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Linguistics2/Descriptive Grammar

Spring term 2013

VERB COMPLEMENTATION 1. Multi-word verbs or free combinations Lexical verb + particle o phrasal verbs: verb + adverb drink up, find out o prepositional verbs: verb + preposition dispose of, cope with o phrasal-prepositional verbs: verb + adverb + preposition go down with, do away with others (not lex. verb, or not particle) cut short, put paid to 1.1. Intransitive PhVs catch on, blow up, give in, touch down syntactic and semantic cohesion He never gives in. PhV meaning not predictable elements are not separable

(by adverbs or inversion) The sun came out. Free Combination meaning: came + out Out came the sun. or The sun came straight out.

1.2 Transitive PhVs put away sth, look up sy/sth, blow up (sth, give in (sth) some tr & intr (diff/no diff meaning) semantic differences bw PhV and FC elements can be separated by object intensifier (e.g. right) 1

Linguistics2/Descriptive Grammar

Spring term 2013

She looked up her friends. PhV


* She looked her friends up.

She looked them up. They turned on the light. FC They turned the light on. They turned it on.
* They turned on it. fully idiomatic cannot be separated

1.3 Type I prep verbs lexical verb + prep (semantic and/or syntactic association) + NP look at, approve of, cope with, care for NP: prep object ( passive S) Two analyses: 1: 2: S S V V A O She looked after her son.

1.4 The distinction between prep V and FCs 1. prep O passive S (prep passive)

The dean was called on.


* Lunch was called after. 2. wh-question

John called on her. ~ Who(m) did ? John called after lunch. ~ When did?

Linguistics2/Descriptive Grammar

Spring term 2013

1.5 The distinction between prep V and PhVs Prep V call on (=visit) She called on her friends. ~ *She called h. f. on. She called on them. ~*She called them on. She called angrily on her friends. the friends on whom she called On which friends? Which friends did she CALL on? 1.6 Type II Prep. verbs ditransitive He deprived the peasants of their land. OBJECT passive: O > Sp subtypes: make a mess of, take care of 2 passives catch sight of, keep pace with pr O > Sp 1.7 Phrasal-prep. verbs Type I : only prep O (put up with)(>Sp) Type II: ditransitive (put success down to sth) (O>Sp) 1.8 Other multi-verb comb-s (a) verb + adjective Copular: break even, plead guilty Complex Transitive: cut the trip short b) verb + verb Idiomatic, second n-f: make do with, let (N) go, put paid to, get rid of (c) verb + 2 prep-s struggle with N for N, apply to N for N 2. Verb complementation PREP. OBJECT PhV call up (=summon) She called up her friends. ~ She called h. f. up. She called them up. ~ *She called up them. * She called angrily up her friends. *the friends up whom she called * Up which friends ? Which friends did she call UP?

Linguistics2/Descriptive Grammar

Spring term 2013

Intransitive verbs always: arrive, matter trans. / same meaning: smoke trans. more specific meaning: drink Copular verbs followed by Cs or predication adjunct The girl seemed very restless. Cs current attribute (appear, feel, look) The girl became very restless. Cs resulting attr. (get, go, grow) Complementation by adverbials Be + space / time adjuncts Get, keep + space adj Monotransitive verbs Complementation by NP as Od (>Sp) middle verbs: no passive (fit, suit, mean, contain, hold, etc) Complementation by NP as prep O Your sister has checked up on me. I have been checked up on by your s. Who/m has your s. checked up on? Complementation by finite clauses That-clause as O Everybody hoped (that) she would sing. Factual verbs (indicative): Public: admit, agree, suggest etc Private: believe, consider etc. Suasive verbs (putative s./subj): demand, agree, ask, order alternative for that-cl: infinitive Emotive and hypothesis verbs (indicative or should) regret, surprise; wish, suppose, d rather Complementation extraposed S that-clause: seem It appears (that) youve lost your temper. wh-clause as O: ask, care, decide I dont know if we can get there in time. Non-finite clauses as Od wh-inf clause subjectless inf cl subjectless ing part cl to-inf cl with S ing part cl with S Complex-transitive verbs

Linguistics2/Descriptive Grammar

Spring term 2013

She considered her mother a sensible woman. (predicate) her m. to be a s. w. that her m. was a s. w. Her mother was considered a sensible woman. Od and Cs (SVOC pattern) The long walk made us all hungry. Od and adjunct (SVOA) I slipped the key into the lock. Od and to-inf clause believe, allow The traffic was reported to be heavy. Od and bare inf clause feel, make They had me repeat the message. Od and ing part cl feel, hear I saw him lying on the beach. Od and ed part cl see, have She had the car cleaned. Ditransitive verbs NP as both Od and Oi He gave the girl a doll. O and prep O We reminded him of the agreement. Oi and that-cl O Natalie convinced Derek (that) she was right. prep O and that-cl O She mentioned (to me) that her daughter was going to get married. Oi and wh-cl O Martin asked me what time the meeting would end. Oi and to-inf cl O I persuaded Mark to see a doctor. Infinitival complementation (pp.357-8) 3. Adjective complementation By a prep phrase Obligatory fond of, conscoius of Adj/participial adj-s tired of, pleased with Choice angry with/about/at By a finite clause (that-) clause indicative mood: aware, certain subj/put. should: anxious, eager, willing ind/put. should: angry, annoyed, surprised By a to-inf clause 5

Linguistics2/Descriptive Grammar

Spring term 2013

1.Bob is splendid to wait. Bob=S, S of cl. 2.Bob is slow to react. 3.Bob is sorry to hear it. 4.Bob is hesitant to agree with you. 5.Bob is hard to convince./To convince 6.The food is ready to eat./*To eat 7.It is important to be accurate (S). By ing part. clause Im busy (with) getting the house redecorated. We are used to not having a car.