Passport to Community Engagement

Community engagement describes a number of different processes which help to build thriving communities where people can help to improve the quality of their lives. It includes: • consultation _ asking people about what they want and how they want it to be done; • capacity building _ developing the skills, abilities and confidence of the people in the community; and • empowerment _ giving people the opportunity, skills and ability to develop their community.

This book has been written, edited and designed by staff at the Home Office Crime Reduction Centre with the support of Robin Burgess of the Drug Strategy Directorate and Irene Cole of the Crime Reduction Directorate. The Passport to Community Engagement logo was designed by Matthew Lindsay, Easingwold School.

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Passport to Community Engagement

About this book
Welcome to the Passport to Community Engagement. Which looks at practical ways of engaging the community and talks about some of the effective ways people have tackled problems they have faced when engaging the community. This book will help you make community engagement a central part of the work of your organisation. By the end of the book you will be able to: work out what you need to do to engage your local communities; and decide which initiatives have been successful and which might need further work.

Who is this book for?
This book is designed as a ‘beginners guide’ to community engagement. It aims to provide a starting point rather than a detailed step-by-step guide. We have written it for those of you who are working in the areas of: • crime reduction and drug prevention; • Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships(CDRPs); and • Drug Action Teams(DATs). Some of the ideas will also be useful if you work with communities on alcohol-related issues.

Drug Action Teams

Crime & Disorder Reduction Partnership groups Anyone new to

Other organisations

Community Engagement knowledge and experience

community engagement Local authorities

Voluntary Agencies

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Contents
Part 1 - what is community engagement? ....................7
What does ‘community’ mean? ..........................................................8 What does ‘community engagement’ mean?......................................9 Community engagement _ our vision and principles ........................10 The Allertown case study ..................................................................11 Summary ..........................................................................................13

Part 2 - planning ......................................................15
Why engage? ....................................................................................16 The Allertown case study..................................................................18 Building on what’s already there......................................................22 Case study - community Engagement initiatives in Allertown ..........25 Summary..........................................................................................27

Part 3 - consultation ................................................29
Designing a consultation and developing a theme...........................30 Consultations planned by the Allertown CDRP/DAT .........................31 Consultation exercises .....................................................................33 Selecting a consultation method......................................................35 Classifying consultation ...................................................................36 Allertown consultation method ........................................................42 Things to think about .......................................................................44 Putting your plan into action............................................................52 Summary..........................................................................................54

Part 4 - building capacity and empowering the community .........................................................57
The community’s development needs ..............................................58 Additional support............................................................................61 Who to approach for funding ...........................................................65 The role of the community development worker..............................66 Empowering the community.............................................................68 Summary..........................................................................................69

Part 5 - the Evaluation of Community Engagement .....71
An overview of the evaluation process.............................................72 Deciding what you will measure.......................................................77 Questions for the Allertown evaluation............................................79 Summary ..........................................................................................81

Part 6 - Resources ....................................................83

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What this book covers
Your approach to community engagement needs to respond to the needs of local communities. There is no ‘one size fits all’ solution to community engagement. Rather than giving you a detailed step-by-step guide this book looks at a range of ideas and techniques under three broad headings: planning, design and evaluation. You will need to tailor the activities described in this book to meet your needs.

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This book is divided into the following six parts. Part 1 What is community engagement? There are a few key terms that are used throughout the book. This section defines them.

Part 2

Planning This section is all about deciding in broad terms what it is you are going to do. To plan effectively you need a good understanding of your local communities, why you want to work with the community and the resources you have to build on.

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Don’t worry at this stage if you are not sure what ‘consultation’, ‘capacity building’ and ‘empowerment’ mean, they are all explained in Part 1 of this book.

Part 3

Consultation This section looks at the things you need to consider when designing consultation.

Part 4

Capacity building and empowering the community This section provides a broad overview of the things you will need to think about in relation to capacity building and empowerment.

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Part 5

Evaluation Evaluation is often forgotten, but it is an important way of learning about what worked, what didn’t and why.

Part 6

Resources This section explains some common terms used in community engagement and signposts some sources of information.

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How to use this book
This book is a flexible resource that is designed to help you learn about community engagement. If you are new to this topic, you will probably need to work through all this book from start to finish to get the whole picture. We have used the ‘Learning Cycle’ (see picture below) to structure this book, it has been designed to: • provide information; • give you examples to review what you’ve learned; • give you time to think about how it applies to you; and • give you an example of how community engagement works in practice.

Obtain new information Practice the key points Apply new information
The Learning Cycle

Review what you’ve learned

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Symbols used in this book
To help you find your way around this book we have used several symbols. This symbol at the beginning of a paragraph means that there is a question for you to answer. Space is provided in the book for your answers. This symbol indicates that there is part of the case study for you to complete.

This symbol appears when you have to collect information from another person or a source outside this book. This symbol indicates where there is a summary of the points you have learned.

This symbol shows where there is a suggested answer to a question or activity.

This symbol appears on case study pages.

These symbols highlight the section objective and overview.

Notes
This book has wide margins so that you have plenty of space to make notes. There are also some pages at the back of the book for your notes.

Timing
It should take you no more than three hours to work through this book. You don’t have to do it all in one go. You may want to take a break and return to it later. 6

Passport to Community Engagement

Part 1 - what is community engagement?
This section defines ‘community’ and ‘community engagement’ and looks at the vision that underpins community engagement.

Part 1 - what is community engagement?

This part of the book is divided into the following 5 sections. Page

8 9 10 11 13

Section 1 What does ‘community’ mean? Section 2 What does ‘community engagement’ mean? Section 3 Community engagement – our vision and principles Section 4 The Allertown case study A summary can be found at the end of this section.

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Part 1 Section 1

What does ‘community’ mean?
When we think about communities we often think of groups of people living in the same area. This is only one type of community. Other communities include: people who have something in common. For example, people of the same age, sex, ethnic origin or faith; and people who share an experience, interest or cause. People can belong to several different communities. We will look at engaging members of these communities (the general public) and groups formed to represent them. We will focus on engaging smaller groups rather than large national groups, associations and voluntary organisations. This is because most larger groups already have good ways of having their opinions heard and acted upon. This book is about engaging all communities. All members of a community can get involved, regardless of their age, sex, sexuality or ethnic origin. This includes offenders and those who misuse drugs or alcohol.

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What does ‘community engagement’ mean?
The aim of community engagement is to build thriving communities where people are actively involved in developing their community. Community development is about helping people to improve the quality of their lives. It refers to communities and public organisations working together to achieve social justice and bring about change by identifying and meeting the community’s needs. Community engagement involves: consultation; community capacity building; and empowerment. Consultation means talking to people in order to understand their needs and views, involving people in making decisions about the things that affect them and responding to what a community tells you. Capacity building develops the skills, abilities and confidence of a community. It builds communities where people can take effective action and play a leading role in developing their communities. Empowerment means giving people real opportunities to get involved and influence decision making. In an ideal world, consultation leads to capacity building which finally leads to empowerment. But in reality, things are not always this simple. Sometimes a community might lack the skills and confidence needed to communicate effectively. In this case before you consult these communities you need to identify their needs and develop their skills.

Part 1 Section 2

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Part 1 Section 3

Community engagement _ our vision and principles
The Government has made a commitment to provide support for communities that want to improve their quality of life through working with public organisations. Community engagement is vital. It helps to make sure that: public services reflect and respond to the views and concerns of local people; people within a community feel involved in and responsible for improving their qualty of life; and solutions work over the long term. Public organisations and communities can build safer communities by working together.

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The Allertown Case Study
Introduction to the Allertown case study
This case study illustrates the main ideas of community engagement and gives you the chance to put some of these ideas into practice. This case study is based on actual examples but is set in a fictional town we have called Allertown. Background to Allertown Allertown is in the middle of the UK in the county of Lyddshire. It has a population of about 90,000. Allertown is typical of many middle-sized towns throughout the U. K. Although it appears to be well off, it has areas of deprivation, poor housing and high unemployment. This contributes to a feeling of resentment which the Local Strategic Partnership (LSP) is trying to tackle through its Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy. Allertown has a crime and disorder reduction partnership and drug action team (CDRP/DAT) which have just published their new joint community safety strategy. To develop the strategy the CDRP/DAT consulted people to identify its priorities. The priorities identified were: • property crime; • antisocial behaviour (ASB); and • drug misuse.

Part 1 Case study

The CDRP/DAT have developed the following initiatives to tackle these priorities.

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Part 1 Case study

Property crime • The Home Security Project this project aims to improve the security of people’s homes in Allertown. • Bogus Caller Awareness Scheme this scheme will warn local residents of the risks associated with bogus callers (that is someone claiming to be someone they are not). Antisocial behaviour • Tackling antisocial behaviour in Allertown aims to find out what the people’s concerns are about antisocial behaviour and to develop some specific initiatives to tackle those matters. Drug misuse • Treatment service project this project aims to develop a new treatment service in the town centre. The local community has raised concerns about where the service is based and these concerns need to be considered as part of the project. • Advice and information service about drug misuse this project will develop an advice and information service about drug misuse for young people in Allertown.

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Summary
Communities can be defined in many different ways including by: areas people live and work in; features in common such as age, sexuality or ethnic origin; and experience, cause or purpose. You need to engage all members of the community and all types of community. Engagement includes: consultation - getting people’s opinions; capacity building - developing the skills, abilities and confidence of communities; and empowerment - giving people the opportunity and ability to develop their communities. There is not always a step-by-step progression from consultation to development then empowerment.

Part 1 Summary

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Part 1 Practical tips

Practical tips from this section are as follows. Consultation alone does not create active and empowered communities. Communities may also need help to develop their skills, abilities and confidence. To empower the community you need to create real opportunities for people to become involved in improving their quality of life. In practical terms this means making a long-term commitment to developing the idea of community engagement and involving people in developing and delivering services.

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Part 2 - planning
This part of the book looks at planning. You need to manage community engagement like you would manage any other project. Good management will contribute to the success of your project. There are many resources available to help you manage your community engagement initiatives effectively. Some of these resources are listed in part six of this book. Rather than providing a guide to managing general initiatives this section will look at some of the main things you need to do first. It will help you to define why you are engaging the community and identify the resources available.

Part 2 - planning

Page

This part of the book is divided into the following three sections: Section 1 Why engage the community? Section 2 Building on what’s already there A summary can be found on page 27.

16 22 27

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Part 2 Section 1

Why engage the community?
This is probably one of the first questions you will ask when you are thinking about community engagement. It is an important question because your answer will have a big effect on what you plan to do. Community engagement can help to solve some of the problems and issues you and your local communities face: It gives you a better understanding of the crime, drug, and anti-social behaviour issues that affect communities. It supports the development of services that solve real problems and meets real needs. It promotes increased levels of involvement by, and support within, the community. It develops a community that takes an active role in identifying and meeting its own needs. It supports the development of long-term services by giving communities a sense of ownership. It develops the skills and knowledge of people in the community. It can play a significant role in tackling the community’s fear of crime and antisocial behaviour. Community engagement is not just about solving problems. It also promotes certain values. To be accountable and answerable to the public, organisations that provide public services must make sure that communities are given the opportunity to take part in developing products and services. Community engagement reflects a belief that power should be used in a democratic and open way with the involvement and general agreement of the public. Community engagement promotes values of equality and co-operation. Engagement promotes social justice by ‘enabling people to claim their human rights, meet their needs and have greater control over the decision making processes, which affect their lives.’
(The strategic framework for Community Development)

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Part 2 Section 1
Some of these reasons will be more important than others, depending on the problems and issues you and your local community face. There are lots of things you can do to find out what issues you need to tackle. Consultation with your local communities is a good starting point. You will need to find out: what people think about crime, disorder, and drug and alcohol misuse; what effect it has on them; what they think should be done; and what they think is already being done. There are lots of tools that you can use to build up a picture of the problems and issues that face local communities. If you are part of a Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership or Drugs Action Team then the results of your consultation will give you some guidance. Other sources include information from census data, the press, voluntary and community sectors and the views of people working closely with the community. Working with other organisations is important. It helps to make sure you build on existing work rather than repeating it, and contributes to regional and national targets. Part of working in partnership is identifying common problems. Talking with other organisations will help you to do this. When you’re thinking about your reasons for engaging people remember that you are working in partnership with communities. If community engagement has benefits for both you and the community, you will get real commitment and involvement. Your reasons for engaging the community will influence a lot of the decisions you make. It is important that you spend some time clearly defining why you want to engage the community. The following case study gives you the opportunity to apply some of the ideas in this section.

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Part 2 Case Study

The Allertown case study
Defining the problems and issues in Allertown.
The Allertown Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership (CDRP) and Drugs Action Team (DAT) work closely with the Local Strategic Partnership (LSP) and wants to get a better understanding of some of the problems and issues they might have in common. The following extract is from a recent survey carried out by the LSP. ‘Research has shown that people and families from deprived areas within Allertown are often not consulted and feel powerless to do anything about the problems in their area. The main area of concern is Meadowood.

There are obvious signs of deprivation in Meadowood, it has: • a community that has a lack of the skills needed in the workplace; • high unemployment; and • high crime rates. The CDRP/DAT also wants to tackle some of the issues raised in a recent audit. Two extracts from this audit are shown below. The quality of initiatives undertaken by Allertown CDRP/DAT is generally very high. However, a number of initiatives have been poorly targeted and have failed to tackle areas the wider community is concerned about. Some initiatives have failed to work closely with everyone affected by the project.

Several initiatives have failed to realise their full potential because the CDRP/DAT has not been able to keep them going over a long period of time. 18

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Part 2 Case Study
List the problems and issues outlined in the two extracts. How can community engagement be used to address some of these problems and issues? Use the table below for your answers. Problem or issue
Residents feel as though they are not consulted and feel powerless to do anything about the problems they face.

How community engagement can help

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Part 2 Case Study

The table below lists the problems and issues identified in the Allertown case study and gives examples of some of the solutions suggested by the Allertown CDRP/DAT.

Problem or issue
Residents feel as though they are not consulted and feel powerless to do anything about the problems they face. High levels of unemployment.

How community engagement can help
Consulting people allows them to have more influence over the decisions that affect their lives.

Capacity building increases the skills and knowledge of people in the community. This gives them more employment opportunities. Consultation and empowerment helps to improve the effectiveness of initiatives by making sure they are more targeted, can be maintained and tackle real concerns. If a community is empowered it takes an active role in identifying and meeting its needs. It is then easier to identify who needs a particular service. Consultation will give you a better understanding of the crime and drug issues that face communities.

High crime rates.

Initiatives are poorly targeted.

Initiatives have not tackled areas people are concerned about.

Involving the community in developing and Initiatives have not been maintained over the long term. providing some services helps to create initiatives that can be maintained over a long period. Initiatives have failed to involve all relevant people. Engagement promotes equal opportunities and co-operation and so involves everyone.

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Based on their review, the Allertown CDRP/DAT have decided that their objectives for community engagement are to: • give people some control and influence over decisions that affect them; • make initiatives more effective; • help people in the community to develop their knowledge and skills; • make sure that services are provided to the right people at the right time; • gain a better understanding of the crime and drug issues facing communities; • create initiatives that can be maintained by giving the community an active role in developing and providing some services; and • consult everyone affected by a particular project.

Part 2 Case Study

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Part 2 Section 2

Building on what’s already there
Community engagement can be daunting if you have not worked with that particular community before. It is important to remember that you are not engaging the community on your own. Many other agencies, community groups and people will have valuable experience that you can draw upon to understand and work with local communities. It is important to: identify existing community groups and work closely with them; identify the organisations currently working with the community and the type of initiatives they have; identify opportunities for forming partnerships with other organisations engaging the community; and find out how your local communities have been engaged in the past. There will often be existing community groups you can work with (for example, tenants’ and residents’ groups and neighbourhood watch groups). There is real value in working with these groups. Community engagement initiatives being carried out by other organisations, for example the Local Criminal Justice Board or Police Authority, may affect what you are planning. So it is important to identify these initiatives at an early stage. If possible you should identify opportunities for asking people their views on drugs and crime when they are being consulted about other issues. This prevents communities from being overloaded with requests for views and ideas and saves money.

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Part 2 Section 2
Can you think of any opportunities there might be for combining consultation with other organisations?

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Part 2 Section 2

Some good examples of combining consultation with other organisations include: the NDC neighbourhood perceptions study; best value consultations; Housing Corporation STATUS survey (tenant satisfaction audit); existing local authority consultation exercises or neighbourhood groups; police reassurance projects or consultative groups; the annual police authority policing plan consultation; and the Community Safety Strategy and Community Plan. You can use the following case study to practice using what you have learnt about working with others.

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Case study _ community engagement initiatives
In Allertown a range of community engagement activities are being carried out or are planned for the coming year. Allertown Housing Association works very closely with the communities it serves and acts as a point of contact between the Local Strategic Partnership and communities. There is also a tenants’ federation that represents the housing association’s tenants. The housing association with the tenants’ federation plan to consult on improvements to housing association homes. The consultation is aimed at tenants in all three areas of Meadowlands. Its main aim is to identify what tenants would most like to see improved with the limited budget available to the housing association. Look at the list of initiatives on page 12. Are there any initiatives that could support the consultation described above? Use the space below to record your answer.

Part 2 Case study

The Home Security Project could be combined with the consultation as it is aimed at a similar audience and has similar themes.

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Part 2 Section 2
It is important to look at past initiatives as well as current ones as these can provide valuable information on your local communities. When looking at initiatives you might want to ask yourself the following: who did the initiative engage? why were they engaged? did the community develop skills and knowledge as part of the initiative? was the initiative evaluated? what can you learn from the evaluation? Remember to consider the initiatives of other organisations as well as your own.

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Summary
During the planning stage you will have: made some decisions about why you want to engage the community; built up a good picture of your local communities; and found out what other organisations are doing to engage the community. Engaging the community benefits both you and them. It also promotes the important values of equality and co-operation. You will be working closely with other organisations so it is important that you understand why they are engaging the community. Also, as you are working with communities you need to understand and support their reasons for wanting to be involved. There are lots of existing resources you can build on when engaging the community. Past engagement initiatives can also provide a lot of information about your local communities.

Part 2 Summary

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Part 2 Practical tips

Practical tips from this section are as follows. Clearly define why you want to engage the community. Remember there is real value in working with existing community groups and associations. Find opportunities for asking for views on drugs and crime when people are being asked about other issues. Get a clear picture of the issues a community faces by consulting people in the community and those who work closely with it.

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Part 3 - consultation
Consultation is a vital part of community engagement and we cover it in detail in this section. It is important to remember that consultation alone will not build strong empowered communities.

Part 3 consultation

This part of the book is divided into the following 5 sections: Page

30 35 44 52 54

Section 1 Designing a consultation This section describes how to develop a theme for your consultation. Section 2 Choosing a consultation method There are lots of different ways of consulting. This section of the book describes how you can select an appropriate way. Section 3 Issues to think about This section looks at some of the issues you will need to think about when consulting. Section 4 Putting your plan into action This section looks at some of the things you should do when putting your plan into action. A summary can be found on page 54.

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Part 3 Section 1

Design a consultation
Developing a theme for the consultation
Community engagement is about having meaningful discussions with people about things that matter to them. It is about providing opportunities to share views, expertise and values. This means asking questions, so it is important to get the questions right so you get the information you need. At the planning stage you will have worked out why you are consulting the community. This is the starting point for deciding what the consultation should look at. Some examples are shown in the following case study.

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Case study _ Consultation
This table shows some of the consultations planned for the coming year. Initiatives
Consulting the local communities on the proposed new drug treatment centre Consulting possible users on the proposed new drug treatment centre

Part 3 Case study

Aims and objectives Themes
To make sure everyone affected by the service is consulted To improve the quality of services The consultation is going to focus on understanding and tackling the concerns of local residents. The consultation is going to consider a range of issues including: • what services people need; • what range of services should be offered; and • how best to deliver services. The consultation needs to get a general picture of the community’s views on crime and drugs misuse including: • what people think about crime, disorder and alcohol and drug misuse; • what effect this has on them; • what they think should be done; and • what they think of current services. The consultation first needs to gather a broad understanding of the community’s view of antisocial behaviour. It will then need to develop a more detailed understanding of these issues so that it can develop some specific initiatives.

Supporting the Local To improve the quality Strategic Partnership of services in defining a new community strategy To give people some control over decisions that affect them To gain a better understanding of the crime and drug issues facing the community Tackling antisocial behaviour in Allertown To give people some control over decisions that affect them To gain a better understanding of the crime and drug issues facing the community

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Part 3 Section 1

Consultation overload
You need to take care not to overload people with consultations and requests for information. Consultation overload can lead to a breakdown in communication, which can then prevent you from engaging the community. There are some simple steps you can take to avoid consultation overload. It is important to know if communities have already been consulted. The design of your consultation needs to reflect any views that the community has already expressed. Make sure you consultation is not repeating questions the community has already answered. If you do not take account of views people have already given, those people may feel that their opinions are not valued. They may well end up asking why no-one listened when they answered the question. It’s vital that you make good use of the limited time you have available for consultation. As you work through your project and those of other organisations, look for common questions or issues that relate to the same community. It may be useful to combine several issues into a single consultation. This reduces the number of consultations and uses resources more effectively.

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Case study _ avoiding consultation overload
Have a look at the consultation being undertaken in Allertown on page31. Are there any consultations that relate to the same project? What advice would you give the partnership about combining these consultations?

Part 3 Case study

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Part 3 Case study

The table on page 31 shows that there are two consultations planned in connection with the proposed new drug treatment centre. If the CDRP/DAT decide to combine these consultations they will need to think carefully about the effect of the decision. For example: will everyone have the opportunity to express their opinions; will there be conflicting views that are difficult to settle; and is it going to be useful to gather conflicting views. Also, the consultation looking at antisocial behaviour has similar aims and objectives to the one about developing the community strategy. It might be appropriate to combine these two consultations.

Remember that you are not engaging the community on your own. There are many other people who have engaged the community and they may be able to help you to refine your questions. Councillors and other professionals can be helpful in preparing consultation exercises by guiding you to the right areas.

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Choosing a consultation method
There are lots of ways of consulting the community. In 2001 the Scottish Executive looked at different consultation methods and how to choose an appropriate one. This lead to them producing a guide, ‘Effective Engagement a Guide to Principles and Practice’, for people working in the field of drugs, but the approach can be used by anyone working in the area of crime reduction. This book cannot fully discuss all the methods set out in the Scottish Executive’s guide. Full details of where you can get the guide are given in part 6.

Part 3 Section 2

Classifying Your Consultation Initiatives.
To help you decide what consultation method is appropriate, it may be useful to classify your consultation according to the broad type of questions you want to ask. There are four types of consultation to choose from.
Type A

Open agenda If you can’t clearly identify the type of questions you want to ask in the consultation. Focussed issue If the consultation is going to focus on one specific issue. Range of related issues. If the consultation is going to look at a range of issues. Combined If the consultation is going to begin by looking at the general picture then focus on particular issues.

Type B

Type C

Type D

It is important to consider the effect of the type you choose. For example, a Type B consultation on specific issues allows you to focus on a particular subject. Sometimes it can also lead to a heated debate that may be difficult to manage. You need to make sure you are prepared for this. An opportunity to classify the consultation in the Allertown case study is on the following page.

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Part 3 Case study

Case study _ classifying consultation
Four initiatives from the Allertown case study are listed below can you classify them A, B, C or D giving your reasons for selecting the classification? You may want to look at the description of the initiatives earlier in this section. (See page 31) Project
Consulting people on the proposed new drug treatment centre

Type

Reasons

Consulting service users on the proposed new drug treatment centre Supporting the Local Strategic Partnership in defining a new community strategy.

Tackling antisocial Behaviour in Allertown.

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Part 3 Case study

This is how the partnership classified the events.

Project
Consulting people on the proposed new drug treatment centre

Type
B

Reasons
The consultation exercise is looking at one focused issue, the community’s concerns about where the drug treatment centre will be. The consultation exercise will need to look at a range of issues related to providing services. At the start of this consultation it is not clear what issues the community will raise. The consultation will need to ask general questions such as, ‘What are the communities’ views on crime and disorder in the area?’ The consultation aims to develop a general picture rather than provide detailed analysis.

Consulting service users on the proposed new drug treatment centre Supporting the Local Strategic Partnership in defining a new community strategy.

C

A

Tackling antisocial Behaviour in Allertown.

D

At the start of this consultation it is not clear what the community’s concerns will be. Once the concerns are identified, a more detailed analysis will be needed to develop appropriate services. A consultation approach that starts with an open agenda and then focuses on specific ideas and issues is appropriate in this case.

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Part 3 Section 2

Available resources
The consultation method you choose will ultimately depend on the resources you have available. The various methods, and the resources you need for each one, are explained on the next few pages. The relative costs shown are a rough guide only. Costs depend on the location, size and complexity of the consultation exercise.

Deciding on a method
Once you have decided on the information you need to gather and found out what resources you have you can create a shortlist of methods using the tables on the following pages. Your choice of method will depend on whether: you need to reach a wide or specific audience; you have expertise available that could support one of the methods you have shortlisted; you have access to the resources you need; and the method is appropriate to the community you are engaging. You should try to reach the widest possible audience. This helps you to gather views that better reflect the opinion of the whole community and so are more balanced. You need to make sure that your approach is appropriate to the community you are engaging.
Additional guidance on engaging with Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities is provided on the Drug Strategy Directorate website. (see section six)

Specific communities such as black and minority ethnic (BME) communities or rural communities may respond to different approaches or need specialist workers who understand and are more trusted by that community. If a community is remote, you may need to consider methods which reduce travel or make effective use of technology. Sometimes people at meetings on crime or drug misuse want to be anonymous. Consider consultation methods that do not clearly label people as being involved with drugs or crime.

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Method
Open Space

Elements
Non-heirarchical workshops over several days with defined group NIF trademarked method contributors place ideas on a 3d model - ideas prioritised and developed Small defined groups considers options put to them through skilled facilitators One-to-one extended discussion

Value
Allows access to all participants - Representative Can involve lots of people Simple Good for spatial issues Time consuming Simple to do Is the group representative?

Part 3 Section 2

Planning for real

Focus groups

In-depth interviews

Citizens jury

Citizens panels

Less hit and miss than ordinary survey methods; cheap, builds up informed, reliable group Survey Mail-out of questions to Can reach a lot of people random addresses/people at at once meetings. Can be done Cheap electronically at meetings Poor return rate; using voting equipment unrepresentative Imagine Asking people to tell stories of Imaginative approach. good things they want to see, May not be representative or imagine ideal Lack of reality grounding futures or visualise dreams Action research Testing out approaches Long term - ongoing research alongside research into them Consultation element relies on Worker led -takes long time other methods Flexible but inconclusive Priority search Trademarked method A wide variety of issues can be Focus groups and surveys are addressed analysed using special Essentially a method of software to give priorities quality assuring survey this generates a content questionnaire sent to more people, which is then analysed Community representation Community members attend working groups Representation issues Formality may put off community representatives Expresses true power sharing ethos and, potentially, value of community’s views Easy to do, but may only reach usual suspects Easy to do and democratic those who attend get a voice Unlikely to attract people beyond those with axe to grind

Chosen group takes evidence over extended period on specific issue and makes decisions and recommendations A much larger group looks regularly at issues through post/e-mail surveys

More detailed than focus groups Expensive related to reach of engagement Hugely expensive and time consuming Issues of representation

Community Brings together existing consultation groups to look at an issue groups Public meetings General invite, presentations or workshops, and discussion

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Part 3 Section 2

Method
Open Space

Type One-off Cost Materials/resources Ongoing
A One-off L
• Facilitators experienced in the Open Space approach • Flip chart, post-its, wall chart • Suitable venue and catering • Registered facilitator • Large-scale model (a local school can often build this) • 1:300 map of the area (available from the local planning service) • Publicity • suitable venue and catering • Skilled facilitator to organise and analyse findings • Flip chart • Can be recorded but would add significant cost • Skilled interviewer to prepare questions, elicit and probe for answers and analyse results • Can be recorded but would add significant cost • Skilled facilitation and co-ordination • Considerable staff time in preparation, giving evidence, responding etc. • Training or briefing of jurors • Venue, catering, expences for participants

Planning for real

A

One-off

M

Focus groups

B

One-off

M

In-depth interviews

B

One-off

H

Citizens jury

B

One-off

H

Citizens panels

C

Ongoing

Survey

C

One-off

L/M* • Skilled facilitator to organise and analyse findings • Flip chart • Can be recorded but would add significant cost L • Skills to design questionnaire and analyse data • Staff time and relevant statistical package for data analysis if doing in-house L/M • Training of core group (1-2 days) who then trian others in the technique • Skilled and independent facilitation for workshop/s • Materials to note conversations/stories • Suitable venue

Imagine

D

One-off

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L=Low M=Medium H=High

*If using existing panel

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Method
Action research

Type One-off Cost Materials/resources Ongoing
D Ongoing L/M

Mat erials/ reso urce s

• People skills - knowledge of needs and experiences of particular client-group, ability to engage with them individually or in groups • Research skills • Flip chart, newspaper cuttings, scenarios, games, questionnaires • Means to record (video) • Ability to collect and analyse qualitative data • • • • • • Priority search software Consultants or mini conference Skilled facilitation Flip chart Suitable venue Information, training and briefing sessions to enable effective representation and participation Transport Publicity to generate and sustain interest Paying expenses of representatives Suitable venue Facilitator may be required Information, training and briefing sessions to enable effective representation and participation Materials/resources for chosen techniques of consultation Publicity to generate and sustain interest May need to pay expenses Printing and stationery costs Suitable venue

Part 3 Section 2

Priority search

D

On-off

L/M

Community representation

D

Ongoing

L/M

• • • • • •

Community consultation groups

D

Ongoing

M

• • • • • Public Meetings D Ongoing M

• Facilitation and co-ordination • Publicity to generate interest • Suitable venue

L=Low M=Medium H=High

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Part 3 Case study

Case study _ consultation method in Allertown
The Allertown CDRP/DAT are consulting with local communities on the proposed new drug treatment centre. • • • The budget for the project is Low. The consultation will be a one-off project. The project is best described as being Type B. Write a shortlist of possible consultation options. List the options in the space below.

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Part 3 Case study
The Allertown CDRP/DAT shortlisted the following options. Focus Groups, In-depth interviews and Citizens’ Juries. The Citizens Jury is too expensive and the CDRP/DAT were concerned about the time it would take to collect the information needed. They were also concerned about how closely a jury might reflect the community. In-depth interviews were a possible option but the CDRP/DAT felt that this approach would not gather the full range of people’s opinions. The final choice was the Focus Group approach. This approach was chosen as it is able to gather a wide range of opinions.

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Part 3 Section 3

Things to think about
There are some questions and issues you will need to consider regardless of the consultation method you choose. What are some of the general issues you think you might need to consider when planning a consultation exercise? Enter your ideas in the space below.

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Some of the issues you may want to consider when preparing a consultation are as follows.: Dealing effectively with the perceptions created by the media. Making sure the community can communicate their concerns and interests effectively. Dealing effectively with negative views and criticism. Involving the community in a way that does not raise the level of concern within the community. Managing people’s expectations.

Part 3 Section 3

Dealing effectively with the perceptions created by the media
People’s perceptions can be influenced by what they see in newspapers and on television, and what they hear on the radio. The responses you receive from the community may reflect these perceptions rather than actual local experience. When designing the consultation process you need to make sure that the questions you ask encourage communities to reflect on their local situation. This may be as simple as wording questions appropriately.

In the Allertown case study, some of the questions the CDRP/DAT should ask during the consultation on the proposed new drug treatement centre are as follows. What problems are caused by drug misuse? Can you give some examples of the problems caused by drug misuse in your area? Last year we introduced a needle exchange programme. Do you have any concerns about this service? What are your concerns about drug services?

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Part 3 Section 3
Asking specific questions will get people to focus on local issues.

What problems are caused by drug misuse? Can you give some examples of the problems caused by drug misuse in your area? Last year we introduced a needle exchange programme do you have any concerns about this service? What are your concerns about drug services?

Promotional material or consultation material should be carefully vetted to ensure it puts real local problems in an appropriate context and with the right emphasis.

Making sure the community can communicate their concerns and interests effectively
The community needs people with knowledge, skills and confidence to communicate its concerns and interests effectively. It may already have these. If not, community development in key areas such as presentation and communication skills can empower community members and significantly improve the quality of responses that you will receive during the consultation.

Dealing effectively with negative views and criticism
Views will more closely represent actual opinion and be more balanced if you aim your consultation at a wide audience. Use statistics to guide your view of how widespread a particular viewpoint might be. Take care when choosing the consultation method. For example, when deciding, for example whether to use a meeting or survey, consider the likely responses to the approach and the effect these responses have on the consultation process. Even when the response is negative, this does not mean that the experience has been a waste of time. It may have helped you gain the trust and respect of local people, who welcome the opportunity to give their views. 46

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During your consultation the clear message should be that consultation is about gathering views to form a consensus. You should make it clear that you will listen to, and take everybody’s needs and opinions into account. If you expect someone to raise difficult issues, try to discuss and settle some of the issues before the meeting. It is important that you give different views an equal hearing. One way of doing this is to include some of those opposed to a policy as speakers. Community members may criticise you during the consultation. For example, you might receive comments that you don’t understand the issues because you are not a local resident. You do not need to have personal experience of drugs or to live in an area to gain people’s trust.

Part 3 Section 3

Managing consultation to avoid raising the level of concern within a community?
Think about the likely outcomes of your consultation. Understanding a community’s perception of crime and the problems it faces will help to guide you in this. A local community that is already aware of a high crime rate in its area may be positive and open to a discussion on crime reduction. A community in a low-crime area or that does not know about local crime levels may feel threatened by the same discussion. You need to make sure your consultation materials put real local problems in their correct context and with the right emphasis. The language you use in your consultation material is also important. A focus on preventing crime and drug misuse rather than reducing it may be appropriate. For example, drug treatment services and CCTV are often seen as reduction measures and may raise concerns. Education, working with young people and fitting better locks are seen as prevention measures and may cause less concern in the community.

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Part 3 Section 3

Avoiding raising the level of concern in Allertown
The designers of the consultation exercise on the Home Security Project need to be very careful not to raise the concerns of residents. A range of potential questions and statements related to the project are given below. Which of the comments relate to crime reduction (and have the potential for raising fears) and which relate to crime prevention. 1 Do you think locks would have
prevented your house being broken into in the past?

2 Do you think locks will protect your
house in the future?

3 The aim of the project is to reduce
the number of robberies.

4 The aim of the project is to protect
homes and property.

5 By taking these simple measures you
will reduce the chances of being robbed.

6 By taking these simple measures you
will make your home more secure.

Questions 1, 3 & 5 are related to crime reduction and may raise the level of concern and increase the fear of crime. Questions 2, 4 & 6 are related to crime prevention.

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Managing people’s expectations
You need to carefully manage the expectations you create. People’s expectations should reflect the resources you have available. This can sometimes lead to a feeling within the community that they are unable to get particular products and services started. This can be overcome by actively involving communities in the process of prioritising initiatives and explaining the difficulties of managing the funding process. Your consultation should not suggest that you will meet all demands for every kind of service will always be met. Every document needs to clearly show that the consultation is about spending money you already have and settting priorities for available budgets, not creating wish lists and campaigns for extra resources. Your consultation material should make it clear that people’s opinions can shape your priorities.

Part 3 Section 3

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Part 3 Case study

Case study _ managing expectations
The Allertown CDRP/DAT are planning a consultation with local residents about the placement of local drug services. The consultation will need to deal with the community’s concerns about the service. What advice would you give them? Use the space below to write down your answers.

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Part 3 Case study
Some of the community’s concerns may be based on perceptions from the media. Discussions should focus on the actual problems and issues that the community faces. The consultation is an opportunity to challenge beliefs about the issue and to build compassion for drug users and those trapped in a life of crime. Make it clear that you are trying to reach general agreement on the issue – so you can develop services that meet everyone’s needs. Try to develop an understanding of the issues and how to settle them before any public meetings. It might be useful to ask some of the local residents to act as speakers during the meeting and present their views. The consultation gives you the opportunity to the talk to the community about successful initiatives that are similar to the one being planned for Allertown.

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Part 3 Section 4

Putting your plan into action
Before you start your consultation it is a good idea to collect some information about the community you are working with. This information will let you assess the effect of your project. Useful information includes: how much influence people feel they have over decisions; how involved people feel in the process of tackling local issues;

A more detailed description of the baseline information useful in the evaluation of community engagement is given in Part 5.

current barriers to engaging the community; the level of support for services; the current quality of service; the current range of services; levels of personal development in the community; the number of people who believe that they have influence; and the way drugs are tackled.

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Creating a strong and lasting relationship
Ideally, community engagement should allow you to forge a strong and lasting relationship with your local communities. This takes time and a commitment. If you hope to keep the community engaged over a long period you need to establish credibility with your communities. You need to carefully consider the opinions and views of the community and how they might be reflected in policy. You need to give the community feedback on the effect their views have had. If you do not adopt a particular view or suggestion the community deserves some explanation of your reasons for that decision. You need to record and assess every view you receive. You should be able to show that the process you use for gathering people’s opinions includes everyone and represents a complete record. Wilder or more negative views should not be ‘airbrushed out’.

Part 3 Section 4

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Part 3 Summary

Summary
You can use the following structured approach to design your consultation and put it into practice. Develop consultation themes related to aims and objectives. Group the themes into consultation activities. Collect relevant information on each consultation activity. Decide on the type of consultation method most appropriate to the activity. Create a shortlist of approaches based on the information you have collected on each activity. Choose the most appropriate method from the shortlist. When refining your consultation activity make sure the method you choose: deals effectively with media perception; takes into account the skills and experience of the community you are engaging; manages people’s expectations; deals effectively with negative views and criticism; and does not increase concerns within the community.

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Part 3 Practical tips
The practical tips from this section are as follows. Find out if the community has been consulted before and if so, whether you can build on this. Councillors and other professionals can be helpful in preparing your consultation by steering you in the right direction. Avoid holding too many consultations. This places unrealistic demands on a community. Wherever possible, try to cover several subjects at once. Try to reach as wide an audience as possible. Encourage people to focus on local issues. During consultations, avoid creating false expectations by clearly defining your priorities and the resources you have available. Make it clear that people’s opinions can shape your priorities. Send a clear message that consultation is about getting general agreement and that you will listen to all views and take all needs into account. If you expect someone to make difficult points, try to meet that person before the consultation and settle some of their issues. Focus on preventing crime and drug misuse rather than reducing it. Where possible act on what people tell you during the consultation. Tell the community what you have done in response to what they have told you.

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Part 3

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Part 4 - capacity building and empowering the community
This part of the book gives you a broad overview of the community’s development need and the funding available to help meet these needs. It also sets out the support an experienced community development worker can provide. This book cannot give a detailed step-by-step guide to empowering and developing communities. Some further references on this are included in Part 6. By the end of this part you will be able to describe the development needs of the community, decide on where to go to fund community development and suggest ways of developing and empowering the community.

Part 4 - capacity buuilding and empowering the community

This part of the book is divided into the following 4 sections. Page

58 65 66 68 69

Section 1 The community’s development needs

Section 2 Who to approach for funding Section 3 The role of the community development worker Section 4 Empowering the community A summary can be found on page 69.

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Part 4 Section 1

The community’s development needs
Definitions of capacity building and community development Capacity building gives people the skills, ability and confidence to take a leading role in developing their communities. Capacity building helps to empower communities. This section explains the activities, resources and support needed to build capacity. Capacity building supports community development, which aims to bring about change and justice. The process involves identifying needs and taking action to meet them. It is based on an agreed set of values, which has been shown to result in a range of broadly defined outcomes. (For example improved levels of basic skill and community cohesion.) The Home Office Civil Renewal Unit has identified five main things communities need in order to get involved. These are:

For more information on the recommendations of the Civil Renewal Unit see, ‘Firm Foundations’ The Government’s Framework for Community Capacity Building published by the Home Office.

access to community development workers; at least one venue for community activities; easy access to small grants; at least one representative and inclusive group, forum or network; and access to high-quality and appropriate learning opportunities.

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Community development Workers
Community development workers: identify the community’s needs; plan action; and evaluate any action taken. Community development workers provide a link between public sector agencies and the community.
The National Occupational Standards provide an overview of the role of the community development worker. They define the purpose of community development work as: ‘Collectively to bring about social change and justice, by working with communities (those that can be defined geographically and/or those defined by interest) to: • Identify their needs, opportunities, rights and responsibilities • Plan organise and take action • Evaluate the effectiveness and impact of action. All in ways which challenge oppression and tackle inequalities.’

Part 4 Section 1

The role of community development workers will be covered in more detail in a later section.

A venue for community activities
An existing venue will often be used for community meetings and events. These venues will often be shared by a variety of different groups and communities. This is particularly true in rural areas where there are few venues available. You need to make sure that the venue is appropriate. For some groups that are hard to reach, such as homeless people, you may need to go out to the community rather than expect community members to come to a particular venue. The venue needs to meet the community’s needs in terms of the facilities available (for example, you may need to provide childcare at the venue). The venue needs to be available at a suitable time. This might mean making the venue available in the evenings or on weekends.

You need to select venues and schedule meetings in a way that respects peoples right to confidentiality.

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Part 4 Section 1

Access to small grants
Small grants not only provide much needed funding. By applying for small grants and managing those grants, communities develop valuable skills and experience. Giving the community responsibility for managing small grants is one way of testing whether a community is ready to take control of some services. When running small-grant schemes for the community you need to do the following: Provide a balance between accountability and accessibility. It may be appropriate to allocate someone to work closely with a community in order to develop an understanding of a particular project. Have a clear understanding of the aims and objectives of the project the grants are needed for and how it will be evaluated. Make sure the people or groups applying for the funding get adequate support. Make sure that grants are open to formally recognised groups as well as individuals.

A representative and inclusive group, forum or network for local people
Community groups, forums and networks must include hard-to-reach communities. One way to achieve this is to make sure that it operates at a more local level than the geographical area typically covered by a particular CDRP/DAT. Communities do not necessarily follow geographical boundaries. A group whose membership is defined by physical location (for example, residents of Meadowood) may not be an appropriate forum for a community that shares an interest, purpose or cause. The group could take the form of an area CDRP/DAT sub group that corresponds to a particular community. Or it could build on existing organisations that look at general community issues.

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Case study _ additional support
The CDRP/DAT have appointed a local community worker to work with communities on the Meadowlands estate. A strong representative and inclusive forum for local people has developed in Meadowood called the The Meadowood Community Support Group. The development worker plans to work closely with this group on a number of initiatives. The group already have the support of a development worker. What additional support needs to be in place?

Part 4 Case study

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Part 4 Case study

The CDRP/DAT need to: Ensure that a suitable venue is available. They need to be sensitive to peoples needs for privacy. Ensure that meetings take place at a suitable time and that the appropriate facilities are available. For residents on the Meadowood estate this means holding meetings during the evening or at weekends. Support the group in making funding applications. In practice this means: • making sure that the group has the skills, knowledge and organisation to ensure financial accountability • putting processes in place to ensure that accountability does not hinder the operation of the group • supporting the group in presenting the aims and objectives of their initiatives.

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Access to high-quality and appropriate learning opportunities
Learning in relation to crime reduction and drugs misuse should be realistic, balanced and constructive. It should: improve the community’s understanding of local problems; use activities and ideas that work; encourage engagement and participation by involving the community in the analysis design and delivery of learning resources; and involve people the community trusts and who understand the issue (this does not necessarily mean ex-drug users or local residents). It is important to understand people’s past experience of education. For many, this experience may have been negative. To overcome this, learning needs to focus on real needs and experience. It should recognise that one of the best resources that people can call on to support learning are other members of the community who share their experience.

Part 4 Section 1

Some communities try to prevent drug treatment services from being provided in their area by exploiting planning rules and local media. Communities are more likely to get behind drug treatment services once they have an understanding of what is involved in providing the service. Education on drug issues needs to tackle misconceptions about drug culture while respecting the community’s concerns about the effect of drugs. It should focus on real local experience rather than perceptions created by the media. It needs to develop an understanding of the behaviour of offenders and build compassion for people who are addicted to drugs or caught up in other criminal behaviour.

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Part 4 Section 1

The Home Office Civil Renewal Unit has outlined some learning opportunities you should consider when capacity building. These opportunities include: learning opportunities for active citizenship; visits to neighbourhoods which are working well; long-term coaching from experienced residents for groups who are just starting out; mentoring, gettting more experienced community members and practitioners to share their knowledge and experience with those less actively involved; more formal training opportunities, where sharing and networking is a central part of the process; and one-off advice and consultancy to help groups arrive at the solution to a particular problem. See the Home Office document ‘Firm Foundations The Government’s Framework for Community Capacity Building.’

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Who to approach for funding
It can be difficult to get funding for long-term community development. Funding falls into the following 5 categories. Funds for educational or retraining activities (including learning and skills councils, youth services, DAT youth funding and JobCentre Plus). Funds for drug-treatment activities (including pooled treatment budget, PCT funds). Funding for projects aimed at reducing or preventing crime and drug misuse (including Police Commanders’ Fund and Safer and Stronger Communities Fund). Funding for projects related to housing (from the local authority or Supporting People Scheme). Neighbourhood renewal funds. There may be other funding sources available including: European funds; Funding from charities; Local authority funding; and Funding from the Home Office Active Community Directorate (e.g. The Future Builders Fund). Conditions may apply to how you can use these funds. Your local authority and Government Office for the Region is a good source of information on funding and government funding initiatives. Further guidance on funding is available at: http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/funding.htm

Part 4 Section 2

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Part 4 Section 3

The role of the community development worker
Community development workers: find out what the problems the comunity is facing; assess the needs of the community; and work closely with communities to set up local services (for example, local access points to treatment services, needle exchange schemes and prison release support schemes). A community development worker can be a specialist or someone with general experience. Specialists focus on developing the community’s ability to tackle concerns about crime and drug misuse. This is particularly useful when the community is facing specific problems in these areas. If the community has concerns about a number of different related areas then someone with general knowledge may be more appropriate. The community development worker will need to delegate some of the development work to others if they are working with a lot of different groups. One approach is to recruit and support a group of interested people within the community. These people then take responsibility for meeting the development needs of the community. This approach can be hard to maintain as people’s initial enthusiasm can flag when they are faced with the day-to-day issues of keeping people in the community committed. On going support is essential to overcome these obstacles. It is also important that people recruited to help the community development workers are supported in developing initiatives that contribute to broader services and activities. Community development workers also work closely with the community to support its needs. This approach has been particularly useful in building the capacity of BME communities in relation to drugs.

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Case study _ Allertown’s community development worker
The Meadowood parents’ support service is a self-help group made up of parents of young people who misuse drugs. This group has worked closely with the local community development worker to set up a young people’s forum to identify the needs of young people in Allertown. This forum has identified the need for a drug advice and information service. They have shown an interest in running this service. The group has also worked with the University of Lyddshire, the local DAT and Allertown NHS Primary Care Trust (PCT) to analyse the local community’s needs in relation to drug misuse. The needs analysis led to services that are highly valued by the community being developed. The Meadowood Community Support Group developed skills and abilities that can be used in designing and delivering services, including managing budgets. The project was funded using the Building Safer Communities Fund. This fund has been used to support other local initiatives including: • training on drugs for community workers; • grant schemes for specific one-off initiatives about drugs; and • a local community ‘house’ where a range of activities are planned and run by the community.

Part 4 Case study

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Part 4 Section 4

Empowering the community
A community may have the skills, ability and confidence to take part, but it only becomes empowered when it is given the opportunity to get involved. Empowerment is basically about deciding to give a community some control. When deciding whether or not to give a community some control you need to think about: the services to be delegated; the levels of accountability needed; the level of skills and knowledge within the community; and the relationship between community groups and the services, councils and agencies that can empower them.

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Summary
In order to develop, communities need to have: access to community development workers; at least one venue for community activities; easy access to small grants; at least one representative and inclusive group, forum or network; and access to high-quality and appropriate learning opportunities. It can be difficult to get funding for long-term community development. Funding falls into the following five main categories. Funds for educational or retraining activities; Funds for drug-treatment activities; Funding for projects aimed at reducing and preventing crime and drug misuse; Funding for projects related to housing; Funding for Neighbourhood renewal. Conditions may apply to how you can use these funds. Community development workers have a vital role to play. They can: find out what problems the community faces; assess the needs of the community; and work closely with communities to set up local services.

Part 4 Summary

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Part 4 Practical tips
Practical tips from this section are as follows. Make sure venues meet the community’s needs and that meetings are held at an appropriate time. Consider going to meet hard-to-reach groups where they choose rather than at a formal venue. Provide a balance between being accountable and being accessible when running small grant schemes. Provide adequate support to communities applying for funding.

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Part 5 - evaluating community engagement
This section looks at evaluating community engagement. It will help you to decide on the objectives of your evaluation and what you will measure when evaluating community engagement.

Part 5 - evaluating community engagement

This section is split into the following 3 sections. Page

72 77 81

Section1 An overview of the evaluation process This section provides a brief description of the overall process of evaluation. Section 2 Deciding on what you will measure This section covers some of the things you can measure when evaluating community engagement. A summary of this section is on page 81.

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Part 5 Section 1

An overview of the evaluation process
Evaluation is the process of assessing, at a particular point in time whether or not a project is achieving or has achieved its objectives. Monitoring is the process of continually assessing whether or not a project is achieving its objectives. Evaluation can be a time consuming process, so why do it? Why do you think evaluation is important? Write the answers in the space below then compare them to our answers on the following page.

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Part 5 Section 1

Evaluation is important for the following reasons. It provides evidence of a project’s level of achievement. It can be used to make improvements to a project as it progresses. It shows how effectively resources have been used. Evidence of successful work attracts resources for future initiatives. It allows improvements to be made for future work. It provides information for others who may want to run a similar project. It will identify what worked well and what didn’t. It is often the only way to identify unexpected outcomes. It is an important part of accountability.

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Part 5 Section 1

The process of evaluation
There are 7 steps to evaluation. 1. Define what you want to evaluate. 2. Decide what you will measure. 3. Plan how you will collect information. 4. Collect information. 5. Analyse the information you have collected. 6. Publish your findings. 7. Act on your findings.
Planning the evaluation Using the results Doing the work

1

Set evaluation objectives

2

Develop Performance Indicators

3 4 5 7
So What?

Collect data

Review

Analyse data

Plan the logistics

6

Publish findings

It is important that you review each evaluation to help you plan for the next one.

This section looks at defining what you want to evaluate and deciding what you will measure. A detailed description of the rest of the process is given in our book ‘Passport to Evaluation’. (See Part 6.)

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What is the evaluation for?
One of the main questions your evaluation should ask is, ‘did the project achieve what it set out to do?’. This is called impact evaluation. Usually the project will aim to have had some measurable benefit: for people planning and commissioning services; and for the community. Although it is difficult to show a direct link between community engagement and a reduction in crime and drug misuse, it is possible to assess the effect: community engagement has on the quality of services and how they are delivered; and improved services have on levels of crime and drug misuse. As well as looking at the effect of community engagement you might also want to evaluate the processes you used to engage the community. This is called process evaluation.

Part 5 Section 1

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Part 5 Case study

Case study _ what evaluation might explore in Allertown?
The CDRP/DAT are consulting the public about a new drug treatment centre. They are consulting both local residents and those who will use the service. Can you suggest some of the questions that the evaluation might want to explore?

The evaluation might ask the following questions. • Did the consultation have benefits for local residents (that is, did it tackle their concerns?) • Did the consultation improve the quality of services provided? • Did the improved service lead to a reduction in the levels of drug misuse? • Was the approach to community engagement appropriate? 76

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Deciding what you will measure
Once you have decided what you will evaluate you need to decide on what you will measure in your evaluation. You will need to make measurements before you start the project (a baseline measure) and after you have finished the project. For this reason it is important to decide what you will measure at an early stage of the project.

Part 5 Section 2

Measures for impact evaluation
When evaluating the effect of community engagement you need to show a change in the quality of services as a result of community engagement. Measures of the quality of service include: a greater variety of services; more effective targeting of services; services being introduced earlier; and more accountable services. You then need to show the impact services have on crime reduction and drug issues. Developing appropriate ways of measuring this will depend on the aims and objectives of the project you are evaluating.

If you are measuring the impact of community engagement in terms of the benefits it has brought about for the community then you could measure: opportunities for personal development; the development of new skills and experience; and changes in people’s views on how much influence they have over what is done.

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Part 5 Section 2

Measures for process evaluation
There are a variety of things you can measure as part of process evaluation. The level of community engagement. You can look at the degree to which people believe they have influence over decisions about, and feel involved in the process of, tackling local issues. (This may be involvement of any type, either formal or informal.)You can also consider whether the barriers to involving the community have been removed.

The reach of the consultation methods. This is usually expressed as a ratio between the number of people consulted and the number that responded. Of particular interest is the degree to which the target community responded. The reach of consultation methods can be measured through interviews or questionnaires. The satisfaction of those consulted and increased levels of support. The satisfaction of those being consulted and changes in public levels of support can be established through interviews or questionnaires.

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Case study _ questions for the Allertown evaluation
The CDRP/DAT are consulting the public about a new drug treatment centre. They are consulting both local residents and those who will use the service. The evaluation is going to explore the following questions. • Did the consultation have benefits for local residents (that is, did it tackle their concerns?) • Did the consultation improve the quality of services provided? • Was the approach to community engagement appropriate? Can you suggest some measures that the CDRP/DAT should look at in their evaluation?

Part 5 Case study

Benefits for local residents Do local residents feel they have more influence over what is done? Quality of service Did community engagement lead to greater variety of services? Did community engagement ensure the deliver services to the right people at the right time? Would it have taken longer to get the service running if communities not been consulted? Appropriate approach Did people feel involved in the process of tackling the issues of drug misuse? What proportion of the communities involved with the project participated? Was there a change in levels of support for the service?

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Part 5 Case study

This is what the Allertown CDRP/DAT decided to look at.
Benefits for local residents Do local residents feel they have more influence over what is done? Quality of Service Did community engagement lead to a greater variety of services? Did community engagement ensure the delivery of services to the right people at the right time? Would it have taken longer to get the service running if communities had not been consulted? Appropriate approach Did people feel involved in the process of tackling the issues of drug misuse? What proportion of the communities involved with the project took part in the consultation? Was there a change in levels of support for the service?

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Summary
There are 7 steps to evaluation. 1. Define what you want to evaluate. 2. Decide what you will measure. 3. Plan how you will collect information. 4. Collect information. 5. Analyse the information you have collected. 6. Publish your findings. 7. Act on your findings. Evaluation can look at the effect of community engagement or the processes used to engage the community. Practical tips from this section are as follows. Evaluate both the impact of community engagement and the process of engagement. Look at benefits for both you and the community. Define, at an early stage, what you will measure. You can then create a baseline measurement for your evaluation.

Part 5 Summary & practical tips

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Part 5 Summary

Types of evaluation and key performance indicators

Impact Evaluation
Benefits to those commissioning and implementing services

Evaluation of Community Engagement

Process Evaluation
An evaluation of the process of community engagement

Service Improvement

Impact Evaluation
Benefits to the community

Performance Indicators: • • Greater variety of services Focussed services tailored to fit smaller more localised areas • • Earlier introduction of services Services are more accountable

Performance Indicators: • • Personal development Development of new skills and experience • Changes in people’s perception of how much they can influence what is done

Performance Indicators: • Degree to which people believe they have influence over decisions • Degree to which people feel involved in the process of tackling local issues • • The role of the voluntary sector The scale of voluntary involvement • Degree to which the barriers to engagement have been removed

Impact of Service Improvement

Performance Indicators: • Dependant on the aims and objectives of the project or initiative being evaluated

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Part 6 - Glossary and resources
Community Capacity Building Community capacity building supports the development of the communities’ skills, abilities and confidence. It builds communities that can take effective action and leading roles in the development of their communities. Community Communities can be: • Groups of people living in the same area. • People that share an identity. For example, people of the same age, gender, ethnicity or faith. • People that share an experience, cause, interest or concern. Community development Active empowered communities are able to participate in community development. Community development can be defined as the collaborative actions taken by communities and public bodies to achieve social justice and change by identifying and meeting community needs. Community engagement Community engagement describes a number of different processes, which help to build empowered communities that take an active part in improving the quality of their lives. Community engagement includes: • consultation • community capacity building • empowerment. Community of Interest Communities that are defined by their identity, shared experience or cause. Consultation Consultation is about: • talking to a community in order to understand its needs and views • involving people in making decisions about the things that affect them • responding to what a community tells you. Empowerment Empowered communities have both the capacity and the opportunity to develop their communities. Geographical community A geographical community is a community whose membership is defined by the physical location of its members.

Part 6 Glossary

Capacity building is covered in detail in Part 3

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Part 6 Resources

General Community Development resources:
There is a lot of literature on general community development, and the best place to start is at the publications of the Community Development Foundation, www.cdf.org.uk The Home Office Active Communities Directorate also provides many useful resources on the issue generally: www.homeoffice.gov.uk/inside/org/dob/direct/accu.html The ODPM Neighbourhood Renewal Strategy web site has a host of really useful material, including funding details, but it is not drugs or crime specific: www.neighbourhood.gov.uk

Sources of Advice
Government Office(GO) staff leading on regeneration can advise on good practice in regeneration and community engagement. www.crimereduction.gov.uk/regions.htm The Community Development Foundation and the other agencies referred to above can advise partnerships and agencies The University of Central Lancashire can advise and provide details of their Department of Health funding scheme for needs assessment The Civil Renewal Unit’s Active Citizenship website provides information on the Active Citizenship Centre. The aim of the Centre is to establish a research base for civil renewal and inform policy making in this area. The web address for the site is www.active-citizen.co.uk The Drug Strategy Directorate(DSD) policy team on community development and drugs can advise if GO teams cannot help. www.drugs.gov.uk

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Drug specific literature
The literature on drug specific community development is much less developed than. The key references are: Community Engagement: report 2: the findings Bashford J, Buffin J and Patel K (2003) University of Central Lancashire Tackling drugs as part of neighbourhood renewal Burgess R (2002) Home Office. Available online at: www.drugs.gov.uk/ReportsandPublications/ Communities/1034076137 The DSD drugs.gov.uk website has a section on communities generally and a specific toolkit on community development and drugs: www.drugs.gov.uk/NationalStrategy/Communities There is also a specific section on engaging with BME communites and other diverse groups: www.drugs.gov.uk/NationalStrategy/Diversity The former Home Office Drug Prevention Initiative (DPI) piloted some work on community development focused on prevention activity. Much of that literature is still available at: www.drugs.gov.uk/ReportsandPublications Key questions on substance misuse: Guidance for Local Authorities on tackling substance misuse locally Local Government Association and Home Office (2003). Available from the LGA.

Part 6 Resources

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Material from other countries
The Australian government has taken a very positive approach to a community development model. However it should be noted that although the desire to engage communities and to base local service provision in the hands of local community committees and groups is strong in Australia, the activities they focus on tend to be fairly similar, concentrated on developing prevention and raising awareness amongst communities, rather than action across a broader range.

Project Management and Evaluation Resources
Passport to Evaluation(2002) Ref;CRC01 Available from Prolog, 0870 241 4680, homeoffice@prolog.uk.com This guide sets out a clear easy to follow process for designing and implementing evaluation. The guide is available online at www.crimereduction.gov.uk/learningzone/ passport_to_evaluation.htm The Office of Government Commerce provides an overview of project management online at: www.ogc.gov.uk/sdtoolkit/reference/ deliverylifecycle/proj_mgmt.html This resource is aimed at those managing major projects within the public sector. However many of the principles are applicable to those undertaking smaller projects.

Other articles or sources that may be useful are as follows. Building Civil Renewal - Government support for community capacity building and proposals for change - Review findings from the Civil renewal Unit. Home Office Civil Renewal Unit, London. Community Engagement: A briefing note for LSPs by LSPs. (May 2004), Evaluation of Local Strategic Partnerships. HMSO, London

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Effective Engagement: A guide to principles and practice. Scottish Executive Effective Interventions Unit, Edinburgh. Available online at: www.drugmisuse.isdscotland.org/goodpractice/ EIU_commeng.pdf What Works in Community Involvement in Area-based Initiatives?Abbott J et al (2004) A systematic review of the literature Home Office, forthcoming Support for the families of drug users: a review of the literature ACMD (1998) Drugs and the Environment HMSO Bancroft A, Carty A, Cunningham-Burley S and Backett-Milburn K (2002?) Scottish Executive Effective Interventions Unit Public involvement in service improvement: the working for communities programme in the ‘Journal of Community Work and Development’ issue 3, 2002. Brown A (2002) Measures of Community Chanan G(2004) Home Office/Community Development Foundation Fighting Back Davis RC and Lurigio AJ (1996). London: Sage Drug prevention in the community Dobson B and Wright L (1998) ‘’. Manchester: TACADE Activating local networks: a comparison of two community development approaches to drug prevention Duke K et al (1996) London: Drug Prevention initiative (DPI)/Home office Tackling local drugs markets Crime prevention and detection paper No 80 Edmunds M, Urquia N and Hough M (1997), London: Home Office Community development and rural issues Francis D, Henderson P and Derounian J, CDF Policing places with drug problems Green L (1996) Thousand Oaks: Sage

Part 6 Resources

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Communities that care: action for drug abuse prevention Hawkins JD, Catalano RF and Associates (1992) San Francisco: Jossey Bass Drug prevention and community development: principles of good practice Henderson P (1995) London: DPI/Home Office Social exclusion and community development Henderson P and Salmon H (2001) CDF New connections; joined up access to public services Holman K (1999 ) CDF Drugs and Community safety: the strategic challenge Home Office (1998) Building Civil renewal Home Office (2003) London: Home Office Drugs and neighbourhood renewal areas: a research study London: Home Office (2004) (forthcoming) Passport to Crime Reduction Home Office (2003) There but for fortune: an investigation into the current role and working practices of community based parent and family substance misuse support groups Kenny S (2000) (Publisher not identified) A rock and a hard place: drug markets in deprived neighbourhoods Lupton R, Wilson A, May T, Warburton H, Turnbull P (2002) Home Office Research Study 240, June Stimulating drugs prevention in local communities. DPAS Briefing Paper 9 Smith L (2000). London: Home Office Drug Prevention in the Community: A programme for community workers TACADE (2001) Manchester: TACADE Subversion, Domination and Good Faith: Drugs Prevention and Urban Regeneration Partnerships Todhunter c (2001) Qualitative European Drugs Research Network Journal, www.qed.org.uk/European.htm

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