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time spent talking about books, types of text available, and the use of incentives.
Research confirms that student motivation is a key factor in successful reading. However, in order to effectively support reading motivation in the classroom, it is helpful to consider the research on reading motivation and engagement.
Albert Bandura (1986) suggests that motivation (or a lack thereof) is the result of an individual's selfefficacy related to a task. Bandura defines self-efficacy as the beliefs we have about ourselves that cause us to make choices, put forth effort, and persist in the face of difficulty. And for help in the classroom, Bandura notes that one of the most powerful sources of self-efficacy is mastery experience. Mastery experience occurs when a child evaluates his or her own competence after learning and believes their efforts have been successful. Mastery experiences increase confidence and willingness to try similar and more challenging tasks. In addition, studies have also found that social experiences play a powerful role in the development of self-efficacy. The beliefs and behaviors held by teachers and peers are important in building the self-efficacy of all children in the classroom.
Reading motivation research
Researchers have identified a number of factors important to reading motivation including self-concept and value of reading, choice; time spent talking about books, types of text available, and the use of incentives.
Read aloud: Share the excitement!
A teacher read-aloud is the oral sharing of a book for the purpose of modeling strategic reading behaviors and generating instructional conversation. Theories of child development suggest that the socialization of a read-aloud allows teachers and students to collaboratively construct meaning from text. Share the excitement of read-alouds by: • Reading aloud a wide variety of text. Include informational books, newspapers, and magazines in your read-alouds. • Encouraging interaction during the teacher read aloud by inviting discussion. This "give and take" conversation around a shared text engages children in predicting, inferring, and thinking and reasoning. • Inviting students to choose the teacher read-aloud title from time to time. Student choice can be managed by offering several possible read-aloud titles and allowing students to vote on the book they would most like to hear the teacher read. • Allowing students to read-aloud. Read-aloud is often used synonymously with teacher readaloud. And though teachers should read-aloud daily, inviting students to occasionally read-aloud a self-selected text or portion of a text (e.g., book or magazine article) can be motivating for all. Allowing students to participate in the read-aloud will require some planning. Students should rehearse their read-aloud for several days at home or with a classroom buddy before reading aloud to the class.
4. VOCABULARY - Vocabulary refers to the words we must know in order to communicate effectively. With relationship to reading, vocabulary plays an important role in two major ways.
When learning to read, children have a much more difficult time learning to read words that are not already a part of their oral vocabulary. Vocabulary is very important to reading comprehension. Simply put, children cannot understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the words mean.
Children learn most of their vocabulary indirectly through everyday experiences but some vocabulary should be taught directly to support reading comprehension.
Title Predictions Grades 3+ Another great lesson for improved reading comprehension. "To help students with comprehension, I have them make predictions about what events might take place in the story based on the title of the chapter. I positively reinforce all predictions given. Once the predictions are made, I give a brief idea of what the chapter is about and ask the children to think about what questions they want answered when they read the chapter. We record these questions on chart paper. These questions help set up a purpose for reading. I've found that students are much more in tune with the story and are better able to answer questions with detail and enthusiasm."
Skill Review Grades Various Summary: Various activities that will help students with fluency and vocabulary. Before my students begin reading aloud in class, I have them go over basic sight words from the Dolch Sight word list. We read the words together. (Choral reading) It takes about three minutes of reading time. This helps to practice words such as: like, the, did, we, begin etc. Hearing the words in a list helps them recall them quickly in a passage. I teach middle school students whom of which have repeated two or more grades. In these students I have found a lack of fluency in their reading. This effects their comprehension skills. We read the words from the pre primer list to third grade. This helps them tremendously when it is time for them to read. Some students try to go faster than the others. They think it is a race, they do not see that they are understanding and building fluency. To challenge all students, teachers can create their own list of words from the story (vocabulary) and have students read the list together before reading the story. Unfamiliar words will not make students stumble during reading.
Repeated Readings Grades Any Summary: A great strategy to use with your struggling readers. I have a communication system that
works well for children who are experiencing reading difficulties. I present a short book to the student, have the student read it to me, and then send it home in a manila envelope. (I use the recycled envelopes from the office that they save for me.) The student must read the book to an adult at home, have the adult sign the envelope and bring the envelope back to school. The same envelope can be used again and again, and it provides a good record of what books the student has read. Next, the student reads the book to me again, and he/she gets a sticker. Five stickers earns the student time on the computer for learning games. By the time the students read their books to me, they can read them fluently and their self esteem soars!
Novel Bookmarks Grades 4+ Summary: Help increase your students reading comprehension. My students have difficulty with comprehension and sequential events in novels. They use an index card marked with the chapter they're reading as their bookmark. On the card, they jot down one or two sentences about the chapter, any difficult words and the characters they met. This process only takes a few minutes because it is done when the chapter is fresh in their minds. We continue creating bookmarks throughout the book and keep them together with elastic. At the end of the book, we read the cards as a review. The cards are a great way to keep track of sequential happenings and can be used to write up a book summary. (I borrowed this idea from my daughter who thought of this when she was in the sixth grade.) Internet Links
Bullentin Boards students work
Webquest or Bloq
Students are unlikely to be convinced or adequately motivated by these pedagogical reasons for reading in every content area classroom. Teachers need to set authentic purposes for reading that pique students’ curiosity and prepare them for the information ideas they’re going to read about. • Offer students the chance to read beyond the textbook. Popular content area journals, newspapers, trade nonfiction, and online resources provide teachers with access to reading material that can provide depth, authenticity, and timeliness that textbooks simply cannot. Work with colleagues who teach the same course or in your department to establish a library of texts that engages students in the key ideas and information of your content. • Have students participate in setting purposes for reading by using anticipation guides . After you’ve selected a text for students to read, go over it carefully and make a list of the key ideas they will encounter. Provide students with a list of statements based on your list and have them rate their level of agreement or disagreement before they read. (This guide then becomes a powerful tool for assessing learning or changed attitudes after reading and discussion as well). • Focus on surprising facts or information, controversial ideas or points of view, and content about which students likely have misconceptions. In preparation for a
reading on bacteria and viruses in a biology class, for example, students might be asked to respond to statements such as “A typical square inch of human skin hosts thousands of bacteria,” “A population is stronger when there are a number of viral and bacterial diseases present within it,” and “Viruses can be killed using antibiotics.” Students could then assess their beliefs after reading the article or chapter, noting the sections in the text that influences their thinking. Organize the classroom to motivate reading and discussion. Use a technique such as jigsawing to create an authentic knowledge gap in your classroom. Have small groups of students read and discuss a handful of different texts with complementary or contrasting views on a question or issue from your content area (differing points of view on the American Revolution; multiple reviews of a book, film, piece of music or art; sections of a chapter that can be understood independently). Then reshape the groups to include students who have each read one of the different texts. Students are then challenged to share an overview of their reading and synthesize the varying content they collectively read.
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