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University of California, LA Los Angeles, CA 90095
email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Minsoo Kim Mario Gerla
Electronics and Telecomm. Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea University of California, LA Los Angeles, CA 90095
Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
Young Min Yoo
Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
Chan Gook Park
Due to recent technology advancements, RFID readers have been proposed for several vehicular applications ranging from safe navigation to intelligent transport. However, one obstacle to deployment is the unpredictable read performance. An RFID reader occasionally fails to read an RFID tag even in static circumstances, mostly due to collisions. In a mobile vehicular environment, latency becomes the key performance factor because of the high speed of vehicles. This is particularly true when the RFID reader is on the moving vehicle. In this paper, we investigate RFID read latency and thus eﬀectiveness of on-vehicles reader installations for a wide range of speeds. First, we experimentally study the impact of reader and tag relative positions on read errors and read rates. Then we conduct road experiments at varying speeds. The results reveal the critical factors that inﬂuence on-vehicle RFID read performance, and give us guidance to identify and pursue directions for improvement.
Categories and Subject Descriptors
C.4 [Performance of Systems]: Measurement techniques; C.2.1 [Network Architecture and Design]: Wireless communication—Vehicular communication
Measurement, Performance, Design, Experimentation
RFID, VANET, Vehicular application, RFID read rate ∗This research was supported by Ministry of Information and Communication, Republic of Korea.
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Mass production has enabled low cost RFID systems to be distributed over large areas. In production and distribution systems, RFIDs manage products and follow them throughout the delivery route. Data mining is one of the most active research areas where a large number of RFID tags are uploaded to a server to extract hidden patterns of conveyance. The RFID system is also used in passports for national security. Norway, Korea, and Germany already produce ePassport containing the biometric information of the traveler. Healthcare applications make use of RFID systems in various ways; in a hospital, RFID tags are used to track drugs and assure that patients are given the correct dosages of drugs. To monitor elderly people behavior at home, he/she wears a bracelet equipped with a small RFID reader that reads RFID tags installed everywhere in the apartment, for example toothbrush, faucet, sofa, and bed. In vehicular applications, the RFID tag is generally mounted on the vehicle and the reader on the roadside unit. An Automatic Toll Collection (ATC) system with roadside RFID readers identiﬁes passing vehicles by reading their tags and then charges the fare. The European Union is spending 8.1 million Euros on RFID tracking systems to issue automated tickets for minor traﬃc violations  after reading the Electronic License Plates (ELP) . In these applications, the RFID reader is (almost) stationary while the RFID tags are moving at vehicle speed. This keeps costs low due to cheap price of the RFID tags. In our study, we turn the situation around and ask the question of what happens if the RFID reader is free to move and the tag is ﬁxed. For example, a vehicle equipped with an RFID reader acquires data from ﬁxed RFID tags while driving. If this is possible, then the driver can collect useful information, e.g. position data, during the trip. A Detailed description of RFID enabled vehicular applications is presented in Section 2. The most signiﬁcant challenge in the new system is that the fast moving RFID reader accesses RFID tags data with success. RFID read performance is not an issue in a static environment since most read failure at the reader occurs due to collision. Considerable research was spent recently on RFID anti-collision algorithm   . Moreover, RFID read performance is not critical in existing ﬁxed read RFID systems since RFID communications occur under highly con-
e. Denmark. In the new system. A collision avoidance system in urban intersections can also be eﬀectively supported by vehicle RFID readers and lane RFID tags. In this study. A driver entering the 4-way intersection may not have noticed a vehicle executing a left turn. this can easily lead to an accident. RFID read Performance is estimated in a testbed in Section 6. Additional integration of lane RFID readings with existing car navigator functionality. Section 7 concludes the paper. we propose a dual RFID reader antenna and an RFID tag cluster to improve performance based on previous experiment results. the system can trigger green light for emergency vehicles. In Section 5 laboratory experiments are conducted to develop an eﬀective strategy for RFID installations on the vehicle and on the road.e. First. acting as a data consumer. in the ATC system. Also. In Section 2. we consider the UHF RFID system in a vehicular scenario. namely consumer and producer. We run multiple experiments with RFID reader and antenna installations on the vehicle in diﬀerent positions and directions. The increasing penetration of RFID equipped mobile de- . foggy night). An RFID-based accurate positioning system for vehicles was proposed in  where an RFID tag is assumed to have accurate position. The tolling system identiﬁes the vehicle and charges the driver accordingly. we borrow the taxonomy introduced in . Section 4 introduces and examines the RFID system used in the experiments and its factors aﬀecting RFID read performance. For example. For instance. it is going the wrong way! Advance wrong way warning will prevent the driver from entering the freeway. that is. To our knowledge. The second. a roadside RFID reader captures the bus information and sends it to the traﬃc signaling system to control traﬃc light. we place RFID tags on the road at diﬀerent interval and directions. If vehicles are aware of their accurate position from tags deployed near the intersection and have announced their position via a beacon. Next.g. RFID tags are buried in the pavement and an RFID reader on a vehicle gets road information . Many cities. There are many one-way streets in downtown areas. Buettner et al. Thus. voice warning if the vehicle has declared (through the navigator) the intention to take a particular exit. ambulances and ﬁre trucks. Edinburgh Council adopted a bus traﬃc-light priority system for easing traﬃc congestion and reducing road accidents. VEHICULAR RFID APPLICATION UHF RFID systems have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to ubiquitous computing applications. then each vehicle plays a data producer role. This happens because a driver does not have suﬃcient forwarding from vertical and horizontal direction signs. Pala et al. Section 3 reviews the RFID system from the performance viewpoint. one can easily tell when vehicles change lanes abruptly near a freeway exit. In order to appreciate RFID-enabled vehicular applications. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. London and Seoul. These parameters are expected to directly aﬀect RFID read performance. it can automatically broadcast an alarm messages to neighbor vehicles to alert them of the possible collision danger. i. propose an automatic payment system of parking-fees . more traditional RFID vehicular scenario.trolled conditions. The ATC system is the classic example. is a data producer. RFID tag data is examined only when the car stops. Our contributions in this paper are the following. by reviewing the RFID vehicle readings. In the ﬁrst.g. Particularly deadly are the freeway oﬀ ramps. If a vehicle gets accurate position from RFID tags deployed on each lane. Passengers are informed of expected bus arrival and departure times thus signiﬁcantly improving the passenger convenience. Finally. introduced RFID Automatic Vehicle Location (AVI) system in order to enhance the capacity of bus terminals. operate ATC systems. thus becomes a data producer. e. The city of Vejle. The RBS scheme is close to our proposal. As the car reads the lane RFIDs.  studied the physical and MAC layer of an UHF RFID system to develop a detailed model of RFID protocol operation. Lastly. In the previously proposed Road Beacon System (RBS). we investigate RFID device in terms of data rate and pause time. the RFID tag is placed on the vehicle. It is unfortunately very common for drivers at night to enter the freeway from the oﬀ ramp and drive on the wrong way in the fast lane with consequences that are easy to imagine. An RFID tag on the vehicle is read by Automatic Toll Readers as the vehicle passes by the gateway. More general categorization for vehicular applications can be found in . while the reader obtains data and utilizes for further applications. The vehicle now plays the data consumer role. RFID readers are deployed on roadside units. then a lanelevel navigation can be achieved on a freeway. a vehicle must pass through a designated gateway and in ELP system. It is important to warn drivers before a head on collision occurs. This information can be helpful to the transportation department to design better and more eﬀective signs. An RFID tag provides data to an RFID reader. in this case. we discuss new vehicular applications enabled by the proposed RFID system. They speciﬁed factors aﬀecting the RFID read rate in a static laboratory scenario. Another promising application of passive lane tags is a wrong way warning. this is the ﬁrst study that evaluates RFID read performance in a road testbed. can greatly enhance driving safety. i. For example. This architecture reminds us of traditional RFID applications where RFID tags are attached on products and stationary RFID readers monitor their movement. but it does not show any experimental results. We verify the performance enhancements of dual antenna and tag cluster system by comparing with read latency and read rate in a single antenna RFID system for speed ranging from 10km/h to 100km/h. A vehicle with RFID reader travels over the RFID tags embedded in the road and can update its location. RFID read performance at high speeds must be studied before proposing new RFID applications. When a bus (or an emergency vehicle) equipped with an RFID tag approaches the intersection. the reader moves at vehicular speed. Moreover if a vehicle notices a wrong way from RFID tag data after entry. In poor visibility (eg. it immediately realizes that they are coming in the wrong sequence. more challenging scenario assumes that the vehicle is equipped with an RFID reader while the RFID tags are distributed along the road.e. The vehicle. the physical conﬁguration and installation of the RFID system is evaluated in a real scenario. Our proposed system falls into this category. RFID tags are installed to the front bumper of buses and RFID readers are embedded in the road surface along the routes in order to read the unique ID of passing bus. If a server equipped with RFID reader collects data from tags installed on the vehicles and provides traﬃc information via the Internet. 2. the accident can be avoided.
The concept of on-board RFID readers is new (currently. Say. it is fundamental to examine that an RFID communication can occur in fast moving situation. the user receives information about the bus route via Internet or SMS. Current in the tag is so weak. i. Then. Then. Given up to 10-20m of RFID range. However. the communication distance between a reader and a tag could decrease to less than 30cm since a reader on the front bumper of a vehicle is very close to tags on the road surface. The inductive coupling uses an inductor coil in HF and LF communication.e. The ﬁrst constraint is vehicles’ high speed. In the new system. a vehicle should be allowed to obtain tag data without decreasing its speed. A pedestrian. An RFID system suﬀers from two types of collision. In particular. The binary tree-based algorithm allows a reader to send a command to a tag  . This paper studies feasibility of a commercial RFID system in vehicular environment because of its cost beneﬁt. say. at the same time acquiring data from them. With Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). a collision occurs. creating a very short transmission range. several questions come up. A vehicle discloses its identity to RFID readers on other vehicles or roadside units. arbitrarily picks up a random number less than S and transmits data only during the selected slot period. Therefore. TDMA has also provides an anti-collision algorithm in two approaches. the second scenario in Section 2. When . The reader collision occurs when more than two RFID readers try to access one RFID tag simultaneously. A tag. An RFID tag embedded in the rear plate contains the plate number. Nokia oﬀers a Mobile RFID Kit allowing users to access phone functions by touching an RFID tag. an active RFID tag contains a power module. With the RFID reader mounted on the front bumper. If the smart phone reads the RFID tag on the bus station billboard. For example. One critical issue is latency induced by high speed. When exploiting the on-board RFID reader system. Concurrent transmission of tag data toward a single RFID reader causes the tag collision. Unlike the ATC case. can an RFID reader access an RFID tag while driving fast? In a freeway. In a pure ALOHA algorithm. the RFID readers are on roadside units only). accident prevention and even intelligent priority lane management. peer localization can be achieved when a vehicle announces its accurate position on the beacon. they try to transmit data again in the next frame. Chon et al.e.e. This peer enforcement becomes more eﬀective during rush hour since traﬃc is bumper to bumper and any violator is detected (and ﬁned) with probability one! As a by-product. showing the beneﬁts to safe navigation. The modulated backscattering coupling in UHF bandwidth makes use of the fact that a microwave is reﬂected by an object whose size is greater than half of the wave length. say) and RFID tag (on the license plates. through an inductive coupling or a backscattering coupling. are deployed along a sidewalk. Along these lines. Frame slotted ALOHA (FSA) divides a frame into a ﬁxed number of slots  . RFID tags. The RFID reader continuously emits RF radio waves and waits for signals back from the tag. The ELP (Electronic License Plate) RFID extension is an interesting feature that lends itself to several applications. namely a reader and tag collision. Another constraint comes from a very short communication distance. The rest tags transmit data in the next round. drivers pay for the right to drive on priority lanes. it absorbs energy from the waves. This section reviews properties of an RFID system that are closely related to RFID communication. An operating frequency determines how energy and data is transmitted.vices in general also facilitates the deployment of RFID vehicular applications. i. The necessity of external power classiﬁes the RFID sys- tem. ALOHA-based and binary tree-based. i.e. This is diﬀerent from the ATC case because vehicles get slower for safety when passing through the toll gateway. real world data is completely diﬀerent from the laboratory results and we investigate it in the later section. the position can be computed by the follower with reasonable accuracy. Here. tags whose ID is greater than the number are allowed to send data back to the reader. The beacon ID and position data (received from neighbors over the radio channel) is correlated to the ELP RFID tag of the vehicle in front and the accurate position is then computed. In the last scenario. in one frame. approximately up to 10m. Another important safety application is a pedestrian positioning system . In this context. They estimated that an RFID communication can occur at the maximum speed of 165km/h. Thus. i. a reader is able to transmit a wave only within the assigned slot . modulates ID data. suppose two vehicles travel in the same direction following one another. it gets a ﬁne. whereas a passive tag is powered by a radio wave beamed from a reader. RFID SYSTEM A passive RFID system is composed of a passive RFID tag storing data and an RFID reader that accesses the tag and collects data. the reader selects a number by looking at tag IDs causing the collision and sends the number to tags. The antenna coil in the reader generates a magnetic ﬁeld in a nearby area which gives rise to inductive power in the tag antenna. a tag. around several centimeters. S . location markers. vehicles usually drive at faster than 100km/h. and sends information back to the reader. consider an automatic vehicle enforcement system that oversees car lane priority scheduling and driver compliance. If two diﬀerent tags pick the same slot by chance. when receiving the wave. one frame is a time period when a reader waits for receiving data back from tags after sending a wave out. The wave contains information on the number of slots. 3m∼4m.e. If the car is not authorized. a vehicle reads the license number of the car in front and reports it to the transport authority. Mobile RFID is deﬁned as a service that provides web based information about objects equipped with an RFID tag . in  studied this issue by dropping RFID tags down in front of a ﬁxed RFID reader in a laboratory. say). The above examples have motivated the use of RFID readers on vehicles. i. authors in  and  investigated adaptation of an RFID system into CDMA and WiBro networks. In the following sections we address this issue and propose solutions for latency mitigation. after receiving a wave. waits for a randomlygenerated time period before sending data back . a vehicle is equipped with both an RFID reader (behind the front bumper. When a collision occurs. 3. This enables longer radio range. it is important to evaluate the feasibility and eﬃciency of RFID readers on fast moving platforms. Consider a smart phone with an embedded RFID reader. When the tag receives the radio waves. with laptop including an RFID reader passes by an RFID tag and immediately gets the accurate position.
KIS900AE . deciding the tag numbers. In the case that a reader is ﬁxed on a roadside.5cm and θ = 45◦ . Table 1 summarizes speciﬁcation of the RFID system. The width (x1 ) and length (x2 ) of the area are calculated by Equation 1. the deployment strategy. For a target application.where h and θ are the height and the pitch angle of the reader antenna (-56◦ <θ<56◦ ).2. A vehicle is equipped with a reader and associated antenna(s) and obtains RFID data by passing over the tags. This concept is important because the reader plays an active role in RFID communication. 4. Each tag is assumed to have one meaningful data. where a vehicle acquires its coordinate data by reading tag data when encountering the tag.5ms. It supports an anti-collision algorithm with Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) in 200kHz bandwidth. In addition. We select UHF RFID system because of its long read range and low cost. The EM4222 chip used in the RFID tag transmits 64bit data at 256kbps. a reader in motion is highly likely to access tag data in an arbitrary way. In this paper. For experiments. Figure 2 shows the RFID system including a computer collecting and processing RFID data. Based on this information. each tag waits for a random delay time. it can be easily calibrated. The RFID reader is KIS900RE  operating in 900MHz-914MHz. x1 = 2 × h × tan 34◦ h h + x2 = tan(56◦ + θ◦ ) tan(56◦ − θ◦ ) (1) . For anticollision. and tag. The maximum pause time is 62. . In order to enhance RFID read performance. In fact. Therefore.2 4. reader antenna. Based on assumption of regional deployment scenario. For this reason. e. which also increase uncertainty of communication. We assume that RFID tags are placed on the road surface along each lane. maximizing the RFID read performance can be achieved.63cm. Frequency 910∼914MHz RF power 4W EIRP RFID reader Read distance ∼5m Modulation ASK Radio access FHSS Angle 60◦ (3dB) RFID reader Gain 6dBi antenna Size 215(W)×420(L)×55(H) Data 64bit RFID tag Data rate 256kbps Figure 2: RFID system: reader.1 Hardware of the RFID system This section introduces the RFID system used in our experiments and examines factors aﬀecting the RFID read performance. we consider a point localization. Based on this. 4. The RFID reader antenna. For example. UNDERSTAND RFID READ RATE 4. reducing probability of successful RFID communication. this paper considers tag multiplicity and antenna diversity .58cm and x2 = 185. which is a little bit wider than speciﬁcation . initial arrangement of RFID systems is to be inspected carefully to minimize performance degradation. However. Erratic mobility of the on-board reader also makes the RFID communication unstable. is one of the biggest issues in the vehicular RFID applications since each application demands diﬀerent speciﬁcation. considering cone-shaped wave propagation.Figure 1: An application scenario for measurement of the RFID read rate: a point localization. then x1 = 58. this study examines 2m and 5m tag intervals in a 3km-length test road for evaluation. we establish a target performance of the read latency in a vehicular environment. Figure 1 illustrates the concept. has 60◦ of angle and 6dBi of gain. the communication area moves fast along with the on-board reader. The number of tags to be deployed depends on the vehicular application. if h = 37. Table 1: Hardware speciﬁcation of the used RFID system.1 Software Aspect of Speciﬁcation Read Area A previous research revealed that the angle of the used RFID reader antenna is 68◦ . If we can assume that each vehicle is equipped with a GPS device. when we consider ’lane level navigation’ guiding a freeway exit to a driver in this paper. The tag price (around 10 cents per one tag) and tag intervals could be also taken into account when deploying the tags. but we believe that a number of tags under an appropriate strategy can be deployed in some speciﬁc roads where accidents frequently occur. pause time. where a reader antenna can communicate a tag to obtain data. the short distance creates a small radio area. The RFID tags would not be distributed over all the roads. we explore strategy of how to install an RFID system on a vehicle and a roadside. we draw a simple scenario. For example. we depict a RFID read area. the tags can be placed only near the exit. before sending data out.g. the number of tags to be deployed is reduced dramatically. as shown in Figure 3. This means that RFID communication could fail at some unpredictable points.
060 70 0. A non-zero maximum access time of an RFID tag is ﬁxed at the factory. We expect that further interdisciplinary researches enable an experiment with very short random access times. we compute how fast the read area moves from Equation 1.067 0. i. a target performance.222 0. we establish. 50% of read rate says that the reader obtains data from 125 tags while driving the road.051 80 0. we examine an .2. The table also indicates that the read latency should be less than 36ms at the speed of 100km/h.083 0. LABORATORY EXPERIMENT FOR INSTALLATION OF RFID SYSTEM This section discusses installation of the RFID system in a vehicular environment.045 90 0. the selected tag was the one having the shortest maximum random access time available on the market at the moment of experiments. The next section studies such enhancement. One solution is to shorten the average read latency to less than 36ms at 100Km/h and the other way is to enlarge the read area to decrease its moving speed. Speed [km/h] Computed [sec] Measured [sec] 10 0. shows results from our experiments. advanced data manipulation can be achieved. which is around 1m instead of 1. For ﬁne-grained laboratory experiment. we adjust the reader antenna to be mounted on a vehicle.048 bits if the memory is user-programmable. two techniques are experimentally investigated to satisfy the performance. As shown in the previous subsections. In order to obtain RFID data.2. the next 8 bits identify a company producing the tag. For comparison. Our experiment.166 0.4. We deﬁne RFID read latency as a time period when one communication occurs and thus a reader successfully obtains RFID data from a tag. and the rest 54 bits including a CRC code represent the RFID tag ID.133 0. the third column.111 0.5cm and θ = 45◦ ).040 100 0.22ms to transmit 64bit tag data. this paper deﬁnes RFID read rate as a fraction of RFID tags successfully read over the total number of tags deployed over a designated test road.85m. however. The read latency is upper-bounded by vehicles’ speed. one communication.3 Data Rate 256kbps of data rate of the RFID tag means that it takes 0. Therefore. Because the reader antenna is attached to a vehicle traveling at a high speed. Unfortunately. This is one constraint given from the selected commercial RFID system due to 62. In order to appreciate reliability of the RFID system. 4.5m of read distance in which one communication occurs within 18ms. It is clear that the RFID read rate decreases as speed becomes faster. measured [sec].e.120 40 0. 250 tags.036 4. In Table 2.074 0. an RFID system should provide 0. In order to utilize the RFID system on roads. Then. which would degrade reliability of the RFID system.89ms).332 0. Memory size can increase up to 2. the moving speed of the read area (36ms at 100km/h) is faster than the average read latency measured (38. Through experiments.090 50 0. the read area also travels and encounters the ﬁxed tags during a short time period. Having a long random access time in a commercial RFID tag is to avoid tag collision.2 RFID Communication An RFID communication is a process where an RFID reader transmits wave to an RFID tag and then receives data back from the tag. The gap between ’computed’ and ’measured’ values is due to the reduced length (x2 ) of the RFID read area in a real situation. must occur between the reader and the tag in the read area.89ms.3 RFID Read Rate Figure 3: RFID read area. The most signiﬁcant 2 bits are reserved. the paper ﬁgures out what level of reliability the commercial RFID system can provide to the target application. It may be possible to select another RFID system providing shorter maximum pause time for the performance issue. Table 2: Moving speed of RFID read area (time to pass over a RFID tag with h = 37. This is based on the measured moving speed and size of the read area. point localization. This slow communication mainly results from the pause time at the selected tag whose maximum value is 62.095 0. however. 4.4 Memory and Packet The tag chip contains 64bit data memory. i. which would overcome the limitation of the commodity RFID system for better RFID performance.2. at least.180 30 0. i.e.072 60 0. This means that the reader is likely to pass by one tag without having one RFID communication.665 0.360 20 0. Recent researches have tried to advance speciﬁcation of RFID systems including the pause time in a tag for various applications. Reliability (or accuracy) is a relative value whose requirement depends on each application. When the test road is a 500m-long single lane and tags are placed every 2m. This implies that there might be no RFID communication when a vehicle travels at a higher speed than 60km/h since the moving speed of the read area becomes 60ms or shorter (Table 2). At ﬁrst.e. it must demonstrate reliable performance at a high speed. In the paper.5ms. without loss of generality. The tag initiates a packet containing all memory data. One communication should occur at least once within this time period. 5. reveals that the average read latency is 38.5ms of its maximum pause time. which is the most signiﬁcant issue in existing RFID applications.
which imitates the scenario where the antenna is mounted on the front bumper of a test vehicle. because our experiment indicates that 20∼40cm of height shows similar performance and the height of the front bumper of the test vehicle is 30cm. a vehicle is able to obtain RFID data unless it changes a lane.1. When mounting an additional reader antenna. in particular. A dual RFID reader antenna is investigated to increase the RFID read rate. inside the black square line. otherwise explicitly stated.1. identiﬁes the tags accessed within 18ms. connected to the antenna via the cable but not shown in this ﬁgure.Figure 6: Inﬂuence of dual RFID reader antennas. Figure 7: Average read latency with varying pitch angles of RFID reader antennas. the read area may not pass over the tags. the width is extended to 130cm with small decrease of the length from 80cm to 78cm. we deliberate its horizontal and vertical position. which is acceptable if a user drives in the middle of a lane all the time. tag multiplicity is taken into account for performance improvement. When one reader antenna is mounted. and the tag. RFID tags are placed at the center of each lane and on the road surface. 5. In this case. We build a static test set for laboratory experiments like Figure 4. mounted at the height of 30cm and the angle of 30◦ . which helps determine the read area with diﬀerent pitch angles of the antenna. the read area is 86cm in width. which will make worse the RFID read rate as drawn in Figure 6.5m away from the antenna is measured. RFID tag. Figure 4: Installation the RFID reader antenna used for the laboratory experiment. Experiments in this paper use dual RFID reader antennas. The reader antenna is ﬁxed on the left end of a 30cm-height iron frame placed on top of two boxes. we set h=30cm. has 30◦ of yaw angle.2 Posture (Pitch Angle) 5.1 5. The antenna is adjusted to have 30◦ of pitch angle. The reader antenna is ﬁxed on a 30cm-height frame and tags are aligned near the antenna on the ﬂoor. Figure 5: Measured RFID read area (18ms read latency). The reader. The read latency to access the tags 0. The ﬁgure represents one of the experiment settings that evaluates the yaw angle of a tag. Figure 5 depicts the read areas with 18ms of read latency when one or two RFID reader antenna(s) is . When mounting a reader antenna on a vehicle. The frame allows the antenna to have various pitch angles.1 RFID Reader Antenna Antenna Diversity Figure 8: Length of RFID read area with varying pitch angles of RFID reader antennas. With respect to the vertical position. We aﬃx the antenna at the center of the front bumper since this position shows the minimum error rate. Otherwise.
and thus we use 0◦ of yaw angle. Results in the case of 10◦ and 20◦ are almost same. On the other hand. When comparing them to the result of 0◦ . we measure the average read latency and the length of the read area. the only distinction is the starting and ending point of the read area. The rest settings of yaw angles show similar results. each tag can have 0◦ ∼20◦ of pitch angles. The experiment measures the average read latency by varying the pitch angle from 0◦ to 70◦ as shown in Figure 7. For deployment of the RFID system. Figure 8 sketches the side view of the read area where one communication occurs at least once within 18ms based on results from Figure 7. the reader antenna as shown in Figure 9. the average read latency increases dramatically. Therefore.3 Tag Multiplicity This subsection investigates a posture of an RFID tag in terms of its yaw angle and pitch angle. It tells that 20◦ ∼40◦ of the pitch angles creates the longest read area within an error tolerance and outperforms other angles.e. at least one tag is likely to select a short pause time. more tags may cause tag collision that deteriorates the RFID performance. Deﬁnition of the pitch angle is referred from Section 4. if a reader receives data back ﬁrst from any tag in one cluster. The average read latency when varying the yaw angle by every 30◦ is summarized in Table 3. 90◦ . the results are reasonable since energy transmission is maximized with matched polarization between the reader antenna and the tag . i. we attach the reader antenna on the front bumper with 30◦ of the pitch angle for easiness of installation. the average read latency in most test cases converges to around 13ms. The next experiment tries to ﬁnd the best cluster model. As the x-axis can be considered as the length of the read area. As the number of tags increases in a cluster.2. A yaw angle is an internal angle of the tag and the straight line drawn from the antenna to the tag. then we say that RFID communication occurs and tag data is read successfully. 0cm∼30cm on the x-axis. Table 3: Average read latency [ms] with varying yaw angle (a single RFID tag. and 120◦ of yaw angles. Given that the used reader antenna is horizontal polarization. In some speciﬁc range of distance. Figure 9: Yaw angle and pitch angle of RFID tag. 5.1 180◦ 46. and pitch angle = 0◦ ). At 60◦ . Figure 9 describes their deﬁnition. which shortens the read latency. which is shown in Figure 10. there is no communication. Each cluster manifests its own .2 RFID Tag 5. we use 0◦ of pitch angle.Figure 10: Average read latency with varying pitch angles of RFID tag (yaw angle = 0◦ and pitch angle of the reader antenna=30◦ ). the ﬁgure also illustrates how the length changes with diﬀerent pitch angles.3 30◦ 44. For each pitch angle. A fundamental idea is to regard multiple tags in a cluster as one data.9 A pitch angle of the reader antenna is as much important as horizontal and vertical position because the beam shape and direction inﬂuences substantially on the receive sensitivity in a short-ranged RFID communication. a single RFID reader antenna. Yaw Angle Read latency 0◦ 44. In our experiment. Figure 11: RFID tag cluster models. Deﬁnition of the pitch angle of a tag is same to that of An RFID tag cluster model is contrived in order to speed up the read latency. As the distance point becomes further from the range area (to forward or backward direction). We consider four types of RFID tag clusters as shown in Figure 11. A tag consists of a tag chip (a black spot at the center) and a dipole antenna.2 60◦ x 90◦ x 120◦ x 150◦ 45. If we can use ’Cat’s Eye’  when deploying RFID tags on roads. we can conclude that the pitch angle of a tag does not aﬀect performance of the RFID read rate.
We randomly place each cluster within the target read distance (0. Figure 13(a) displays a test vehicle equipped with the RFID system. 3. we decide to use Cluster 3 having 3 or 4 members of RFID tags since they show the best performance. tag multiplicity. Cluster 1 and 2 represent horizontal and vertical integration. the time values go down below 18ms when there are 2. Our laboratory experiments with stationary test sets quantify that the length of the read area (read distance) becomes 0. Recall our target performance in Section 4.e.9[m/s] = 161. which is connected to the location determination server via the reader.g. and a road. EVALUATION OF RFID READ RATE ON TEST ROAD Testbed Conﬁguration In this section. a vehicle. i. area. respectively. higher duplication read value due to multiple tags results in better performance. as discussed in the previous sections. which is expected to enhance the receive sensitivity.4 Preliminary Result We have conducted laboratory experiments to study how to install an RFID system on a road environment.Figure 12: Average read latency with four RFID tag cluster models. In Cluster 4. velocity = 0. adding more tags in a cluster. would clearly increase the duplication read in a static scenario or at a slow speed. Due to inherent feature of the RFID system. we conduct road experiments in the real testbed after installing the RFID system. Figure 12 shows the average read latency with four RFID tag cluster models with increasing the number of the tags from 1 to 5. the tag chips share one dipole antenna. The tags are attached on the surface of the test road.7[Km/h] 0.5m of read distance in which communication occurs within 18ms. This estimation is also equivalent to the estimation in the previous research . however. The result allows us to calculate the maximum speed at which a vehicle can read RFID data while traveling as below. The RFID reader antenna is mounted on the front bumper.e. Note that due to safety issues. For this end.018 6. Default parameters for both the reader antenna(s) and the tags are denoted in Table 4. As the speed gets faster. i. We also observed that there is a close relationship between two 5. snow. With 5 member tags. In Cluster 2. The test road is pictured in Figure 13(c). a space is given between two neighboring member tags. there were some limitations on experiments such as the maximum speed of the test vehicle. it veriﬁes that as a cluster includes more tags the read latency comes to be shorter. The average read rate represents the overall performance of the RFID system. the reader is highly likely to obtain duplicated data from the same tag. 6. We conduct 6 tests by changing 4 variables as represented in Table 5. e. In the next. but cannot tell details. we measure the average duplication read and the average read rate. At ﬁrst. an RFID system should provide 0. Therefore. .3. Based on results. 3.5m) and compute an average read latency after iterating the experiment. The server allows a user to monitor RFID data read by the antennas in real-time while driving. the average duplication read is used for a metric to assess the impact of the two proposed techniques on the RFID performance. and 4. characteristic in a way how to combine multiple tags in one cluster. Figure 13(b) depicts the read Figure 13: Testbed: RFID system. In the experiments. and 4 members tags.8m with 18ms of the read latency.1 Figure 13 shows our testbed. performance gets much worse due to tag collision.8084 = 44.
but the result discloses that it does not have an eﬀect on performance. But. the results immediately compare the performance . Test 1 is considered to evaluate the RFID read rate in the straightforward conﬁguration: a single reader antenna and a single tag. 6. By monitoring the duplication read values. we vary the number of member tags in Cluster 3 and the interval. the conﬁguration of Test 2 is equivalent to using a single tag. If we consider antenna multiplicity. In the next subsection. But.3 Effect of Tag Multiplicity With dual RFID reader antennas. it can increase the length and aﬀect the RFID read performance favorably. The result is compared to that from Test 2 to see the eﬀect of dual RFID reader antennas. decreasing probability that the reader misses the tags. 3.e. assuming to install additional antennas in the rear bumper. and 4. The results are shown in Figure 15. we can look at how the proposed techniques work with various speeds. Adding one more reader antenna cuts down the length of the read area. Therefore. This is mostly because the test vehicle travels along the center of the lane for the sake of safety. as summarized in Figure 14. i. the read rate converges to 40∼50%. the decrease rate goes up to 78. When comparing two RFID reader antenna(s). duplication read and the average read rate are tightly coupled. Reader antenna value RFID tag value Numbers 1 or 2 Yaw angle 0◦ Height 30cm Pitch angle 0◦ Pitch angle 30◦ Number of tags 1. Test 2 to Test 6. we could not ﬁnd a huge diﬀerence in the results.e. 3. after 40km/h of speed. In particular. as shown in Figure 6. i.2 Effect of Antenna Diversity Figure 15: Experiments with dual RFID reader antenna (Test 2 to Test 6).6%. or 4 in Cluster 3 Table 5: Test scenarios with variables. It shows that the read rate drops rapidly as the vehicle speeds up. In the worst case. the dual reader antenna widens the read area. a primitive tag setting of the commercial RFID system.e. which explicitly reveals that the RFID system is prone to corruption with fast moving vehicles. In Test 2. Number of RFID reader antenna Number of RFID tags in Cluster 3 Interval of neighboring RFID tags Maximum speed [km/h] Test1 1 1 2m ∼100 Test2 2 1 2m ∼80 Test3 2 3 2m ∼80 Test4 2 4 2m ∼80 Test5 2 3 5m ∼80 Test6 2 4 5m ∼100 experiment metrics. there are diﬀerent numbers of member tags in Cluster 3 at a 2m tag interval. This expectation is veriﬁed from Figure 14(b).Table 4: Parameters for deployment. One thing to notice is that two measurements. we will look at how the tag cluster model aﬀects the interconnection.e. i. The tags are placed at 2m interval and the test vehicle travels at the maximum speed of 100km/h. the average 6. i. Figure 14(a) shows that the duplication read declines to less than 3 times at the high speed. Figure 14: Results from Test 1 and Test 2.
and S. and H. In particular. Until 70km/h. the time reduces to 54. 2007. Sarma. 2002. February 2003. As the speed becomes faster.  Asset-road. An anti-collision algorithm using twofunctioned estimation for rﬁd tags. Wang. In ACM MobiHoc. Seidler. They also suggest directions for improvement.  Z. Test 6. Emerging Vehicular Applications . Das. 3 member tags in a cluster perform slightly better than 4 tags. We conjecture that the pause time critically damages the RFID read rate. and T.g. R.  Vtt technical research center of ﬁnland. Donath. we can say that the RFID read rate can reach 80% even at 100km/h. July 2005. Future works will include experiments for speciﬁc vehicular applications. February 2006.  C.1ms to travel 2m. R. October 2006. WILEY.  Cat’s eye (road). A detailed look is as follows. The aloha system . May 2008. as discussed in Section 2.kr/. all the cases result in less than 5 times. In IEEE ICACT.another alternative for computer communications. Vaidya and S. and S. Finkenzeller. a time metric. http://www. Jung.org/wiki/Cat’s_eye_(road). An enhanced dynamic framed slotted aloha algorithm for rﬁd tag identiﬁcation. R. Design and implementation of mobile rﬁd technology in the cdma networks. At 80km/h. March 2007. it shows around 40% of RFID read rate. Smart parking applications using rﬁd technology. Wetherall. May 2005. S. CRC Press. Suzuki. 62.with various tag numbers. S. Technical report.1ms. In ACM Mobihoc. In RFID Eurasia. it takes 90. Commun. http://en. the random tag pause time. Son.roadbeacon. we carefully infer that 5 times of duplication read is a threshold value for reasonable performance of RFID read rate. CONCLUSION We presented performance issue of an RFID system in a vehicular environment. Konomi. A long pause time helps prevent RFID tags from collision. The RFID read rate also shows more than 80% for all the speed parameters except for at 70km/h. The results show that the proper setting of certain critical parameters leads to success. . At 80km/h. This also shows the eﬀect of tag multiplicity on the overall RFID performance.vtt. Lee. demonstrates that 5m of interval works a bit better than 2m. D. 2008.  Road beacon system.fi/research/technology/rfid_ and_wireless_sensing. and its result is compared to that from Test 4. In IEEE ICC. May 2006. In International Symposium on GNSS/GPS 2004. 2008. May 2005. 8. Taylor and Francis Group. Lee. its RFID read rate maintains over 90%.5ms. The duplication read is proportional to the number of tags. we can conclude that an RFID tag cluster model contributes to enhancement of the RFID read rate. Cheung.  M.  Kiscom. we address an additional test conﬁguration. the paper measured the RFID read latency and read rate by using a commercial RFID system.co. and M.  J. e.  U. Rev.  J. Sep. In particular. On the other hand.  J. 2005. Furusawa. 5m of interval outperforms 2m by 37. http://www. diﬀerent tag intervals. A cluster containing 4 member tags are deployed at the interval of 2m and 5m. on the other hand. Instead. Waldrop. Rﬁd-based networks: exploiting diversity and redundancy.  M. In order to clarify the eﬀect of the tag interval.  Draft protocol speciﬁcation for a 900 mhz class 0 radio frequency identiﬁcation tag. Joo. S. In IEEE WCNC. Buettner and D. the duplication read also goes down. Comput.  S. Chon. In ICCSA 2005. In AFIPS.1% in the RFID read rate. Rﬁd opportunities for mobile telecommunication services. i. From this. A comparison between Test 3 and Test 5. Unlike existing static RFID applications. An empirical study of uhf rﬁd performance. May 2003. Engles.e. In ACM MOBIQUITOUS..  H. H. For estimation of the RFID performance.  S.  M. and C.Vehicular Networks: From Theory to Practice. At 70km/h. and C.e. were tested to discuss factors aﬀecting performance. Lee. A remarkable check is at the speed of 80km/h. No explanation is found for this abrupt drop. Inanc. Sezaki. i. http://www. Despite the fact that the duplication reads in both cases go below 5 times. S. a collision is not of primary interest. Zhai and G.-W. Song. Colorwave: An anticollision algorithm for the reader collision problem. Kim. Abramson. Lee.e. Using rﬁd for accurate positioning. In ACM MobiCom. Sep. SIGMOBILE Mob.  K. Lee. Wibro-based mobile rﬁd service development. the decline rate gets sharper in the cases of having multiple tags. This implies that deployment of tags at a short interval can drop performance oﬀ at a high speed.-D. Two techniques. An. it could degrade RFID performance in time-sensitive vehicular applications that require very short read latency. 2004. Gerla. Jun. 2009. REFERENCES 7. the road experiments showed the feasibility of applying the RFID system to vehicles. In total. is one critical factor inﬂuencing the RFID read performance. Myung and W. Pala and N.8m of the length of the read area. In Transportation Conference on Research Opportunities in RFID Transportation Applications. Jung.  K. http://www. An rﬁd-based positioning system for ad-hoc networks.com/. Without the point. ITU-T Lighthouse Technical Paper.-R. In addition.project-asset.com/. When considering 0. Future directions in rﬁd application and research in transportation.wikipedia. It is interesting to ﬁnd out that the duplication read in the case of 5m interval does not easily fall down below 5ms till 100km/h. which is less than the maximum pause time of the tag. Pyo. When comparing Test 3 and Test 4 directly. Adaptive splitting protocols for rﬁd tag collision arbitration.kiscom.  N. Auto-ID Center. Y. we conﬁrm that the relation between 5 times of the duplication read and 90% of the read rate is still linked with dual reader antennas. i. RFID Handbook: Fundamentals and Applications in Contactless Smart cards and Identiﬁcation. 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