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1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................ 1 2. IMPARTING OF INFORMATION .................................................................................. 2 3. INSTILLATION OF HOPE ............................................................................................... 4 4. UNIVERSALITY ................................................................................................................. 5 5. IMITATIVE BEHAVIOUR ................................................................................................ 7 6. GROUP COHESIVENESS ................................................................................................. 8 7. INTERPERSONAL LEARNING ...................................................................................... 9 8. CATHARSIS ...................................................................................................................... 11 9. EXISTENTIAL FACTOR ................................................................................................ 12 10. ALTRUISM ...................................................................................................................... 14 11. CORRECTIVE RECAPITULATION OF THE PRIMARY FAMILY GROUP ...... 15 12. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIALIZATION TECHNIQUES ........................................ 16 13. CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................ 17 14. REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 18
These groups can be in form of friends. family circle. the success depends mostly upon our capacity to unfold and sensitively manage the dynamics of interdependent people relating to each other in the using curative factors. Yalom (2005) discussed eleven categories of curative factors which are as follows: instillation of hope.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 1. development of socialising techniques. On the other hand individuals can also become part of a group in order initiate and work together for a joint goal achievement. As occupational therapists or group therapist. These types of groups influence a person‟s behaviour and the way he perceive his environment. Yalom‟s therapeutic factors (curative factors) are derived from extensive self-report research with individuals following group therapy. imitative behaviour. group cohesiveness.GUTTY 1 . catharsis and existential factors. These factors are interdependent. community groups and also cultural groups. corrective recapitulation of the primary family group. universality. altruism. interpersonal learning. INTRODUCTION Groups are fundamental component in our social life. On a daily basis almost all individuals need a group to function. imparting of information. S.
GUTTY 2 .11) noted that information often „functions as the initial binding force in the group until other curative factors become operative‟. Lectures The therapist or professionals invited by the therapist may address the group on specific issues.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 2. p. p. Three ways to facilitate Imparting of information This curative factor can be facilitated through formal learning such as: 1. The explicit instruction about the nature of the shared illness. The author also noted that knowledge can be comforting for the sufferers since “the explanation of the phenomenon is the first step towards control of the phenomenon. that is informative and instructive.11). The therapist helps the members to increase their knowledge and understanding of a particular problem. Reasons for being therapeutic Yalom (2005. The information is provided by the therapist. This curative factor encourages the group to interact. The therapist can also invite other professionals to convey important things to the group members if the latter agree. Direct advice is the opinion or recommendation about what could or should be done about a particular situation.” (Yalom 2005. The curative factor includes the following: Didactic instruction. This makes them increasingly able to help others with the same or similar problems. depression. S. such as bipolar disorder. panic disorders or alcoholism allows the clients to leave the group far more knowledgeable about their specific conditions than when they entered. IMPARTING OF INFORMATION Description Imparting of information is the giving and sharing of information. This comes from the members of the group. Learning must take place in a warm congruent atmosphere where the patients collaborate fully with the therapist and/or professionals and vice-versa. share thoughts and feelings and give feedback to each other with honesty.
Through the role play. 3. the group members will gain information on the particular issue and on completion the members should be invited to share the information they gained.GUTTY 3 . Films Viewing an instructive film on a specific problem or condition is always helpful. the professional or the group members and hence at the same time trying to apply the knowledge in the group.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 2. In this process the therapist must should clear any misunderstanding and help the group members to reflect on the information they got from the video. The stage at which imparting of information is facilitated This curative factor can be facilitated in the forming phase. S. a role play on the impact of alcoholism on an individual‟s health can be done. The group members are given the opportunity to reflect on what they learned from the therapist. Activities such as role play Taking the example of a group consisting of alcoholics.
3. This factor provides the group members with a notion that change is possible. Reasons for being therapeutic 1. Members meet other individuals who have had similar problems to their own and have successfully coped with the situation. INSTILLATION OF HOPE Description Yalom (2005. 5. Three ways to facilitate Instillation of Hope 1. Ex-sufferers can be made to narrate about their lives and how the change took place for a better future. 6. Making the client realise that others had solved problems similar to his/hers. 4. p4) cites instillation of hope as crucial in all psychotherapies.GUTTY 4 .THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 3. 2. It helps to build confidence in the clients. 3. This facilitates communication and sharing of information among the group members. It gives emergence to hope that something good can happen. 2. Role plays can help to give lively examples of successful recovery. It increases participation. The stage at which Instillation of Hope is facilitated Forming stage (motivates client to get involved with other members) Termination stage (at termination stage it helps the client to cope with difficult feelings associated with the ending of the group so as to make constructive beginnings following group life. S. The group members get the willingness to attend group therapy.
and have a sense of belonging to the group. 3. The papers are redistributed randomly. Each member is then asked to read aloud the anonymous secret and tell what he/she would do if it was your fear. This curative factor gives group members the insight that other individuals have at some point in their lives faced similar experiences or issues. 2. p6). The sense that their pain is not exclusive or unique and that others with similar problems are willing to support them can be profoundly healing. Universality mixes with other therapeutic factors through the sessions as group members become more connected with the sense of similarity. (Yalom. which helps to encourage the change process. ensuring no one gets his/hers own writing. many individuals enter therapy believing that they are “unique in wretchedness”. Group therapy with individuals having the same problem is beneficial. 2005). It helps clients move beyond their isolation. Group members also find satisfaction in being listened to and by listening to others. 5. Group members may feel relief by the fact that they are not alone. The refutation of being isolated and unique with a particular problem is a powerful source of relief for members.GUTTY 5 . Some fears prove to be similar. Some may find themselves having common fears and that they are not alone. and it gives further energy to hope. UNIVERSALITY Description According to Yalom (2005.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 4. Three ways to facilitate Universality 1. 4. Reasons for being therapeutic 1. In homogeneous group. The meaning of universality to a member of a psychotherapy group is when he/she understands that “we all have problems”. 2. This is a first step to make them feel that they are not alone and they can share their personal problems easily and ultimately having possible solutions. S. Universality helps the group as a social microcosm. Activity: Share your fear All members in the group are asked to write about what they fear the most on a piece of paper and put them in a box.
GUTTY 6 . Forming stage 2. Storming stage S. The stage at which Universality is facilitated 1. stress). Theme: The therapist can choose a specific theme that reflects on a common problem (e.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 3.g. By the end of the group process. the members will find that he/she is not alone with this particular problem.
facilitating communication and interaction and offering support.: Can you do the same as other members in the group? The stages at which Imitative behaviour is facilitated 1. The other group members need to choose one character which suits the best to the selected member and why. A bottle is spin in the middle space by the therapist. when a member shares his/her personal feelings. 3. Forming stage 2. Imitative behaviour is in itself short-lived. Therapist will give the choice of characters. bus driver. Question: e. Reasons for being therapeutic Due to imitative behaviour group members develops social skills through a modelling process. For example. members copy these behaviours and incorporate them. This allows them to gain progressively more positive feedback from others.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 5. 2. Therefore. E. each member will have to present himself as the character according to his draw. the therapist exerts a powerful control on the communication patterns of group members by modelling certain behaviours. working through and personal development. During the forming stage. Over time.g. the bottle cap pointing the particular member is the selected member. Also when he/she shows concern and supports each other. it should be facilitated so that each member can be more independent and confident.GUTTY 7 .Therapist writes the different characters (e.g. observing and imitating the therapist and other group members. therapists model active listening. Followed by a draw. Activity: Role play . increasing their confidence and emotional growth. and surgeon). When it stops. It provides an approach which helps the members to tackle problems. Three ways to facilitate Imitative behaviour 1.g. Storming stage S. policeman. giving nonjudgmental feedback. IMITATIVE BEHAVIOUR Description Members expand their personal knowledge and skills through the observation of group members‟ self-exploration. Activity: spinning bottle and matching characters.
GUTTY 8 . Group members work in a team with the support of each other. Reasons for being therapeutic Belonging. Thus the group can be viewed as a social microcosm. however. trust and comfort the group and a sense of belongingness. risk taking.g. Members value the group and feel in turn that they are valued. will tear the paper. and approval are among the most important and universal of human needs. Therapist will try to make them leave their other member hands. The therapist will act as cyclones that will take away part of the island. Members of a cohesive group feel warmth. GROUP COHESIVENESS Description Cohesiveness is a broadly defined as the result of all the forces on all members such that they remain in the group. Many people with emotional problems. It allows members to speak openly of a broad array of their life concerns.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 6. For them. the therapist‟s unconditional positive regard and to feel and to feel an unconditional self-regard. accepted and supported by other members. acceptance. Therapist brings all members in the island. group therapy may make them feel truly accepted and valued for the first time. The client must be able to experience himself without threat. have not experienced success as group members. Three ways to facilitate group cohesiveness 1. empathic listening and feedback. Someone else in the group will read it and he/she will suggest ways how to S. Therefore. E. 3. Fitting in with our peers as children and adolescents. Activity: everyone write their secret fear in a piece of paper. This can be a powerful healing factor as individuals replace their feelings of isolation and separateness with a sense of belonging. the client must be comfortable to express his feelings. Cohesion is developed when there is an ideal therapist client relationship. Around the island there are sharks. the group member will support each other. and joining a church or other social group as adults all fulfil these basic human needs. Then they fold the paper. Activity: the members make a circle by holding the hands. which is the therapist. 2. pledging a sorority or fraternity as young adults. Warm up: making a big island with magazine. High cohesion is closely related to high degree of intimacy.
Therefore the member must undergo a corrective emotional experience suitable to repair the traumatic influence of previous experience. There are 3 concepts which define and describe the mechanism of interpersonal learning. iii. for socialization. Social microcosm is developed over time when the group member feel free to express his/her feelings without restriction. Interpersonal distortion may occur in an interpersonal situation when one person relates to another not on the basis of the realistic attributes of the other but on the basis of an image existing mainly in the former‟s own fantasy. The stages at which group cohesiveness is facilitated The stage of the group where cohesiveness is facilitated are forming and storming stage. i. S. People need people for initial and continued survival. social connection and integration have a positive impact on the course of serious illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. The group as social microcosm. In the group they will create the same interpersonal universe they have always inhabited. That is they will automatically and inevitably begin to display their maladaptive interpersonal behaviour in the therapy group.GUTTY 9 . The corrective emotional experience. The importance of interpersonal relationship. for pursuit of satisfaction. who give feedback on the member's behaviour and impact on others. The group member is exposed under more favourable circumstances. to emotional situations that he could not handle in the past. Thus. 7. Cohesion is not facilitated in the termination stage. The other group member also comment to help the member linked with the particular secret fear. The group member will interact with other members in the same way as they interact with others in their social sphere. Whereas social isolation is as much a risk factor for early mortality as obvious physical risk factors such as smoking and obesity.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 overcome the fear. ii. INTERPERSONAL LEARNING Description Group members achieve a greater level of self-awareness through the process of interacting with others in the group.
Who want to talk about his/her problem? .Who has undergone the same situation and wants to share? .GUTTY 10 . Theme: Developing self-awareness. Activity: Story telling according to situations. Three ways to facilitate interpersonal learning 1.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 Reasons for being therapeutic It helps to develop insight in the member when he/she discovers something about himself/herself. The stages at which interpersonal learning is facilitated Forming stage Norming stage Performing stage Storming stage S. (Including his/her own behaviour and motivation) It prevents isolation and withdrawal. 2.Who wants to suggest solution for this particular problem? 3. It helps understanding each other by sharing views and knowledge as well as problems. Discussion: . (Situations can be decided by therapist or group members).
GUTTY 11 . Three ways to facilitate Catharsis This curative factor can be facilitated through: 1. Certain kinds of arts e. poem writing. sculpture.p. 2005. people often have feelings and desires which are unaccomplished or unexpressed and these feelings are suppressed within themselves. Emotion expression has a direct connection with hope and a sense of personal effectiveness (Yalom. A group without catharsis would degenerate into a sterile academic exercise. Sharing of one‟s feelings enables him to cope and perform effectively in his environment and have positive outcomes in his immediate surroundings. CATHARSIS Description Catharsis is a Greek word meaning purging of emotions and this has a cleansing effect on the psyche (part of the mind which is responsible for one‟s thoughts and feelings) of an individual. Drawing or painting a picture to represent how they feel can often allow these children to be able to release a lot of the inner emotion that they feel (artsz. S. Suppression leads to a state where the individual feels suffocated and choked and we all have emotional discharges throughout our life. The person feels lighter after removal of the emotions. An example is expression of emotions in HIV positive men help them to have a higher immune system and helps them to live longer than those who do not share their grief and troubles. We want to facilitate this curative factor as it makes group therapy more lively and rich experience for the group members where they can relieve themselves from inner tensions and worries.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 8.g music and singing.org).91). a positive and serene atmosphere is created. Painting can help children express some of their inner feelings. painting. Through disclosure of positive emotions. Using art to express some of the inner most feelings that they have trouble expressing to the world can be a very therapeutic experience.Freud. Reasons for being therapeutic According to S. whether it is joy or pain. Expression of emotions leads to a better quality of life and is beneficial for the physiological processes.
g their fears: The goal of writing therapy is to provide a catharsis for people. (Mental Health Foundation) The stage at which catharsis is facilitated Performing stage Termination Stage. 1985). (Catharsis is possible when close bonds and cohesiveness has been formed in the group. hence it is facilitated in late stages. pain and hurt can often render us silent and encourage us to hold our feelings within.Freud‟s psychoanalytical approach (we are governed by inner sexual drives and pleasure principles).) 9. Writing has the potential to facilitate growth of opinions and beliefs (Elbow. It deals with self awareness and peeping into our own selves to ensure the continuity of our life. will. Self realization is curative as it empowers the individual with experiences and better insight of self which he can apply to make his condition better. Grief. EXISTENTIAL FACTOR Description Existential Factors mean our presence on earth as a human being. These are the core elements of human nature. Talking: Talking about how we feel is really one of the most adequate ways of expressing feelings. till we are alive we must endeavour to forge our life and assume the responsibility for our survival. It deals with our consciousness and our interpretation of our world. Unlike S. We can only talk about painful emotions when we are ready to. existential factors lay more emphasis on profound concerns of human conditions which are S. values. If we are able to understand the concepts which govern us. 3. courage and spirit (we have a soul). we will understand ourselves better. Reasons for being therapeutic Existential factors are essential factors which makes us realize the person we are and some of the factors are: responsibility. Writing about e. It takes courage. and the evidence shows that this is precisely what takes place. opportunity and a good listener. Lessons and life experiences learnt from group sessions can eventually be applied by each group member in their individual life.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 2.GUTTY 12 . timing.
there is a point where we alone take major decisions of our life. 3. 2. This activity can make the members realise or find ways to cope with real life situations. Activity: Viewing a movie dealing with tragedy. At the end of the movie. the therapist can ask questions about the tragedy or injustice that the main character has undergone. Existential factors allow us to take control of our life. the members can be asked “what you will take home today from today‟s session?” Time is given to reflect on the question and enable them to talk about it. Then. the members will be made to realize that the group is over and that they have to take responsibility of their life. Talking and discussion: at the end of a discussion. sharing of conflicts and interpersonal learning. S. Three ways to facilitate Existential Factor 1. Awareness of these conditions can be used to decrease anxiety in an individual.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 death. isolation and freedom.GUTTY 13 . enable us to forge our destiny and lead the direction of our life by making appropriate decisions using our mind. Though we are surrounded and supported by group members. Termination Stage: after the closure. The stage at which Existential Factors is facilitated Storming phase as at this stage there are more debates. the members may give solutions to the problem by finding alternative ways to cope with conflicting situations. Existential factor mostly come unplanned and we will facilitate it when someone shares a bad experience of his life and through discussion by allowing the members to reflect on it.
they are given the chance to be helpful to others by different means. some of the members really appreciate the fact that other people can understand them and they feel less depressed about their condition. However. They feel useless and have the feeling of worthlessness.GUTTY 14 . that is. Through questions which the therapists can ask.esteem is boosted. They can provide support. Then all members exchange their cards among themselves according to a draw made by the therapist. X?‟ or „what will you do if you were place in the same situation as Mr. support. suggestions and insight to other members of the group. during Group Therapy. S. These people usually lose confident in themselves and have low self. they feel they have nothing more to offer to other people. „how will you react if you were in the place of Mr. But sometime members of the group refuse help from others as they think that the other members are in the same situation as them so they are not really the ones who will be able to help them and give them advice. It also encourages and facilitates role versatility as clients shift between roles of help receivers and help providers. They gain something through giving. writing an encouraging sentence about life. ALTRUISM Definition It is the opportunity to help others through advice.esteem. They feel very useful and their self.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 10. reassurance. Y‟? 3. At the end of the group session however. Reasons for being therapeutic Generally. They start to accept their friends‟ advice and support and also give them some advice when required. The clients gain something through giving to others. for example. Three ways to facilitate Altruism in a group therapy 1. client with mental disability often view themselves as burdens for their family. suggestions and helping others to get a better insight about themselves. Activity: Each member makes a beautiful card. Through activities during which the members of the group must give feedbacks about other members 2.
Thus familial conflicts are relived correctively. they will tend to behave same towards the group leaders. they will be able to form a bond and maintain it. The leaders are more view as parents by the other members. Reasons for being therapeutic The members of the group tend to have the same personality they usually have in their primary family.GUTTY 15 .THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 The stage at which Altruism is facilitated The forming phase as it will help to build more cohesion among the group members. The members experience transference during the group therapy which provides them the opportunity to relearn and clarify distortions they used to have in their primary family. If they use to have the full attention of the parents at home. S. 11. Therefore they should adapt to the fact that they cannot be the only one the therapist will focus on during the group therapy like it used to be in individualized therapy process. It can also be facilitated in the storming stage where members of the group can provide feedbacks or suggestions and advice to members in the group who have a conflict. CORRECTIVE RECAPITULATION OF THE PRIMARY FAMILY GROUP Definition The group therapy resembles a small family where the members shared experiences together which are kept private and confidential. Some of them consider the other members as parents and some as siblings. Sometimes the Group therapy is carried out with a male and a female therapy team projecting some parental features in the Group therapy. During the group process these members are able to express their feeling when they are not given the full attention of the leaders therefore helping them to have better insight about themselves and also through feedbacks from other members as well.
At the end of the group therapy sessions.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 Three ways to facilitate corrective recapitulation of the primary family group in a group therapy 1.GUTTY 16 . DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIALIZATION TECHNIQUES Definition It deals mainly with social learning. in dynamic therapy groups. For example. It can be facilitated through activities like role – play. some members of the group are able to develop extremely good social skills. which is the therapeutic factor that operates in all therapy groups. in this session. for examples. their body language. 12. However. Drawing. the members learn about their maladaptive social behaviours through feedbacks from others in the group process. they are able to deal with their conflicts and are more S.g. what he must draw. for e.. However. Reasons for being therapeutic: Sometimes clients are able to realize that they are lonely in life due to their lack of social skills.play. Therefore these social skills required for this is taught during the role. The stage at which it is facilitated During the storming stage after the members had known each other. its size and amongst all. They will be able to express themselves more easily and they would have a better understanding of themselves and members of the group. one member decides everything for another member: the colour of the paper. It can also happen by asking questions like „which person you appreciate the most in the group?‟ or „which personality in the group reminds you someone close to you?‟ 3. In other groups social learning is not direct. during which the members would be working through their conflicts in the group. when dealing with adolescents they can be asked to do a role–play how they will ask someone out on a date. 2. They are able to modify these factors that hinder the development of socialization techniques after receiving feedbacks from others in the group. the way the social skills are taught depends on the type of group therapy involved.
the members will be more close together as they had gone through the storm all together. 13. CONCLUSION The eleven curative factors elaborated in this assignment are mechanisms leading to a change in clients‟ life. depending on the group and the way the therapist want the group to progress. Other curative factors are also important equally. S. Through activities where feedbacks are asked from other group members on any members of the group The stages at which it is facilitated In the norming and performing phase.play where the members are ask to do a scene in front of other group members 2. and should be facilitated appropriately and accordingly. All the curative factors must not necessarily be present at once in a group therapy session.GUTTY 17 . The therapist should facilitate the curative factors for therapeutic benefits.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 understanding towards other and do not try to judge them but develop a sense of empathy for these people. it should be remembered not to facilitate this curative factor at the terminating stage. Through role. It will be easier for the members to accept these feedbacks from other members of the group. after the conflict. It should be noted that cohesion is the most important curative factor and the first one that has to be built in a group therapy session. However. How to facilitate this curative factor in a group therapy? 1.
minddisorders.THE CURATIVE FACTORS 2011 14.html. 6. A.html.org/. YALOM. Time-Limited Group Therapy: Use of Psychodrama Techniques in a Group Setting[online]. Last accessed 2nd March 2011 3.. M..addictioninfo.D & LESZCZ. [online] Available from: http://www. REFERENCES 1. Writing as therapy [online] Available from: http://ezinearticles. Available from: http://www. Last accessed 6th February 2011. 5th edition. The Theory & Practice of group Psychotherapy. An Examination of Alcoholics Anonymous: The Open Speaker Meeting and Yalom’s 11 Curative Factors[online].html. Anon. Available from: http://www.angelfire. Last accessed 27th January 2011. Available: http://www.artsz.. RESTIVO-LEVITT. 2011. 2010. Date accessed: 18th February 2011 2. Date accessed: 18th February 2011 5. Available: http://www. Mental Health Foundation: Talking therapies[online]. ca. S. SCOTT. New York: Basic Books. L.uk/help-information/mental-health-a-z/T/talkingtherapies/. Anon. 2011.com/?Writing-as-Therapy&id=322640 Date accessed: 18th February 2011 7.org.GUTTY 18 . Anon. I...mentalhealth.com/journal2/njca/Adrian. 4. 2005.org/articles/691/2/TimeLimited-Group-Therapy/Page2. 1985. Encyclopedia of Mental Health [online].com/Flu-Inv/Group-therapy.
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