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PLANT EFFICIENCY & HEAT RATE

482.8 Mkcal/hr

420 Mkcal/hr

180.6 Mkcal/hr

172 Mkcal/hr

boiler 120.7 t/h 4000 kcal/kg

T

210 MW auxpower 10 MW

200 MW

87.0 % 2299 kcal/kwhr 2414 kcal/kwhr

2000 kcal/kwhr 37.4% 35.6 %

43.0 %

Heat Balance for Steam rocess
Energy Input Feed Water

Steam @ Usefull Energy Output

ressure P1

Energy Input Air Fuel

Steam rocess

P1

Energy oss Flue Gas

Energy oss Blow Down W ater

Energy oss Due to iping Friction oss Equipment etc.

Energy Output = Energy Input - Losses

BOILER EFFICIENCY TEST METHODS: Direct Method In-direct Method Codes Being followed: ASME PTC 4 ² 1998 BS 2885 (revised as BS EN 12952-15:2003) IS 8753 / 1977 DIN 1942 ISO R 889 / 1968

DIRECT METHOD Efficiency = Output / Input = Heat absorbed by working fluid * 100 (Heat in Fuel + Heat Credits) Heat Credits Heat in entering air Heat in Atomizing steam Sensible heat in fuel Pulverizer power Boiler Circulating water pump power Heat supplied by moisture in entering air.

DIRECT METHOD ADVANTAGES 1. Based on the definition Efficiency. 2. Very less no of readings 3. Capacity and output data also can be checked DISADVANTAGES 1. Flows (Feed water & Fuel) of Should be measured very accurately. 2. Less accuracy 3. Identifying and correction to the losses area is not possible. 4. Does not provide for corrections of test results to Standards or Guarentee conditions.

INDIRECT METHOD (HEAT LOSS METHOD) Efficiency = 100 ² (Heat Losses * 100) (Heat in Fuel + Heat Credits) Heat Losses Unburnt carbon loss Dry gas loss Fuel hydrogen loss Fuel moisture loss Air moisture loss Carbon mono oxide loss Radiation and convection loss Sensible heat loss in fly ash Sensible heat loss in bottom ash Mill reject loss Heat credits (As Negative Loss) .

. Capacity and output data can to the losses area is possible not be checked. 3. 4. Accuracy is more DISADVANTAGES 1. 3. 5. The primary measurements (Fuel. More no of readings 2. FG analysis & Temp) can be measured very accurately. 6. Permits corrections of test results to standards or Guarantee condition. The resulting efficiency usually has lower uncertainty because the measured quantities (Losses) represents only a small fraction of the total energy. Some losses are practically immeasurable and value must be estimated.INDIRECT METHOD ADVANTAGES 1. Identifying the losses & correction 2. The effects of fairly substantial errors in secondary measurement and estimated values are minimal.

55 ± 0.50 ± 0.50 ± 0.00 .Probable measurement errors and resulting errors in efficiency calculation by Direct method: Measurement Calibrated Flow Nozzle Coal Scales HHV (Coal) (Oil & Gas) Reheat flow (By Calculation) SH Outlet Temperature RH In / Out Temperature FW Temperature SH Outlet Pressure RH In/Out Pressure Measurement error ±0.10 ± 0.25 ± 0.50 Error in Effy ± 0.35 ± 0.25 ± 0.35 ± 0.25 ± 0.10 ± 0.25 ± 0.00 ± 0.55 ± 0.60 ± 0.25 ± 1.00 ± 0.10 ± 0.15 ± 0.

50 Error in Effy ± 0.00 ± 0.35 ± 3.00 ± 0.10 ± 0.10 ± 0.00 .Probable measurement errors and resulting errors in efficiency calculation by Heat Loss Method: Measurement HHV (Coal) (Oil & Gas) Orsat Analysis Exit Gas Temperature Inlet Air Temperature Ultimate Analysis Carbon Hydrogen Moisture ± 1.30 ± 0.02 ± 0.00 ± 1.50 ± 0.03 ± 0.50 ± 0.00 ± 1.00 Measurement error ± 0.02 ± 0.

200 0.L % % .542 1.453 13.999 14.Summary of losses in a boiler L2 L1 L3 L5 L4 L6 L8 L7 Moisture loss Dry gas loss Combustible loss Radiation loss Air moisture loss Sensible heat of ash Carbon monoxide loss Mill reject loss % % % % % % % % 6.517 85.270 0.065 0.049 0.483 L E Total Efficiency 100 .415 0.523 5.518 0.

408 14.L % % .453 0.200 0.065 0.270 0.517 85.542 1.483 un -controllable L2 L5 L4 L6 Moisture loss Radiation loss Air moisture loss Sensible heat of ash % % % % L E Total Efficiency 100 .523 0.415 7.109 6.049 7.Summary of losses in a boiler controllable L1 L3 L8 L7 Dry gas loss Combustible loss Carbon monoxide loss Mill reject loss % % % % 5.

826 .26 10 0.8 3627.84 0.96 0.00148 U Kg / g oal 0.00223 As h n oa a bon n f as h s t but on of f as h Co bus t b es n f as h Uf = f/100 * A/100 * Cf / (100 Cf) % Carbon n botto as h s tribution of botto as h Co bus tib es in botto as h Ub = b/100 * A/100 * Cb / (100 Cb) otal o bus tibles U = Uf + Ub CV of Carbon GCV of c oal Unburnt carbon loss L_UC = U * CVc * 100 / Gcv % Cb b Ub % % Kg / g oal 3.56 90 0. U U A f f Uf % % % Kg / g oa 43.1.00371 CVc Gcv L_UC Kcal / g Kcal / g % 8077.

186 Sh KJ / k g coal 567.00371 30.5 0.1953 Carbon in coal S lphur in coal Total combu t ible S pec ific heat of gas FG t emp.43 0. D GAS LOSS C S U Cp Tg Ta CO2_out CO_out Gcv Wd % % Kg / k g coal KJ / k g mol / °C °C °C % % K cal / k g Kg / k g mol 34. CO2 % at AH out let CO % at AH out let GCV of coal W eight of dry gas per Kg of "as fired fuel" ( C + S / 2. air t emp.738 .05 3627.32 0.67 .64 L_G % 3.2.100 * U ) 12 * (CO2_out + CO_out) S ens ible heat of dry gas S h = W d * Cp * (Tg . at AH out let Ref.84 0.6 138 43 14.Ta) Dry Gas loss L_G = S h * 100 / Gcv / 4.

Ta) Loss due to moisture in fuel L_M = M * Sw / Gcv / 4.997 .84 2578.2 * (25 .358 Hydrogen in coal Loss due to hydrogen in fuel L_H = 9 * H * Sw / Gcv / 4.96 2.88 * (Tg .25) + 2442 + 4. LO DU TO HYDROG N IN FU L L_M % 1.3. air temp. GCV of coal Sensible heat of water vapour SW = 1. LO DU TO MO TU IN FU L M Tg Ta Gcv Sw % °C °C Kcal / kg KJ / kg 8 138 43 3627.84 Total moisture in fuel FG temp.186 H L_H % % 1.186 4. at AH outlet Ref.

2 Ex ess ai Ea Ea = (O2_out . temp.84 4.O) / 23. 6 14.CO_out/ 2) / [ 0. ai temp.Ta) * 100 / G L_mA / 4. 05 80. o mois tu e Mw Kg/ k g ai ( om ps c h omet i ha t) Ta C Re . at AH out let Tg °C 2 at AH out let O2_out CO2 at AH out let CO2_out at AH out let CO_out CO N2 at AH out let N2_out N2_out = 100 . 37 H + 0. 0273 43 138 4. L SS DUE TO MOI STURE I N AI R Ca bon in oal C H d ogen in oal H S Sulphu in oal x gen in oal CV o oal K al k g Ambien temp. 3702 26.(O2_out + CO2_out + CO_out) Stoi hiomet i ai Sa Kg / k g oal Sa = (2. 178 . 6 S . 186 34 32 1 96 0 43 6 02 3627 84 40 32 0. 743 0.88 * (Tg . (wet) Tw W t. 5 0. 2682 N2_out . 664 C + 7. (d d C Ambient temp.5. 1512 0.(O2_out .CO_out/ 2)] * 100 Tot al mois tu e in ai Ma Kg / k g Ma = Sa * Ea * Mw Loss due to mois tu e in ai L_mA = Ma * 1.

6.22 .A out CO i gas .8654 2415 3620 0. 044 L_co =CO_o*7*CVco* C-100U)/3/(CO2_o+CO_o)/Gcv 7.2 0.005686 0.0085 40.A out Carbon in fuel CV of carbon monox i e Gross CV Combust ibles Loss due to carbon monox ide CO2_o CO_o C CVco Gcv U L_co % % % Kcal g Kcal g Kg/kg of coal % 12. LOSS DUE TO CARBON MONOXIDE CO2 i gas . RADIATION LOSS Loss due to surface L_ß % radiat ion and convection (as per predict ion based on AB A curve) 0.

96 10 3627. Spec ific heat of fl as h As h i c oal Dis tri ution of fl as h GCV of c oal Tg Ta Cpf A Df Gc °C °C Kc al / kg / °C % % Kc al / kg % 138 43 0.16 43.838 0.16 43. air temp.96 90 3627. LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT IN BOTTOM ASH Temperature of bottom as h above ambient Spec ific heat of bottom as h As h in c oal Dis tribution of bottom as h GCV of c oal Tb Cpb A Db Gc v °C Kc al / kg / °C % % Kc al / kg % 600 0.84 0.8.Ta) * 100 / Gc 9.166 Loss due to s ens i le heat in fl as h L_f L_f = A/100 * Df/100 * Cpf * (Tg .116 Loss due to s ens ible heat in bottom as h L_b L_b = A/100 * Db/100 * Cpb * Tb * 100 / Gc v . LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT IN FLY ASH Temperature of fl as Ref.

Heat due to shaft power of pulverizer. which are coming inside the system boundary) .Heat Credits: The heat crdits are generally the other heat inputs then through / from the fuel. Fans. etc. (eg.

034006 Tota power Tota P A an power Tota oa f ow CV of oa K w-hr / g of fue P / Cf o / 1000 K wK eat c red t eat Equ va ent of P ower a negat ve oss) _c r K wK 859.806 .9 3627.84 0.10.25 100. HE C EDI P Cf o v K wK Kw Kw T/hr Kc a / g K w-hr/ g 475 56.86 100 / c v _c r -0.

Various Boiler Losses By Gas Dry Gas Loss Loss due to Moisture in Gas Due to Fuel Moisture Due to moisture formed by H2 in fuel Due to air moisture By Ash Unburnt carbon Loss Sensible heat loss in Fly ash Sensible heat loss in Bottom ash Other Loss Carbon mono oxide Loss Radiation Loss Heat loss through Mill rejects Heat Credit .

Factors affecting Unburnt Carbon Loss a) Design Factors Type of fuel preparation system Burner and Burning System Residence time b) Fuel Characteristics Heating Value Proximate Analysis Ultimate Analysis c) Operational facors Coal Particle Size Excess air Primary air to coal ratio Distribution of Secondary air Burner Tilt Air Temperature .

Factors Affecting Dry 1 Coal Moisture Carbon ross CV as Loss 2 Air temperature entering A Ambient SCA 3 as temperature A leakage A entering air temperature A entering gas temperature Boiler load FW temperature X ratio of A Tempering air Air ingress as quantity Excess air A leakage 4 .

Loss Due To Moisture For ed From H drogen Hydrogen ontent In Fuel Flue Gas emperature 03. Excess Air Fuel Analysis 02. Loss Due To ir Moisture Humidity Of ombustion Air. Dr Flue Gas emperature.Factors Influencing Various o sses s Loss 01. Excess Air evel Gas emperature Flue . Loss Due To Fuel Moisture Moisture ontent In Fuel Flue Gas emperature 04.

Factors Influencing Various osses 05. Unburnt arbon oss In Ash sh in Fuel & Unburnt rbon In Fl / ottom sh 08. Mill eject oss eject te & V Of eject 07. adiation onvection oss Insul tion Of oiler 06. Sensible Heat oss In Ash sh Temper ture .

Capacity Reductio i a oiler Fuel input Low cv coal Milling capacity rinding capacity Drying capacity Carrying capacity Drive capacity Draught system ID fan limitations ressure drops high A choking Chimney back pressure high igh volume A leakages Duct leakages igh gas temperatures Worn out impellers Metal temperatures high igh spray requirements Fouling of surfaces .

METHODS OF EDUCTIO OF UNBURNT CARBON OSS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Good burner m intenance Ensuring consistent mill fineness Proper secondar ir djustment Reducing prim r ir to the minimum most possible Cutout oil support t higher lo ds here co l fl me is st ble s oil preferenti ll deplete o2 in the re nd reduces µo2 µ for co l p rticles to burn ‡ Check co l propert nd tune combustion ‡ Keep boiler he t tr nsfer surf ce cle n so th t losses c n be reduced thus reducing the co l input .

‡ FURNACE SIZE ‡ TYPE OF MILL AND FIRING SYSTEM ‡ SUPPLEMENTRY FUEL FIRING LIKE BFG GAS .UNBURNT CARBON LO CAUTION IT AL O DEPEND ON ‡ COAL PROPERTIES LIKE VOLATILE MATTER AND FIXED CARBON TO VOLATILE MATTER RATIO.COG GAS or COREX GAS .

HIGH MI OUTLET TEMP. .SEAL/COOLING/PURGE AIR QTY.ARRESTING AIR INGRESS . . JUST REQD.CORRECT EXCESS AIR .METHODS OF REDUCTION OF DRY GAS LOSS .AIR HEATER PERFORMANCE .CLEAN SURFACES .

Flue Gas Temperature Reduction methods ‡ Operate the boiler at correct excess air. ‡ Reduction in air ingress ‡ Cleaning of air heater surfaces and proper heating elements . Usuall 20 for coal) ‡ Cleanliness of boiler surfaces ‡ Good combustion of fuel ‡ Reduction of tempering air to mill.

Hri . Qr RH Flow.Boiler Efficiency Calculation Direct Method (Input/Output Method) Efficiency. CF CoalFlow. Ho = {Qf*(Hs Hf) + Qr*(Hro Hri)}*1000 Where.RH inlet Enthalpy Qf FW Flow quantity Hf FW Enthalpy Hro . Heat Input. Hi = CF * GCV*1000 Heat Output. E = Ho/Hi*100 Where.RH Outlet Enthalpy . Hs SH Outlet Enthalpy.

AL = (Wg Wgi)*100 / Wgi = (CO2_in CO2_out)*90 / CO2_out OR = (O2_out O2_in)*100 / (21 O2_out) TgNL = AL / 100 * CpA / CpG*(Tgo Ta) + Tgo Gas side efficiency.APH Performance (Code: ASME PTC 4.3) APH Leakage in %. XR = (Tgi TgNL) / (Tao Ta) Tgc = {Tac*(Tgi Tgo) + Tgi*(Tgo Ta)} / (Tgi Ta) Where Tgi & Tgo Gas temperature entering & leaving APH Ta & Tao Air temperature entering & leaving APH Tac Design air temperature entering APH TgNL Calculated Gas temperature leaving APH corrected for No air leakage Tgc Corrected gas temp leaving APH for deviation from design entering air temp CpA & CpG Mean Specific heat of air and gas Wgi & Wg Quantity of wet gas entering & leaving APH . Ef_G = (Tgi TgNL)*100 / (Tgi Ta) X Ratio.

718 / 1000 * (21 O2ref) / (21 O2) .NOx Conversion: NOx (in Kg/GJ) = NOx (in PPM) * 0.

2683*N2i-(O2i-COi/2)} or O2/(20.Performance Calculations 1.9-O2) Where. FC Fuel consumption h_SHBS Enthalpy at SH before spray h_SHAS Enthalpy at SH after spray h_SHSW Enthalpy of SH spray water . 4. 3. SH Spray Flow = FW Flow*(h_SHBS h_SHAS) / (h_SHBS h_SHSW) RH Spray Flow = RH Flow*(h_RHBS h_RHAS) / (h_RHAS h_RHSW) FC = SH Flow*(h_SH-h_FW) + RH Flow*(h_Rho-h_Rhi)*100 GCV*Efficiency Excess Air = (O2i-COi/2)*100 / {0. 2.

RH flow calculation Reheater Flow. Qs SH Flow. Qr = Qs Qgl Qex + Qrs Where. . Hd HP heater 6 Drain Enthalpy. Qgl Turbine gland leak flow Qex HP Heater 6 Extraction quantity Qex = Qfw*(Hfwo Hfwi) / (Hex Hd) Where. Qrs RH spray flow. Qfw FW flow Hfwi Feed water HP heater 6 inlet Enthalpy Hfwo Feed water HP heater 6 outlet Enthalpy Hex HP heater 6 Extraction Enthalpy.

0.. 0.00 . . . . .00 42. Tot Mois t r sh OLATIL MATTER FIXED CAR ON GC c / Pr ximate Analysis (On M M & Ash Fr ) FC M & Ash Fr ) VM' VM* / -VM-A) & Ash ree basis) VM' FC' .013} hur Nitrogen N' . . . Ultimate Analysis (On & Ash ree basis) C' H' ' N' O' .C' H' ' N') Ultimate Analysis C r on Hy rogen u phur Nitrogen Oxy gen C C' * 100 .Pr xim t t Ultim t C nv rsi n Pr xim t ata (As fir ) M A M FC GC a m le .22 8.A) / 100 Mois ture Ash C H N O % % % % % % . .0. / VM' 10) .M . * VM'-18) rogen H' VM' * { . C r on C' FC' 0. 6. . . . *VM' Oxy gen O' .60 100. 2.

58 328500 -8781074. 414 746590.6. 1000 / on 9 ot al cos t of coal (CC = CQ * 1000) 10 Change in cos t 11 Change in cos t per Unit Heat rat e (CICHR = CIC / CP HR) 12 Change in cos t per Unit E ffic iency (CICE = CIC / CB E ) 13 Unit cos t of power (CP = CC / U ) For 1 KW A u iliary Power 14 Unit s los t per y ear (UL = 1*24*365) 15 Cos t per y ear (C = UL*CP ) Symbol HR BE CB E P HR CP HR U HR Unit Kc al/ KW Hr % % Kc al/ KW Hr Kc al/ KW Hr KW Hr Kc al 86 -1 325. 4884 755172. 73 6. 7 0. 4 755172414 -8781074. 73 87 0 2298. 9864E + 12 CQ onnes 763953. 85 0. 12 1314000000 1314000000 1314000000 3. 5747 746590909 8581504. 75*1000) 7 Heat required per y ear (HR= U *P HR) For coal of 4000 Kc al/ K g 8 Coal qt y required (CQ = HR / 4000 / 1000) For coal cos t of Rs . N e s i ti 1 ur ine Heat rat e B iler E ffic iency 3 Change in B iler E ffic iency 4 P lant Heat rat e (P HR = HR / B E 100) 5 Change in plant heat rat e W Unit it h 75% P LF For 6 Unit generat ed per y ear (U = 4*365*0.S l. 7E + 12 2. 70 328500 8581504. 5814 0. 5581E + 12 3. 88 1 2272. 58 . 909 CC CIC CICHR CICE CP Rs Rs Rs Rs Rs 763953488. 579 0. 5682 UL C 8760 5093 8760 5034 8760 4977 .

Effect of boiler parameters on thermal c cle SH outlet pressure SH outlet temperature RH outlet temperature RH s pra S H s pra B l o do n Auxiliar Steam .

1 % in r (% f inl t D cr in RH r.) r r b 1b r in t r ttl . r r.ff ct n Pl nt H t R t Du t il r Para etar r 10 ° 10 ° r r in M t in RH 500 M r t r nit kc l/ r . tl t t r t r . H RH r r incr incr b 1% b 1% . .

H2. Sensible heat in Ash. H2. Fuel and Air Moisture Loss ¡ Dry gas. 4. 3.Optimization of Boiler Efficiency a) HHV Ÿ b) FG APH out Temp Ÿ c) Excess air ¡ d) Fuel Moisture ¡ e) Air Moisture ¡ f) H2 in Fuel ¡ g) Mill reject rate or GCV ¡ All Losses ¡ Dry gas. 2. Unburnt & Air Moisture Loss ¡ Fuel Moisture Loss ¡ Air Moisture Loss ¡ H2 Loss ¡ Mill reject Loss ¡ Hence Major parameters to be looked into for Better Efficiency are 1. .e GCV. FG Temp Excess air Level Mill reject rate and Unburnt carbon in ash Control / Optimization of other parameters (i. Fuel moisture and Air Moisture) are not possible.

Correction of Efficiency are done for Variation in Following Factors GCV of Fuel H2 in Fuel Total Moisture in Fuel Ambient temperature and Humidity of air.Correction of Efficiency to Standard / Guaranteed Condition. .

.

LUBRICATION OIL SYSTEMS .FORCED DRAFT FAN .PRIMARY AIR FAN -SEAL/PURGE/COOLING/ IGNITOR AIR FAN .BOILER AUXILIARIES -INDUCED DRAFT FAN .PULVERIZER MILLS .

MAJOR REASONS OF INCREASE IN AUXILIARY PO ER CONSUMPTION ARE ‡ OPERATION OF UNIT ITH HIGHER EXCESS AIR ‡ AIR INGRESS IN BOILER ‡ AIR HEATER LEAKAGE ‡ HIGHER PA FAN OUTLET PRESSURE ‡ COAL PULVERIZATION TOO FINE ‡ PLUGGAGE IN LINE .

EXCESS AIR LOAD/ LANT HEAT RATE RESSURE LOSS AH CHOKIN SCA H CHOKIN A FANS AH LEAKA E A HEADER R. MILL AIR FLOW RESSURE LOSS AH CHOKIN MILL COAL QTY. CV LOAD/ LANT HEAT RATE C OAL MOISTURE HGI COAL FINENESS MILL CONDITION .FACT RS AFFECTIN AUXILIARY WER ID FANS AH LEAK AS TEM ERATURE DUCT LEAKA ES EXCESS AIR L AD/ LANT HEAT RATE DRAU HT L SS AH CHOKIN FD FANS AH LEAK W IND BOX R.

SOURCES OF AIR INGRESS (MEMBRANE ALL BOILER) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ FURNACE ROOF EXPANSION JOINTS AIR HEATERS DUCT S ESP HOPPERS PEEP HOLES MANHOLES FURNACE BOTTOM .

TUBULAR AIR HEATER ‡ CLEANING OF TUBES ‡ REPLACING OF DAMAGED TUBES ‡ PROPER DISTRIBUTION OF GAS AND AIR .

ROTARY AIR HEATERS ‡ PROPER BASKETS ‡ CLEANLINESS OF BASKETS ‡ PROPER SEAL SETTING .

HIGHER PA OUTLET PRESSURE ‡ INCREASES AIR HEATER LEAKAGE RESULTING IN HIGHER ID FAN LOADING ‡ INCREASES PA FAN PO ER CONSUMPTION ‡ MAINTAIN ADEQUATE PRESSURE .

EXCESS MILL FINENESS ‡ REDUCES MILL CAPACITY ‡ INCREASES MILL EAR ‡ INCREASE MILL AND PA FAN PO ER ‡ MAY NOT IMPROVE COMBUSTION .

NO. AIR.AIR HEATER MAINTENANCE . .METHODS TO REDUCE AUXILIARY POWER . OF MILLS REQD.PULVERIZER TO OPERATE AT CORRECT AIR FLOW AND PULVERIZED COAL FINENESS .OPERATE UNIT AT CORRECT AIR FLOW .OPTIMUM FAN OPERATION .AIR INGRESS REDUCTION .IMMEDIATELY ATTEND FUEL. . WATER AND STEAM LEAKAGES.RUN MIN.

364 4.001 0.57 15.847 3.827 4.84 UEL COAL COAL BAGASSE .726 0.52 5.325 3.609 2.320 6.129 SING 500 0.071 28.44 TOTAL LOSS 11.520 2.814 EID 16 0.711 12.99 OT ER LOSSES 1.TYPICAL HEAT LOSS UNIT MW CARBON LOSS DRY GAS LOSS UEL 2 LOSS UEL MOISTURE LOSS DADRI 200 0.