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Passport to

Community Engagement

Community engagement describes a number of different processes


which help to build thriving communities where people can help
to improve the quality of their lives. It includes:
• consultation _ asking people about what they want and how
they want it to be done;
• capacity building _ developing the skills, abilities and
confidence of the people in the community; and
• empowerment _ giving people the opportunity, skills and
ability to develop their community.

This book has been written, edited and designed by staff at the
Home Office Crime Reduction Centre with the support of Robin Burgess
of the Drug Strategy Directorate and Irene Cole of the Crime
Reduction Directorate.

The Passport to Community Engagement logo was designed by


Matthew Lindsay, Easingwold School.

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Passport to
Community Engagement

About this book


Welcome to the Passport to Community Engagement.
Which looks at practical ways of engaging the community and
talks about some of the effective ways people have tackled
problems they have faced when engaging the community.

This book will help you make community engagement a central


part of the work of your organisation.

By the end of the book you will be able to:


work out what you need to do to engage
your local communities; and
decide which initiatives have been successful and which
might need further work.

Who is this book for?


This book is designed as a ‘beginners guide’ to community
engagement. It aims to provide a starting point rather than a
detailed step-by-step guide. We have written it for those of you
who are working in the areas of:
• crime reduction and drug prevention;
• Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships(CDRPs); and
• Drug Action Teams(DATs).
Some of the ideas will also be useful if you work with
communities on alcohol-related issues.

Crime & Disorder


Reduction Partnership
Drug groups Anyone new to
Action
community engagement
Teams Community
Engagement Local
knowledge and authorities
Other experience
organisations
Voluntary
Agencies

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Community Engagement

Contents
Part 1 - what is community engagement? ....................7
What does ‘community’ mean? ..........................................................8
What does ‘community engagement’ mean?......................................9
Community engagement _ our vision and principles ........................10
The Allertown case study ..................................................................11
Summary ..........................................................................................13

Part 2 - planning ......................................................15


Why engage? ....................................................................................16
The Allertown case study..................................................................18
Building on what’s already there......................................................22
Case study - community Engagement initiatives in Allertown ..........25
Summary..........................................................................................27

Part 3 - consultation ................................................29


Designing a consultation and developing a theme...........................30
Consultations planned by the Allertown CDRP/DAT .........................31
Consultation exercises .....................................................................33
Selecting a consultation method......................................................35
Classifying consultation ...................................................................36
Allertown consultation method ........................................................42
Things to think about .......................................................................44
Putting your plan into action............................................................52
Summary..........................................................................................54

Part 4 - building capacity and empowering


the community .........................................................57
The community’s development needs ..............................................58
Additional support............................................................................61
Who to approach for funding ...........................................................65
The role of the community development worker..............................66
Empowering the community.............................................................68
Summary..........................................................................................69

Part 5 - the Evaluation of Community Engagement .....71


An overview of the evaluation process.............................................72
Deciding what you will measure.......................................................77
Questions for the Allertown evaluation............................................79
Summary ..........................................................................................81

Part 6 - Resources ....................................................83

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Community Engagement

What this book covers


Your approach to community engagement needs to respond to the
needs of local communities. There is no ‘one size fits all’ solution
to community engagement.

Rather than giving you a detailed step-by-step guide this book


looks at a range of ideas and techniques under three broad
headings: planning, design and evaluation. You will need to
tailor the activities described in this book to meet your needs.

This book is divided into the following six parts.

7 Part 1 What is community engagement?


There are a few key terms that are used throughout the book. This
section defines them.

Part 2 Planning

15 This section is all about deciding in broad terms what it is you are
going to do. To plan effectively you need a good understanding
of your local communities, why you want to work with the
community and the resources you have to build on.

Part 3
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Consultation
This section looks at the things you need to consider when
designing consultation.

Part 4 Capacity building and empowering

57 the community
This section provides a broad overview of the things you will need
to think about in relation to capacity building and empowerment.

Part 5 Evaluation

Don’t worry at this stage


if you are not sure what
‘consultation’, ‘capacity
71 Evaluation is often forgotten, but it is an important way of
learning about what worked, what didn’t and why.

building’ and Part 6 Resources


‘empowerment’ mean,
they are all explained in
Part 1 of this book.
83 This section explains some common terms used in community
engagement and signposts some sources of information.

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Community Engagement

How to use this book


This book is a flexible resource that is designed to help you learn
about community engagement. If you are new to this topic, you
will probably need to work through all this book from start to
finish to get the whole picture.

We have used the ‘Learning Cycle’ (see picture below) to structure


this book, it has been designed to:
• provide information;
• give you examples to review what you’ve learned;
• give you time to think about how it applies to you; and
• give you an example of how community engagement works
in practice.

Obtain new
information

Practice the Review what


key points you’ve learned

Apply new
information
The Learning Cycle

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Community Engagement

Symbols used in this book


To help you find your way around this book we have used
several symbols.

This symbol at the beginning of a paragraph means


that there is a question for you to answer.
Space is provided in the book for your answers.

This symbol indicates that there is part of the case


study for you to complete.

This symbol appears when you have to collect


information from another person or a source
outside this book.

This symbol indicates where there is a summary of


the points you have learned.

This symbol shows where there is a suggested


answer to a question or activity.

This symbol appears on case study pages.

These symbols highlight the


section objective and overview.

Notes
This book has wide margins so that you have plenty of space to
make notes. There are also some pages at the back of the book for
your notes.

Timing
It should take you no more than three hours to work through this
book. You don’t have to do it all in one go. You may want to take
a break and return to it later.

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Community Engagement

Part 1 - what is Part 1 - what is


community

community engagement?

engagement?

This section defines ‘community’ and ‘community engagement’


and looks at the vision that underpins community engagement.

This part of the book is divided into the following 5 sections.


Page
Section 1 What does ‘community’ mean?
8
9 Section 2 What does ‘community engagement’ mean?

10 Section 3 Community engagement – our vision and principles

11 Section 4 The Allertown case study

13 A summary can be found at the end of this section.

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Community Engagement

Part 1 What does ‘community’ mean?


Section 1
When we think about communities we often think of groups of
people living in the same area. This is only one type of
community. Other communities include:

people who have something in common. For example,


people of the same age, sex, ethnic origin or faith; and
people who share an experience, interest or cause.

People can belong to several different communities.

We will look at engaging members of these communities (the


general public) and groups formed to represent them. We will
focus on engaging smaller groups rather than large national
groups, associations and voluntary organisations. This is because
most larger groups already have good ways of having their
opinions heard and acted upon.

This book is about engaging all communities. All members of a


community can get involved, regardless of their age, sex, sexuality
or ethnic origin. This includes offenders and those who misuse
drugs or alcohol.

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Community Engagement

What does ‘community Part 1


engagement’ mean? Section 2

The aim of community engagement is to build thriving


communities where people are actively involved in developing
their community. Community development is about helping
people to improve the quality of their lives. It refers to
communities and public organisations working together to achieve
social justice and bring about change by identifying and meeting
the community’s needs.

Community engagement involves:


consultation;
community capacity building; and
empowerment.

Consultation means talking to people in order to understand their


needs and views, involving people in making decisions about the
things that affect them and responding to what a community
tells you.

Capacity building develops the skills, abilities and confidence of a


community. It builds communities where people can take effective
action and play a leading role in developing their communities.

Empowerment means giving people real opportunities to get


involved and influence decision making.

In an ideal world, consultation leads to capacity building which


finally leads to empowerment. But in reality, things are not always
this simple. Sometimes a community might lack the skills and
confidence needed to communicate effectively. In this case before
you consult these communities you need to identify their needs
and develop their skills.

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Community Engagement

Part 1 Community engagement _ our


Section 3 vision and principles
The Government has made a commitment to provide support for
communities that want to improve their quality of life through
working with public organisations.

Community engagement is vital. It helps to make sure that:

public services reflect and respond to the views and


concerns of local people;
people within a community feel involved in and
responsible for improving their qualty of life; and
solutions work over the long term.

Public organisations and communities can build safer communities


by working together.

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Passport to
Community Engagement

The Allertown Case Study Part 1


Case study
Introduction to the Allertown case study
This case study illustrates the main ideas of community
engagement and gives you the chance to put some of these ideas
into practice.

This case study is based on actual examples but is set in a fictional


town we have called Allertown.

Background to Allertown
Allertown is in the middle of the UK in the county of Lyddshire. It
has a population of about 90,000.

Allertown is typical of many middle-sized towns throughout the


U. K. Although it appears to be well off, it has areas of
deprivation, poor housing and high unemployment. This
contributes to a feeling of resentment which the Local Strategic
Partnership (LSP) is trying to tackle through its Neighbourhood
Renewal Strategy.

Allertown has a crime and disorder reduction partnership and


drug action team (CDRP/DAT) which have just published their
new joint community safety strategy. To develop the strategy the
CDRP/DAT consulted people to identify its priorities. The
priorities identified were:
• property crime;
• antisocial behaviour (ASB); and
• drug misuse.

The CDRP/DAT have developed the following initiatives to tackle


these priorities.

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Community Engagement

Part 1
Property crime
Case study
• The Home Security Project this project aims to
improve the security of people’s homes in Allertown.
• Bogus Caller Awareness Scheme this scheme will warn
local residents of the risks associated with bogus callers (that
is someone claiming to be someone they are not).

Antisocial behaviour
• Tackling antisocial behaviour in Allertown aims to find
out what the people’s concerns are about antisocial
behaviour and to develop some specific initiatives to tackle
those matters.

Drug misuse
• Treatment service project this project aims to develop a new
treatment service in the town centre. The local community has
raised concerns about where the service is based and these
concerns need to be considered as part of the project.
• Advice and information service about drug misuse this
project will develop an advice and information service about
drug misuse for young people in Allertown.

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Community Engagement

Part 1
Summary Summary
Communities can be defined in many different ways including by:
areas people live and work in;
features in common such as age, sexuality or
ethnic origin; and
experience, cause or purpose.

You need to engage all members of the community and all types
of community.

Engagement includes:
consultation - getting people’s opinions;
capacity building - developing the skills, abilities and
confidence of communities; and
empowerment - giving people the opportunity and
ability to develop their communities.

There is not always a step-by-step progression from consultation


to development then empowerment.

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Part 1
Practical tips Practical tips from this section are as follows.
Consultation alone does not create active and empowered
communities. Communities may also need help to
develop their skills, abilities and confidence.
To empower the community you need to create real
opportunities for people to become involved in
improving their quality of life. In practical terms this
means making a long-term commitment to developing
the idea of community engagement and involving people
in developing and delivering services.

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Community Engagement

Part 2 - planning Part 2 - planning

This part of the book looks at planning.

You need to manage community engagement like you would


manage any other project. Good management will contribute to
the success of your project.

There are many resources available to help you manage your


community engagement initiatives effectively. Some of these
resources are listed in part six of this book.

Rather than providing a guide to managing general initiatives this


section will look at some of the main things you need to do first.
It will help you to define why you are engaging the community
and identify the resources available.

This part of the book is divided into the following three sections:
Page

16 Section 1 Why engage the community?

22 Section 2 Building on what’s already there

27 A summary can be found on page 27.

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Community Engagement

Part 2 Why engage the community?


Section 1
This is probably one of the first questions you will ask when you
are thinking about community engagement. It is an important
question because your answer will have a big effect on what you
plan to do.

Community engagement can help to solve some of the problems


and issues you and your local communities face:
It gives you a better understanding of the crime, drug,
and anti-social behaviour issues that affect communities.
It supports the development of services that solve real
problems and meets real needs.
It promotes increased levels of involvement by, and
support within, the community.
It develops a community that takes an active role in
identifying and meeting its own needs.
It supports the development of long-term services by
giving communities a sense of ownership.
It develops the skills and knowledge of people in
the community.
It can play a significant role in tackling the
community’s fear of crime and antisocial behaviour.

Community engagement is not just about solving problems. It also


promotes certain values.
To be accountable and answerable to the public,
organisations that provide public services must make
sure that communities are given the opportunity to take
part in developing products and services.
Community engagement reflects a belief that power
should be used in a democratic and open way with the
involvement and general agreement of the public.
Community engagement promotes values of equality
and co-operation.

Engagement promotes social justice by ‘enabling people to claim


their human rights, meet their needs and have greater control over
the decision making processes, which affect their lives.’
(The strategic framework for Community Development)

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Part 2
Section 1
Some of these reasons will be more important than others,
depending on the problems and issues you and your local
community face. There are lots of things you can do to find out
what issues you need to tackle.

Consultation with your local communities is a good starting point.


You will need to find out:
what people think about crime, disorder, and drug
and alcohol misuse;
what effect it has on them;
what they think should be done; and
what they think is already being done.

There are lots of tools that you can use to build up a picture of the
problems and issues that face local communities. If you are part of
a Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership or Drugs Action Team
then the results of your consultation will give you some guidance.
Other sources include information from census data, the press,
voluntary and community sectors and the views of people working
closely with the community.

Working with other organisations is important. It helps to make


sure you build on existing work rather than repeating it, and
contributes to regional and national targets. Part of working in
partnership is identifying common problems. Talking with other
organisations will help you to do this.

When you’re thinking about your reasons for engaging people


remember that you are working in partnership with communities.
If community engagement has benefits for both you and the
community, you will get real commitment and involvement.

Your reasons for engaging the community will influence a lot of


the decisions you make. It is important that you spend some time
clearly defining why you want to engage the community.

The following case study gives you the opportunity to apply some
of the ideas in this section.

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Community Engagement

Part 2 The Allertown case study


Case Study
Defining the problems and issues in Allertown.
The Allertown Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership (CDRP)
and Drugs Action Team (DAT) work closely with the Local
Strategic Partnership (LSP) and wants to get a better understanding
of some of the problems and issues they might have in common.
The following extract is from a recent survey carried out by
the LSP.

‘Research has shown that people and families from deprived areas
within Allertown are often not consulted and feel powerless to do
anything about the problems in their area. The main area of
concern is Meadowood.

There are obvious signs of deprivation in Meadowood, it has:


• a community that has a lack of the skills needed in
the workplace;
• high unemployment; and
• high crime rates.

The CDRP/DAT also wants to tackle some of the issues raised in a


recent audit. Two extracts from this audit are shown below.

The quality of initiatives undertaken by Allertown CDRP/DAT is


generally very high. However, a number of initiatives have been
poorly targeted and have failed to tackle areas the wider
community is concerned about. Some initiatives have failed to
work closely with everyone affected by the project.

Several initiatives have failed to realise their full potential


because the CDRP/DAT has not been able to keep them going
over a long period of time.

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Part 2
Case Study
List the problems and issues outlined in the two
extracts. How can community engagement be used
to address some of these problems and issues? Use
the table below for your answers.

Problem or issue How community engagement can help

Residents feel as though they


are not consulted and feel
powerless to do anything
about the problems they face.

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Part 2
The table below lists the problems and issues identified in the
Case Study
Allertown case study and gives examples of some of the
solutions suggested by the Allertown CDRP/DAT.

Problem or issue How community engagement can help

Residents feel as though they Consulting people allows them to have more
are not consulted and feel influence over the decisions that affect their
powerless to do anything lives.
about the problems they face.

High levels of unemployment. Capacity building increases the skills and


knowledge of people in the community. This
gives them more employment opportunities.

High crime rates. Consultation and empowerment helps to


improve the effectiveness of initiatives by
making sure they are more targeted, can be
maintained and tackle real concerns.
Initiatives are poorly targeted. If a community is empowered it takes an
active role in identifying and meeting its
needs. It is then easier to identify who
needs a particular service.
Initiatives have not tackled Consultation will give you a better
areas people are concerned understanding of the crime and drug issues
about. that face communities.
Initiatives have not been Involving the community in developing and
maintained over the long term. providing some services helps to create
initiatives that can be maintained over a
long period.
Initiatives have failed to Engagement promotes equal opportunities
involve all relevant people. and co-operation and so involves everyone.

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Community Engagement

Part 2
Based on their review, the Allertown CDRP/DAT have decided that
Case Study
their objectives for community engagement are to:
• give people some control and influence over
decisions that affect them;
• make initiatives more effective;
• help people in the community to develop
their knowledge and skills;
• make sure that services are provided to the right
people at the right time;
• gain a better understanding of the crime and
drug issues facing communities;
• create initiatives that can be maintained by giving the
community an active role in developing and providing
some services; and
• consult everyone affected by a particular project.

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Community Engagement

Part 2 Building on what’s already there


Section 2
Community engagement can be daunting if you have not worked
with that particular community before.

It is important to remember that you are not engaging the


community on your own. Many other agencies, community
groups and people will have valuable experience that you can
draw upon to understand and work with local communities.

It is important to:
identify existing community groups and work
closely with them;
identify the organisations currently working with the
community and the type of initiatives they have;
identify opportunities for forming partnerships
with other organisations engaging the community; and
find out how your local communities have been
engaged in the past.

There will often be existing community groups you can work


with (for example, tenants’ and residents’ groups and
neighbourhood watch groups). There is real value in working
with these groups.

Community engagement initiatives being carried out by other


organisations, for example the Local Criminal Justice Board or
Police Authority, may affect what you are planning. So it is important
to identify these initiatives at an early stage.

If possible you should identify opportunities for asking people


their views on drugs and crime when they are being consulted
about other issues. This prevents communities from being
overloaded with requests for views and ideas and saves money.

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Community Engagement

Part 2
Section 2
Can you think of any opportunities there might be
for combining consultation with other
organisations?

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Community Engagement

Part 2
Section 2 Some good examples of combining consultation
with other organisations include:
the NDC neighbourhood perceptions study;
best value consultations;
Housing Corporation STATUS survey
(tenant satisfaction audit);
existing local authority consultation exercises or
neighbourhood groups;
police reassurance projects or consultative groups;
the annual police authority policing plan consultation; and
the Community Safety Strategy and Community Plan.

You can use the following case study to practice using what you
have learnt about working with others.

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Community Engagement

Case study _ community Part 2


engagement initiatives Case study

In Allertown a range of community engagement activities are


being carried out or are planned for the coming year.

Allertown Housing Association works very closely with the


communities it serves and acts as a point of contact between the
Local Strategic Partnership and communities. There is also a
tenants’ federation that represents the housing association’s
tenants.

The housing association with the tenants’ federation plan to


consult on improvements to housing association homes. The
consultation is aimed at tenants in all three areas of Meadowlands.
Its main aim is to identify what tenants would most like to see
improved with the limited budget available to the housing
association.

Look at the list of initiatives on page 12. Are there


any initiatives that could support the consultation
described above? Use the space below to record
your answer.

The Home Security Project could be combined with


the consultation as it is aimed at a similar audience
and has similar themes.

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Community Engagement

Part 2
Section 2
It is important to look at past initiatives as well as current ones as
these can provide valuable information on your local
communities.

When looking at initiatives you might want to ask yourself


the following:
who did the initiative engage?
why were they engaged?
did the community develop skills and knowledge as
part of the initiative?
was the initiative evaluated?
what can you learn from the evaluation?

Remember to consider the initiatives of other organisations as well


as your own.

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Community Engagement

Summary Part 2
Summary
During the planning stage you will have:
made some decisions about why you want to engage
the community;
built up a good picture of your local communities; and
found out what other organisations are doing to
engage the community.

Engaging the community benefits both you and them. It also


promotes the important values of equality and co-operation. You
will be working closely with other organisations so it is important
that you understand why they are engaging the community. Also,
as you are working with communities you need to understand and
support their reasons for wanting to be involved.

There are lots of existing resources you can build on when


engaging the community. Past engagement initiatives can also
provide a lot of information about your local communities.

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Part 2
Practical tips Practical tips from this section are as follows.
Clearly define why you want to engage the community.
Remember there is real value in working with existing
community groups and associations.
Find opportunities for asking for views on drugs
and crime when people are being asked about
other issues.
Get a clear picture of the issues a community faces by
consulting people in the community and those who
work closely with it.

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Community Engagement

Part 3 - consultation Part 3 -


consultation

Consultation is a vital part of community engagement and we


cover it in detail in this section. It is important to remember that
consultation alone will not build strong empowered communities.

This part of the book is divided into the following 5 sections:


Page

30 Section 1 Designing a consultation


This section describes how to develop a theme for
your consultation.

35 Section 2 Choosing a consultation method


There are lots of different ways of consulting. This section of the
book describes how you can select an appropriate way.

44 Section 3 Issues to think about


This section looks at some of the issues you will need to think
about when consulting.

52 Section 4 Putting your plan into action


This section looks at some of the things you should do when
putting your plan into action.

54 A summary can be found on page 54.

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Part 3 Design a consultation


Section 1
Developing a theme for the consultation
Community engagement is about having meaningful discussions
with people about things that matter to them. It is about
providing opportunities to share views, expertise and values. This
means asking questions, so it is important to get the questions
right so you get the information you need.

At the planning stage you will have worked out why you are
consulting the community. This is the starting point for deciding
what the consultation should look at.

Some examples are shown in the following case study.

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Case study _ Consultation Part 3


Case study
This table shows some of the consultations planned for the
coming year.

Initiatives Aims and objectives Themes


Consulting the local To make sure everyone The consultation is going to
communities on the affected by the service focus on understanding and
proposed new drug is consulted tackling the concerns of
treatment centre local residents.
Consulting possible To improve the quality The consultation is going to
users on the of services consider a range of issues
proposed new drug including:
treatment centre • what services people need;
• what range of services
should be offered; and
• how best to deliver
services.
Supporting the Local To improve the quality The consultation needs to get a
Strategic Partnership of services general picture of the
in defining a new community’s views on crime and
community strategy To give people drugs misuse including:
some control over • what people think about
decisions that crime, disorder and alcohol
affect them and drug misuse;
• what effect this has on them;
To gain a better • what they think should
understanding of the be done; and
crime and drug issues • what they think of
facing the community current services.
Tackling antisocial To give people The consultation first needs to
behaviour in some control over gather a broad understanding of
Allertown decisions that the community’s view of
affect them antisocial behaviour. It will then
need to develop a more detailed
To gain a better understanding of these issues
understanding of the so that it can develop some
crime and drug issues specific initiatives.
facing the community

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Part 3 Consultation overload


Section 1
You need to take care not to overload people with consultations
and requests for information. Consultation overload can lead to a
breakdown in communication, which can then prevent you from
engaging the community.

There are some simple steps you can take to avoid consultation
overload.

It is important to know if communities have already


been consulted.
The design of your consultation needs to reflect any
views that the community has already expressed.
Make sure you consultation is not repeating questions the
community has already answered.

If you do not take account of views people have already given,


those people may feel that their opinions are not valued. They may
well end up asking why no-one listened when they answered the
question.

It’s vital that you make good use of the limited time you have
available for consultation. As you work through your project and
those of other organisations, look for common questions or issues
that relate to the same community.

It may be useful to combine several issues into a single


consultation. This reduces the number of consultations and uses
resources more effectively.

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Case study _ avoiding Part 3


consultation overload Case study

Have a look at the consultation being undertaken in Allertown on


page31.

Are there any consultations that relate to the same


project? What advice would you give the
partnership about combining these consultations?

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Community Engagement

Part 3
The table on page 31 shows that there are two
Case study
consultations planned in connection with the
proposed new drug treatment centre. If the CDRP/DAT decide to
combine these consultations they will need to think carefully
about the effect of the decision. For example:
will everyone have the opportunity to express
their opinions;
will there be conflicting views that are difficult to
settle; and
is it going to be useful to gather conflicting views.

Also, the consultation looking at antisocial behaviour has similar


aims and objectives to the one about developing the community
strategy. It might be appropriate to combine these two
consultations.

Remember that you are not engaging the community on your


own. There are many other people who have engaged the
community and they may be able to help you to refine your
questions. Councillors and other professionals can be helpful in
preparing consultation exercises by guiding you to the right areas.

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Choosing a consultation method Part 3


Section 2
There are lots of ways of consulting the community. In 2001 the
Scottish Executive looked at different consultation methods and
how to choose an appropriate one. This lead to them producing a
guide, ‘Effective Engagement a Guide to Principles and Practice’,
for people working in the field of drugs, but the approach can be
used by anyone working in the area of crime reduction.

This book cannot fully discuss all the methods set out in the
Scottish Executive’s guide. Full details of where you can get the
guide are given in part 6.

Classifying Your Consultation Initiatives.


To help you decide what consultation method is appropriate, it
may be useful to classify your consultation according to the broad
type of questions you want to ask. There are four types of
consultation to choose from.

Type A Open agenda


If you can’t clearly identify the type of questions you
want to ask in the consultation.

Type B Focussed issue


If the consultation is going to focus on one specific issue.

Type C Range of related issues.


If the consultation is going to look at a range of issues.

Type D Combined
If the consultation is going to begin by looking at the
general picture then focus on particular issues.

It is important to consider the effect of the type you choose. For


example, a Type B consultation on specific issues allows you to
focus on a particular subject. Sometimes it can also lead to a
heated debate that may be difficult to manage. You need to make
sure you are prepared for this.

An opportunity to classify the consultation in the Allertown case


study is on the following page.

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Part 3 Case study _ classifying


Case study consultation
Four initiatives from the Allertown case study are
listed below can you classify them A, B, C or D
giving your reasons for selecting the classification?
You may want to look at the description of the
initiatives earlier in this section. (See page 31)

Project Type Reasons

Consulting people on the


proposed new drug
treatment centre

Consulting service users


on the proposed new drug
treatment centre

Supporting the Local


Strategic Partnership in
defining a new
community strategy.

Tackling antisocial
Behaviour in Allertown.

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Part 3
Case study

This is how the partnership classified the events.

Project Type Reasons

Consulting people on the B The consultation exercise is looking at


proposed new drug one focused issue, the community’s
treatment centre concerns about where the drug
treatment centre will be.
Consulting service users C The consultation exercise will need to
on the proposed new drug look at a range of issues related to
treatment centre providing services.

Supporting the Local A At the start of this consultation it is


Strategic Partnership in not clear what issues the community
defining a new will raise. The consultation will need
community strategy. to ask general questions such as,
‘What are the communities’ views on
crime and disorder in the area?’

The consultation aims to develop a


general picture rather than provide
detailed analysis.

Tackling antisocial D At the start of this consultation it is


Behaviour in Allertown. not clear what the community’s
concerns will be. Once the concerns
are identified, a more detailed analysis
will be needed to develop appropriate
services. A consultation approach
that starts with an open agenda and
then focuses on specific ideas and
issues is appropriate in this case.

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Part 3 Available resources


Section 2 The consultation method you choose will ultimately depend on
the resources you have available.

The various methods, and the resources you need for each one,
are explained on the next few pages. The relative costs shown are
a rough guide only. Costs depend on the location, size and
complexity of the consultation exercise.

Deciding on a method
Once you have decided on the information you need to gather and
found out what resources you have you can create a shortlist of
methods using the tables on the following pages.

Your choice of method will depend on whether:


you need to reach a wide or specific audience;
you have expertise available that could support one of the
methods you have shortlisted;
you have access to the resources you need; and
the method is appropriate to the community
you are engaging.

You should try to reach the widest possible audience. This helps
you to gather views that better reflect the opinion of the whole
community and so are more balanced.

You need to make sure that your approach is appropriate to the


community you are engaging.
Additional guidance on Specific communities such as black and minority ethnic
engaging with Black and (BME) communities or rural communities may respond
Minority Ethnic (BME) to different approaches or need specialist workers who
communities is provided understand and are more trusted by that community.
on the Drug Strategy If a community is remote, you may need to consider
Directorate website. methods which reduce travel or make effective use
(see section six) of technology.
Sometimes people at meetings on crime or drug misuse
want to be anonymous. Consider consultation methods
that do not clearly label people as being involved with
drugs or crime.

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Method Elements Value Part 3


Open Space Non-heirarchical workshops Allows access to all
over several days with defined participants - Representative Section 2
group
Planning for NIF trademarked method - Can involve lots of people
real contributors place ideas on a Simple
3d model - ideas prioritised Good for spatial issues
and developed Time consuming
Focus groups Small defined groups Simple to do
considers options put Is the group representative?
to them through skilled
facilitators
In-depth One-to-one extended More detailed than focus
interviews discussion groups
Expensive related to reach of
engagement
Citizens jury Chosen group takes Hugely expensive and time
evidence over extended consuming
period on specific issue and Issues of representation
makes decisions and
recommendations
Citizens panels A much larger group looks Less hit and miss than
regularly at issues through ordinary survey methods;
post/e-mail surveys cheap, builds up informed,
reliable group
Survey Mail-out of questions to Can reach a lot of people
random addresses/people at at once
meetings. Can be done Cheap
electronically at meetings Poor return rate;
using voting equipment unrepresentative
Imagine Asking people to tell stories of Imaginative approach.
good things they want to see, May not be representative
or imagine ideal Lack of reality grounding
futures or visualise dreams
Action research Testing out approaches Long term - ongoing research
alongside research into them Consultation element relies on
Worker led -takes long time other methods
Flexible but inconclusive
Priority search Trademarked method - A wide variety of issues can be
Focus groups and surveys are addressed
analysed using special Essentially a method of
software to give priorities - quality assuring survey
this generates a content
questionnaire sent to more
people, which is then analysed
Community Community members attend Representation issues
representation working groups Formality may put off
community representatives
Expresses true power sharing
ethos and, potentially, value of
community’s views
Community Brings together existing Easy to do, but may only reach
consultation groups to look at an issue usual suspects
groups
Public meetings General invite, presentations Easy to do and democratic -
or workshops, and discussion those who attend get a voice
Unlikely to attract people
beyond those with axe to grind

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Part 3 Method Type One-off Cost Materials/resources


Ongoing
Section 2 Open Space A One-off L • Facilitators experienced in the
Open Space approach
• Flip chart, post-its, wall chart
• Suitable venue and catering
Planning for A One-off M • Registered facilitator
real • Large-scale model (a local school
can often build this)
• 1:300 map of the area (available
from the local planning service)
• Publicity
• suitable venue and catering
Focus groups B One-off M • Skilled facilitator to organise and
analyse findings
• Flip chart
• Can be recorded but would add
significant cost
In-depth B One-off H • Skilled interviewer to prepare
interviews questions, elicit and probe for
answers and analyse results
• Can be recorded but would add
significant cost
Citizens jury B One-off H • Skilled facilitation and
co-ordination
• Considerable staff time in
preparation, giving evidence,
responding etc.
• Training or briefing of jurors
• Venue, catering, expences for
participants
Citizens C Ongoing L/M* • Skilled facilitator to organise and
panels analyse findings
• Flip chart
*If using
existing

• Can be recorded but would add


panel

significant cost
Survey C One-off L • Skills to design questionnaire and
analyse data
• Staff time and relevant statistical
package for data analysis if
doing in-house
Imagine D One-off L/M • Training of core group (1-2 days)
who then trian others in
the technique
• Skilled and independent
facilitation for workshop/s
• Materials to note
conversations/stories
• Suitable venue
L=Low
M=Medium
H=High
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Method Type One-off Cost Materials/resources Part 3


Ongoing
Action D Ongoing L/M • People skills - knowledge of needs Section 2
research and experiences of particular
Mat
client-group, ability to engage with
eri-
them individually or in groups
als/ • Research skills
reso • Flip chart, newspaper cuttings,
urce scenarios, games, questionnaires
s • Means to record (video)
• Ability to collect and analyse
qualitative data
Priority search D On-off L/M • Priority search software
• Consultants or mini conference
• Skilled facilitation
• Flip chart
• Suitable venue
Community D Ongoing L/M • Information, training and briefing
representation sessions to enable effective
representation and participation
• Transport
• Publicity to generate and
sustain interest
• Paying expenses of representatives
• Suitable venue
Community D Ongoing M • Facilitator may be required
consultation • Information, training and briefing
groups sessions to enable effective
representation and participation
• Materials/resources for chosen
techniques of consultation
• Publicity to generate and
sustain interest
• May need to pay expenses
• Printing and stationery costs
• Suitable venue
Public D Ongoing M • Facilitation and co-ordination
Meetings • Publicity to generate interest
• Suitable venue
L=Low
M=Medium
H=High

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Part 3 Case study _ consultation


Case study method in Allertown
The Allertown CDRP/DAT are consulting with local communities
on the proposed new drug treatment centre.

• The budget for the project is Low.


• The consultation will be a one-off project.
• The project is best described as being Type B.

Write a shortlist of possible consultation options.


List the options in the space below.

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Part 3
Case study
The Allertown CDRP/DAT shortlisted the following
options. Focus Groups, In-depth interviews and
Citizens’ Juries.

The Citizens Jury is too expensive and the CDRP/DAT were


concerned about the time it would take to collect the information
needed. They were also concerned about how closely a jury might
reflect the community.

In-depth interviews were a possible option but the CDRP/DAT


felt that this approach would not gather the full range of people’s
opinions.

The final choice was the Focus Group approach. This approach
was chosen as it is able to gather a wide range of opinions.

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Part 3 Things to think about


Section 3
There are some questions and issues you will need to consider
regardless of the consultation method you choose.

What are some of the general issues you think you


might need to consider when planning a
consultation exercise? Enter your ideas in the space
below.

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Part 3
Some of the issues you may want to consider when preparing a Section 3
consultation are as follows.:
Dealing effectively with the perceptions created
by the media.
Making sure the community can communicate
their concerns and interests effectively.
Dealing effectively with negative views and criticism.
Involving the community in a way that does not raise
the level of concern within the community.
Managing people’s expectations.

Dealing effectively with the perceptions created


by the media
People’s perceptions can be influenced by what they see in
newspapers and on television, and what they hear on the radio.
The responses you receive from the community may reflect these
perceptions rather than actual local experience.

When designing the consultation process you need to make sure


that the questions you ask encourage communities to reflect on
their local situation. This may be as simple as wording questions
appropriately.

In the Allertown case study, some of the questions the CDRP/DAT


should ask during the consultation on the
proposed new drug treatement centre are as
follows.

What problems are caused by drug misuse?

Can you give some examples of the problems


caused by drug misuse in your area?

Last year we introduced a needle exchange programme.


Do you have any concerns about this service?

What are your concerns about drug services?

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Part 3
What problems are caused by drug misuse?
Section 3
Can you give some examples of the problems
Asking caused by drug misuse in your area?
specific
questions will Last year we introduced a needle exchange programme
get people to do you have any concerns about this service?
focus on
local issues. What are your concerns about drug services?

Promotional material or consultation material should be carefully


vetted to ensure it puts real local problems in an appropriate
context and with the right emphasis.

Making sure the community can communicate


their concerns and interests effectively
The community needs people with knowledge, skills and
confidence to communicate its concerns and interests effectively. It
may already have these. If not, community development in key
areas such as presentation and communication skills can empower
community members and significantly improve the quality of
responses that you will receive during the consultation.

Dealing effectively with negative views


and criticism
Views will more closely represent actual opinion and be more
balanced if you aim your consultation at a wide audience.

Use statistics to guide your view of how widespread a particular


viewpoint might be.

Take care when choosing the consultation method. For example,


when deciding, for example whether to use a meeting or survey,
consider the likely responses to the approach and the effect these
responses have on the consultation process.

Even when the response is negative, this does not mean that the
experience has been a waste of time. It may have helped you gain
the trust and respect of local people, who welcome the
opportunity to give their views.

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Part 3
During your consultation the clear message should be that
consultation is about gathering views to form a consensus. You Section 3
should make it clear that you will listen to, and take everybody’s
needs and opinions into account.

If you expect someone to raise difficult issues, try to discuss and


settle some of the issues before the meeting. It is important that
you give different views an equal hearing. One way of doing this
is to include some of those opposed to a policy as speakers.

Community members may criticise you during the consultation.


For example, you might receive comments that you don’t
understand the issues because you are not a local resident. You do
not need to have personal experience of drugs or to live in an area
to gain people’s trust.

Managing consultation to avoid raising the level


of concern within a community?
Think about the likely outcomes of your consultation.
Understanding a community’s perception of crime and the
problems it faces will help to guide you in this.

A local community that is already aware of a high crime rate in its


area may be positive and open to a discussion on crime reduction.
A community in a low-crime area or that does not know about
local crime levels may feel threatened by the same discussion.

You need to make sure your consultation materials put real local
problems in their correct context and with the right emphasis.

The language you use in your consultation material is also


important. A focus on preventing crime and drug misuse rather
than reducing it may be appropriate.
For example, drug treatment services and CCTV are often seen as
reduction measures and may raise concerns. Education, working
with young people and fitting better locks are seen as prevention
measures and may cause less concern in the community.

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Part 3 Avoiding raising the level of


Section 3 concern in Allertown
The designers of the consultation exercise on the Home
Security Project need to be very careful not to raise the concerns
of residents.

A range of potential questions and statements


related to the project are given below. Which of
the comments relate to crime reduction (and have
the potential for raising fears) and which relate to
crime prevention.

1 Do you think locks would have


prevented your house being broken
into in the past?

2 Do you think locks will protect your


house in the future?

3 The aim of the project is to reduce


the number of robberies.

4 The aim of the project is to protect


homes and property.

5 By taking these simple measures you


will reduce the chances of being robbed.

6 By taking these simple measures you


will make your home more secure.

Questions 1, 3 & 5 are related to crime reduction


and may raise the level of concern and increase the
fear of crime. Questions 2, 4 & 6 are related to
crime prevention.

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Managing people’s expectations Part 3


You need to carefully manage the expectations you create. People’s Section 3
expectations should reflect the resources you have available. This
can sometimes lead to a feeling within the community that they
are unable to get particular products and services started. This can
be overcome by actively involving communities in the process of
prioritising initiatives and explaining the difficulties of managing
the funding process.

Your consultation should not suggest that you will meet all
demands for every kind of service will always be met. Every
document needs to clearly show that the consultation is about
spending money you already have and settting priorities for
available budgets, not creating wish lists and campaigns for
extra resources.

Your consultation material should make it clear that people’s


opinions can shape your priorities.

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Part 3 Case study _ managing


Case study expectations
The Allertown CDRP/DAT are planning a
consultation with local residents about the
placement of local drug services. The consultation
will need to deal with the community’s concerns
about the service.
What advice would you give them? Use the space
below to write down your answers.

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Part 3
Case study

Some of the community’s concerns may be based


on perceptions from the media. Discussions
should focus on the actual problems and issues
that the community faces. The consultation is an
opportunity to challenge beliefs about the issue and to build
compassion for drug users and those trapped in a life of crime.

Make it clear that you are trying to reach general agreement on the
issue – so you can develop services that meet everyone’s needs.

Try to develop an understanding of the issues and how to settle


them before any public meetings. It might be useful to ask some
of the local residents to act as speakers during the meeting and
present their views.

The consultation gives you the opportunity to the talk to the


community about successful initiatives that are similar to the one
being planned for Allertown.

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Part 3 Putting your plan into action


Section 4
Before you start your consultation it is a good idea to collect some
information about the community you are working with. This
information will let you assess the effect of your project.

Useful information includes:


how much influence people feel they have
over decisions;
how involved people feel in the process of tackling
local issues;
current barriers to engaging the community;
A more detailed
description of the level of support for services;
the baseline the current quality of service;
information the current range of services;
useful in the
levels of personal development in the community;
evaluation of
community the number of people who believe that they have
engagement is influence; and
given in Part 5. the way drugs are tackled.

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Part 3
Creating a strong and lasting relationship
Section 4
Ideally, community engagement should allow you to forge a
strong and lasting relationship with your local communities.

This takes time and a commitment. If you hope to keep the


community engaged over a long period you need to establish
credibility with your communities.

You need to carefully consider the opinions and views of the


community and how they might be reflected in policy.

You need to give the community feedback on the effect their


views have had.
If you do not adopt a particular view or suggestion the
community deserves some explanation of your reasons for
that decision.

You need to record and assess every view you receive. You should
be able to show that the process you use for gathering people’s
opinions includes everyone and represents a complete record.
Wilder or more negative views should not be ‘airbrushed out’.

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Part 3 Summary
Summary
You can use the following structured approach to design your
consultation and put it into practice.
Develop consultation themes related to aims
and objectives.
Group the themes into consultation activities.
Collect relevant information on each consultation activity.
Decide on the type of consultation method most
appropriate to the activity.
Create a shortlist of approaches based on the information
you have collected on each activity.
Choose the most appropriate method from the shortlist.

When refining your consultation activity make sure the method


you choose:
deals effectively with media perception;
takes into account the skills and experience of the
community you are engaging;
manages people’s expectations;
deals effectively with negative views and criticism; and
does not increase concerns within the community.

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Part 3
Practical tips
The practical tips from this section are as follows.
Find out if the community has been consulted before
and if so, whether you can build on this.
Councillors and other professionals can be helpful
in preparing your consultation by steering you in the
right direction.
Avoid holding too many consultations. This places
unrealistic demands on a community. Wherever possible,
try to cover several subjects at once.
Try to reach as wide an audience as possible.
Encourage people to focus on local issues.
During consultations, avoid creating false expectations by
clearly defining your priorities and the resources you
have available.
Make it clear that people’s opinions can shape
your priorities.
Send a clear message that consultation is about getting
general agreement and that you will listen to all views
and take all needs into account.
If you expect someone to make difficult points, try to
meet that person before the consultation and settle some
of their issues.
Focus on preventing crime and drug misuse rather
than reducing it.
Where possible act on what people tell you
during the consultation.
Tell the community what you have done in response to
what they have told you.

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Part 3

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Part 4 - capacity Part 4 - capacity


buuilding and
building and empowering the
community
empowering the
community
This part of the book gives you a broad overview of the
community’s development need and the funding available to help
meet these needs. It also sets out the support an experienced
community development worker can provide. This book cannot
give a detailed step-by-step guide to empowering and developing
communities. Some further references on this are included in
Part 6.

By the end of this part you will be able to describe the


development needs of the community, decide on where to go to
fund community development and suggest ways of developing
and empowering the community.

This part of the book is divided into the following 4 sections.


Page

58 Section 1 The community’s development needs

Section 2 Who to approach for funding


65 Section 3 The role of the community development worker

66 Section 4 Empowering the community


68 A summary can be found on page 69.
69

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Part 4 The community’s


Section 1 development needs
Definitions of capacity building and community
development
Capacity building gives people the skills, ability and confidence to
take a leading role in developing their communities. Capacity
building helps to empower communities.

This section explains the activities, resources and support needed


to build capacity.

Capacity building supports community development, which aims


to bring about change and justice.

The process involves identifying needs and taking action to meet


them. It is based on an agreed set of values, which has been
shown to result in a range of broadly defined outcomes. (For
example improved levels of basic skill and community cohesion.)

The Home Office Civil Renewal Unit has identified five main
things communities need in order to get involved. These are:
For more information on access to community development workers;
the recommendations of at least one venue for community activities;
the Civil Renewal Unit
easy access to small grants;
see, ‘Firm Foundations’
The Government’s at least one representative and inclusive group, forum
Framework for or network; and
Community Capacity access to high-quality and appropriate
Building published by learning opportunities.
the Home Office.

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Part 4
Community development Workers
Section 1
Community development workers:
identify the community’s needs;
plan action; and
evaluate any action taken.

Community development workers provide a link between public


sector agencies and the community.
The National Occupational Standards provide an overview
of the role of the community development worker. They
define the purpose of community development work as:
‘Collectively to bring about social change and justice, by
working with communities (those that can be defined
geographically and/or those defined by interest) to:
• Identify their needs, opportunities, rights
and responsibilities
• Plan organise and take action
• Evaluate the effectiveness and impact of action.
All in ways which challenge oppression and tackle
inequalities.’

The role of community development workers will be covered in


more detail in a later section.

A venue for community activities


An existing venue will often be used for community meetings and
events. These venues will often be shared by a variety of different
groups and communities. This is particularly true in rural areas
where there are few venues available.

You need to make sure that the venue is appropriate. For some
groups that are hard to reach, such as homeless people, you may
need to go out to the community rather than expect community
members to come to a particular venue. You need to
select venues
The venue needs to meet the community’s needs in terms of the and schedule
facilities available (for example, you may need to provide childcare meetings in a
at the venue). way that
respects peoples
The venue needs to be available at a suitable time. This might right to
mean making the venue available in the evenings or on weekends. confidentiality.

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Part 4
Access to small grants
Section 1
Small grants not only provide much needed funding. By applying
for small grants and managing those grants, communities develop
valuable skills and experience.

Giving the community responsibility for managing small grants is


one way of testing whether a community is ready to take control
of some services.

When running small-grant schemes for the community you need


to do the following:
Provide a balance between accountability and
accessibility. It may be appropriate to allocate someone to
work closely with a community in order to develop an
understanding of a particular project.
Have a clear understanding of the aims and objectives
of the project the grants are needed for and how it will
be evaluated.
Make sure the people or groups applying for the funding
get adequate support.
Make sure that grants are open to formally recognised
groups as well as individuals.

A representative and inclusive group, forum or


network for local people
Community groups, forums and networks must include
hard-to-reach communities.

One way to achieve this is to make sure that it operates at a more


local level than the geographical area typically covered by a
particular CDRP/DAT.

Communities do not necessarily follow geographical boundaries.


A group whose membership is defined by physical location (for
example, residents of Meadowood) may not be an appropriate
forum for a community that shares an interest, purpose or cause.

The group could take the form of an area CDRP/DAT sub group
that corresponds to a particular community. Or it could build on
existing organisations that look at general community issues.

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Part 4
Case study _ additional support Case study
The CDRP/DAT have appointed a local community worker to work
with communities on the Meadowlands estate.

A strong representative and inclusive forum for local people has


developed in Meadowood called the The Meadowood Community
Support Group. The development worker plans to work closely
with this group on a number of initiatives.

The group already have the support of a


development worker. What additional support
needs to be in place?

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Part 4
Case study The CDRP/DAT need to:

Ensure that a suitable venue is available. They need to be sensitive


to peoples needs for privacy. Ensure that meetings take place at a
suitable time and that the appropriate facilities are available. For
residents on the Meadowood estate this means holding meetings
during the evening or at weekends.

Support the group in making funding applications. In practice this


means:
• making sure that the group has the skills, knowledge and
organisation to ensure financial accountability
• putting processes in place to ensure that accountability does
not hinder the operation of the group
• supporting the group in presenting the aims and objectives of
their initiatives.

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Part 4
Access to high-quality and appropriate learning
Section 1
opportunities
Learning in relation to crime reduction and drugs misuse should
be realistic, balanced and constructive. It should:
improve the community’s understanding of
local problems;
use activities and ideas that work;
encourage engagement and participation by involving the
community in the analysis design and delivery of
learning resources; and
involve people the community trusts and who
understand the issue (this does not necessarily mean
ex-drug users or local residents).

It is important to understand people’s past experience of


education. For many, this experience may have been negative. To
overcome this, learning needs to focus on real needs and
experience. It should recognise that one of the best resources that
people can call on to support learning are other members of the
community who share their experience.

Some communities try to prevent drug treatment services from


being provided in their area by exploiting planning rules and local
media. Communities are more likely to get behind drug treatment
services once they have an understanding of what is involved in
providing the service. Education on drug issues needs to tackle
misconceptions about drug culture while respecting the
community’s concerns about the effect of drugs. It should focus
on real local experience rather than perceptions created by the
media. It needs to develop an understanding of the behaviour of
offenders and build compassion for people who are addicted to
drugs or caught up in other criminal behaviour.

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Part 4
The Home Office Civil Renewal Unit has outlined some learning
Section 1 opportunities you should consider when capacity building. These
opportunities include:
learning opportunities for active citizenship;
visits to neighbourhoods which are working well;
long-term coaching from experienced residents for
groups who are just starting out;
mentoring, gettting more experienced community
members and practitioners to share their knowledge and
experience with those less actively involved;
more formal training opportunities, where sharing and
networking is a central part of the process; and
one-off advice and consultancy to help groups arrive at
the solution to a particular problem.

See the Home Office document ‘Firm Foundations The


Government’s Framework for Community Capacity Building.’

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Who to approach for funding Part 4


Section 2
It can be difficult to get funding for long-term community
development.

Funding falls into the following 5 categories.


Funds for educational or retraining activities (including
learning and skills councils, youth services, DAT youth
funding and JobCentre Plus).
Funds for drug-treatment activities (including pooled
treatment budget, PCT funds).
Funding for projects aimed at reducing or preventing
crime and drug misuse (including Police Commanders’
Fund and Safer and Stronger Communities Fund).
Funding for projects related to housing (from the local
authority or Supporting People Scheme).
Neighbourhood renewal funds.

There may be other funding sources available including:


European funds;
Funding from charities;
Local authority funding; and
Funding from the Home Office Active Community
Directorate (e.g. The Future Builders Fund).

Conditions may apply to how you can use these funds. Your local
authority and Government Office for the Region is a good source
of information on funding and government funding initiatives.

Further guidance on funding is available at:


http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/funding.htm

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Community Engagement

Part 4 The role of the community


Section 3 development worker
Community development workers:
find out what the problems the comunity is facing;
assess the needs of the community; and
work closely with communities to set up local
services (for example, local access points to treatment
services, needle exchange schemes and prison release
support schemes).

A community development worker can be a specialist or someone


with general experience. Specialists focus on developing the
community’s ability to tackle concerns about crime and drug
misuse. This is particularly useful when the community is facing
specific problems in these areas. If the community has concerns
about a number of different related areas then someone with
general knowledge may be more appropriate.

The community development worker will need to delegate some


of the development work to others if they are working with a lot
of different groups. One approach is to recruit and support a
group of interested people within the community. These people
then take responsibility for meeting the development needs of the
community. This approach can be hard to maintain as people’s
initial enthusiasm can flag when they are faced with the
day-to-day issues of keeping people in the community committed.
On going support is essential to overcome these obstacles. It is
also important that people recruited to help the community
development workers are supported in developing initiatives that
contribute to broader services and activities.

Community development workers also work closely with the


community to support its needs. This approach has been
particularly useful in building the capacity of BME communities in
relation to drugs.

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Case study _ Allertown’s Part 4


community development worker Case study

The Meadowood parents’ support service is a self-help group


made up of parents of young people who misuse drugs.

This group has worked closely with the local community


development worker to set up a young people’s forum to identify
the needs of young people in Allertown. This forum has
identified the need for a drug advice and information service.
They have shown an interest in running this service.

The group has also worked with the University of Lyddshire, the
local DAT and Allertown NHS Primary Care Trust (PCT) to analyse
the local community’s needs in relation to drug misuse. The needs
analysis led to services that are highly valued by the community
being developed. The Meadowood Community Support Group
developed skills and abilities that can be used in designing and
delivering services, including managing budgets.

The project was funded using the Building Safer Communities


Fund.

This fund has been used to support other local initiatives


including:
• training on drugs for community workers;
• grant schemes for specific one-off initiatives
about drugs; and
• a local community ‘house’ where a range of
activities are planned and run by the community.

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Community Engagement

Part 4 Empowering the community


Section 4
A community may have the skills, ability and confidence to take
part, but it only becomes empowered when it is given the
opportunity to get involved. Empowerment is basically about
deciding to give a community some control.

When deciding whether or not to give a community some control


you need to think about:
the services to be delegated;
the levels of accountability needed;
the level of skills and knowledge within the
community; and
the relationship between community groups and the
services, councils and agencies that can empower them.

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Community Engagement

Summary Part 4
Summary
In order to develop, communities need to have:
access to community development workers;
at least one venue for community activities;
easy access to small grants;
at least one representative and inclusive group,
forum or network; and
access to high-quality and appropriate
learning opportunities.

It can be difficult to get funding for long-term community


development.

Funding falls into the following five main categories.


Funds for educational or retraining activities;
Funds for drug-treatment activities;
Funding for projects aimed at reducing and preventing
crime and drug misuse;
Funding for projects related to housing;
Funding for Neighbourhood renewal.

Conditions may apply to how you can use these funds.

Community development workers have a vital role to play.


They can:
find out what problems the community faces;
assess the needs of the community; and
work closely with communities to set up
local services.

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Community Engagement

Part 4
Practical tips
Practical tips from this section are as follows.
Make sure venues meet the community’s needs and that
meetings are held at an appropriate time.
Consider going to meet hard-to-reach groups where they
choose rather than at a formal venue.
Provide a balance between being accountable and being
accessible when running small grant schemes.
Provide adequate support to communities applying
for funding.

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Community Engagement

Part 5 - evaluating Part 5 - evaluating


community

community engagement

engagement

This section looks at evaluating community engagement.


It will help you to decide on the objectives of your evaluation and
what you will measure when evaluating community engagement.

This section is split into the following 3 sections.


Page

72 Section1 An overview of the evaluation process


This section provides a brief description of the overall process of
evaluation.

77 Section 2 Deciding on what you will measure


This section covers some of the things you can measure when
evaluating community engagement.

81 A summary of this section is on page 81.

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Part 5
Section 1 An overview of the evaluation
process
Evaluation is the process of assessing, at a particular point in time
whether or not a project is achieving or has achieved its
objectives.

Monitoring is the process of continually assessing whether or not


a project is achieving its objectives.

Evaluation can be a time consuming process, so why do it?

Why do you think evaluation is important? Write


the answers in the space below then compare them
to our answers on the following page.

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Community Engagement

Part 5
Section 1

Evaluation is important for the following reasons.


It provides evidence of a project’s level of achievement.
It can be used to make improvements to a project
as it progresses.
It shows how effectively resources have been used.
Evidence of successful work attracts resources for
future initiatives.
It allows improvements to be made for future work.
It provides information for others who may want to run
a similar project.
It will identify what worked well and what didn’t.
It is often the only way to identify unexpected outcomes.
It is an important part of accountability.

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Part 5 The process of evaluation


Section 1
There are 7 steps to evaluation.
1. Define what you want to evaluate.
2. Decide what you will measure.
3. Plan how you will collect information.
4. Collect information.
5. Analyse the information you have collected.
6. Publish your findings.
7. Act on your findings.

Planning the
1 Set evaluation objectives

evaluation
2 Develop Performance Indicators

3 Collect data

Doing the work


Review 4 Analyse data

5 Plan the logistics

Using the
7 So What?

results
6 Publish findings

It is important that you review each evaluation to help you plan for
the next one.

This section looks at defining what you want to evaluate and


deciding what you will measure. A detailed description of the rest
of the process is given in our book ‘Passport to Evaluation’. (See
Part 6.)

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What is the evaluation for? Part 5


One of the main questions your evaluation should ask is, ‘did the Section 1
project achieve what it set out to do?’.
This is called impact evaluation.

Usually the project will aim to have had some measurable benefit:
for people planning and commissioning services; and
for the community.

Although it is difficult to show a direct link between community


engagement and a reduction in crime and drug misuse, it is
possible to assess the effect:
community engagement has on the quality of services
and how they are delivered; and
improved services have on levels of crime and
drug misuse.

As well as looking at the effect of community engagement you


might also want to evaluate the processes you used to engage the
community. This is called process evaluation.

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Part 5 Case study _ what evaluation


Case study might explore in Allertown?
The CDRP/DAT are consulting the public about a new drug
treatment centre. They are consulting both local residents and
those who will use the service.

Can you suggest some of the questions that the


evaluation might want to explore?

The evaluation might ask the following questions.


• Did the consultation have benefits for local residents
(that is, did it tackle their concerns?)
• Did the consultation improve the quality of services provided?
• Did the improved service lead to a reduction in the levels of
drug misuse?
• Was the approach to community engagement appropriate?

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Community Engagement

Deciding what you will measure Part 5


Section 2
Once you have decided what you will evaluate you need to decide
on what you will measure in your evaluation. You will need to
make measurements before you start the project (a baseline
measure) and after you have finished the project. For this reason it
is important to decide what you will measure at an early stage of
the project.

Measures for impact evaluation


When evaluating the effect of community engagement you need
to show a change in the quality of services as a result of
community engagement.

Measures of the quality of service include:


a greater variety of services;
more effective targeting of services;
services being introduced earlier; and
more accountable services.

You then need to show the impact services have on crime


reduction and drug issues. Developing appropriate ways of
measuring this will depend on the aims and objectives of the
project you are evaluating.

If you are measuring the impact of community engagement in


terms of the benefits it has brought about for the community then
you could measure:
opportunities for personal development;
the development of new skills and experience; and
changes in people’s views on how much influence they
have over what is done.

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Community Engagement

Part 5
Measures for process evaluation
Section 2
There are a variety of things you can measure as part of process
evaluation.

The level of community engagement. You can look at


the degree to which people believe they have influence
over decisions about, and feel involved in the process of,
tackling local issues. (This may be involvement of any
type, either formal or informal.)You can also consider
whether the barriers to involving the community have
been removed.

The reach of the consultation methods. This is usually


expressed as a ratio between the number of people
consulted and the number that responded. Of particular
interest is the degree to which the target community
responded. The reach of consultation methods can be
measured through interviews or questionnaires.

The satisfaction of those consulted and increased


levels of support. The satisfaction of those being
consulted and changes in public levels of support can be
established through interviews or questionnaires.

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Community Engagement

Case study _ questions for the Part 5


Allertown evaluation Case study

The CDRP/DAT are consulting the public about a new drug


treatment centre. They are consulting both local residents and
those who will use the service.

The evaluation is going to explore the following questions.


• Did the consultation have benefits for local residents
(that is, did it tackle their concerns?)
• Did the consultation improve the quality of services provided?
• Was the approach to community engagement appropriate?

Can you suggest some measures that the


CDRP/DAT should look at in their evaluation?

Benefits for local residents Do local residents feel they have


more influence over what is done?

Quality of service Did community engagement lead to


greater variety of services?

Did community engagement ensure


the deliver services to the right
people at the right time?

Would it have taken longer to get the


service running if communities
not been consulted?

Appropriate approach Did people feel involved in the


process of tackling the issues of drug
misuse?

What proportion of the communities


involved with the project
participated?

Was there a change in levels of


support for the service?

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Community Engagement

Part 5
This is what the Allertown CDRP/DAT decided to look at.
Case study
Benefits for local residents Do local residents feel they have
more influence over what is done?

Quality of Service Did community engagement lead to


a greater variety of services?

Did community engagement ensure


the delivery of services to the right
people at the right time?

Would it have taken longer to get the


service running if communities had
not been consulted?

Appropriate approach Did people feel involved in the


process of tackling the issues of drug
misuse?

What proportion of the communities


involved with the project took part
in the consultation?

Was there a change in levels of


support for the service?

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Community Engagement

Summary Part 5
Summary
There are 7 steps to evaluation.
& practical tips
1. Define what you want to evaluate.
2. Decide what you will measure.
3. Plan how you will collect information.
4. Collect information.
5. Analyse the information you have collected.
6. Publish your findings.
7. Act on your findings.

Evaluation can look at the effect of community engagement or the


processes used to engage the community.

Practical tips from this section are as follows.


Evaluate both the impact of community engagement and
the process of engagement.
Look at benefits for both you and the community.
Define, at an early stage, what you will measure. You can
then create a baseline measurement for your evaluation.

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Community Engagement

Part 5 Types of evaluation and key performance indicators


Summary

Impact Evaluation of Process


Evaluation Community Evaluation
Benefits to those Engagement An evaluation of
commissioning the process of
and implementing community
services engagement

Service Impact
Improvement Evaluation
Benefits to the
community

Performance Indicators: Performance Indicators: Performance Indicators:


• Greater variety • Personal • Degree to which
of services development people believe they
• Focussed services • Development of have influence over
tailored to fit new skills and decisions
smaller more experience • Degree to which
localised areas • Changes in people feel
• Earlier introduction people’s perception involved in the
of services of how much they process of tackling
• Services are more can influence what local issues
accountable is done • The role of the
voluntary sector
• The scale of
Impact of voluntary
Service involvement
Improvement • Degree to which
the barriers to
engagement have
been removed
Performance Indicators:
• Dependant on the
aims and objectives
of the project or
initiative being
evaluated

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Community Engagement

Part 6 - Glossary and Part 6


Glossary
resources
Capacity
building is
Community Capacity Building covered in detail
Community capacity building supports the development of the in Part 3
communities’ skills, abilities and confidence. It builds communities that
can take effective action and leading roles in the development of their
communities.

Community
Communities can be:
• Groups of people living in the same area.
• People that share an identity. For example, people of the same age,
gender, ethnicity or faith.
• People that share an experience, cause, interest or concern.

Community development
Active empowered communities are able to participate in community
development. Community development can be defined as the
collaborative actions taken by communities and public bodies to achieve
social justice and change by identifying and meeting community needs.

Community engagement
Community engagement describes a number of different processes,
which help to build empowered communities that take an active part in
improving the quality of their lives.
Community engagement includes:
• consultation
• community capacity building
• empowerment.

Community of Interest
Communities that are defined by their identity, shared experience or
cause.

Consultation
Consultation is about:
• talking to a community in order to understand its needs and views
• involving people in making decisions about the things that affect them
• responding to what a community tells you.

Empowerment
Empowered communities have both the capacity and the opportunity to
develop their communities.

Geographical community
A geographical community is a community whose membership is defined
by the physical location of its members.

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Part 6 General Community


Resources Development resources:
There is a lot of literature on general community development,
and the best place to start is at the publications of the Community
Development Foundation, www.cdf.org.uk

The Home Office Active Communities Directorate also provides


many useful resources on the issue generally:
www.homeoffice.gov.uk/inside/org/dob/direct/accu.html

The ODPM Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy web site has a host


of really useful material, including funding details, but it is not
drugs or crime specific:
www.neighbourhood.gov.uk

Sources of Advice
Government Office(GO) staff leading on regeneration can advise
on good practice in regeneration and community engagement.
www.crimereduction.gov.uk/regions.htm

The Community Development Foundation and the other agencies


referred to above can advise partnerships and agencies

The University of Central Lancashire can advise and provide details


of their Department of Health funding scheme for needs
assessment

The Civil Renewal Unit’s Active Citizenship website provides


information on the Active Citizenship Centre. The aim of the
Centre is to establish a research base for civil renewal and inform
policy making in this area. The web address for the site is
www.active-citizen.co.uk

The Drug Strategy Directorate(DSD) policy team on community


development and drugs can advise if GO teams cannot help.
www.drugs.gov.uk

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Drug specific literature Part 6


Resources
The literature on drug specific community development is much
less developed than. The key references are:

Community Engagement: report 2: the findings


Bashford J, Buffin J and Patel K (2003)
University of Central Lancashire

Tackling drugs as part of neighbourhood renewal


Burgess R (2002)
Home Office. Available online at:
www.drugs.gov.uk/ReportsandPublications/
Communities/1034076137

The DSD drugs.gov.uk website has a section on communities


generally and a specific toolkit on community development and
drugs:
www.drugs.gov.uk/NationalStrategy/Communities
There is also a specific section on engaging with BME communites
and other diverse groups:
www.drugs.gov.uk/NationalStrategy/Diversity

The former Home Office Drug Prevention Initiative (DPI) piloted


some work on community development focused on prevention
activity. Much of that literature is still available at:
www.drugs.gov.uk/ReportsandPublications

Key questions on substance misuse: Guidance for Local


Authorities on tackling substance misuse locally
Local Government Association and Home Office (2003). Available
from the LGA.

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Part 6
Resources Material from other countries
The Australian government has taken a very positive approach to a
community development model. However it should be noted that
although the desire to engage communities and to base local
service provision in the hands of local community committees and
groups is strong in Australia, the activities they focus on tend to
be fairly similar, concentrated on developing prevention and
raising awareness amongst communities, rather than action across
a broader range.

Project Management and


Evaluation Resources
Passport to Evaluation(2002) Ref;CRC01
Available from Prolog, 0870 241 4680, homeoffice@prolog.uk.com

This guide sets out a clear easy to follow process for designing and
implementing evaluation. The guide is available online at
www.crimereduction.gov.uk/learningzone/
passport_to_evaluation.htm

The Office of Government Commerce provides an overview of


project management online at:
www.ogc.gov.uk/sdtoolkit/reference/
deliverylifecycle/proj_mgmt.html
This resource is aimed at those managing major projects within
the public sector. However many of the principles are applicable to
those undertaking smaller projects.

Other articles or sources that may be useful are as follows.

Building Civil Renewal - Government support for community


capacity building and proposals for change - Review findings from
the Civil renewal Unit. Home Office Civil Renewal Unit, London.

Community Engagement: A briefing note for LSPs by LSPs.


(May 2004), Evaluation of Local Strategic Partnerships.
HMSO, London

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Community Engagement

Effective Engagement: A guide to principles and practice. Part 6


Scottish Executive Effective Interventions Unit, Edinburgh. Resources
Available online at:
www.drugmisuse.isdscotland.org/goodpractice/
EIU_commeng.pdf

What Works in Community Involvement in


Area-based Initiatives?Abbott J et al (2004)
A systematic review of the literature Home Office, forthcoming

Support for the families of drug users: a review


of the literature ACMD (1998)

Drugs and the Environment HMSO


Bancroft A, Carty A, Cunningham-Burley S and Backett-Milburn K
(2002?) Scottish Executive Effective Interventions Unit

Public involvement in service improvement: the working for


communities programme in the ‘Journal of Community Work
and Development’ issue 3, 2002. Brown A (2002)

Measures of Community Chanan G(2004) Home


Office/Community Development Foundation

Fighting Back Davis RC and Lurigio AJ (1996). London: Sage

Drug prevention in the community Dobson B and Wright L


(1998) ‘’. Manchester: TACADE

Activating local networks: a comparison of two community


development approaches to drug prevention Duke K et al
(1996) London: Drug Prevention initiative (DPI)/Home office

Tackling local drugs markets Crime prevention and detection


paper No 80 Edmunds M, Urquia N and Hough M (1997),
London: Home Office

Community development and rural issues Francis D, Henderson


P and Derounian J, CDF

Policing places with drug problems Green L (1996)


Thousand Oaks: Sage

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Part 6 Communities that care: action for drug abuse prevention


Resources Hawkins JD, Catalano RF and Associates (1992)
San Francisco: Jossey Bass

Drug prevention and community development: principles of


good practice Henderson P (1995) London: DPI/Home Office

Social exclusion and community development Henderson P


and Salmon H (2001) CDF

New connections; joined up access to public services


Holman K (1999 ) CDF

Drugs and Community safety: the strategic challenge


Home Office (1998)

Building Civil renewal Home Office (2003) London: Home


Office

Drugs and neighbourhood renewal areas: a research study


London: Home Office (2004) (forthcoming)

Passport to Crime Reduction Home Office (2003)

There but for fortune: an investigation into the current role


and working practices of community based parent and family
substance misuse support groups Kenny S (2000) (Publisher
not identified)

A rock and a hard place: drug markets in deprived


neighbourhoods Lupton R, Wilson A, May T, Warburton H,
Turnbull P (2002) Home Office Research Study 240, June

Stimulating drugs prevention in local communities. DPAS


Briefing Paper 9 Smith L (2000). London: Home Office

Drug Prevention in the Community: A programme for


community workers TACADE (2001) Manchester: TACADE

Subversion, Domination and Good Faith: Drugs Prevention


and Urban Regeneration Partnerships Todhunter c (2001)
Qualitative European Drugs Research Network Journal,
www.qed.org.uk/European.htm

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