame the moments at points of plastic hinges are: M 2 M3 M6 M7 = = = = M p M p M p M p =  138.k .8 An equilibrium check will immediately reveal if other combinations should be considered.1 ft.(41) Hence the frame is reduced to a statically determinate system.32 13.k Beam Equilibrium 24: (x = 20 I) (13.12) M l = Mp (1 + 1 + 1) = ~ = 138. in Lecture #7): Number of redundants Developed hinges Remaining redundancy I x = = 3 M = 4 = 0 3· . and all bending moments can be determined by simple statics.
4 (MS at middle) The bending moment diagram shown in Fig. \ ' /0' ! I /0' .8. the true location being the one for which the maximum value of M p results~ .10.73k ~ z 6'..'33k /0' 1 • t ~. as shown in Fig.oq • I .. hence mechanism is actual failure mechanism.. 13. I I ~ e I p \F\Cj.Beam Equilibrium 46 . 13.9 does not violate plasticity condition.\ ' I I 3 1 . 3 is not known in advance'. Fig.Mlc. IS. ____ 1~roe I . the location of hinge Ho~ever. I I I 4.I'~. 13.IO l 7 Quite obviously the mechanism will be of the same type as the one for the distributed loads. Again loading condition (2) can be handled by assuming equivalent concentrated loads.7SK 13:13k i:3. "f.33k /0' i • I " 10' • t 5"'..
~ G(5 + 15) + 13. 7 + 10) 21 + 10 21] = (10 13 . 73 .8 for loading condition (2).~ 5) " (13. 1~ G' 35 + 4. follow is left to Condition (3): Which of the two procedures .10 7) p e [ 1 + (1 + 10 M +. 73 .0 ft.3l.5X) '84 + 2X (ft.10 one gets: 13.:Jr e (5 + 15 + 25) (13 :. 13. .205·32 ' Por mechanism of Fig.16) 3 to "Changing the hinge location from 3' leaves the value for M p practically unchanged such that exact correspondence to the value derived for distributed loads L3 established.17) Maximum value for x = :. forces are also present.k) (13.using distributed loads or equivalent concentrated loads . would follow pattern of previous check.to th~ readers discretion. Mechanism is of same type as the one of Fig. 13.::1.1 ft.k i .k Equilibrium check is not necessary.33 or M p = 138.7 1 M p = 173. becomes: Mp The only difference is that wind Resulting expression for M p = x(1697 .
6 ft. hence governs.6 ·12 S = 1.1 :i.14 = shape factor (Lecture #2) cry Plastic Moment = 33 ksi (structural steel) Required 188.k.n. However. 3 Lightest WFBeam:' l6WF40 bit = 13.205. the Lincoln Design calls for welded reinformcementsat the corners and the base of the columns.6 ft.largestplastic moment M p = 188.14' cry S 1.14·33 = 60. Design of Section: Required ~p = 188.9 s = 64. 3 Comparison with Lincoln Design (elastic) shows that the resultant beam sectionE. .32 Comparison of results show that lJoading condition 13011 (1) requireSthe.4 in.>"are identical.k M p = 1.
In the prior design examples. the problem was to find the ultimate load for a given structure with known plastic moment values of its members. Example will be given here of complete design procedure for an industrial bUildin~ frame in which the applicable "Rules'"of Lecture tf12 are investigated.1 EXAMPLES (Continued) SCOPE: Xhis lecture is a continuation of Lecture #13 on examples of analysis and design methods. Previous lecture illustrated problems associated with gabled frame. Of particular interest is the matter of economic choice of section. 14 A N A L _Y SIS A N DD E S I G N 14. the actual plastic moment Since "uniform section throughout" values were then computed. some guide is needed for selecting the ratio(s) of plastic moment strength. However. ~n assumption was made of the relative moment strength of the various parts of the frame.205·32 Lecture No.h his will enable . 14. this problem exists in elastic design. coupled wit. so it is not a matter that is unique to design on the basis of ultimate strength. Of course. may notbe the most economic solution.1 "PRELIMINARY DESIGN" On ~~1at basis is the first choice of relative plastic moment values made? In the various examples used to illustrate methods of analysis. to the designer which. With the loading specified. a few simple techniques will occur experienc~. checking equilibrium and design of section. investigating all possible loading conditions.
1) .2 Some general principles are as follows: In the event the critical mechanism is an elementary one~ the rest of the material in the frame is not being This suggests that a more used to full capacity.1 .1.32 (14. (b) Adjacent spans of continuous beams will often be most economically proportioned wh~n the elementary mechanisms This is illustrated for each span form simultaneously. Example 14.(M s ) should be given the greatest possible restraint (generally by supplying equivalent Z of adjoining members). Numerous examples of the design of continuous beams are given in Ref. him to ffi?ke a preliminary economic choice of relative moment strength without too many trials. Example 14. "12.2. "efficient choice of moment ratios may be made such that the critical mechanism is a "composite lllechanism"involving plastic hinges in several different members. in Example 4.3. illustrates "this. (c) The formation of mechanisms simultaneously in different spans of continuous beams or the creation of composite mechanisms will not necessarily result in minimum weight.205. (a) This is illustrated in 14. Often it will be found that the span involving the greatest determinate moment . Examination of alternate possibilities is desirable.
7. the minimum column sections are obtained under the action of sway forces when ends are subjeQt to complete plastic restraint. This therefore suggests that. Example 14..1 is an illustration.\ 'I'he absolute minimum beam section for vertical load is obtained if the joints provide complete plastic restraint (i.32 14. the design could start. if the important 'loads are the vertical 'loads. Alternativeiy. theoretically. if the important loads were side loads. 14. (e) I Finally. the design might well be commenced on the basis that all joints are restrained as described. it should be kept in mind that maximum overall economy is not necessarily associated with the most effidlent choice of section for each span. sectipns of different weight might be used.3 (14. and that the columns be proportioned to prov~de the needed joint moment balance and resistance to side load (Ref.1) ~dl I .2 DISTRIBUTED LOAD Previous examples indicate that special treatment is needed when analysis is made of girders under uniform load~ The posi tion of the hinge in the beam is not known precisely. It is. .e.necessary to consider fabrication conditions which )na.205.y dictate uniform sec~ion where. instead.1). the ratio of beam sections be determined on this basis. restraining'members supply a restraining plastic moment equal to that of the beam). with the columns. Similarly.
the1iniform load may be conv~rted.2) If' the load is actually distributed load. 14. to actual purlin. 9).4 economic design is obtained by analysis on this basis. provision is made for wind bracing in wall panels . an a'pproach to an economic design would be achieved through a partial application of the plastic methods. And for 'every possi ble hinge position there is another possible mechanism(Rule Of course.1) suggests that hinges be assumed at midspan with a correction to be made at the end df the deSign (facilitated by the use of charts specially devised to solve the problem). with experience the designer will be able to tell how many of these mechanisms he should investigate. would be proportioned according to conventional (" e l as tic lt ) methods. with this procedure is that numerous additional possible plastic hinges are created . Of course.reactions (on the The analysis is then made on The only difficulty basis of assumed purlin spacing). including a determination of the position of maximum moment. on the other hand. . Th~ columns. then the most 14.205·32 (14. Horne (Ref. the basis of the actual concentrated loads. at the outset. The beams and girders would be proportioned for full (plastic) continuity.3 DESIGN OF TIER BUILDINGS tfnen. 7.one at each purlin. if the distributed load is actually brought to the'main frame through purlins and girts.
ll be estimated..6 k/ft. 14.l_S' J IF'9' 14·1 [.By this procedure'" none of the plastic hinges participate in the resistance to side load. the diagonal bracing. The sideload of 0.1 An in. the top one or two stories might be designed by a "complete" plastic analysis" hinges forming both in the columns and in the beams._==. Such load is all carried by The only mechanisms are the beam mechanisms.. Illustrated will be a . and a ~~ 0' ~.!o.4' EXAMPLES IEXAMPLE 14. } ] h 15' .1.. T • T 1 I~ . L. LI ::.hsL 1 I'. . 45 l. Purlin and girt spacing at 7 J/2'... Frame and Loading ~ The frame of Fig. preliminary design procedure by which the plastic moment ratios wi. .dllstl'ial frame will be designed and a complete check of the applicable "Rules 11 will be made.=.. 1'4 ~l is to be designed to carry a vertical load of 3 k/ft... Vertical distributed load will be replaced by loads at the l/4point. Of' course. span and loading are such that it will be economic to select the most efficient section for each span.· T T .
' no side load in this case . ~ . ' .. wh = . the plastic moment ratios obtained in case 1... and case 2 will be checked .:. ' • It .! ) 14.41) Wv = 3...Preliminary Design (Rule 19) Minimum plastic moment values: Absolute minimum plastic moment values are determined by fixing the joints against rotation.1' .. ":'.41 = 4. . Case 1 will be investigated first.88) w = 3.205·32 (].64 k/ft.6 x 1.41 = .0 x 1.T" Case 2:. using.85 k/ft. GA$E 1 . but frame free to sway.23 k/ft.0 x 1.88 = 5.6 Loading Conditions Case 1: Dead Load + Live Load (F = 1./2 J( IS A=I1. Pz 1. Po P. Dead Load + Live Load + Wind Load (F = 1.
k Mp (810)= k M p .' = 2.Mp 8 k L = P2 2 == (5) (~) = ~ PILI .values determined from above are the least that would support the.:J Note: .205. Mp (14 ).78 M p Center column ratio is determined by considering equilibrium of joint 678: M6 .78 M p (27) = 1 ~.M7 . Plastic moment.M8 = 0 M p 7 = M6 . 3"::> ." 8 = 715 .32 (llJ.78 M M p Plastic moment values: PILI 127 x 45 Mp (2 4) = 8. 810 = k M p) #1 : Mp·e (1 + 1 + 1 + 1) Mp (14.1) = g(14.M8 = Mp + 2.Lq rat~~s: = Mp M p p (810 ). loads as fixedended beams.= .2) PILI #2: k·Mp · e (1 + 1 + 1 + 1) = _ P2 L2 k .= Mp M p (310) = 2.78 M End columns will be proportioned to give full restraining moments.4 ) Solving the beam mechanism: (46 = M p . Selection of Plastic Moment Mp {2.
6 k 84.Analysis Will a greater plastic moment be required for Case 2 (with wind) using the same plastic momentratios as determined for Case I? .3) Horizontal Shear: HI = Mp 11 = 47.Sk l32. 78 . 78I'i lp h = = M~ (1 + = 0 I 01( Vertical Reactions: VI V2 V3 = = PI P2 = 127k = 212 k PI + P2 = 339k Since l/L~point loading gives the same maximum midspan moment load~ qS does uniformly distributed no refinement in M p is re quired and CASE 2 .i+ ) Equilibrium Check (Rule 11) Although an analysis of other possible composite mechanisms might be made~ 14. 14.205·3'2 (l}t.78Mp = h I .2.8 an equilibrium check will be made by drawing the moment diagram (Fig. 78) H2 = H3 H 1.:2.4 1c I.
.1.....Only one hinge need be computed in each beam.75~)(.. . of possible hinges = N = 7* Redundants Mechanisms =X=3 n =4 4 ~A ' 10 Sb ~ 2.41 Case 1: ~ =1.. 4 (3 + "3 + 3 k +"?) = PI e (4 ~ Y2) LI L1 ........ '.4) : lip 1\"  ! ~? 'r:.j' .. 1 90 (!. . ~ .:~ :....... ._.26 (95): :(45) +. ! .' = PILI + P2 L2 + Wh = PILI (1 +' 2 5 ) + :3 .7.~~_. . The other is identical insot"Elr ../ No....  5.5) *.quation is concerned...1~tijf) 2 beam mechanisms 1 panel mechanism 1 joint mechanism Beam Mechanism: Mechanisms 1 ''4" in Fig.. ' ~ P2 e(4 +12) + w 2 wh 2 L2 L2 h M (10 08) ' p .:~s t~1e virtuai work..(12'.... ' . \ ('7 1::' \ \. 3 2 3 9 = 1..56 I' 7.2 1 k  Composite Mechanism 5 (1 + 2 + 3+ 4): Mp e 4 4 4:. OJ Mp may be determined from 1.5 ~ l • • .. ~ .. e...205·32 ( "" ): \ ..1 j _. . 14./ / . .88 x 715 ·Mp v Panel Mechanism 4: f (14.... _.
14.15 use 36WF194 (S = 663.4)_ Nm:.14)(33) 'fRight Beam .ntary mechanism probably controls. use 33WFI O (S= 404.: Since this value is very close to value obtained for Mecha.e.32 14. the eleme.78)(228) = 406 in..10 (14.~) S.n:iSm: l(536!k~.8) f = 1. 3 us~27WF94 (S = 242.6) f = 1.Equilibrium Check The unknown moment va~ue will be computed on the basis that Mechanisms 1 and 2 are critical.3. this section will supply adequate M p . except h Result: Case 1 is critical since for Case 2 required M p =536 1k which is less than the value 715 1k found for Case 1. CASE 2 . Panel (sidesway) equilibrium (Rule 13): M4 + M7 + MIO + W 2 = 0 .. } Right Column S810 (2.78 M Thus.15 Center Column: S27 = (1.16~. 3 Note: Since f > 1. . the moment diagram is the same as Fig..~05.and is an upper bound. Selecting the Section (Rule 3) M p (4. 78 Mp _ w:_ M p .= 008 in.78)(228) = 634 in.14.. .wh M = M4 M ~_ IO 7 h = Mp + 2.W2 7 = 1.(1'. 3 :.6) = 715 1k = f <Jy S (715)(12) S4 6 ~ . f= 1.
1 8 (33) (27. 14.205.::~ r ~ 14.. AXIAL FeRCE (Rule 21) Left Column (27WF94. A = 38..269 (>. From Rule 21. 14·<0 l Now that the sections have been selected. (33)(38.85 ) 406 (. the new value of S is computed .26) . A = 27.6.93) _3_ « . lI.15  n. Use 36WF150 (S = 502.16 = 1. 3 Mp = S Sreq = S x M P = 1 .g.26): 339 _.85) = 472 in..Py Note: See I1Revised Design l1 below.15) Right Column: Okay by comparison with center column. the design will be checked according to the various applicable "Rules II of Lecture #12. T I Fig.93): P Vl Py = cry A = 127k = .32 (\ 1: . ) Thus a larger section is required to develop the required moment. till" ff:l~9) 48 K . . I !: \ The frame as designed is shown in Fig.269 (1 pc .15  OK) Center Column (33WF130.9 A f = 44.11 ':..
205·32 (14.4)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SHEAR (Rule 22) Left Beam: (27WF94, w = .490, d = 26.91)
14.12
Vactual = Right Beam:' (36WF194, w Vmax
=
'1,',' . .
. .<
i
=
.770" d
=
36.48)
= 17,000 wd
= 17,000 (.770)(36.48)
= 478 k
= 210 k
Vactual = REDUCTION DUE TO SHEAR FORCE (Rule 23)
The two beams and the right column will be the most critical. Values of "a ", given in Rule 23 Left Beam: Ll 4a = ""2' Ll a = "'F
=
. / Ll d
=
(45) (1·2) 26.91
20.2
.. a
. a·
• a = 20.2 = 2.51
8

Since d:< 3.0, a larger value of S is requi1"ed. the equation given in, Rule 23,.',
.
.
Usin&
IVIPs'
Mp
=
.6~·~(·.117 a  .•944 oJ. , d
.
..1.
_
1
= .944
228
= 242 in. 3
The 27WF94 is still satisfactory since l.ts section modulus is 242:,.8 in. 3
205·32
" _;+ (1
q
:1.4.l3
1 ..
"~
•.
I· \ l_:~ !
Right Beam: (36WF194, d = 36.48) L2 4a =""2 '
a =
8
L2
L2/d = (75)~12) = 24 7 36. 8 .
ald. =
24.7 8
= 3.1
(> 3.0
OK)
Right Column:.
a =
h
h
d = 4.92 (>3.0 . OK)
a = 4.92
d
COLUr,INS  WEAK iiXIS (Rule 29)
Since the end columns are braced at midheight, the center column will be the critical one (36WF150, r y additional bracing needed?
ry
= 2.38). Is·
L = (15)(13) = 75.6 2.38
L
Since P y .bracing.
P
< .6,
then, from Rule 29, is adequate without r
(
...
'
..
,. ~.'.'.~~
..
.... '., '. " ..;""'~
.
.,..'. .
• .,
> •
• •~
 ~
••
205.32
., lL 1\:'. ( J", ,;:"'1 'I
,
.
14.14
CO£lNEH C0NNECTION8 (Rules 30,32,38) Use straight connections. Connection 2
(27WF94, b = 9.99, t = .747,
W
= .490, d = 26.91)
Required web thickness:
wr
Wr
W
28 2(242.8) = d2 = (26.91)2 = .670 = .490
@
Rule 32:
t
s
12 (8 _ Wd 2 ) = 0.354
b d 2
1l
Rule 38:
(b/2) = 8.0 t s max. .
ts
= 0.625 1l
Use 5/8 I. plate for diagonal stiffener
Connection 10 (36WF194, b =12.117, t =1.26, d =36.5, Required thickness of diagonal stiffener:
W
= .770)
t
s
= 12_2 (§. _
b d
WI"'d)
c
= _,2,. (664 _ (.770 )(3 6 .5)) = .48" 12.117 36.5 2
This value is much less than flange thickness (t Rule 38 governs in this case:
(b/2) = 8.0 t s max.
ts =
= 1.26").
(2)(8)
12.12
=
'7.
•
57
11
Use 3/4" plate
IFig. 14·~r
205·32
( ] l!
I_~)
14.15
INTERIOR CONNECTION 678 (Rules 34, 35) This connection is designed as a corner connection except the 27WF94 is joined to the "back plate II at @. Since @ transmits "a part of the moment brought in at
" . : . c:::
30~
®
. . . . . It;::=~==::;;:=====1
Z7V'F94
"Alt. Corne; Brocket·
QD,
a diagonal stiffener
is probably not required. A check may be made using Rule
wr = d2"
2S
(Values of Sand d taken for member 7  corresponding to net moment transmitted.)
wr = 2(502.9) = .783"
(35.84)2
w of 36WF194
= ·770
1
OK  no web stiffening required
Transmit thrust of lower flange of beam 46 by diagonal bracket (see Fig. 14.9) or by one of the two alternates shown dotted.
U.fWbS"~SEULL0N
//
fHOPORTIONS (Rule 37) Shape b/t[< 17J d/wk 50)
I
27WF94 36WF150 36WF194
13.3 12.7
~
55 57.5 47
9·5
All OK
205.32 (l~· .Jl )
~he
14.16 first two shapes have rather high d/w ratios. Alternates,
respectively, are 24WFIOO (d/w = 51) and 33WF152 (d/w = 52) .. These would increase the weight of. frame by about 1 1/2% of total weight. On the other hand, since only beam mechanisms
are involved (load carried by IIfixedended ll beams) then the full rotation capacity will probably not be required (see Example 8.7). This, coupled with the lessthancritical
bit ratios, probably makes the original choice satisfactory. BRACING REQUIREMENTS (Rule 40) At ccnnections:
In addition to the purlins at the corner
and interior connections, brace at points marked IIB II in Figs. 14.7 to 9. (Use light truss normal to plane of frame).
Within beams: The critical length is given by Eq. 10.11, Lcr = 20 ry This is to be compared with the purlin spacing (Lp) or to the length of hinge,
~L.
(10.11)
The latter, for full plastic
restraint, may be shown to have a length equal to onequarter of the span.
However.5)(12) 2.3. the frame may be analyzed again using the actual plastic moment of the 36WF194 for hinges that form in . it will be noted that the required section modulus for the right beam and column was 634 in.49 Although greater than 20.. L = 45'. 3 . . ry = 2.l.1 = 2.~::: I Undoubtedly.17 Left Beam (27WF94.. Section 5 is one of the last hinges to form.6 in. ne'e. the lightest possible WF shape available for these members had a section modulus of 663. Right Beam (36WF194.49): (7.25 feet ~ Dt'Q 9rom ( Fig.04"): Lcr = 20ry = 41" ' If braced by the purlins Lp = (7 ~5)(12) = 90" Portion of Moment Actual lengtp of hinge = = i. again. economy is desired. REVISED' DESIGN In the design just completed. If further Design OK. So additional bracing is'not required.14. Section 9 is one of last hinges to form.I ~ I ~TTTTTT'TT']:~'( 11. L Lp ry = = = 75 I .ded if full rotation capacity is required . r y 36.".V *= . 1410 Since Lp > Lcr ' additional .
IFig. procedure is explored as follows: Plastic moment ratios: These are indicated in Fig. since the 27WF94 just meets the requirements.  .(1.. The value.400 [ (1 +'3) + '3 = 4 .1 = 2. (Mp 1 1 1 P2L2 P2 L2 + roMp) e + 25. This @ @J@ r t @ M p is the same as computed in the first design.400) .1 M p 9 m = (212)(75)(12)/3 . then.' e +rrm = P2L2 l3. that a lighter section might be specified for the left beam or center column or both ~. P .kip M p (46) = = 8.11 r Mp (~10) = cry f S = (33)(1..) = 25.14) = 336 in.(1.205.11..for center column: Sl . 14.400 in .i.47 1= 1... e.580 Selection' of Section. 14.12 *~~3.400) .cry f moo = (1 04 7)(8580) (33)(1.18 r'ightnand beam and column. This would require a restain ing moment of lesser magnitude at the left end of the beam and it would be expected.kip Analysis of beam mechanism (810)Fig.16)(663~6.67)(25.580 in. 14.47 8.3 .8 14.67)(25.32 ti.
in He£'.25.2. f = 1.19 ~ this method.269) _ .8.600# Plastic Design .: was saved on the center colunm. 20#/ft.205.050# IEXAMPLE 14 . The example is chosen to in the Appendix_to pres~nted The example is the same as: Design Problem No'.21 A single span portal frame with gabled roof will be designed to resist vertical .85) S =SlxMpcSl(l_P/Py)(.32 (14. 10. illustrate use of the chart Lecture #6. COMPARISON WITH WEIGHT OBTAINED IN AN ELASTIC DESIGN: Elastic Design .73) S = 391 in. 3 Use 33WF130 (S = 404.15) By 14. the other two members being the same as before.and side load.4) Modification for direct stress (Rule 21) Using the p/pyvalue computed for the first design (.27.•85 _ (336)(.' 1 .
.85X 1. which produces the same moment about point words~ l~ In other concentrated it is~a load which produces an overturning moment equal to that of the uniformly distributed load.12 is to be designed for the vertical load shown.  ~I ~I p Yo 3 4 '5~ 20' 100' ~I single concentrated acting at the eaves~ load~  IFlgoI4.IZ\ .butid ]..0 1Ft. W v =1 ooo~/ f t. (The "chart" was developed on this basis. 14.) Loading Conditions: LW=1. Greatest economy should be achieved for this example through use of uniform section throughout..600 x 35 x 35 2 P = 25. (I ) Load P for case 2: ('2.20 Frame and Loading The frame of Fig.8 k a = 20/100 b = 15/100 b/a = 3/4 L = 100 For use in the chart: .14.41 P x 20 ' . 3 r x 1.) [ Fig. For use in the "chart l1 replace the horizontal distrj.6a 1 by a l . 14.. Treat the vertical distributed lbad as such.
21 = 0 From chart: wL IYIp = 2 0. 10. different shapes will be used for beam and column. the same as design probl?m No.0734 A = 2a. M L2 Case 2: .32 (14.2 (2) 25.8 .205. (1.2) required 30WF124. '.41)(100) . except that tapered haunches will be used.046 x 1. Example 14.14) = 276 in.0866 k/ft. will be used.055 wL2 Mp _ From the chart: ~ = .88 = .3 Use 30WFI08 (S = 299) The remaining "rules l1 would then be check as for example 14. T~e (This is.0866 L =866 ft.41 u:::: Case 1 (without wind) is critical.046 p = . L wL ./ / .1.2).4) Case 1: A 14. Section Selection: = .055 x 1. for uniform section throughout and. = . in another example. first. Note: Elastic design (Ref. 2 M p = . The equilibrium method of analysis .2 will be solved.0775 k/ft. problem will be worked.kips = (866)(12) (~3)(1.. 3 in Ref . 10.
~L~ 14.0 x 1. + L.22 if)· . + Wind p = 5.05 kips = ~5.0x1.2.14.2) Case I (without wind) D.L. Loading is the same as in Example 14."7 Frame and Loading The frame is sketched in Fig. (F = 1. except concen.67 p .d (5' spacing) and side load replaced load as in Example 14.2.4 kips (F = 1.0 x 1.L. 14.8 = 600 x (35)2 x 1.88) p = 5. 10.41) D.205." trated loads applied at purl ins Wv=IOOO#. + L.88 Case 2 (without wind) = 9.L./ft.41 k 20 = 3.L. ~ W t. by equivalent concentrated Loading Conditions (same as investigated in Ref.41 Q = 7.32 ( ~i. h =(000*/ F 1.0 x 1.
32 14. .....205...:\ (4) Composite moment diagram: This hc~ been sketched on Fig...: :ndant: . (The position of the latter hinge is determined from the composite moment diagram. l4..) ~) Mechanism: ..l5(b) such that a mechanism is formed with hinges at Section 2 and at 2nd purlin from crown..~~:~~~~:::::+~~=t:.4) Analysis for Case 1 (Rule 5) (1) Redundant selected as force HI (0) 50' (2) Moment diagram for determinate Haunch Haunch structure CD @ ® @@ (j) (shovm by ~..23 (14...fmirfiflrrm?"" solid line): Uniform load Parabola (3) Moment diagram due to loading by reL.
1 I (2) Moment diagram for determinate structure (solid line): Haunch f M c =Q'(20) = f? \ J • " /:"7' p\ .5) (10P)(40)~P(5+l0+15+20+25+30+35+4~) = 240p 240p M p .'4·1<0 ! .. _U J 7'::> 1..24 (5) EquilibriumSolliti6n: Eq\lating t1').0 4 p' M s = 250P (3) Moment diagram due to loading c I I e (c) by redundant (similar to Fig.. HI (14) = M l .:~) 14.14 M l = (14. 14.ti!4s 5 Analysis for Case 2 (Rule 5) (1) Redundant selected as Hg • (0) .205·32 (ll!.HI (32) = ~ _ M p HI ..).e moment at Section 2 to the moment at 4.15(c}) IFig.k .I I I (?'. 1<+ ~~~ .(1 +~) = 73.3 P' k = 6881.
 6l0. :'. : : (l L 14. Plastic (2) We should not expect too much economy.~6(c) (5) Equilibrium Solution: Equating moment at Section 8 to moment at 4.1 .P(5+l0+l5+20+25+3013i) = 227.32 .5) = M (14.4 P)(lOO) . l4._ ' .5 14 Case 1 (without wind) is critical Selection of Section (Rule 3) S :=. 10. design saved ~n the columns.5 P H9 = M p /14 M = 227·5P + 47.. .25 (4) Composite moment diagram: This has been sketched on Fig. because the use of haunches also make possible a more balanced ._..205.6p = 86.2) required 24WF94 girder and 30WF108 column.5 P'k p 1 + 30. Note: (1) Elastic design (Design Proble.15) The haunch would then be designed (Rule 23) and the remaining "Rules" would next be checked as for example 14.6) M l = (10P)(35) ..m #3 of Ref. .14) Use 24WF94 (S = 220.l6(b) such that a' mechanism is formed with hinges at Section 8 and at the 3rd purlin from crown.H9 (30.k rliD =: ( cry f 688 ) (12 ) = 219 in.9 f = 1. 65 H9 (14) = M p l + (73. Mechanism: Fig. 3 (33)(1. l4. .
\ ( ]~ ~~. HI (23) . following the procedure for analysis of Case 1 in Example 14.M l = M 2 .. achieved by using The moment there is about Addition economy may be This possibility will now a lighter girder. a mechanism forms with hinges at Sections Q) and ®.P (5 + 27") = goP M2 = 240p Hl = M2 + Ml = 330P = 6 P 23 + 32 55 . ~ '. ®.26 / §i~PLE l4.205·32 j' . be investigated.3. (14.Hl (32) = M p 10 M l = (lOP) (10) . half of the plastic moment value. then to proportion the columns for the required moment at Section (2) Equilibrium Solution: Equating the moments at Sections Q) and ®.l5(b)) that the girder at Section 3 is not being used to full capacity. The problem is to find the required plastic m9ment of the girder." 14. (1) Composite moment diagram: Haunch Z ® 4 As sketched.4[ It is evident from Fig.
14) 8 S = 144 (7 9J (451) .3 Little. 14. 223. May. Structural Engineer. E. 1954.7 f = 1. F. Smith. 1949. p. I1SOIVIE STEEL STRUCTURAL FRAMES DESIGNED ON PLASTIC THEORy l1 .J.Different Sections .Section . . H.14) Use 27WFI02 (S = 266. Paper #44.14.1 Baker. (Br.Haunch Uniform . ELASTIC }3 0WF124 24WF94 30WFI08 24WF94 30WFl08 PLASTIC 30WFl08 Uniform 14.).4.3. at Section 2 is determined from M p (12) = HI (14) M p (12) = 6p (14)= Selection of Girder~ Section~ S = (451) ( 12 2 = 144 in. 14.14) Column: = .2No Haunch . p.) 27(10). 1955.\ '. Proc. Girrier Column References 14.Haunch .4 WITH ELASTIC DESIGN .. J. A.3. . 14. p. 3 (33)(1. ) Required plastic moment. A.2) 14.?5 2 in. Structural Engineer (Br. of Civil EngIneers (Br.3 f = 1. Use 21WF7:3 (S = 150. 397· I1DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF WELDED PORTAL FRAME WAREHOUSE BUILDING DESIGNED BY THE PLASTIC METHOD". Inst. 32(1).27 ". 14. 14.. D. I1THE DESIGN OF STEEL FRAMES I'.30 and 32(8). October..Section ) 24WF94 21WF73 27WFI02 . EXAMPLE Girder Column Girder Column .2 Callard.). 3 COMPARISON OF EXAMPLES 14.
b = Flange width c = Distance from neutral axis to. E ~ Your IS modulus of elasticity Est = Strainhardening modulus = Et = Tangent modulus. . I p = Moment of inertia of plastic part of crosssection. Gst = Modulus of elasticity in shear at onset of strainhardening. f = Shape factor = Mp _ Z rvryS· G = Modulus of elasticity in shear. F = Load Factor of Safety. H = Hinge rotation required at a plastic hinge. Actual column length. Aii' = Area of both flanges of WF shape.15. d = Depth of section. Ast c Area of Splittee A w = Area of web between flanges. the extreme fibre. ~L = Length of plastic hinge. K = Euler length L = Span length. .1 NOM E N C L A T U R E AND T E R MIN 0 LOG Y A = Area of Crosssection. B = aaxis intercept of extrapolated strainhardening modulus. Ie = Moment of inertia of elastic part of crosssection. I = Moment of inertia. KL = Effective (pinend) length of column. factor. e = g~lst· Eccentricity. Lcr = Critical length for lateral buckling.
a useful maximum moment. Pt = Tangent modulus load . PI" = Reduced modulus load. Pw = Working load.. hinge moment. M o = End moment.32 M = Moment. 2 Pt = 1T Et I L2 ~u = Ultimate load (theoretical). M p = Plastic moment. P Q = Acry • = Side load. I" S = Section modulus. Pf = Full load. P = Concentrated load.20. M s My = = Maximum moment of a simplysupported beam. ll maximum column Pe = Euler buckling load. I/c. load II . = Radius of 'gyration. . PCI' = 'Useful column load. Moment at which yield point is reached in flexure. A load used as the Pe = 1T 2 EI/L2. Ps = Stabilizing ( IIshakedown II) load. R = Rotation capacity. Moment at 1I1hich initial outer fibre yield occurs when M JTC = axial thrust is present. moment modified to include effect of shear ~s = Plastic hinge force.the load at which bending of a perfectly straight column may commence. Se = Section modulus of elastic part of crosssection. moment modified to include the effect of ~c = Plastic hinge axial compression. Py = Axial load corresponding to yield stress level.
y.15. = Total distributed load.Poisson's ratio. Z . b = Deflection. ts V Stiffener thickness.w = Displacements in x. W due to virtual displacement. = Longitudinal coordinate. F . u. = Strain at strainhardening. rotation. = Transverse coordinate. z = Lateral coordinate. V . = Radius of curvature. and z directions.3 T = Force.. €y = Strain corresponding to first attainment of yield stress levels. €max = Elongation. w x y :!:: Distributed toad per unit of 'length. € = Strain. = Shear force. at fracture (8" gage length unless otherwise noted) . t = Flange thickness. _ Mp Z = Plastic modulus. web thickness. Zp = Plastic modulus of plastic portion. e = Measured angle change. W EXT = External work WINT = Internal work due to virtual displacement.v.cry Ze = Plastic modulus of elastic portion.
= = Lower yield point. Rot:rtj.on. Prop..i. Working stress. Plastification The development of full plastic yield of the crosssection. ¢y = Curvature corresponding to first yield in flexure. Upper yield point. Mechanism Method Method of Plastic Analysis in which the principle of Virtual Displacements is applied to a mechanism created by the formation of sufficient plastic hinges~ Moment Conventions Moment values are. Limit. Used in the special sense that all hinges are plastic hinges (except pin ends). Hinge Length Length of beam in which M ~ My. crl y crp crr crult cruy crw cry = = = = =.on ner unit length. Shear stress. . Hinge Rotation Rotation required at a plastic hinge in order to realize computed ultimate load. unit rotat. stress level. Yield. Mechanism (or lIHinge System") System of members (and/or segments of a member) that deforms at constant load. plotted on the" tension side. curvature. Residual Stress. Ultimate tensile strength of material. or average. Rotation Capacity Ability of structural member to rotate at nearmaximum moment.205·32 cr = Normal stress. 1" = 95 .
6. "RECENT PROGRESS IN THE PLASTIC METHODS OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS II. August:r955. Inc. Journal Inst. 1949. G. S. "THE COLLAPSE METHOD OF DESIGN". November.205.~ay. Jnl. 185240. 9.32 S E L E C TED 1. 447. H. McGrawHill Book Co. Neal. G. weldin~JO. 32(5)p.·p. 7. 1949. October.1. J.. W. . p. 4. John Wiley and Sons. J. J. 1949. 3. 27(10). 10. p. 469492.. 1950. "A REVIEW OF RECENT INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE BEHAVIOR OF STEEL FRAMES IN THE PLASTIC RANGE". S. Nadai. Baker. Baker. BCSA.· . "ON LIMIT DESIGN OF BEAMs AND FRAMES". New York. I'THE DESIGN OF STEEL FRAMES". and 252(6). 383407. Greenberg. Trans. ASCE. 1948.) "PLASTIC STRENGTH OF STEEL FRAMES". B. H. John Wiley and Sons. Vol. of Struc. 14s. "AN EVALUATION OF PLASTIC ANALYSIS AS APPLIED TO STRUCTURAL DESIGN I'. Discussion in Welding Journal. Prager. Publication No. 1953.224s. J. L. British Constructional Steelwork Assn. 1951. 1951. . A. Prager. . 33(1). Symonds.Urr1al.1 Van Den Broek. 1952. Beedle. 1954.. 764. January. 8. 5. p. Journal of Franklin Inst. 2nd Edition. Beedle. "THEORY OF PERFECTLY PLASTIC SOLIDS". A.252(5). S. 2. C. New York. P. ASCE Proceedings Paper No. Johnston. . Engrs. New York. Vol. G. REF ERE N C E S 16.. P. December. F. 397.5. 117. "THEORY OF LIMIT DESIGN". Yang. B. of Civil Engineers.. F. Inst. 1952. L. Hodge. 3. H. "THEORY OF FLOW AND FRACTURE OF SOLIDS". p.
1. 9.method.29 Flange buckling (see "Local Insta. 5. 14.6. 10. 10. Eccentric.3 Collapse load (see Ultimate Load) Columns. 12. 13.3 Preliminary.8 Stress distribution. 12.3) 11.12.3. 13. 5.3. 12.21. 14. 2. 3. 1. 12.1. Influence of.21 Portal. 9.5. 6. 10.6.10. 6. 9.16 Miscellaneous.7 }jearnoolumn.1 Ultimate load.10.1.6.3. 14.7 Encasement~ 2. 4. .1.8 Bound theorems.3 Crosssection form~ 12. 11. 12.6 Straight.12 Direct stress (see IIAxial Force ll ) Distributed load. 8.4. 8.1.19 Conventional.8 Gabled. 11. 12.10. 9. 6.12. 6. 2. 10.3.12 6. 12. 1.13 Design.7. 12.20.15. bility")_ Flexure. 1. 12.4 Determinate cases. 14. 1. 14. 8. 12.5.6 Factors affecting strength of.17 Elastic design. 3.8.25.5.5 Fundamental concepts. 4~2.1.1. 12.3 Sisple. 14.10 Conventional design. 8.11 Importance of.9 . 8. 6.5 Catenary forces.32 I N.15.DE Alternating plasticity. 10.1 Beams.14 Flexure. 6. 8.11.1.22. 12.i6 Wideflange. 10. 8.6.19.19 Compression members (see "Columns II) Connections.6) 2.12 Curvature. 9.0.3. 10. 10.9.30 Analysis.1 Rectangular. 4. 12. 8. 2.8 Beamcolumn connections (see .4 Trial and error method.4. 4. 10. 10.31 Deflections.7. 10. 13.5 Equilibrium method of analysis.11 Riveted. 1.2 Axial force. 14. 10. 6. 12.1. 10. 4. 12.1 Details. 2. Charts. 9.1 Box se~tions.17 Bracing (see "Lateral Bracing ll ) Brittle fracture.IIConnections II) Beamcolumns. Continuous. 14.18 Requirements. 9.1.0 4 . 14. 10.6. 14. 8. 14.8.1.9 Frames.2 Haunched frames.21. 12. 4.4 Equilibrium equations. 5.1.3 Economy. closed. 14. 9. 10.3.9. 12. 10.205.16 Equilibrium check.2.4.9 x Deflection stability. 8.2 Beam. 2. 2. 12.14 Corner. 1.26 Importance of.. 10.16 Cambering. 12.13 Working load. 2. 2. 14. 10. 12.19. 10.4 Momentbalancing method.7. 1. 7.7 Design Problems.1. 1 . 0. 8.5.13. 12. 1.14 Lateral support. Equilibrium method.7 Haunched. 1.Lateral support.3. 2.2 Stiffness. 1.1. 8. 14.2 Factor of Safety (see "Load Factor of Safety") Fatigue. 1.13.1 Frames. 12. 10. 12.1 Design Procedure. 2.14 Fixedended. 6.18.1. 13.3.21 Mechanism.5. 2.26 Industrial (multispan).1 Interior. 7.4 Indeterminate cases. 4.
7. 9. 12.16.6. 5.205·32 Gabled frame (see "Frames") General Provisions.8 Stability of deflection. 2. . 8.1.l~ 12. 9. Definition. 10.1 Number of. 2.1 Safety factor (see Load Factor of Safety) Shakedown (see Deflection Stability) Shape factor.3 Industrial frames (see "Frames I') .3 Momentbalancing. 9. 1.1 Method. (see "Connections") Lateral bracing. 7.6 Rules of design. 9.4 Local.24 Stress distribution.17 M¢. 12.1.29 Residual stress. 9. 7. C?llowal?le.1 Modified plastic moment.2 Plastic fatigue.2 Idealized.18. 0.12.12 ' Lower bound theorem. 2.10 Justification.2.6 Index2 Plastic design (see also particular .1 Slopedeflection.2. 10. 9.8. 2.5 Specifications.2 ~18chanical properties of materials.6 Nonporportional loading. 2.8.5 Plastic modulus. 12. 9.2 Knees. 9.29 .22 Lateral buckling. 5. 2. 1.4 Indeterminacy.16. : 12.12 Redistribution of moment. 10. 10. 1. Concept. 2.15 Mechanisms.13 Distribution.4 Stability. 2.2 Stress concentrations. 11. 12.2 Girders (see "Beams 11) Haunches (see "Connections") Hinge. 5. 12.3 Modifications to simple plastic theory. 2.4 Moment distribution.17. 7.21 Limitations (see "Modifications") Load factor of safety. 2.12.21 Location of. 14. 8.12 Plastic moment.15 Reversal of stress (see R~peated Loading) Rotation capacity.22. 7.16.14 Shear. 2.Allowable. 2. 9.31 Straight connections (see "Connections II) Strainhardening.30 Plastic hinge.3 Repeated loading.26 Length of hinge.20. 9.5 Instantaneous center. method of.14 Simple plastic theory.14.3 Historical notes. 2. 8.12 Design of. 0. 10.2 Local instability. 12.structure). 12. 5. 1. 2. 6. 12.4. 2.16 Stresses.5. 7. 10.29 Proportional loading. 1.29 Proportioning member~ 12.7 Materials.1.5 Progressive deformation.1.6 Computation (WF). 5. 2. Inequalities.19.l~ Redundants.4. 9. ll. 12.1. 10. 2. 10.' "(see "Pla~tic Hinge") Hinge moment (see "Plastic Moment") Hinge rotation. 2. 10. 3.16. 12.3 Number of. 1. 3. 12.9. 3. 2. 9.8 Influence of. 9.14 Stressstrain curves. 12. 9. 9. 1.6.3 Stiffening. 12. 1.7.5.8 Modulus.16 Length of. 2.2.2 Portal frame (see "Frames") Preliminary design. 6. 14.
9. 12..ng.205.2 .24 Tier buildings.11 Wl}~i(l:: :i. 3. 2.7.29.9.12.2 Web buclcling (see "Local Instability") Weld1. 1. 1.1. 2. 14. 1.4 Ultimate load.9 Virtual displacement.6 Variable loading. 9. 12.15 Upper bound theorem. l " ~ 11 Yield stress.18 Uniform load (see "Distributed Load" ) Unsymmetrical crosssections. 1~. 12. 3.32 Index3 Tangent modulus.
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