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Openness to experience – (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious). Appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience. Openness reflects the degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity and a preference for novelty and variety a person has. It is also described as the extent to which a person is imaginative or independent, and depicts a personal preference for a variety of activities over a strict routine. Some disagreement remains about how to interpret the openness factor, which is sometimes called "intellect" rather than openness to experience. Conscientiousness – (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless). A tendency to show selfdiscipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement; planned rather than spontaneous behavior; organized, and dependable. Extraversion – (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved). Energy, positive emotions, surgency, assertiveness, sociability and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others, and talkativeness. Agreeableness – (friendly/compassionate vs. cold/unkind). A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. It is also a measure of ones' trusting and helpful nature, and whether a person is generally well tempered or not. Neuroticism – (sensitive/nervous vs. secure/confident). The tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, or vulnerability. Neuroticism also refers to the degree of emotional stability and impulse control, and is sometimes referred by its low pole – "emotional stability
clear and understandable language. 5.4 Describe perception and factors that influence it. 4. Based on Facts: Personnel policies should be built on the basis of facts and sound judgment and not in personal feelings or opportunistic decision. 2. it is necessary to Pursue both the policies scrupulously and apply them carefully. They should be flexible enough to keep the organization in tune with the times. the personnel policy should be suitably adjusted to accommodate the latest fad.3 Describe different personality theories. and to avoid organizational complacency or managerial stagnation. Stable as well as Flexible: Personnel policies should be stable enough assure people that there will not be drastic overnight changes. 9. Precise: Policies should be sufficiently comprehensive and prescribe limits and yardsticks for future action. Easy to Understand: Policies should be stated in define. fair and equitable to internal as well as external groups.2 Explain the role that attitudes play in job performance. 14.1 Identify the focus and goals of organizational behavior. the policy should be conditioned by the suggestions and reactions of those who are affected by the policy. positive. Fair and Equitable: Personnel policies should be just. Just. 14. 8. 6. Appropriate Number: There should be as many personnel policies as necessary to cover conditions that can be anticipated. To gain acceptance and commitment from employees. 14. Reasonable: Personnel policies must be reasonable and capable of being accomplished. if the current thinking is in favor of workersâ€™ participation in management . a policy of recruitment from within may limit opportunities to bright candidates from outside: and a policy of â€˜recruitment from outside onlyâ€™ would limit promotional avenue to promising internal candidates. For example.CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUND HRM POLICY While developing sound personnel policies management should pay attention to the following things: 1. and even the same person can behave one way one day and a completely different way another day. . Review: Periodic review of personnel policies is essential to keep in tune with changing times. Managers need to understand individual behavior. accepted by many in the organization Personnel policies to be sound should also have broad coverage in addition to satisfying the above conditions. To ensure justice. 3. Focus on the following learning outcomes as you read and study this chapter. Hence. but not so many policies as to become confusing or meaningless. 7. For instance. it would be appropriate to discuss the coverage of personnel policies here Chapter 14 Understanding Individual Behavior Have you ever wondered why the people around you are behaving the way they are? People differ in their behaviors. Related to Objectives: Policies must be capable of relating objectives functions. physical factors and company personnel. LEARNING OUTCOMES 14.
leadership. A.6 Discuss contemporary issues in organizational behavior.1 FOCUS AND GOALS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Organizational behavior is the study of how people act at work. and conflict resolution. absenteeism. Six important behaviors have been identified from for the study of OB: employee productivity. It’s also possible that employees are leaving for a variety of reasons. During the first quarter of 2010. Organizational behavior focuses on two major areas: 1. predict. 14. students will have an opportunity to learn fundamental information about individual and group behavior in the workplace. such as more pay or better benefits. and organizational citizenship behavior. 2. opinions. its culture. Is could be possible that employees don’t see the value in a company’s promise not to lay them off if they don’t value the job they have with the company. affective. While it may appear that HCL is doing what it takes to retain its employees. knowledge. job satisfaction.5 Discuss learning theories and their relevance in shaping behavior. team building. Individual behavior 2. this number has been declining since the 1995. In exploring these dimensions of organizational behavior. An important first step would be an employee survey to determine how employees feel about the company. 2. and influence behavior. many of the important issues involved in understanding OB are not easily observed. roles. Students will look at dynamics of group behavior that encompass norms. organizational commitment. HCL lost 22 percent of its workforce. Nayar’s position. and behavioral. After things improved. many managers believed that if they kept their employees happy. or events. part. organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). 14. the text lays the foundation for understanding how and why people behave the way they do within the organization’s environment. It should be determined how employees perceive the company’s no layoff policy. The goals of OB are to explain. CHAPTER OUTLINE INTRODUCTION This chapter examines numerous factors that influence employee behavior and their implications for managers. 3. there appears to be an issue with employee satisfaction. people.2. The degree of job satisfaction has been linked to income. A MANAGER’S DILEMMA In their study of Chapter 14. 1. Attitudes have three components: cognitive. Managers are particularly interested in the job-related attitudes of employees. Vineet Nayar. . and motivation. and its policies. the company implemented a no layoff policy during an economic downturn.‖ students read about the challenges facing HCL Technologies CEO. Job Satisfaction is defined as an employee’s general attitude toward his or her job. but is probably influenced more by the type of job an employee performs. Group behavior B. The cognitive component of an attitude is the part of an attitude that is made up of the beliefs. As part of HCL’s ―employee first‖ philosophy. perception. The visible organization can be described as the tip of an iceberg. ATTITUDES AND JOB PERFORMANCE Attitudes are defined as evaluative statements—favorable or unfavorable— concerning objects. however. US workers report that they are satisfied with their job. 14. or information held by a person. The behavioral component of an attitude is that part of an attitude that refers to an intention to behave in a certain way. (See Exhibit 14A. In general. or feeling. Job Satisfaction. The affective component of an attitude is that part of an attitude that is the emotional. Focus of Organizational Behavior. HCL employees began looking at competitors’ job offers. turnover. Students are asked what they would do in Mr. learning. and workplace misbehavior. 1. In ―A Manager’s Dilemma. This chapter explores topics related to the behavior of individuals at work including attitudes. Following the Hawthorne Studies.14. personality. Job-related attitudes include job satisfaction. job involvement.
that effect is fairly small. 3. other variables such as fairness and the type of citizenship behavior play a role in the relationship. LEADERS WHO MAKE A DIFFERENCE Singapore Airlines (SIA) has a stellar reputation in the fiercely competitive commercial aviation business. but a converse relationship has also been found to be true. Job satisfaction has been linked to customer satisfaction. Following the Hawthorne Studies. 2. and (c) the rewards that may be involved in dissonance. customer dissatisfaction has been related to an employee’s job satisfaction. who will try to reduce the inconsistency. or the organization. and involvement in the organization. 7. A review of the research on worker productivity indicates that if satisfaction does have a positive effect on productivity. work groups. E. Individuals reduce dissonance either by changing the behavior. Job involvement is the degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job. Attitudes and Consistency. Also. managers need to be aware that dissatisfied employees may engage in misbehavior or violence at work. 2. concluding that the dissonant behavior is not so important after all. Attitude surveys. Rather. equitable rewards. F. 3. 4. Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment. B. E. Exhibit 14–2 lists the key engagement factors D. 3. actively participates in it. has helped to create a culture where employees excel and passengers appreciate the . 4. Exhibit 14-3 provides a sample of an attitude survey. Such factors include mentally challenging work. While it is obvious that job satisfaction is related to organizational citizenship behavior. Research has generally shown that people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior. Organizational citizenship behavior is the discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements. Companies often use surveys to ask employees how they feel about their jobs. Dissonance or inconsistency leads to an uncomfortable state for the individual. but promotes the effective functioning of the organization. the employees would be productive. Research on job attitudes shows a strong negative relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism. Employee Engagement. Chew Choon Seng.the employees would be productive. and considers his or her job performance important to his or her self-worth. Implications for Managers. Cognitive Dissonance Theory. Current studies show a fairly strong relationship between satisfaction and performance. Disengaged employees have essentially ―checked out‖ and don’t care. identification with. While it is difficult to predict how employees will respond. 6. managers should focus on factors that are conducive to a high degree of employee satisfaction. A controversy exists concerning the relationship between satisfaction and productivity. The desire to reduce dissonance is determined by (a) the importance of the factors creating the dissonance. Are happy workers productive workers? 1. supportive working conditions. The strongest variable related to job satisfaction is turnover. by changing the attitude or by identifying compatible factors that outweigh the dissonant ones. 1. (b) the degree of influence the individual believes he/she has over those factors. Organizational commitment is an employee’s orientation toward the organization in terms of his or her loyalty to. C. The implication for managers from understanding attitudes is that there is relatively strong evidence that committed and satisfied employees have lower rates of turnover and absenteeism. and supportive colleagues. the belief that making employees happy will make them productive needs to be reexamined. 5. Highly engaged employees are passionate about and deeply connected to their work. supervisors. many managers believed that if they kept their employees happy. Cognitive dissonance refers to any inconsistency that an individual might perceive between attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
3. Agreeableness c. and behavioral patterns that affect how a person reacts and interacts with others. Social interaction: extrovert (E) or introvert (I) 2. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) is a general personality assessment. Emotional intelligence is composed of five dimensions: a. Locus of control is the degree to which people believe they control their own fate. Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to notice and to manage emotional cues and information. Emotions and Emotional Intelligence. . A. The MBTI® measures four dimensions: 1. Personality Types in Different Cultures. Research has shown that important relationships exist between these personality dimensions and job performance. 14. Locus of control can be either external or internal. The personality traits in the Big-Five Model are listed below: a. locus of control. Conscientiousness d. Do these personality types transfer across cultures? Although no common personality types are found in a given national culture a country’s culture can influence dominant personality characteristics of its people.outstanding customer service. E. and happy to serve others. hospitable. 5. The benefit of a manager’s understanding personality differences is clearly seen in the area of employee selection. MBTI. Machiavellianism is the degree to which people are pragmatic. The Big Five Model. self-esteem.3 PERSONALITY Personality is defined is the unique combination of emotional. Extraversion b. 2. Research has shown that emotional intelligence is positively related to job performance at all organizational levels. and risk-taking. thought. All employees—from bottom to top—are very proud to be part of the SIA family. Machiavellianism. Risk-taking refers to an individual’s willingness to take risks. 1. 1. This is particularly true for the personality trait. Implications for Managers. Additional Personality Insights. 4. How does SIA build a positive culture? SIA carefully selects people who are warm. Preference for decision making: feeling (F) or thinking (T) 4. Self-management c. D. 2. Style of making decisions: perceptive (P) or judgmental (J) Combining these preferences provides descriptions about 16 different personality types. maintain emotional distance. Examples of MBTI® personality types are shown in Exhibit 14-4. Openness to Experience C. Preference for gathering data: sensing (S) or intuitive (N) 3. F. Self-motivation d. 1. so too do jobs. Emotional Stability e. The Big-Five Model is a five-factor model of personality. Just as individual personalities differ. Self-esteem is an individual’s degree of like or dislike for himself or herself. self-monitoring. Empathy e. Personality researchers have identified five additional personality traits that have proved to be the most powerful in explaining individual behavior in organizations: locus of control. Efforts have been made to match the proper personalities with the proper jobs. Self-awareness b. B. Self-monitoring is an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external situational factors. Social skills 2. and believe that ends justify means.
5. 4. 14. Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.1. 2. Assumed similarity is the belief that others are like oneself. The key points of his model: Intrinsic differences in personality probably do exist among individuals. Halo effect refers to a general impression of an individual based on a single characteristic. 2. 2. not reality. Exhibit 14-7 summarize the key elements of attribution theory. The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others. C. B. learned) rather than from within (reflexive. Attribution theory is a theory that explains how we judge people differently depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior. retention processes. 3. The determination of the cause of the behavior depends on three factors: distinctiveness. A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception: 1.4 PERCEPTION Perception is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory impressions in order to give meaning to the environment. People will most likely engage in desired behaviors if they receive positive reinforcement for doing so. One of the most interesting findings of attribution theory is that there are errors or biases that distort attributions. B. A. Skinner argued that creating pleasing and desirable consequences to follow some specific behavior would increase the frequency of that behavior. Operant conditioning theory proposes that behavior is determined from without (that is. Factors that influence perception. 1. and people who work in job environments congruent with their personality types should be more satisfied. The target (See Exhibit 14-6) 3. D. Attentional processes. Shortcuts We Use In Judging Others. or unlearned). Skinner is the psychologist most often associated with operant conditioning theory. 1. F. 4.5 LEARNING Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. A. Consistency refers to the congruency in a person’s actions. that is. Stereotyping refers to judging a person on the basis of one’s perception of a group to which he or she belongs. Consensus refers to whether an individual who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way with the same behavior. The perceiver 2. People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its . Managers need to recognize that their employees react to perceptions. John Holland has developed the best-documented personality-job fit theory (see Exhibit 14-5). The situation B. motor reproduction processes. Four processes determine the amount of influence that these models will have on an individual: attentional processes. and reinforcement processes. 1. b. whether the person engages in the behaviors regularly and consistently. Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behavior in different situations. 3. 2. 1. consensus. Management is also not immune to biases and can negatively impact employees’ perception of fairness with inaccurate appraisals or setting discriminatory wage levels. 14. The Implication For Managers. Self-serving bias is the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. a. there are different types of jobs. and consistency. 3. Social learning is a learning theory that says people learn through observation and direct experience.
4. General theories and models  . Punishment penalizes undesirable behavior. adapting to a new generation of employees can be a challenge. Many of the original works outlining the major theories that are the basis for current knowledge about behavioural change theories were published in the 1970s and 1980s. or will managers allow learning to occur haphazardly? 14. managers should recognize that employees will learn while doing a job. Retention processes. managers need to practice preventive and responsive actions. Generations are defined by the attitudes and goals that distinguish them from those born in other times. 2. In comparison to previous groups. A model’s influence depends upon how well an individual remembers the model’s action. For managers. C. Extinction involves eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior. 4. More recently. Generation Y employees have proven to be unique in their casual and laid back attitude toward work. technology. In dealing with Gen Y workers. Implications for Managers. managers find three issues that can create conflict with traditional organizational methods: appearance. D. Managing Negative Behavior in the Workplace. Behavior can be shaped in four ways: 1. Negative reinforcement is reinforcing a desired behavior with the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant. Managing Generational Differences. Shaping: A Managerial Tool. After a person has observed a new behavior by watching a model. 3. From learning theory.6 CONTEMPORARY OB ISSUES A. Positive reinforcement is reinforcing a desired behavior by providing something pleasant after that behavior. however. Motor reproduction processes. Albert Bandura's writings on Social Cognitive Theory. Managers need to recognize that negative behaviors exist and ignoring such misbehavior will only confuse employees. Exhibit 14-8 lists some of the characteristics consistent with Gen Y workers. These include Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen's work on the Theory of Reasoned Action and Ajzen's later modification of that into the Theory of Planned Behaviour. 1. and management style. B. In shaping. a manager systematically reinforces each successive step that moves an individual closer to a desired response. With this renewed interest. 2. leading to further research backed by institutions like the National Institutes of Health and the UK Prime Minister's Strategy Unit. Reinforcement processes.critical features. 2. In dealing with negative behaviors. there is also a shift towards research into understanding the maintenance of behavioural change in addition to broadening the research base for  revising current theories that focus on initial change. 3. and James Prochaska and Carlo DiClemente's works on the Transtheoretical Model. education. he/she must demonstrate an ability to do the modeled activities. interest in behavioural change theories has arisen due to their apparent application in areas like health. A key question: Will managers manage employees’ learning through the rewards the managers allocate and the examples they set. and criminology. Individuals will be motivated to exhibit modeled behavior if positive rewards are provided.
Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour. which state that complex behaviour  is learned gradually through the modification of simpler behaviours. Self-efficacy is thought to be predictive of the amount of effort an individual will expend in initiating and maintaining a behavioural change.Each behavioural change theory or model focuses on different factors in attempting to explain behavioural change. Of the many that exist. Skinner come the learning theories. the most prevalent are the learning theories. Social Cognitive Theory. Federal art project. especially elements like self-efficacy that are common to several of the theories. Self-efficacy  Self-efficacy is an individual's impression of their own ability to perform a demanding or challenging task such as facing an exam or undergoing surgery. so although self-efficacy is not a behavioural change theory per se.  the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Health Action Process Approach. ca. which state that individuals learn by duplicating behaviours they observe  in others and that rewards are essential to ensuring the repetition of desirable behaviour. and outside sources of  persuasion. Learning theories/behaviour analytic theories of change  Poster promoting education and civic activity. including the Health Belief Model. Transtheoretical Model and the Health Action Process Approach. the individual's physiological state. the complex behaviour . As each simple behaviour is established through imitation and subsequent reinforcement. it is an important element of many of the theories. 1938 From behaviourists such as B. This impression is based upon factors like the individual's prior success in the task or in related tasks. Imitation and reinforcement play important roles in these theories. Research has also been conducted regarding specific elements of these  theories. F.
Social learning theory focuses on the reciprocal interactions between these  factors. behavioural change is determined by environmental. Likewise. intentions develop from an individual's perception of a behaviour as positive or negative together with the individual's impression of the way their society perceives the same behaviour. personal. The five stages. Ajzen expanded upon the theory of reasoned action. which is also known as the social cognitive theory. As a result. formulating the Theory of Planned Behaviour. an individual's thoughts affect their behaviour and an individual's characteristics elicit certain responses from the social environment. action. In his article. and an individual's behaviour may change their environment as well as the way the individual thinks or feels. preparation. which is  essential to performance of a behaviour and consequently behavioural change. From precontemplation to contemplation. the individual develops a desire to change a behaviour. For example. Social learning/social cognitive theory  According to the social learning theory. Each factor affects each of the others. an individual's environment affects the development of personal characteristics as well as the person's behaviour. Transtheoretical/Stages of Change Model  According to the Transtheoretical Model. Theory of Planned Behaviour  In 1985. An individual finally enters the maintenance stage once they exhibit the new  behaviour consistently for over six months. between which individuals may oscillate before achieving complete change. According to Icek Ajzen. . During preparation. which is also known as the Stages of Change Model. the individual begins to exhibit new behaviour consistently. behaviour modification and applied behaviour analysis). which also emphasises the role of intention in behaviour performance but is intended to cover cases in which a person is not in control of all factors affecting the actual performance of a behaviour.develops. the new theory states that the incidence of actual behaviour performance is proportional to the amount of control an individual possesses over the behaviour and the strength of the individual's intention  in performing the behaviour. and during the action stage. When verbal behaviour is established the organism can learn through rule-governed behaviour and thus not all action needs to be contingency shaped. are precontemplation. Theory of Reasoned Action  The Theory of Reasoned Action assumes that individuals consider a behaviour's consequences before performing the particular behaviour. Thus. and behavioural elements. and  maintenance. an individual may or may not be aware of a problem but has no thought of changing their behaviour. the individual intends to change the behaviour within the next month. behavioural change is a five-step process. Skinner (1957) was one of the first psychologists to recognise the critical role of imitation (what he termed  "echoic behaviour") in the learning of language. contemplation. in congruence with the principles of self-efficacy. which are hypothesised to determine behavioural change. Ajzen further hypothesises that self-efficacy is important in determining the strength of the individual's intention to perform a behaviour. personal attitude and social pressure shape intention. intention is an important factor in determining behaviour  and behavioural change. As a result. At the precontemplation stage. Behaviour analytic theories of change have been quite effective in improving the human condition (see behaviour therapy.
a highly structured task. According to House. to be effective. and those who have as their  prime concern carrying out the task itself (task-oriented). the model posits that the leadership-style must match the appropriate level of follower-development. The latter processes refer to the volitional phase of the model The Fiedler contingency model bases the leader's effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency. Fiedler found that task-oriented leaders are more effective in extremely favorable or unfavorable situations. and the effects of intentions are assumed to be mediated by planning. This  model was later referred to as situational contingency theory. In this model. The path-goal theory of leadership was developed by Robert House (1971) and was based on  the expectancy theory of Victor Vroom. leadership behavior becomes a function not only of the characteristics of the leader. The predictive effect of motivational self-efficacy on behaviour is assumed to be mediated by recovery self-efficacy. Motivational self-efficacy. The second phase is subdivided into a pre-action phase and an action phase. The path-goal model can be classified both as a contingency theory. This approach was novel because it supported the idea that the same manager could rely on different group decision making approaches depending on the attributes of each situation. as the theory emphasizes the reciprocity behavior between the leader and the followers. whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best in situations with intermediate favorability. which was used in a normative decision model where leadership styles were connected to situational variables. as it depends on the circumstances. In contrast to the Fiedler contingency model. Both task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders can be effective if their leadership orientation fits the situation. and high leader position power. The theory defined two types of leader: those who tend to accomplish the task by developing good relationships with the group (relationship-oriented). According to Fiedler. and supportive. Victor Vroom. When there is a good leader-member relation. a goal-setting phase (motivation) and a goal-pursuit phase (volition). developed a taxonomy for describing leadership situations. the pathgoal model states that the four leadership behaviors are fluid. and that leaders can adopt any of the four depending on what the situation demands. The theory identifies four leader behaviors. This is the motivational phase of the model. This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favorability (later called situational control). but of the characteristics of followers as wel   . engage in behaviors that complement subordinates' environments and abilities in a manner that compensates for deficiencies and is instrumental to  subordinate satisfaction and individual and work unit performance". in collaboration with Phillip Yetton (1973) and later with Arthur Jago (1988).Health Action Process Approach  The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) is designed as a sequence of two continuous selfregulatory processes. there is no ideal leader. that are contingent to the environment factors and follower characteristics. The situational leadership model proposed by Hersey and Blanchard suggests four leadership-styles and four levels of follower-development. the essence of the theory is "the meta proposition that leaders. achievement-oriented. participative. For effectiveness. outcomeexpectancies and risk perceptions are assumed to be predictors of intentions. directive. and as a transactional leadership theory. defining which approach was more suitable to  which situation. the situation is considered a "favorable situation".