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NASA TT F 15,391
A PROCEDURE FOR THE DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TURBULENT FLOWS IN PLATE AND ANNULAR CHANNELS AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TURBULENCE MODELS
U. Schumann
"Ein Verfahren zur direkten Translation of numerischen Simulation turbulenter Str6mungen in Platten  und Ringspaltkanalen und Uber seine Anwendung zur Untersuchung von Turbulenzmodellen", Dissertation, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, and Report KFK,
Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 1973, pp. 1249.
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20546
APRIL 1974 N7421927
Un UnclaS 37276
3 A P2CCEDUYE FOR THE iASATTF1 5 91) OF TURBULENT SIMULAjICN NUMERICAL IREC
A AND CHAMIELS FLOWS IN PLREAAND AC Translation (scientific If ITS APPLICATION CSCL 20D 3arIP HC $14.50 Service)
G3/12
STANDARD TITLE PAGE 1. Report No. 2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 5. Report Date
NASA TT F
15,391
1
4. Title and Subtitle
197A April A PROCEDURE FOR THE DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION 6. Performing Organization Code OF TURBULENT FLOWS IN PLATE AND ANNULAR CHAN, ITS APPLICATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NELS ANDj
7., .rEClLP;; MVUJLS 8. Performing Organization Report No. Work Unit No.
Contract or Grant No.
U.
Schumann
10.
11.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
NASw2483
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
SCITRAN
Sox 5456 Santa Barbara,
12.
CA
Translation
'1108
S onsoring A.ency Name and Address
,ational Aeronautics and Space Administration 14. Sponsoring Agency Code Z0546 Washington, D.C.
15.
Supplementary Notes
Translation of "Ein Verfahren zur direkten numerischen Simulation turbulenter Str'mungen in Platten  und RingspaltkanAlen und ber seine Anwendung zur Untersuchung von Turbulenzmodellen", Dissertation, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, and Report KFK, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 1973, pp. 1249. 16. Abstract A numerical difference scheme is described to simulate threedimensional, timedependent, turbulent flows of incompressible fluids at high Reynolds numbers in a platle channel and in concentric annuli. The NavierStokes equations averaged over grid volumes are integrated. A novel model has been developed which takes into account strongly inhomogeneous turbulence and grid volumes.of unequal side lengths. Stability criteria are established fo r this method and for similar difference schemes. For computation of the pressure field the appropriate Poisson's equation is sqlved by Fast fourier Transform. The procedure implemented in the TRUBIT1 program is used to simulate The turbulent flows in a plat channel and an annulus radius ratio of 5:1. y Especial values. numerical results are in good'agreement with" experimental with computed are fluctuations the velocity profile and the mean velocity significantly better accuracy than in earlier, direct simulations. The energy .lengthscale model and the pressurevelocity gradient correlations are used as examples to show that the method may be used success fully to evaluate the parameters of turbulence models.
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SUMMARY
A numerical difference scheme is described to simulate threedimensional, timedependent, turbulent flows of incompressible fluids at high Reynolds numbers in a platle channel and in concentric annular channels.1 Starting from the results of Deardorff, the NavierStokes equations, averaged over grid volumes, are integrated. For a description of the subgrid scale motion a novel model has been developed which takes into account strongly inhomogeneous turbulence and grid volumes of unequal side lengths. mises used in the model are described and discussed. The pre
Stability criteria are established for this method and for similar difference schemes. For computation of the pressure field the appropriate Poisson's equation is solved accurately, except for rounding errors, by Fast Fourier Transform. The procedure implemented in the TURBIT1 program is used to simulate turbulent flows in a platle channel and annulus with radiusl For both types of flow different cases are realized with a maximum number of grid volumes of 65536. Already for rather small grid volume numbers the numerical results are in good agreement with experimental values. Especially the velocity profile and the mean velocity fluctuations are computed with ratio of 5:1.1
iii
I
significantly better accuracy than in earlier, direct simulations. The energy lengthscale model and the pressurevelocity
gradient correlations are used as examples to show thaw the method may be used successfully to evaluate the parameters of turbulence models. Earlier results are reviewed and proposals for future research are made.
ivl
/167
LISTING OF OFTENUSED SYMBOLS
)
General Characterization of an Arbitrary Variable y Average over time or over ensemble Average value over a space limited volume Deviation from average value IV Average value over total flow volume Average value over the planes with periodic boundary conditions (x x2;x.); "Period average value"
ii r
Deviation from period average value Average value over a mesh volume Average value over a mesh area with normal parallel to the x. coordinate ("isurface")
Vr 
x
'rAverage  I
t I i~
value over the x, ylor rsurface of a mesh Arithmetic average value over adjacent values in the x i direction in the grid (same weight) Same as y for thex,y', rdirection
~
t
' x~V i i<
Same as Id with unequal weights for considering nonequidistant meshes according to (61) Partial derivative of y with respect to x Central difference quotient of y: Av
Dbx "dxu
v1
Difference quotient according to (62) Difference quotient according to (620) (As a rule) component in x i direction (ij=1,2,3) rI rf Components in the x, Y, r direction Vector Matrix Average value /168
Ya
IMinimum
Maximum value value value (for velocities:) Velocity value at new time step when pressure is ignored. Dimensioned variable
~wjWall
ab
Reference quantity
2)
Summation Convention Sums from one to three are taken over pairsj of unknown
subscripts on the lower right:
~3
The same indices take on corresponding values when located at another position (upper left or upper right).
vil
.oiCds D .4< E EThreedimensional... scalar energy spectrum (Appendix 1) Onedimensional energy spectrum (Appendix 1) viij .s Turbulence model constants (Chapter 2) Aw C1 cC Constants in (28) Fine (A2 structure model constants 32) (Chapter 5) d~.J..No sums are taken over indices on the lower right. if they are in square brackets 3) Symbols 4tC..c&'+ Wall distance Deformation velocity Time average of the difference form of the square of the deformation velocity (according to 423 to 26) Undetermined form of kD 2 D DI D2 bt'... average... ' S.. direction Kinetic energy Kinetic energy of the fluctuation motion within the mesh D44I. . DOS / Fortran program according to Appendix 2 Fortran program according to Appendix 2 Fortran program according to Appendix 2 Unit vector in x..
h2.2 for considering the wall roughnesses E 1 for the wall at Rl. Factors according to (43840) F jF F(C] ILongitudinal Area jarea.e ) £an (AA) = E 3 (kl e) 1 E E3/ Er Function according to Chapter A2.H 3 i f7 Subscript (often with respect to the x direction  Imaginary unit Number of meshes in the xl direction Subscript (often with respect to x 2 direction) Number of meshes in the x 2 direction Subscript (often with respect to x 3 direction) /171 lM j k viii i .E2 for r=R2.Ej E44 A> Tensorial energy spectrum (Appendix 1) /170 ) = E1 1 (k 1 . coordinate correlation (Al5) parallel FED FED4I (427) Fortran program according to Appendix 2 G£ t) G h hl.h 3 H1. whose normal is to the x. mesh area.H 2 Transverse correlation (Al6) Amplification matrix (A615) Average mesh edge length (56) Relative mesh edge lengths hi7Axi/h Mesh edge lengths . 41 Ez iConstants in (78).
6.1) Subscript with respect to x 2 direction /172 Subscript with respect to x 3 direction or for characterizing the time step nq t Various time steps of the differencing procedure.2. Pressure I Average axial pressure gradient Radius coordinate Re Rem mRadius R2 Reynolds number (113) Reynolds number (114) of inner cylinder Radius of outer cylinder oflA 1 N p p ixl .4) (A148) iK KM m 1 L Weighting function (413) Number of meshes in x 3 direction Subscript with respect to xl direction Turbulence ball diameter Correlation length (25.7) LDiameter m of the region with local isotropy (Chapter 4.2. see Chapter 6.1.k k k Scalar wave number Scalar wave number with respect to x direction Wave number vector k k Karman constant p Rotta constant (0.1. Number of time steps over which averaging is carried out according to Chapter 6.
respectively. Period length in x direction for annulus Azimuthal coordinate (Figure 1) X y xI .X 2 Axial coordinate (Figure 1) Period length for plate in the xl or x 2 direction.Rn Residual term Twopoint correlation (AlI) between velocity fluctuations Twopoint correlation between arbitrary variables Resj R ! Coordinate t u u I X )l v V w x eU 3 ' 9vy Time Axial velocity component (Figure 1) Velocity vector See Figure 1 See Figure 1 Azimuthal velocity component (Figure 1) A volume Radial velocity component (Figure 1) Position vector Position vector (Figure 1) /173 x X1.
2.2) Undetermined turbulent fields Rotational velocity.15.y z An undetermined quantity Radial coordinate (Figure 1) Kolmogorov constant (44) dC( A F E 1n KroneckerDelta Interval Gamma function Dissipation (116) Kolmogorov length (Al33) function Eigenvalue Turbulent velocity of fine structure Locally isotropic part of fine structureI viscosity Inhomogeneous part of fine viscosity structure SDirac X v Kinematic molecular viscosity Hi I 'X4 1 1 Displacement vector Density Correction factors (514.2) (Chapter 4. rotation w xil . 582) /174 " Integration variable Volume correlation (420) 0 x XlX 2 Period length in azimuthal direction for annulus Auxiliary potential (Chapter 6.
Karlsruhe. Below this critical Reynolds number there is a laminar flow field. flow state which usually comes about when the ratio of the inertia forces and the viscosity forces inside of the fluid characterized by a Reynolds number exceeds a critical value. of Karlsruhe (TH) Nuclear Research Center. Report KFK 1854. the large velocity fluctuations.1. by their irregular structure. INTRODUCTION /I _ 1. This instability Because of is the reason for the existence of turbulent flows. 89. *** Numbers in the margin indicate pagination of original foreign text. 1 . Turbulence 115. i. two flow states which differ by an arbitrarily small amount diverge in time so much that after some time they no longer have as much in common as two arbitrarily selected flow states. For large Reynolds numbers. Institute for Reactor Development.e. The velocity at a position fluctuates greatly and in an irregular way. Nuclear Research Association mbH.A PROCEDURE FOR THE DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TURBULENT FLOWS IN PLATE AND ANNULAR CHANNELS ANDI ITS APPLICATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TURBULENCE MODELS* Ulrich Schumann ** 1. the exchange of momentum and c* ** Accepted dissertation presented to the Mechanical Engineer Faculty of the Univ. 120] are characterized Turbulence is a Turbulent flow fields [53. the flow is unstable.
such as for example the flow around local blocking units in reactor fuel elements [75] as well as in channel flows. The Blasius law [1201 for the representation of the dependence of tube friction coefficient on Reynolds number is a typical example of this. This is especially true flows is therefore important for many regions. By considering the basic equations. for example [88]. at the present time turbulence models are being established with which it is possible to carry extrapolations to ranges for which no measurements are yet available.3). this is not possible under general conditions. especially because of the great deal of effort required to describe the nonsteady flow fields. Even for "onedimensional" (for example tube). it was Deardorff [29] who simulated In the present paper we the turbulent flow between two plates. these are always threedimensional As the capacity of electronic computers /2 is enlarged. which is assumed to be valid for the description of turbulent flows (see Chapter 1. The quantitative description of turbulent In practice. At the present time. For example. geometries functions of location. with which it was possible to perform interpolation within the measurement range. continue this work. for complicated geometries. we believe that this problem will be brought closer to a solution. An old dream of flow research scientists is to theoretically solve the NavierStokes equation. It becomes clear that these models must be supported by expensive experimental work.scala:r variables such as enthabpy and mixing components is greatly intensified over the molecular exchange which takes place in laminar flows. Chapter 2 reports on such turbulence models. usually one must depend on experiments. The results of such experiments were first approximated by simple formulas. areas: This further development is in the following 2 .
Reference Variables In this paper we will consider channel flows. the annulus considered is "infinite" in the axial direction and is determined by the separation of the walls. Geometry. According to Figure 1. experimental results for comparison. has been performed in this connection. Material Constants. we consider the annulus channel and the plate channel in order to reduce the numerical effort and because there exist. the numerical description of turbulent flows is also of interest in meteorology [614]. The plate channel which is extended to "infinity" in two directions is found by the limiting transition /3 R24rD== con These geometries can be described using relatively simple Cartesian coordinates A r 3 . Improvement of the theoretical fundamentals Simulation of flows in plate channels as well as in an annulus channel Application of methods for determining turbulence model constants. 1. In addition to flows in closed channels (for example.2. Because of their simplicity. which are problems usually considered in reactor technology. 6 as well as the ratio R2/Rl of the radii of the outer and inner walls.lin a reactor fuel element). Much basic work The application of numerical methods for simulating turbulent flows within the framework of reactor technology will be important in the description of local meteorological processes in the vicinity of nuclear power plants [129]. Boundary Conditions.
2. we will not use the average or maximum velocity but instead the velocity which can be derived from the pressure gradient %(12) Equilibrium of forces results in the following average value of the shear stress<Tw at the walls: and therefore we also have \ P~ .e. average values < > taken over time or the ensemble. The average velocity is not a dependent variable.' (13) o = (14) * i. but depends on A P instead. The flow under consideration is assumed to be a steady (turbulent) flow in the x: direction in the statistical sense*.f se More complicated geometries are described in Chapter 11. which is produced by forced convection because of a specified pressure gradient or a corresponding axial field force per unit of volume.or cylindrical coordinates where = cos 4P . As a reference variable "oi for the velocity. .
the flow field in the axial direction is assumed to be constant in the statistical sense. we have the following equations [531 which go back to Navier [861 and Stokes [1171: 5 . Using the reference variables defined in Chapter 1. The basic equations are the conservation equations for mass and momentum.e.This velocity is called the "shear stress velocity" [120.) m s t D . Characteristic time Pressure ms SSpecific density m 3 Characteristic kinematic m2 molecular viscosity s The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and the density *g! The average viscosity is is independent of location and time.2. Basic Elquations 1.. (15) VO In addition.3. *./4 Dimension (i. . assumed to be and time. The following dimensioned reference variables are Symbol D Meaning Distance between walls 5 4 2 ]. P. the viscosity \can be a function of position We will impose the wall adhesion condition 4Iwall = 0 as a boundary condition.
t € . isotropic) material law for the shear stress as a function of the deformation rates.Momentum conservation a ( dp (19) 0 I 227 * The summation convention holds. no moment stresses  Fluid can be described as a continuum No field forces except the average pressure gradient Px Euler frame of reference Cartesian coordinates: 0 (16) /5 a Mass conservation (continuity equation): Momentum conservation +w a ( +U cUI . linear.d G. Terms with repeated subscripts [not inf brackets] are summed from i to 3. 6 . (17) I I 1 Cylindrical coordinates:  Mass conservation (continuity equation) bU VX ax i/ d=i =01g (18) .e.Assumptions:  Incompressible fluid Constant densities Newtonian fluid (i.
difference between momentum flowing into and out of a differential volume element. : : Pressure fluctuation gradient "Diffusion terms".IT X   Here we have defined: i Cotd = (I. . the momentum supplied per unit of volume by molecular transport (negative.4 Re The terms have the following meaning: I II III IV : : Local acceleration "Convection terms". I (3 o1vo I t  t= V . therefore momentum sink) /6 7 .
lis not an independent variable (see Chapter 1.max respectively. and the maximum velocity ( .corresponds to a Reynolds number Re Re = o D/ j' (113) which.2. because its integral over the entire volume is zero (see Chapter A5.V Px = 2. formulated with the average The Reynolds numbers Re of Re velocity I .lhowever.1 This can be used to formulate simplified boundary conditions. 8 .) One should consider that .). average pressure gradient in the x direction or force per unit of volume dependent) The terms (position and usually time (momentumsource) and I in the convection terms of the Iand. which are sometimes more advantageous.4).I f2( v (2 4SV ix tS  VC f' * ( S j) (111) (112) (In the second equation.?t7components are called the Coriolis or centrifugal accelerations. the first term only contains mixed derivatives. Sometimes other notations are used for the convection or diffusion terms. We will only give them for Cartesian coordinates: 01 I (because of 16) (110) The left form is called the conservative form.
4. (( E(115) where V a s ax 'V R +  (116) is the dissipation. Derived Blasic Elquations Further equations can be derived from the momentum and mass conservation equations and the wall adhesion condition by carrying out purely mathematical operations. 1201. but the dissipation can be identified from the first theorem of thermodynamics [7.1. and the pressure per unit of mass p. i. we find a conservation equation for the kinetic energy of a fluid: Cartesian: + ++4 /7 E  .4. The equation itself does not contain any new physical information. 9 . In this paper._ Conservation E uations of Kinetic E\nergy By forming the slcalar product of a velocity vector and its partial time derivative. whereby the latter is specified by the momentum conservation equation. the energy converted into heat per unit of time and unit of volume by the work of the viscosity forces. we will require such equations for the kinetic energy per unit of mass Esft(..TO Se (114) In the following we will refer to Rem when we speak of Reynolds numbers.e. 1. 53.are found as Re. 1.
The corresponding equation in cylindrical coordinates is given as follows where El 4 .9). (119) 10_ a S ! Y )I (120) 10 .' we have the following: 10y 7 (. we have the following wall condition If we form the divergence of the acceleration vector given by the momentum conservation equation (17. then because of the continuity equation In cartesian coordinates: c 9. w 4 ax (117) The dissipation E is given by: S(118) Because of (15).
The limited solution is always caused by the limited will be discussed in the following.3. 1. which are called fine structure models or correction models. This equation characterizes the importance of the incompressibility condition and of the pressure. computer capacity. partial differential equation of the Poisson equation type with a Neumann (inhomogeneous) boundary condition which must be satisfied at all times. Models are only used for certain deficiencies associated with the solution. as The direct simulation methods are characterized by the fact 11 .1. Principles of Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flows 1. Direct and Model Simulation There are two principally different directions in the numerical simulation of turbulent flows.5. for which we will not give the details.5.or in cylindrical coordinates 4 2 4~d (121) where qlzyl is the expression corresponding to qart. From (15) and (17) we find the following wall condition: TT 4)) wa)1I (122) This is an elliptical. because it causes a disturbance in the velocity field to propagate in the flow space with "infinite speed of sound". One method (used in this paper) consists of the direct integration of the basic equations according to Chapter 1.
30. For the first time HarlowWelch [541] carried out this method (only for laminar flows in two dimensions). of such models. 441].2. first the exact /9 basic equations are approximated by model equations. The natural method of directly using the basic equations given in Chapter 1. first a rotation potential form was used. which satisfy the continuity equation. nonsteady flow fields are always simulated. and their model character does not disappear when the resolution is increased arbitrarily. In the second method. this summary will also include methods of simulating laminar flows.that the fine structure models contained in them and the other errors go to zero when the resolution is increased in very powerful computers. In the simulation of the primitive variables. Usually these are model equations for describing time averages or ensemble averages of flow fields In Chapter 21we will discuss the principles and problems [12]. Starting with initial conditions.3 and then making them discrete and transforming them into a difference method suitable for computer simulation is neither the only method nor the first used method. In the following we will give a summary of the numerical method of direct simulation. 31. the pressure is determined at any time using a difference formulation of 12 . using the Galerkin method. Methods of Numerical Simulation 1. Since true turbulent flow fields have only been calculated by Deardorff [29. 43. In addition to this type of simulation of the socalled "primitive variables". the basic equations were expanded into eigen functions. Recently. Threedimensional. a problem arises in the consideration of the incompressibility condition and therefore a problem associated with the pressure. the velocity components u i and the pressure p.5. 331. A summary of the various methods is given in [58.
[27.2.Euations. 62. and for example AmsdenHarlow [31. the rotation wuz is formed for the basic equations axk where e. 21) in such a way that the time derivative of the velocity components satisfies the continuity equation. 63. The problems with the pressure do not occur in the rotation potential form of the basic equations.2.1 2 S • 'k' I (123) Ec£It = 0 in case two subscripts are the same = 1 in case the subscripts are cyclical = 1 in case the subscripts are anticyclical The pressure drops off because of (124) The velocities are calculated from a vlector potential VTl v so that 0/dx 0ro. for example. but instead an equivalent auxiliary potential the magnitude of which was determined in such a way that the incompressibility condition is maintained for arbitrary initial conditions. The simplification of this process was suggested by Chorin [21]. This method will also be used in this paper and will be explained in Chapter 6. The pressure was not /10 calculated directly. variables were integrated are. For this purpose. The same] method was used by Williams [149] and Deardorff [29] in three In this case.(119. Other papers in which the primitive 42. dimensions. (125) 13 . 941. a correction according to HirtHarlow [56] was introduced so that small deviations of the initial values from the incompressibility condition do not gradually increase.
the solutions at every time step.t) with respect to position x is expanded into eigen where only a finite number of discrete wave number vector elements k are numerically considered. This is because 14 . especially by Orszag [94. the Galerkin method was developed further. 49. 95. The velocity u(x. The advantages of the /11 method are the following [96]: The derivatives of the velocity field can be determined a) without any truncation error. 44. 971. so simple to interpret as are ui. has proven itself many times [40.From (123) and (125) we find the following equations for determining the vector potential z4C2 (126) ax Instead of a Poisson equation for the pressure. but a three dimensional representation is required for the simulation of turbulent flows. it is necessary to solve three Poisson equations in three dimensions and w i are not In addition. 83]). 41. For the same storage capacity. p. Over the last three years. 78. This method Here only one component of rotation is different from zero and therefore only one Poisson equation must be solved. (See for example Chapter A1. field functions.2. 83]. this has an effect on the This method used by AzizHellums [2] and Schinauer [121] for laminar flows is not being recommended This is not true for twodimensional flows.2 as well as [81. in recent papers [441]. 8 (two in each direction) b) times as many wave number components can be simulated in three dimensions as can be done using a difference method. formulation of boundary conditions. for example: 96.
FFT [19.(see Chapter A5.).97].E. However.2. cylinder) [94. c) complex. such as for example the convection For this. whereupon the nonlinear terms are calculated and then a retransformation is carried out. The advantage of the (F.by CrastanDevos [24] for example.) Advantage a) is not very important The disadvantages of the method are the following: Nonlinear terms. geometries using suitable conformal mappings.3) can be avoided. real field u(x. which was applied to flow problems. [33]. Crastan showed that even if a variational principle does not exist. only a maximum of c) KM 2 wave numbers can be represented in one direction.. Finally. we should mention the finite element method (F.20] limits this time to within acceptable limits.in a spatially discrete mesh network containing KM meshes.E.t) must be transformed into the This transformation a) terms or nonlinear viscosities can only be calculated in real space. it is possible to apply the (F. The aliasing problem (see Chapter A5.M. sphere.) is in the simplified description of complicated geometries and boundary conditions.M. which has not yet been found for the general NavierStokes equation. b) The eigen function development is only possible for simple geometries (plate.). 951. the fields v(k.M. costs a lot of computer time. However. complicated geometries can be mapped into manageable and simpler The methods and the corresponding programs are more This method is not to be recommended in spite of its elegance [44. this method leads to large systems of equations which are very nonlinear 15 . and only the fast Fourier transformation.E.1.t).
For example. The Method of Deardorff Deardorff [28. as well as the complete plate cross section in the radial direction (perpendicular to the plates) with D = 1. O /2o=o. (128) that is. The agreement with the measurements of ComteBellot [18] at higher Reynolds numbers is slightly better. is suited for meshes having equal sidelength. in contrast to (128).7in the azimuth direction (perpendicular to the flow direction. He considers a section of the plate flow having a length of X= 3 in the flow direction. as we will show in this paper. such as developed by Lilly [80. The finite element method has only proven /12 itself for linear flow problems. These errors can partially be traced to the small numbers of meshes.1) is considered by means of models. 1. Deardorff's finel structure model.O/ 0. The agreement of the average results with the measurements 32].3.linto 241420 = 6720 meshes. In this paper we will therefore use the method of simulating the "primitive variables" mentioned first. with X2 =0.for turbulent flow. The flow volume is divided into equidistant measures having the edge lengths &= 3/2= = 2/AO. 16 . parallel to the plates). It is now possible to transfer the fine structure model to cylindrical coordinates. 81.O. as well as to errors in the fine structure model and the boundary conditions. 77] is average. 29] simulated the nonsteady. of Laufer [76.5. strictly speaking. The fine structure of turbulence (see Chapter 5. threedimensional and turbulent flow between two parallel plates. the average velocity profile deviates by up to 50% from the measured values.22S.
The most important result. it was possible to determine that the "turbulence balls" have different dimensions depending on the velocity component in the axial direction. as we will do in this paper. 1.6. 33] the temperature field considered as a positive quantity was also integrated.The evaluation of the results resulted in information on the structure of a flow. The mesh network consisted of a maximum of 40*40*20 No evaluations were carried out for testing meshes in this case.1. In the papers [27. For example. of Deardorff's work is the proof that the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows is possible at high Reynolds numbers and that a fine structure model can be used which is independent of specific experimental support. or improving the turbulence models. 35. The order of magnitude of the lengths which must still be resolved /131 17 .000. it was doubted that it would be possible to carry out a direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows [23.6. The requirements for a complete numerical simulation are found as follows: Emmons [35] estimates that about 1010 meshes will be required for describing the fine structure of a turbulent tube flow at a Reynolds number of about 5. and the stability of the atmosphere flow was investigated with suitable boundary conditions. The computation time using modern computers is estimated at 100 years. 1211. 30. Resolution Capacity and Requirement for Fine Structure Models 1. Physically Required Resolution for Direct Simulation of Turbulent Flows Up to a few years ago.
according to Figure 2 1810 18 .1 (133) and therefore.3164 then we find 6ZZ25 Re (134) /4 Rem . P. _ (132) If the Blasius resistance law [120. P. the amount of effort increases with increasing Reynolds number. 553] In general. for Re = 105. In addition. A similar estimation can be made as follows: a direct and complete simulation must at least include the laminar sublayer. which brings about a change in the pressure loss amounting to 10% compared with that for a smooth wall. formula is used [120.is derived from the wall roughness magnitude. 5531 is substituted for X for tubes at Reynolds numbers which are not too high = 0. A measure of the mesh edge length required for this is therefore nz/ the thickness of the laminar sublayer. for example. the following 1z = Ulsing the definition of o S' (129) S  and the resistance coefficient X (130) we find i Z (131) and therefore s.
19 . required length is the Kolmogorov length n.4 we then find and with (133) (138) For Re = 105 we would also have the following according to Figure 2 lo31 1 Therefore we obtain the same results. If a special "wall law". which is interesting. A measure for the it would be interesting to determine the resolution Az which would be required in the turbulent core flow. KM " 10 3 meshes would be required in the radial /14 direction or 109 meshes in the three dimensions. For locally isotropic turbulence. we find t (' . we use the turbulence ball diameter to characterize the flow for which the inertia force and the viscosity force make an equal contribution to the disintegration of the ball: ' If the energy conservation Equation (115) is averaged over the entire flow volume. as will be discussed in Chapter Al. model is applied for the wall layer.< @ / (135) (136) Because of / > 2 4'/ .Consequently.2.
In order to obtain a statistically steady solution 23 dimensionless time units are required.We would expect that such a large number of meshes could not be handled on a modern computer. we have the computation time dependence on KM as shown in Figure 4.40 If suitable /15 can be calculated with core storage as a maximum. a computation time is required which increases in proportion to KM 4 because the permissible time step is proportional to KM1 (see Chapter 6.6.3.2. In order to simulate a threedimensional unit of time. a time step of For a mesh network of 16x16x16 meshes. and one energy and divergencel value each at 3 different times. so that at any time only one value is in core storage per mesh point and the rest is on background storage units. Possible Resolution and Final Conclusion If KM is the number of meshes in one direction. at the present time. according to Figure 3. dynamic data management is used. However. then it is possible to with up to KM 4 80. the computation time restriction is even greater. that is 15. and only nine at any time if suitable programming is used) must be stored. the approximate This means that the computation This means process problems calculation time is 3 seconds. The following section will show 1. The core storage available on the IBM 370/165 in Karlsruhe to the users is 2000 K byte (lK=1024) This means that problems with KM . this. values If we consider the fact that about nine variable (3 velocity components. then the required core storage increases according to KM 3 for isotropic resolution. 20 This value obtained from experience [331 . and for At5*10on the IBM 370/165. time per dimensionless time unit is about 10 minutes.2). then we find that 4 bytes are required per storage location and per value.
a mesh network with about (1000) 3 meshes is required.6.3 If we assume that commutation times of about 10 hours are acceptable.is confirmed if we consider the "break in time" Te. Of course. we find that the maximum usable mesh number is KM " 40. This is probably the order of magnitude of the upper limit which can be reached today. We therefore have the following results: for a complete direct simulation of turbulent flows. that is Te _V_ i. 233] the following applies for tubes: L = 0.693 (Rem) 1/4 (140) where vg) s 30 (order of magnitude [18] therefore Tee 0.( (139) According to Latzko [48. some reservations must be made about exponential extrapolation.1. according We can make this estimation if we to Chapter 1. More as a footnote we would like to state that the computation times required for KM " reasonable amount of effort.023 Re 1/4 (141) For Rem Z lo we find Te 2. already at moderate Reynolds numbers 21 /16 . P. The computer speed increases by a factor of 10 every 6 years and the core storage capacity increases by a factor of 10 every 5 years [71]. 1000 in one direction. can be realized in 2030 years with a extrapolate the computer improvements which have taken place over the last 20 years. the time during which the inlet length is passed by the flow in a tube.
Based on the computer capacity of today, only mesh networks of the order of (40)3 can be processed today, i.e. the resolution which can be achieved is not sufficient to resolve the turbulent structure with characteristic lengths of less than 01 . Therefore, better models are required for this "fine structure". The Purpose of this Paper
,Em j10 5 ).
1.7.
The overall purpose of this paper is to develop methods for the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows at high Reynolds numbers. The results of the numerical simulation will be used for the following purposes: To improve our knowledge of processes in turbulent flows To determine characteristic features of turbulence which cannot be measured c) To test the validity of turbulence models for flow fields averaged over time or over the ensemble. To determine empirically determined variables and to suggest improvements. We do not intend to develop direct simulation methods for practical design problems in technology. Instead we wish to support the only practical turbulence models. We would like to emphasize the fine structure model. This will be done selected geometry, should be independent of experimental support and should be valid for all variable independent of any mesh sizes. STATISTICAL TURBULENCE MODELS
a) b)
2.
In this chapter we will discuss the details of turbulence models, their problems and the direct numerical simulation 22
of turbulent flow fields using these models.
In particular, we
will discuss the problem of the "universal" applicability of turbulence models. The turbulence models discussed are not new. However, we believe that the discussion will be helpful for the understanding of turbulent flows. In addition, we will define] the turbulence model variables determined during an evaluation.
/17
2.1. Requirements for Turbulence Models and Purpose of Model Theories Turbulence is a random process [89]. It is not desirable and As
not possible to describe all of the details of this process. a rule, we are only interested in certain statistical average
values, such as for example those of the velocity values, pressures, or their products. Thereforegit is not appropriate to solve the unsteady differential equations and determine the solution. Instead, the differential equations themselves are averaged first. If we form the time average, (characterized by the < >) of the momentum conservation Equations (17), we find equations which contain more unknowns than equations:
4 T
4 <0a >
(+ (>
I(2l)
Additional unknowns are the following correlations named after Reynolds [107]
( qi' j')
< (Ui
J(22) >)
which have the dimensions of a stress per unit of mass, and which are therefore called Reynolds stresses. It is possible to establish differential equations for these unknowns [12, 115]. However, these contain a large number of unknowns which are triple correlations of the type
(ytL'v'/
and
(*''>!
, respectively.
In this way we do not obtain as many equations as unknowns for a finite number of equations. A truncation must be carried out
23
in some way, and the other unknown quantities must be calculated using suitable approximations from the known variables. case one refers to "closure problems". In this The set of equations
obtained with these approximations is called the turbulence model. In the following we will describe a few turbulence models and discuss the large number of suggestions put forth in this area. Summaries can be found in [53, 59, 91, 1.15, 127]. In the formulas, we will restrict ourselves to onedimensional, Cartesian problems, and x will be the flow direction axis. z is the perpendicular axis to x, measured from a limiting wall, where we have <U>=
v(4 >z).i
It is the general goal of turbu
lence theoreticians to find a "universal" turbulence model which satisfies the following requirements: It is valid in as many cases as possible (for various geometries, boundary conditions, types of turbulence production, etc.)/without changing the model or without any model constants, so that extrapolations into new areas can be made without any new experiments, On the other hand it should be simple enough that it can be used in practice with a justifiable amount of effort.
/18
In the following we will discuss the existence of such a "universal" turbulence model in connection with a few special models. 2.2.
The Prandtl Mixing Length Model
According to what was said above, in onedimensional flows only one component of the Reynolds stresses is different from zero. Let us assume that it is
<
q4 'UO
< 'U'"W'>
(23)
24
w' is the fluctuation component perpendicular to the wall (Figure 1). The simplest model for this isl the Prandtl mixing Using a Boussinesq model [5], in which the length model [98].
following expression is assumed for the molecular stresses, duu> r(24) in analogy to the Newtonian stress law Prandtl determined the
apparent turbulent viscosity vturb based on the idea of motion based on the individual turbulence balls (in analogy to the kinetic gas theory) over a distance of one free path length L (the mixing length) as follows V
=
L LI
I
.X
(25) In the vicinity
It is difficult to determine the mixing length L. of the wall we find [120] L = kz
(26)
with the Kdrmdn constant k * 0.4 and for a large distance from the wall L 0.1 D,j (27) Van Driest [25]
where D is a characteristic geometric length.
(t&"u>) into the
then gave a formula for L which makes it possible to calculate laminar sublayer. This was generalized by PantankarSpalding to variable shear stresses T [104]:
L
The constant A w force
k,
[
exp
[zRe
4I/A:j
(28)
considers the wall roughness T as the dimensionless
shear stress at the location z, which is determined from a equilibrium in the plate flow.
/19
25
The Prandtl mixing length model has proven itself in many cases, especially in boundary layer flows. cases: Equation (24) leads to contradictions in the center of a channel flow, if the location of zero shear stress (I' '=o is not the same as the position of maximum  o For example, see [104].
One obtains erroneous results using this model in the following
a)
velocity(
)because of a nonsymmetric geometry,j for example annulus,lor because of differences in the
wall roughnesses [90]. Equation (25) can produce large errors if it is assumed that the turbulent exchange coefficients are proportional to V turb for scalar quantities such as temperature or concentration (which is done often [49, c) The quantities vturb and 104]).
b)
jia
are only proportional with
with a time lag for nonsteady flows or flows which are substantially accelerated by varying cross sections. In the case of complicated channel cross sections, it becomes difficult to determine L in a suitable way; in addition the real exchange coefficients have an isotropic character; for example see [8]. e) For recirculating flows [49], such as behind ribs or blockages [75], the model fails completely. f) The model also usually fails for secondary flows and other convective mixing effects.
d)
26
From this, some people infer that it is not possible to have a universally valid turbulence model. Most researchers in this area attempt to expand the range of validity of the turbulence models by considering other variables and approximations to the exact equations which are valid for this case and which can be derived from the basic equations. In fact, a universally valid model probably does not exist, unless the NavierStokes equations themselves are used. However, just like the Prandtl model can be looked upon as universally valid at least for simple channel flows and in many cases, we can expect that a model which extracts somewhat more information from the exact equations will have "universal" validity in many cases. Energy Model According to Prandtl /20
2.3.
Prandtl also suggested [991 such an improved turbulence model. He set: Q
Vw L
c)t>
(29)
The exact timeaverage kinetic energy <Eso:
(
t,>)p
of the
fluctuation velocities, which is required here, satisfies the following equation which is derived from (115) by time averaging (with v = const)
Diffusion
Production
Dissipation
Approximations for the underlined and unknown correlations can be introduced from a dimensional analysis or with simple models. Therefore we obtain the following model equation [115]:
27
(29) and (211) contains the Karman constant k as well as three constants al. Nevertheless. for an example.2 as a first approximation. it is necessary to know the characteristic lengths L for turbulent exchange processes in a description of any turbulence models. it is necessary to have models for the length L. The temperature field calculations are the only ones that are of any value. the calculation of the length scale L is probelematical and it is computed according to Chapter 2.6). 2.4 Length Models According to Rotta /21 As mentioned above. a2 . Such a statement is typical for turbulence problems. These authors use the model given above to calculate the flow field (and from it the temperature field) after a sudden tube expansion. one is disappointed. Incompressible flows are characterized by the fact that perturbations at one location 28 . This model is especially advantageous where the Prandtl mixing length model fails because of restrictions b) and c) mentioned in Chapter 2. a3 which are determined from experiment (see Chapter 2. which are obtained from approximations of exact equations. when one reads that the field of length values L was determined using complicated algebraic equations containing four empirical constants such that the velocity field agreed with the corresponding measurements. However._ tT _ Ci ____L___ 2 (211) Diffusion Production Dissipation The model consisting of Equations (26). The calculated streamlines are impressive. This is a considerable disadvantage for recirculating flows. Consequently.2. as the paper of Runchal and Spalding [116] clearly shows.
115].4.2). This is also true for correlation spectra at a location as a function of the time frequency f or as a function of the threedimensional wave number vector k [132. 127]. This is also true for the derived variables. 116] (see Chapter 4. 53. such as. In order to have a model equation for a length L.are transmitted to the entire flow field through the action of the pressure field (see Chapter 1.jalso represent statements on correlations between variables at various points in locationtime space [53. it is first necessary to give a suitable mathematical definition of this The mixing length model is not sufficient to define a theorem according to the exact equations. Rotta [108. 3' (213) According to the following sketch. this length is the integral of the correlation coefficient 29 . This becomes clear if we consider the general solution of the Poisson Equation (119) for pressure [134] (for v = const): SS& II V( (212) Turbulence variables. which consider the spatial structure of the flow. 115] gave the following definition for onedimensional flows: length L.2).2.lfor example the average frequency [68. in addition to length scales.
115]. 114. we obtain an equation for The following equation presentation shows the exact equation on the top and the approximation adjusted by Rotta [114. is a consequence of the continuity The quantity L defined in this way can be interpreted If the time as the average diameter of turbulence balls. . 115] on the bottom /22 o % 4/(z ) U'Md + o <iCZ)WI/ 6AfI drf 0 (c7044't<> L az +Q's L.(The negative course for rp>zj equation). 1 derivative of the integral given above is formed and if we substitute the momentum exchange equations for determining L [109. a Z Production Sink Diffusion 30 .
/231 b) Integration of the differential equation with selected values of the constants and variation of the constants. only the first term was considered (a 5 = 0). Methods for Determining the Model Constants Three main ways can be used to determine the constants.Dimensional analysis can be used to obtain the approximate equations (especially for the sink term and the pressure velocity correlations). for example al to a : 8 a) Consideration of limiting cases in which many terms can be ignored. a .7.(Ouch as the immediate vicinity of the wall where the Prandtl mixing length model is valid) or homogeneous turbulence (where all terms of the transport equations for L vanish). as will be reported on later on. The main problem of turbulence model theory then consists of determining these constants in a suitable way. equations are given in [49. 104].n=5. are conceivable.('.. Up to the present. and L based on the socalled transport equations and relationship. 31 .5. so that the integral results agree with as many experimental results as possible "target values" in the sense of a least square fit. (211) represents a %°'w') based on an algebra c model which makes it possible to calculate4yV. The approximation of the production term is based on a Taylor series development of the integrals. This together with Equations (29). Numerical methods for solving this and similar This model contains 8 constants ('w'l When using an additional transport equation for 13 constants are required. according to Rotta [114]. 2.. Additional terms of the type L . Also analytical methods must be used. .
c) Direct determination of the constants by measuring the terms which occur in the defining equations. plate flow. the measurement technique fails here The measurement of complicated correlations Perhaps the energy dissipation is an The space derivatives of velocity derivatives. in order to determine the constants. also local isotropic conditions are assumed (see Chapter 4). one of the goals of this paper is to numerically determine the terms contained in the definition equations according to numerical simulation of positiondependent and timedependent flow fields. in almost all cases. plate boundary layer flow and free jet flow they used measured values of the following type as target values for plate and tube flows. for example ( 2 constants. which is required in (215). exception. Method c) would be the most exact one. ( /L(215) For Method a) makes it possible to determine only a few Method b) has been used by NgSpalding [91].Ipressures and their integrals over space is almost impossible. 148]). 32 . are usually determined by measuring time derivatives and recalculating using the Taylor hypotheses [134] X ('W ' (216) (for discussion of these problems see [115. P. tube flow. However. It will be possible to determine whether the "constants" are indeed independent of location and flow geometry and whether the model is therefore universally valid. Therefore.
NgSpalding [91] used a position function for a 6 . In other words.6. RodiSpalding [113] had to use constants for a turbulent free jet emerging from a round or rectangular nozzle which differ by almost a factor of two. what are the effects of the uncertainties in the values of the individual constants. the Influence of the Uncertainties in the Constants and Their Numerical Determination /24 Table 1 shows the constant values given by various authors. On the average we find the variations given in Table 2. NgSpalding [91] varied their constants by 5% each to investigate this question and calculated how much the integral values used as target values varied.2. c) It was found that the constants are not universally valid. It is very important to establish the variations of the model equation solutions which are obtained when the constants are varied. It is difficult to make comparisons because the length L has been defined in various ways. which according to can see the following: (29) is We expressed in particular by the value of the constant al. a) b) No agreement exists regarding the values No data is given for the second development coefficient a5 of the lengthproduct term (a 5 =0). see the following: 33 . We can The constants are sorted according to the magnitude of the target value change brought about by their variation. Data for the Constant Values.
in order to prepare ourselves for the differencing method and the fine structure model for direct simulation. The method is new. A numerical method which on the one hand does require models for the fine structure cannot produce any particularly usable results for terms which are greatly influenced by this fine structure. The chapter contains purely formal derivations and therefore no approximations which must be given a physical justification.a) It is more important to determine the constants exactly which are contained in the source and sink terms than those in the diffusion terms. item b) represents an important justification for an experiment to determine the constants from numerically simulated flow fields. such as. This means that additional terms should also be considered. It is very important to have the correct model for the lengthproduction term. /25 3. In addition. Among these we have the lengthproIn '. BASIC EQUATIONS AVERAGED OVER MESH VOLUMES In this chapter we will average the conservation equations for mass and momentum over the mesh volume. On the other hand. and 34 . a 4 and a 5. b) In particular.jfor example the energydissipation term and the diffusion terms. we can expect that those terms can be calculated in a realistic manner which are primarily determined by the resolved coa se structure. duction term and the timeaverage Reynolds stress (' this paper we will make a particular effort to determine the constants al. we will derive a conservation equation for the kinetic energy of the fluctuation velocities contained within the mesh.
one of the field values being integrated is stored. 3. At the conclusion of this chapter. Approximations They only assume that the higher 35 . In addition to the spatial division.1. Therefore. the time axis is also divided into a finite number of time intervals At and for each time interval one each of the field values is stored at all space locations. are also required in this case. For each mesh. it is not possible to simply assume that the product xn+l n+I will remain sufficiently small for small x. Then the differentials of the field values are approximated by differencing field values at the various adjacent One arrives at such differencing approximations by either a Taylor series expansion and truncation of the series after a few terms. because the derivatives f (n+l can increase greatly with increasing n. terms [13] 1 Ilf the residual term 0 0x 4 (31) (32) can be ignored for very irregular turbulent flow fields. meshes. The Taylor series development can be truncated after a few. for example. it is possible to build exact difference approximations and fine structure models. Justification and Definition of Mesh Averaging In order to build up a differencing method. we will give a summary of the basic ideas in the following chapters. the flow space is divided into as many regularly arranged meshes as possible.in contrast to earlier work. the second method must be used for turbulent flows. or by formal integration of the differential equations over a spacetime mesh with subsequent approximation of the nonanalytic integral terms. after n.
of course. Also the boundary conditions for the different formulas are different. The mesh network is determined by a field (not necessarily equidistant of surfaces xi=const. 81] and Deardorff [29]. n. that is. Therefore. these authors did not take into account that some of the integration can be done analytically. This will become clear in the following sections. '/First let us explain the mesh network used and the average values used. the field values considered in the differencing method have been falsely identified as volume average values. this leads to a different definition and approximation of the Reynolds stresses which describe the fine structure. and t=const.lthey have to assume that The socalled These terms cannot be obtained /26 a which is. we will first use the method of Lilly [80. It is more correct to say that they are area average values. In the averaging. smoothed field values) are sufficiently small. The effect of the irregular fine structure within the meshes is also represented in the average. in the integration over the mesh volume and subsequent division by the mesh volume.Z ' l (33) It would be correct to assume that 2( )(Or Ux o u (34) Consequently. for Taylor series expansions.dequations.1 Reynolds stresses show this. Therefore.) A mesh with the indices 1. U . The same difference formulas for the averaged fieldivalues can be formally obtained from the above (for\equidistant mesh networks). correct. p is made up of the following 36 . m.derivatives of the field values averaged overlmesh volumes (that is. However.
for example 4 >7l p + .2.spacetime element: VX. /P t we have: (36) Cartesian: iln tilir{ W(x/ "P~ "3/nt % Cylindrical: ipq '"" /t ).dr I4f el I') 3. Continuity Equation (Mass Conservation) The exact (16) 37 First we will consider cartesian coordinates. (35) where the coordinates l/l+L 2 x2/m+ Xyn+ 2 t/p+ 2 increase monotonically with the indices. a '" differential equation . P~ (37) IT 74" 4 V = d.O{tt S . >0 /27 The averaging of a variable y in a volume V' (which at the same time equals the mesh volume as well as a spacetime region which is displaced with respect to the mesh volume) is defined as .Ix.SfdV If the volume V' is equal to Vlmnp.. and in addition we have.tp.
We obtain: 4 7 = S.e. for example and we will call the differences which occur :&x. ... "area" in the following. 'I (Ye. for example 4 where. the Gauss integral theorem [131: . .p) Then the averaging gives. Sle.. we find the following for cylindrical coordinates (starting with (18)) 38(311) 38 . that is over a mesh area segment and a time This region defined in spacetime space is called In order to simplify the notation.p.is to be averaged over V.S S "W" ' N (39) If we consider the fact that each of the three sum terms of the integrand is formally integrated with respect to one of the coordinates (the x.. we will call these area averages iy. 'coordinate) we obtain differences of two terms in which it is only necessary to integrate over two space variables and time. (310) This equation is exact and has a formal correspondence with V F In a similar way. interval.
we cannot expect such a simple and elegant result here. 42. we will show how a different notation can be found using a formal method which is very close to the differential equations. We will repeat the result: At least the continuity equation can exactly be replaced by differencelformulas. 62. i. Averaged Momentum Conservation Laws We will now derive the average momentum conservation laws which are similar to the average continuity equation. if the velocity average values which occur are defined as average values of velocities over a mesh area segment (as well as over a time interval At). depending on the velocity components.dr. is used. 54. the normal of which is parallel with the velocity component vector. We will also show 39 . This grid has up to the present not been used in the literature for formation of area average values.3. for example f S S S (312) are defined according to and the difference quotients 6d. 4 the cartesian c . 33. 96. 30.where. Since these area average values are taken over a different area segment of the mesh. 1411. a socalled "staggered grid" [29. It has only been justified because of the simplicity and accuracy of the truncation errors of the resulting difference formulas [33. Figure 5 shows the grid used.e. an"overlapping grid" in which the velocity values to be stored are assigned to various locations depending on the direction. 96]. Because of the complicated nature of these equations. However. 3.
we find the following:* Cartesian: V  a : ho . The following sketch shows this V 1 for the component 1 of the momentum equations in cartesian coordinates: XAAe 'C Xe (312) The limitation of the volume V 1 in xl direction is selected between the coordinate surfaces x/l 2. a volume is averaged i according to the staggered grid which contains the reference surface of the average surface value of the velocity component under consideration in approximately its center. 6+ J . one could start with integral conservation theorems.1+ 1 = const. If the momentum conservation equations are averaged over such volumes Vi.. /29 Depending on the equation component. and if formal integrations are carried out wherever possible.where approximations will have to be made. 40 .ibecause in this casel the error of the difference approximations required later on becomes the smallest. It seems that the procedure used here is simpler when curvilinear coordinates are considered. Z j 4.' 7 (31 4) Instead of integrating the differential conservation theorems over volumes.
(Volume average values occur in the Coriolis and centrifugal acceleration terms). ) (318) is the average value of the radius in the volume Vr. We may formally make a division into average values and fluctuation variables as follows: 41 .Cylindrical: VX + + e Y4 V + 1 f2 f f x . Area average values of velocity products occur in the convection terms.f x  $ + x1 dx + Here Here +(L <.
addition to these Reynolds stresses. stresses. there are numerous velocity average values. as well as first derivatives).1.* S(319) then we obtain CJu4 .of the velocity from its (area) average value. Correlations occur among the fluctuation velocities (and sometimes volume average However. this complicated The notation ui notation is not used because it is always clear what is meant. terms with derivatives (however. uiui would be ambiguous. they In referring to area average values values) which are of the Reynolds stress type. which do not agree with those stored in the grid. these vanish when the diameter of the volume goes to zero because in this case u' i also goes to zero. stresses which occur when time averaging is formed. only This means that more unknowns than equa tions exist and these unknowns must be calculated from the known velocity average values using approximations. become zero when the volume element diameter goes to zero. (320) We find that terms occur also here which can be called Reynolds stresses [1071. 42 . just like what occurred in the time In contrast to the Reynolds averaging according to Chapter 2. The approximations will be introduced in Chapters In order to provide approximations for the Reynolds 5 and 6. We will thus repeat the results momentum conservation equations again: Many terms of the can be formally integrated for volume averaging and then can be transformed into difference form.
we obtain the following for cartesian coordinates: E   crIf  X P) (321) If we introduce the following as fluctuation variables according to (319) where the bar refers to the averaging process.3.it is first necessary to formulate the conservation equation of the kinetic energy averaged over the volume. / 31 3.2 and 3. that is for V V 2 4 We obtain this conservation equation by formulating the time derivative We formulate the volume average value using Equations (17) and (19) respectively and then subtract the scalar product of the velocity vector vland using Equations (314) and (315). and S. E L(3 23) 3 43 . Average Conservation Equations of Kinetic Energy In the following we will derive a conservation equation for the kinetic energy of the fluctuation velocities within a mesh volume. Just like in Chapters 3.4. respectively.
(328) t 44 . 5 If we introduce the following arithmetic averaging opera tion: A and if we introduce the identities .we find: V VVA.3a.'v V : is ok . the scalar product VZ t. " (. b + aC( CdrC. VV On the other hand.. . (o b6) S ycrx (326) adldx. + "K. (327).a .
we find the desired equation 1: q ' (331) The terms have the following meaning: J 75 I II III IV Time change of the average fluct he Equation energy. Convection of the equation fluctdesired energy. j V (330) v If we now subtract the result from the Equation (324). * According to the mean volume theorem of integral calculus is a point in the volume V. Production terms.and we assume the following approximation*: 4 tZ. work of the Reynolds stresses Diffusion terms. the term IVb can be ignored as a rule./ (329) we can write: V. where ' we have 145 .
/from adjacent values of tionships (algebraic average values). which must be calculated from the variables stored in the grid: on the one hand there are quantities such as for example which must be approximately calculated from adjacent mesh values (for example. so as to clarify the following chapters. V. Chapter 6 will discuss The main fine structure within a mesh the linear approximations. Total Dissipation Dissipation due to average velocity /331 3. which are simple in nature.5. problem and most of the development in this paper will be the discussion of the modeling of the nonlinear fine structure Reynolds stresses. We will only consider Equation (314) with the division of the convective terms according to Equation (320) contains two types of unknowns. ) using linear relau . there are the fine structure Reynolds stresses velocity field u calculated using nonlinear approximations from the average as well as from the kinetic energy of the VE . which must be On the other hand. In the following we will give a brief description of the principles used in the model. which are discussed in detail in Chapters 4 and 5. Va: Vb: Dissipation of the fluctuation energy. as well as in the Appendices 1 3. Summary of the Basic Ideas for Formulating a Closed System of Equations In this section we will describe the models which will be used to formulate a closed system of difference equations.because the viscosity fluctuations are apparently not correlated with the other terms. cartesian coordinates. 46 . i.u.
This assumption is probably more applicable for the fine structure than for the coarse structure. in nature. this condition is not always satisfied for the time average flow field. As discussed in Chapter 2. the viscosity Ji is not calculated using an algebraic relationship from the velocity field average over the mesh area 47 The reasons for this are the /34 effects of the walls and the geometry which are deterministic . than the exact equations state.2. The analogy between the Boussinesq trial solution and the molecular Newtonian shear stress trial solution assumes that the turbulent exchange process as well as the molecular momentum transport process are purely statistical in nature.A trial solution is used for the fine structure Reynolds stresses. The Boussinesq trial solution accordingly represents an approximation. Therefore the assumption seems valid. The most significant error in such an approximation is probably the fact that the Reynolds stresses in the approximation are more closely coupled with the actual coarse structure of the velocity field as represented by the grid. because strictly speaking the Reynold stresses must be determined by integration of a corresponding conservation equation (which is in the form of a partial differential equation). which have the form of a Boussinesq trial solution: / ( c*1 1 e e Here Jp is the turbulent viscosity which must still be determined. The Boussinesq trial solution assumes that the shear stress and the velocity deformation vanish at the same time. The subscript points to the fact that the viscosity will differ depending on the size and shape of the area considered over which the averaging is carried out. In order to consider this effect at least partially.
Equation (25) and also as Deardorff (see Chapter 5. of the energy VE' This means that the time derivative /35 vanishes when we take the time average. JE' is the kinetic energy within the mesh area under consideration. and its magnitude is JF. This trial solution has an even more detailed physical basis. so that models derived from this can also be transferred to other problem areas. It only remains to find the difference between the production and the dissipation.1) has done.(as is done for the Prandtl mixing length model. we require that the experimental support is independent of the geometry under consideration. We now assume that the turbulent flow under consideration is steady in the statistical sense. averaging over the entire flow volume. The problem is now to determine the constant c. it is calculated as follows: (333) from the kinetic energy of the fine structure. The convective and diffusion terms also vanish for the additional of experiments as possible. for which a transport equation corresponding to (331) is also integrated at the same time. This net balance results in the equation for determining the constant c (shown in the following for VeAi ): 48 . because no kinetic energy isi transferred through the walls. in which the fine structure Reynolds stresses occur in the product term. 33) in the conservation equation for kinetic energy (331). We will attempt to find a method of determining it which is as independent Since we cannot do this entirely. We obtain an equation for the determination of the constant c by substituting the trial solution (332.) Instead. Here we will simply state that it has the correct dimensions and seems plausible.
Correlations are related to relatively complicated integrals using a purely mathematical method.. The terms which must be calculated are the time average of the kinetic energy of the fluctuation motion in a mesh area as well as the time average of a difference form involving the square of the deformation rate D2 . Finally.j> (334) We can approximately transform this equation as follows: a < _(335) + (336) Using the theory of isotropic turbulence and after the experimental determination of the individual "constants" Kolmogorov constant a). These socalled two point correlations can be calculated for isotropic. if the energy spectrum of the velocity fluctuations is known. the latter can be cancelled. (the it is possible to establish a quantitative relationship between the terms occurring in the denominator of this equation and the average dissipation <E>. which is defined by the following differential quotient: D. In addition to the geometric factors. incompressible turbulence using kinematic relationships. Physical models exist for the energy spectrum which lead to the statement 49 . only the correlations between the velocity components at two points occur. = 2 ~I C11 (337) These terms are also called correlations and will be calculated in Chapter 4 and Appendix 2.0C (C YJ ( C ~JJ d(~ .
I It may now be argued that the theory of isotropic turbulence cannot be applied here. one is left to the conclusion that this is a universal constant.2 we will develop a concept according to which the fine structure Reynolds stresses is divided into its time average (or period average.j = 1. quantitatively determined. in Chapter 4. the trial solution (332) gives values which For this reason. trial solution (332) basically all components of the Reynolds stress i j when the time average is taken.3. we have con / 36 tinued the development of the mathematical part of this computation procedure used in earlier methods. difference formulas. F7 < (338) The theory of isotropic turbulence is only applied for sum term II (the "locally isotropic part").that this spectrum has a universal form under some conditions (this is known as the Kolmogorov spectrum) and in which only one experimental constant occurs. Here we must apply the concept of local isotropy. see below) and the deviations from it: J. in are different from zero fbr i. values. tions which occur in (335) and therefore the constant c can be In the present paper.1. so that we again did not use meshes with the same side lengths. because the turbulent channel flow under consideration here is very anisotropic and inhomogeneous. tensor contradicts the assumption of isotropic turbulence because in true isotropic turbulence Ju must vanish for i Instead. A special model will be applied to sum term I'("inhomogeneous part"). as will be discussed Nevertheless. f is not zero. Chapter 5. From measurements of this This means that the correlaconstant under various conditions. we used the actual Because of the fact that the time average of the velocity gradient <X~u. This model is characterized by the fact that it becomes the Prandtl mixing length model for the 50 .
this division represents a significant advance over earlier models.limiting case of very large meshes. where the average velocity profile has large gradients. /37 51 . The model for the inhomogeneous part can also be determined quantitatively. the Reynolds stresses In order not to be restricted to steady turbulent flows in a statistical sense by using the time averages. The details of these models will be presented in the following chapters. This is especially evident because the numerical results (Chapter 10) correspond better to the measured values even for a relatively large mesh. simple assumptions can be used here. The term "period average value" was selected because periodic boundary conditions are prescribed (Chapter 7. in which local isotropic conditions had to be assumed even in the immediate vicinity of the wall. Since the inhomogeneous part is only very important in the vicinity of the wall. For the other limiting case. The period average value is the average value taken over those planes in the flow channel in which the statistical properties of the flow field are constant. we will not use the actual time averages but socalled period average values. than do the numerical results ofl Deardorff [29]. but not as elegantly as the model for the locally isotropic part.1) in the numerical model at the limits of these planes. when the division is made according to (338). become zero. these are x1X 2 for the plate and the x . in which the meshes are very small. the According to Figure 1. In any case.Y planes for the annulus.
The author.1. time averages of products).e. The concept of "local isotropy" was introduced by Kolmogorov [67].lspeaks of "local homoIn this paper we will use the following definitions gene ity".4. Channel flows are neither isotropic nor homogeneous. 52 . A turbulent flow field is called "isotropic" if the statistical averages of arbitrary variables which can be derived from the velocity field and the pressure field (for are invariant with respect to rotation and example(<ryui). Local Isotropic Conditions Definition and Justification 4. In order to apply this theory. 115.1. following we will define local isotropic conditions and we will determine the range of existence by evaluating the corresponding experimental results. many results of the theory of isotropic turbulence can be applied.1. 53. theory of isotropic turbulence are contained in Appendix 1 and the calculation of correlations is presented in Appendix 2. Nevertheless. LOCAL ISOTROPIC TURBULENCE AND CORRELATIONS OF SPACEAVERAGE FIELD VARIABLES /38 We will establish some fundamentals for the quantitative determination of the fine structure model using the theory of isotropic turbulence. 4. It is called "homogeneous" if these averages are only invariant with respect to transla tions [6. translation of the coordinate system. it In the must only be valid for local isotropic turbulence. 1341. if there is local isotropy or local homogenelity. Then two methods of calculating the correlations of two spaceaverage field variables will be The details of the presented (i. for example. Deissler [26].
/ 39 This definition is o tion of the wave number coordinate system. in their macroscopic structure because of the anisotropic boundary conditions and the momentum sources only acts in one direction). as Rotta [1081 has shown. well adapted for the experimental determination of Lis Local homogeneous conditions are therefore defined in a similar way. Local isotropic conditions can be shown to Channel flows are anisotropic exist in channel flows as follows.t) is locally isotropic in the if vicinity having the diameter Lis o of a location x is isotropic for ._ 1/L with respect to rotation and transla. the large turbulence balls must decay into smaller ones because of the influence of the inertia forces. (average pressure gradient The "turbulence balls" which are produced because of the macroscopically unstable flow have a relatively large diameter.  i Lis except for deviations which can be ignored. by the requirement for invariance with respect to translations alone. 53 . which is only slightly smaller than the characteristic length of the channel geometry. The pressurevelocity correlations bring about an energy exchange between the velocity fluctuations in various directions. A similar requirement is that the Fourier transform is invariant forII. the dissipation of the turbulent energy only becomes effective for very small "turbulence ball" diameters.for these terms: A turbulent flow field u(x. Since for large Reynolds numbers.
detailed presentation.5 . they can be derived from the isotropic condition and the continuity equation).. see Table 3) scalar wave number (Dimension: I/length average energy dissipation macroscopic length scale />) Kolmogorov length / 40 54 . This is the physical reason for the existence of local isotropic conditions.4) Appendix 1 contains a which only depend on r for isotropic turbulence . and these results are from the theory of isotropic turbulence. o n = (A) = 6 /3 6 3 (44) Kolmogorov constant (a 1. The following two results are important for the quantitative determination of the fine structure model. can be calculated using relationships which are entirely kinematic in nature (i. which is called the Kolmogorov spectrum: E ccI k ZSX L. if the threedimensional scalar spectrum E(k) (defined in Appendix 1) is known.e. b) For the wave number range (inertial subrange) determined by inertia forces L we 7 (43) can give a generally valid law for the energy spectrum.so that the motion of the turbulence balls becomes more isotropic as the diameter is reduced. a) The twopoint correlations' RiJ f(e Rj r*) 4''. k is a scalar wave number (Dimension: /length).2. () I)(V .1. Results of the Theorv ofIsotropic Turbulence 4..
In Appendix 1 we give the experimental proof for the fact that these conditions are satisfied. b) a must be a known universal constant. The Kolmogorov length n must be substantially smaller than h. we can derive the following from the Kolmogorov spectrum (see Appendix 1): Rr. that is.) (45) P.Using the relationships discussed under a). _ ( <( > r . The Kolmogorovspectrum is advantageous here. In order for these results to be applicable for the quantitative determination of the fine structure model.lto determine the local structure within the difference meshes having the average edge length h. the following conditions must be satisfied: a) The length Liso and L must at least be as large as h.. because it leads to analytical expressions for R.fl (see Appendix 1). <?r< These correlations can also be calculated for other spectra such as for example the Pao spectrum valid for k.. (< >J. / i'6) (4 where for (t I/ Lo .. It therefore follows that: 55 .
5 /41 4. The constant a can be assumed to be given by the following formula based on many measurements (also in a channel flow) and because of theoretical estimates.respectively. Methods for Calculating Space Correlations 4. Their centers are specified by x or x or _. two or threedimensional.2. V 1 averaging.1. to within an error of about +5% a= 1. o 12 are 'locally isotropic within a region whose diameter is given by the maximum separation between 56 .2. which can be one. Definition and Assumption In the following sections we will present two methods for calculating correlations of the following type R 21 ( < f) (47) Here j and 12 are two turbulent fields (velocities. the results 10 m and Reynolds number Re A 4 4For 3 30 m given above can be applied. The averaging operations are linear and are defined by integrals of the following type v V' 1 (48) As an example. pressures .5 l . the time average of the kinetic energy within a mesh volume V is: V EIt is assumed that l and Z" ( v. V 2 are space volumes used for or their derivatives).
1 1 '*z . we assume that the fields Ii and /12are homogeneous such that R(~ x. for YA (45). 2 In addition..2..'4121 / 4 For example. Lilly calculatedl The disadvan01 [80]. 8) we have: Different integration variables were used for the two integrations. Therefore we have the following transformation: V41 I RN. as shown in [1361. so that they can be exchanged: . This is very In the following section we will demonstrate that the number of independent integration variables can be cut in half. This means that the computation times for can be reduced from hours numerical evaluation of the integrals 57 . yl )does not depend on the position vector 4.the points contained in the averaging volume V 1 and the volume V . where .U j.E R f wherel R11 is given by the correlations Using this method. SR . laborious. for v=v2 == h (numerically) tage of this method is that sixfold integrals must be evaluated for the threedimensional volumes. Method of Direct Integration According to definitions (47. ( (. I < (410) as well as the space averaging are The time averaging < > linear operations. k .2.
apparently we must have o 0 V4 (415) where the range V 1 is defined such that I. (416) In addition to the simple weighting functions. Volume CorrelationMethod 4.l i L'3 ..2 . where K(s) corresponds to the light intensity distribution. (414) Kl(s) it is a (normalized) weighting function. we have: R8 N<ff 00 (417) 58 . The space averages can be defined as follows according to [136] "W' where 00 k. In order for the average value defined in this way to agree with (48). using this concept. it is possible to define average values having weights which vary continuously The corresponding correlations in space.1. can then be calculated. The only condition ! it must go to zero such that the must satisfy is at :1 integral given above will exist.2.3. This is important in the evaluation of measurements using the laser Doppler method [15]. If K 2 (s) is defined in a way similar to Ki (s).( K ( ) W (2) V (J] (413) JSI dV() 4 ..to seconds.
(c)=CV) we find: 1we fidvnd:CV(2'1 P% 0141Y. . The energy spectrum E(k) is assumed to be the same 59 . which follow from the preceding sections. Often this can be calculated analytically. 1 V41 V. (4_18) Using the substitutionx~.LCr. M11). 1so where Liso3 Xh holds (~xma: maximum of the mesh edge length &Y._ . Results In the following we will give the results for a few special correlations.) RV Here Rl~j~1 2 is independent of y and it is possible to extract a partial integral.YI= Of X I(Y~ 3+Y) 4.3. which is locally isotropic in regions having the diameter L. Ax. 4. It is assumed that ui(x.After exchanginglthe (linear) averaging operations we find: /43 / where RL V = SSS according to (412). the socalled volume correlation Y41(3 : and we have: V4~C() depends only on the geometry and the relative orientation as a function dependent on the volumes V 1 and V 2 . In Section 2 we will calculate the volume correlations which apply for rectangular volumes..t) is a turbulent velocity field. in which it is necessary to integrate over onehalf as many independent integration variables as was the case for (411). This means that only one integral must be (numerically) evaluated.
extended to ndimensional volumes. Using the methods of Chapter 4. 60 .'XF)' (427) Remark to a).2. but the mesh edge lengths The time increment At is negligibly ~c are not all the same. we calculate the following variables: / 44 1 72 3 r Remark to a).as the Kolmogorov spectrum (44). R ij(r) apply for Irx' Liso so that the correlations The grid is according to (45. K('F'js the generalization of the volume We have the special cases average value of the kinetic energy of the fluctuation motion. small.6). is the generalization of the volum(42) c) c (K. assumed to be cartesian and equidistant.
given in different form.l 61 . for example = /AX~.2.x.1i/) (432) . The term FED corresponds to the average JF here is energy dissipation used for the approximation FED. i identical to D " used by Lilly and the difficult calculation methods are avoided here..4" h 3 E1 (A". calculated by Lilly [80] for=AZM9The approximation ( "Ju/x _ _. because the integrals Using the Fortran (E2.<I. Remarks to c). The quantities kD2.2 . the contribution of the mesh surface. D11. C~l(43o) X ) > f (' .3. (428) (429) 4 /> .. D 1 4. Subprograms Appendix 2). D4 (4 (431) 4l. the normal of which is 1F parallel to the coordinate x.4 are various forms of the average square of the deformation rate. we find The results cannot be presented analytically. . which occur must be evaluated numerically.Remarks to b). The details of the calculation are given in Appendix 1. k = 1. D12. FED1 described in /45 VW' V v x hA: . The notation was discussed in Chapter 3.x . The V V! X term is ( '. D13. E3.
39 62 . FgD <E>1>1s VAA l (6 4 it C /eV . 803 .../) (437) (438) r() 9/20 . 4X31 the numerical evaluation of the integrals gives the following: For special values of the edge lengths '6X4: '4'yt ' = 1 : 1 : 1 :4A2 = 0.A (A (4_34) (435) .746 6./ E A 4/ D43.. ..05 4:Ax E3 D 11 0.r (439) (440) /4 .32 5.984 5.125:0.73 3..05:0.p3(& . A Ax/) 13 " S (436) YCx/AAX.) x.88 7. 1x.2 .13 0.825 6. /M ) p ..90 D 14 FEDI 0. . 6k../h..S f C 6.35 3.85 D 12 D 13 6.30 1.
1) = 0.a well as E2(1.1. We will use the correlations (45.761 D11(1. so that one additional numerical integration can be dropped. 5 .05/h2 ) = 0. 6) which follow from the Kolmogorov spectrum (44). which are understandable when evaluating sixfold integrals numerically.0. !7 .125.0.13 according to (441) can be attributed to Lilly's erroneous assumption that <Cu.t ) we can calculate time average products of arbi( trary space average velocities.i.6821 Comparison: h2 =(0. In the next chapter we will calculate a few such special correlations.I) = 7.05) (443 Lilly [80] gave the following results: (444) E3 (1. Without changing the method.746 can be explained from (441) because of numerical inaccuracies. if the Kolmogorov spectrum is assumed. The deviation of (445) from the value of 6. using a purely formal procedure.125/h 2 . 63 . /N a . Rij can be calculated analytically.1) = 0.6293 (442 /46 E2(0.. assuming local We have the following general results: isotropic conditions and for known correlations Rij (r) = (fru*.66 (445) The small deviations between (444) and the value of 0. the variables of interest can also be calculated for arbitrary spectra. However.
The terms which are valid for cylindrical coordinates are then determined by simple analogies. 64 .1.1.5. 5. First of all we will investigate the trial solutions used by Deardorff will [29.1. Lilly and Deardorff Summary and Definition of the Trial Solution 5. we must approximate the following terms: in cylindrical coordinates these are: as well as the apparent stresses which are brought about because of volume averaging of the Coriolis and centrifugal acceleration. We will demonstrate a few of the deficiencies which be avoided in the new model. In Cartesian coordinates. First we will determine the correlations which occur in Cartesian coordinates. Boussinesq Trial Solution for Volume Reynolds Stresses. which are called Reynolds stresses and which occur during the averaging process of the momentum equation. FINE STRUCTURE MODEL /47 In this chapter we will give a justification for the approximation for the area values of products of the area average values referred to the fluctuation velocities. according to Smagorinsky.33].
81] followed the ideas of Smagorinsky and suggested the following trial solution: 2A It( 1 (51) with the deformation velocity 2ij a (52)  and the turbulent viscosity V. Leith [82] has suggested a special model which is suitable The Boussinesq trial solution for for twodimensional turbulence. which makes it possible for random fields to be produced. /48 of magnitude.5. this in his older papers. respectively. This may be due to the fact that the temperature field represents an additional degree of freedom here.A )1 (53) * This statement was already discussed in Chapter 3. which are produced in the averaging over small volumes or areas. the Reynolds stresses caused by the turbulent fine structure was first used by Smagorinsky [118] for the simulation of large space atmospheric circulation. The twodimensional simulation of the turbulent momentum transport and heat transport gave rather good results according to Deardorff [27]. and because of this they do not result in the expected quasi/random and turbulent flow fields. are more appropriately modeled by a Boussinesq trial solution * because they have a smaller order Lilly [81] described some of his experiences with These are twodimensional simulations.In Chapter 2 we discussed the fact that the Boussinesq trial solution is suitable only for steady boundary layer flows when applied to the Reynolds surface which occurred during the time averaging process. 65 . It can be assumed that the unsteady Reynolds stresses. Lilly [80.
addition.= (55) Deardorff [29] transferred these derivations through meshes which did not have equal sides (128) and assumed that the characteristic mesh length h is given by /3 The methods used by (56) Smagorinsky [118] and Lilly [80. 5. the calculation of cl using the methods discussed here is described. 81] justifies the trial solution given above only for meshes with equal side lengths h = A . Lilly and Deardorff considered the following Reynolds stresses averaged over mesh volumes V (Edges V V £4. in contrast to the derivations discussed in Chapter 3. We must consider the fact that. as discussed in Appendix 3. Simplifications. as well as their In results and the expected values of Deardorff [29. [80.1. 33].where c1 is determined. UJ* '14i VW t Vt4* (54) Lilly No averaging over the time interval At is included here.2._Deficiencies and Contradictions of the Theories Advanced So Far /49 The fine structure model as developed by Lilly and applied by Deardorff is based on the following assumptions: a) b) Locally isotropic (homogeneous) turbulence The Kolmogorov spectrum is valid 66 . Smagorinsky. 81] for calculating cl are shown in Appendix 3.
c) Use of a Boussinesq trial solution instead of integrating Vthe conservation equations for UZiSlj' V*. e) Use of a conservation equation for E. different formulas according to (A344) should be used.2. i) j) Lilly's assumption of difference formulas for calculating De./ k) It is erroneously assumed that the same difference formulas are valid for both factors in (A314).1) f) /J " f (Equation (A315) g) h) <')>zE . (See Chapter A 3. even though the development of these 67 . d) is calculated in a deterministic way from the average velocity field. The model used by Deardorff [29] has the following deficiencies and contradictions: J0 is completely correlated in time with the a) velocity field. Equation (A316) Re>>> 1 (molecular viscosity is ignored in the momentum conservation equations by Deardorff). even though we only have a statistical relationship [43]. (A329) does not correspond to the difference formulas used by Deardorff. A theory exists only for maos volumes having equal side lengths. which is derived us i ing another averaging operation than is used for averaging the momentum equations.
the magnitude of a time delay. Therefore. d) When the difference formulas (A333) are used for calcuDe. we nevertheless see a weakness of the theory. even though an used. where The fact that K. to it.0. Even e) f) g) 2 though the error will be small because of the factor k . model is sufficiently accurate for finite s. 68 . then the turbulent viscosity p will also lating (Vbe positive according to (53) if the flow is laminar. because according /50 it also follows that h . because <j is obtained according to (A320) from an intregal over k 2 . In (for example). .E(k) over all wave numbers smaller than ' .'7 40 contradicts the assumption of 0 '0 for locally isotropic turbulence. where all i 3 j. Equation [1151). described by the unsteady conservation vonly increases with 4.)1 . we have /09 other words the model contradicts experience for these Therefore it is questionable whether the limiting cases. For ~Odj and ~AX" The Kolmogorov spectrum must also apply in the prevailing theory for very small wavelengths k. if the square of the deformation velocity increases. .Reynolds stresses is a dynamic process (more precisely. = 0 should apply. b) The assumption (56) for h cannot apply. for example whereas we have e V anisotropic grid is c) 4' j' is isotropic..
1.lbut later on their effects can be 5. according to Chapter 3.2. conditions. a) <j!( Such a model must satisfy the following boundary /51 The contribution of the Reynolds stresses calculated based on the assumption of locally isotropic turbulence must as a consequence satisfy the following condition which is characteristic for this assumption (57) 69 .j partially decreased. Improved Fine Structure Model in Cartesian Coordinates 5. Nevertheless it is desirable to have a model which will still be valid for inhomogeneous flows.2. area average values must be approximated. the assumption of local isotropy can be looked upon as being valid for sufficiently high mesh numbers (KM>30). Only assumptions a) to d) are required for establishing the improved model. According to Appendix 1.V h) The concept of modeling of volume correlations u'v' is erroneous in principle. In the following chapters we will derive an improved fine structure model. if the mesh number limits cannot be exceeded sufficiently. which will avoid all of these weaknesses and most of the assumptions. Requirements for the Fine Structure Model and Separation into Locally Isotropic and Inhomogeneous Parts The channel flows under discussion are expressly inhomogeneous and anisotropic turbulent flows.
In order to establish the fine structure model according to these requirements. d) For the opposite limiting case axt of =2)..L. m.~ )" .).  L2 I1 4. c) >(58) The turbulence model used should agree with experience in the limiting case of very large meshes because it then becomes the simpler and well known model. x3 (59) where L is given by (28). of course we should have (z I(510) J' (510) should vanish. e) For\Joo . For example it should be transformed into the Prandtl mixing length model. for laminar flow.b) Considering the inhomogenelity (<4CCx)# entire model we must have const)f or the < .e. i. the turbulent flow field is divided into where is the "period average value" of y: P /52 The Reynold stresses are divided up in a similar way (513) 70( 70 .
2. completely in Chapter 5. The turbulence is assumed to be locally isotropic over a region with a diameter of approximately 3 mesh edge lengths h (see definition in Chapter 4.2._ Model for Locally Isotropic Part of the Reynolds Stresses '1 ' In this section we will derive a model for ( )" accord ing to (513).5. 71 .3. is established.2.The assumptions connected with local isotropy are only invoked when the model for (Ui') .2. The residual terms stresses.1. which is given by the Kolmogorov spectrum (44) for wave numbers Some of them will be restricted a) b) The k > c) The Reynolds stresses can be described using an appropriate trial solution similar to the Boussinesq trial solution for the Reynolds stresses which occur during the time averaging.2.2. This trial solution will be justified in Chapter 5. are called the "inhomogeneous" Reynolds In the following we will first delrive a model for calculating the locally isotropic part and then derive a model for the inhomogeneous part. 5. turbulence has an energy spectrum E(k).2. Therefore are called the "locally isotropic" Reynolds stresses.1). 5. Assumptions for the Determination of The following assumptions are made for deriving the locally isotropic fine structure model.2.
d) The Reynolds stresses can be determined deterministically from the average velocity field and the kinetic energy of the fluctuation motion.4.5.2. 5.2.3).3).2.1).5. Basic Equation for Locally _Isotropic Turbulence In this section we will show that the local fluctuation field for locally isotropic turbulence essentially obeys the same basic equations as does the entire flow field. (See Chapter 5.6.2. e) Since triple correlations cannot be calculated with the present theory *. The grid is assumed to be equidistant and Cartesian. * f) g) 72 . The averaging over A t can be ignored (see Chapter 5.2.5.2.2. ** As for the validity of these approximations. all do not have to be equal. and that there are no additional terms which have to be considered which would describe If additional experiments are not considered. we will assume the following approximations: ijF)4 '((F 2 I k (51)4) (515) /53 cc where *>) (516) (see Chapter 5. see Chapter 10.2. but the mesh edge lengths AX.2.
all of the ). it is possible to ignore the following variables in regions having the diameter Liso [103]: /54 '9x.2). " o'U a\.the interaction between the fluctuation field and the total flow field.>j . This assumption is permissible because it only alffects the boundary conditions (see which are inconsequential within the region of Chapter 7.2 0 ) Because of the assumption of local isotropy. basic equations This is why the conservation equations for to the (with momentum and mass of the fluctuation field u. We will divide the fields u.(519) ( 0 P< . If in addition the observer is moving at the velocity (521) . p" reduce Consequently.2 P0) I and the fluctuations ui". especially the conservation equation for 73 . local isotropy. (5 . p according to Then we will form the periodic average value of the mass and momentum conservation equations and we obtain:  0 (517) N > 7 ( V 14j > (518) If we subtract these average equations from the initial equations we find " " . L. ... then the last term in (520) can be ignored.i".1 . =0 x derived relationships. and p into the periodic average values (511).
2. are found instead of volume average values. p. i .2._ Justification of the Improved Boussinesq_ Trial Solution 5.K (2 .(331) are valid. Model Concept and Trial Solution E In Chapter 3. . For this we will with the notations of the following consider in particular sketch 3 .2. In the following subchapters of this section 5.lthe momentum in the 2direction because of convection in the 1direction.p is replaced everywhere by ui".p" and we set P0 . The area 74 . The first point of view is applicable for the 1component of the momentum conservation equations and the second point of view is valid for the 2component. In this section we will discuss the model for which a Boussinesqi trial solution can be defined in a suitable way.3 we showed that by averaging the momentum conservation equations.jand at the same time.2. area average values of velocity fluctuation products J.1.3. we will write ui.2.2. if ui.3.d i r e c tio n )l (1ldirection) ArP (AX I~X ) (1areajV The terms u1 *u 2 . 5.p in place of u.jI apparently were produced by averaging of 2 The product ul'U on the one hand describes the convective transport of momentum (per unit of mass) in the 1direction because of convection in the 2direction.
Z On the other hand. This part of the convective momentum transport can be looked upon as the momentum transport due to small turbulence balls. does not hold. (523) 1e2 / 1F. Only the momentum transport produced by the fluctuation motion has to be considered here because by the average equations. /55 product of the fluctuation velocities averaged over the 1area A  A (522) is therefore the convective transport of the second momentum component in the 1direction because of the fluctuation motion. The momentum magnitude transported by these turbulence balls can be assumed to be proportional to (Ie)n where n is an 75 . is therefore to be interpreted as the Reynolds stresses which apply at the 1area (per unit of mass) in the 2direction. only The occurs in the second equation component according to (314). . . because A is explicitly described their motion otherwise would be described by the average velocity fields and would be described by the average equations.4tI average value of ul'U 2 over the 1area. that is vA . The crosssectional area of the turbulence balls must therefore be small so that at least two approximately equally large turbulence balls having opposing fluctuation direction will have room in the Their diameter 1~ therefore satisfies the condition 1area. because the fraction of kinetic energy of the turbulence balls increases greatly with decreasing diameter according to assumption b (Kolmogorov spectrum). These turbulence balls must be so small that their motion does not have any contribution to the average velocities.
exponent which must be determined./j and em d 14. which in the first approximation is proportional to the gradient of the velocity u 2 in the 1direction. made clear by the following sketch: This is XkXA /56 Any motion of the ball with a positive u 1 therefore 1' results in a negative momentum transport with a positive gradient d. turbulence balls in the 2direction at u 2 ' results in a momentum transport in the 2direction. we must ask ourselves what are the contributions of the motions of turbulence balls in the 1 and 2directions to the convection of the second momentum component. and the same sign convections as used above apply: 76 .. Any motion of the balls in the 1direction results in a momentum transport in the 2direction. According to the interpretation given above of the meaning of It .z (524) Any motion of the small with a positive proportionality factor. which again in the first approximation is proportional to the gradient of the velocity ul in the 2direction.
1 9'L (525) According to assumption a) (local isotropy) we may set: 'E [=(jiL (526) If the contributions of the fluctuation components are selected and if the unknown gradients are replaced by the corresponding difference quotients and if we consider that we must have 4  V.. fl . p. When generalized to other subscripts. because then the proportionality factor c2 is a dimensionless positive constant.e'v' ~  a/x. J 7..   4 ke.. 21]. in spite of the fact that The analogy to the Newton material law becomes clear if we define the "turbulent kinematic viscosity" as follows: /57 S( P )". we have: j  j. in order to have a positive contribution of o. 't'. = "t'I'Z . (531) 77 . (529) The last sum term was added according to [53.' (527) it follows that: 4'14 ( (pU 2 (528) Here we have set the undetermined exponent n equal to one.
The additional term Equation 4 If we take the time average. They therefore also vanish for a channel flow. > Therefore we have the (535) The evaluation of the denominator can only be performed if we set: < .5.3. following equation for determining c 2: C. or Diff.2. are the abbreviations for the terms II and IV of Equation (331) which are not of interest here.k D. because the kinetic energy and its gradient vanish at the wall. (529) is substituted for vanishes because of (530. S(536) 78 .'# (532) within a volume element t  6  where and Clonv. The two last sum terms vanish because of the assumption of homogeneous turbulence.). if in addition to the time averaging we also average over the entire channel.2. then we find the following for stationary turbulence: .<ConvD+ < DI'>. Calculation of the Constant c2 An equation for determining the constant c 2 is obtained by substituting the trial solution (529) into the conservation equation for the kinetic energy of the fluctuation velocities (331): s'V Conv.2.
12S: . a large error (see 136)): (i le >> ( 5 J4 2 ) 79 . the correlation of In contrast /58 to the assumption used by Deardorff (A315).4' i(5 . triple velocities which occur cannot be calculated.3 (432) and (436) we find: j ( D p. L = For (V 3 1 3[. For finite Reynolds numbers. "( 5 4 0) od= 1. order of magnitude.o ) 0.5. with only a small 2 I is only slightly correlated with the square of the deformation but because of < we should have 1 >f4 .).> > < (537) Thus c 2 follows from C  (538) Considering the results of Chapter 4. (.4 1 ) 6X3 S 1 (I. cv as well as Because of the small <e> can be approximated as follows without h and <e> are independent of position.f9 For very high Reynolds numbers.According to assumption e) we have set a =1i./A/M "f'. the correction term c can be ignored.A F where h (= . 04 0. 0'= we find the following numerical results: ?=0.. degree of error we can assume that ( iJ This assumption is necessary because with the present theory. / (539) AX. .
the production and sink terms: = c h ca cz) (  i V 1 (545) (546) D 2 is a difference approximation for the square of the deformation velocity D .2.2. .2. we find the following equations for determining the constants c3' c 4 . "" ' " (547) and its exact form is to be discussed later on.2. ccording to Chapter 5. we assume the following ' __ __ L.2.= 4 (D.4. We assume the following for P and S.and therefore 5. (544) The Roman Numerals I to V here refer to the terms as in Chapter 3. t." e)..4. By comparing the approximation and the exact equation.i" appear).. j (549) S > /<  (550) 80 ._ Calculation of the Kinetic Energy Starting with the exact Equation (331) (in which.C8: C3 C '' (548) .u approximate equation: i / 59 and u. c 5 .
the constants in the energy diffusion terms do not play an important role. Since here the energy always occurs as an area average. It would be of no value because the correlations which occur in it could not be calculated because their time averages vanish.j ' jQ (554) In the equations for c 3 and c 4 only triple correlations occur.> (.' ( (d.6. c 7 = 0. (551) Such an equation cannot be given for determining the constant c . In order to calculate Jq.53) /60 has proven itself in practical calculations (see Chapter 10). Therefore. as does the value for the time average kinetic energy (constant a3 in Table 1) 0 4 Cx K 4 According to Chapter 2. in Equation (549). we also set C Its value should lie S .syj). in the following range. we make the following simplifications: 3  (555) 81 . (552) The constant c 7 cannot be determined from the theory.3 The value (5. according to assumption e). which cannot be calculated with the present theory. the trial solution (529) is substituted C4 cF'F)+ 6.
2. Such a formula is the following: I. tive determination of 4' . Two difference forms have been suggested for D2: This formula corresponds to the formula derived by Deardorff It has the disadvantage that for the quantita(Equation A336). )b  /61 (558) • See Appendix 7 82 .2. and E(k) does not agree with the assumed Kolmogorov spectrum. This means that it is necessary to integrate over small wavelengths.2.1.2. However. we have an integral of the forml 0 just like in Chapter A3.A correction (erfactor)is not necessary for c 4 . which is formed from differences over twice as many mesh distances and which is therefore determined by an integral having the form then one can avoid the integration over the wave numbers k<( In this case the assumption b) mentioned in Chapter 5. if we subtract a term corresponding to the square 2 of the deformation velocity from 3 D . because as approximately the same error occurs in the numerator as well the denominator. is sufficient.
.2 can lead to large errors.Xa/4r6*.237 (561) This shows that the approximation given in Chapter A3.k/.. However.2. and therefore with E(k) = i( jJ we have: SD. Co0 4 (560) the exact 4D >/< ?DL> 3 O.) According to Appendix 2.#. o.:4: . Using results of Chapter 4. (A*/4. these constants can be quantitatively determined as follows: (562) '. The ratio < /<3> can be estimated as follows: 6/1.3.Another advantage of this formula (it would also be valuable in (53)) is the fact that the kinetic fluctuation energy is uncoupled more from processes which occur at small wave numbers just like in physics. [ E3 ( /.D4) A= A I for 3D % DL for Cc_I' ~(564) 83 . calculation gives: for X :a ( /" A./<z>D./4)J A)/. the large numerical effort is one disadvantage of this formula.
57 •c.6_3o1 .87 cZ 1c 25 3c 5 c8 c8 3 4 0.8283 0.Zr:O.747 5.022 f 4:.80 • z C4 C4 3 4 1.9147 0. 4.67) 84 .9147 1.63 0.L//. 6. C A ~: 1.344 (5.573 6.o 3 0.8283 0.oS:O.c C .884 1.6135 0.8283 1.Vr* = 3 .= cC o.A) (566) /62 =3 =  for for 3 D D We obtain the following numerical values for /. (565) C DI d /"k'.
d). the turbulent viscosities have the following ratios: 14 ?A / C I693:. Chapter 5.5 Correction Factors In order to limit the effects of assumptions e). corrections will be introduced. the values of the area average values E' required in (529). / (569) S14>43/(because of 429) i. : 7j < JF /. factors are suggested for assumptions b). we have expressed anisotropy. It can also be seen that for the meshes used by Deardorff [29]. are calculated from ij CY " Ef(568) We obtain the following from the time average of the turbulent viscosity .3 ( F)C : (t.e.1..)w : \ (570) and therefore. which has not yet been considered in papers up to the present.For known E' . 5. g) in /63 Correction 85 .2.2.2.2. the turbulent viscosity obtained from this model goes to zero faster than the mesh constant h for given dissipation (corresponding to the applied pressure).
as well as over a time interval we set At. Therefore.. Chapter 5 we have not yet considered the fact that the Reynolds stresses J .I contain averages over At as well as over the jarea.5. edge lengths d4d. . 1151.2. This will be considered by means of the following Cj correction factor This means that the complete trial solution is as follows: 1 (572) SC In order to determine Jc? according to the Taylor hypothesis [132. it is assumed that the time axis can be transformed into a space coordinate according to xl = ' t u .1.5. averaging operations are defined as an average over mesh areas or mesh volumes. Consideration of the Time Averaging over At (Assumption_g) In Chapter 3.2. . This is required because for the time integration In this which is obtained by a formal averaging over At.~ 4 4 we find G2 (&Cx.Ak)4) X86 (573) 86 .' 0must be determined for the threedimensional volume with the From the results of Chapter (f f¢J.1.
t8 we find: c .'become the asymptote k 4 according to (Al37) and for Pao spectrum Ep (Al34).t. or as follows: k> / they become 87 . as well as According to errors in the calculated average kinetic energies for the form k>'' . and in the second case they would have to be f Ega d (576) where Ek(k) is the Kolmogorov spectrum according to (44).2. C= 4."t= 0. The correction factor therefore brings about a small reduction in the anisotropy of j according to (570).4.2. In the first case.0 / c .2. which forl (7i/.For the problem calculated by Deardorff [29] with A C1. Possible generalized forms of E(k).=O.00/ .5..o§ A=O. Consideration of the Deviations of the True EnergySpectrum from the Kolmogorov Spectrum (Assumption b) (A320) and (A337) deviations of the true spectrum at wave numbers k 4/Ibring about errors in the calculated mean squares of the deformation velocities.=. and becomes more important the greater the ratio At'F • /64.o. 5. one would have to apply correction factors having _ A(kc//.f 4 o.0 (574) The effect of time averaging is therefore not negligible.
1o. about it are known.(A)= or 4/ )e (A) (577) E (A) (L L) (A (578) Since no data L is a length to be determined experimentally. d. the corrections will not be investigated for In the following we will estimate above which Reynolds numbers it is necessary to consider the Pao spectrum. we must have V /65 4 ' . £. for Y6 . (580) In order for this ./o  (581) Because of (114) the Reynolds number Re must therefore be m greater than 3*10.o according to [18] (corresponding to the minimum for Deardorff [29]) it follows that ce x exr[ v/C. 88 . the turbulence model used * Figure 22 shows that the Kolmogorov spectrum already applies for the coarse structure..c 'J / . In other words.correction factor ce to have an influence which is smaller than 1% in the calculation of the kinetic energy. Al34) it follows that:1 0 Ax i If according to (136) we set LE>=4%p. From (576. Therefore it seems justified to ignore these correction factors. 3. and if we set X 2.
The model does not answer the question either. is required for calculating the viscosity )u at this location.2. For Reynolds numbers. 89 .2. The problem here consists of determining the fluctuation with possible correlations to the viscosities in adjacent meshes. prediction of the turbulent motion is possible for given initial conditions at discrete points within a prescribed statistical error [85] can therefore not be investigated. the model described up to the present is a deterministic model according to assumption d) (Chapter 5. In order to artificially introduce a random effect into the model. Consideration of the Random Nature (Assumption d) As mentioned by FoxLilly [43].1).2. In this connection. in order to find This the relevant value at the corner point of the four meshes. This assumption agrees with the 5. Up to the present.2.5. by means of an additional integration of the energy equation. the model used here contains an additional degree of freedom.105 .which assumes the existence of the Kolmogorov spectrum. the Pao spectrum must be considered. The fine structure model used can only agree Effects such as the time span over which the with reality on a statistical average basis.2. However. because true turbulence is random in nature. we should also mention the question of the effects of averaging the kinetic energies ' over four meshes.3. one could in addition introduce a factor in (529) using a random generator and having an average value of one. results of Chapter 4. applies for Re . the problem has not been investigated and could not be solved within this paper either. so that it could be assumed that the "deterministic degree" is reduced somewhat.1. smallerjthan 105.
5) was determined L e ' ACr ((582) The results will be reported on in Chapter 10.6. 90 .1.must be we have explained. For the channel flow under consideration t o for .2.5. 5. the correction factor to be introduced (see Section A 3.4. the constants i up to the present have been assumed to be equal to one.3.5. to the Deardorff model.2. Model for the Inhomogeneous Part of the Fine Structure and SummarL 5. This assumption can be restricted afterwards by determining the values of the constants defined by (514. Model for the Inhomogeneous Part* In this section.2.'3 4 3 1 or (583) In addition we have 4(584) * According to definitions in Chapter 5.2.1.4. Consideration of the Numerically Determined Constants (Assumption e) According to Assumption e) (Chapter 5. 15) from the numerical solution. After approximating f by LJ and approximation of the /66 squares of the deformation velocity which occur in the definitions '! and i' were calculated.2. according by (557). In addition.3. the trial solution for <'Ut) >.2.2.1).
1. For this pur pose we will use a Boussinesq trial solution according to Chapter 5. only a model is required for 3 > I .2.2.2. ' 1expe' (588) The generalization consists here in the use of Re' = c.Therefore.3. (590) /67 Therefore ~' satisfies the requirements b. c./A .: <' The turbulent viscosity Prandtl mixing length model with /  c(.&oW (f ReCrit I ) (589) below which where RecIri t is the critical Reynolds number Re the flow is laminar: Re Criti Recrit ecrit . (587) and L according to the generalization of the formula of van Driest [28]: L= 1\ j Re' ' /A. (585) is calculated according to the X' i</4 (586) with A. d.1. e according to Chapter 5.. . because ) < P91 91 .
8 (dimensionless) in the azimuth direction. the entire convective momentum transport occurs within the fine structure. From the measurements of ComteBellot [18].o 0  . there is no other more accurate determination method available. according to (587) is apparently determined by the fact that for c10 3 F= L 2 we have Swor i In other words.1 for L.6 and the length 0. However. it follows that i .  0because L according to (588) 6x 3 o/ because (588) e) . The constant can 92 . and we will therefore use this value in calculations. . If according to (2'7) we assume the value of 0. the area 3F in the middle of a channel in the flow direction must approximately have the length 1.Re Rl because (588. if the mesh area 3F is equal to L2/Cl .c) e .OA (591) Of course this estimation is very inaccurate.4 ')"> = 0 for . constant. The mesh area F must then be large enough so that there is no correlation between the velocities at extremely situated points of the surface.89) This The only constant which had to be determined is C1 0 .
it is necessary to add a part which corresponds to this inhomogeneous shear stress contribution. olwe  Because of (<V. we find the following results (593) where. for evaluation purposes of the kinetic energy calculated according to (544).easily be changed because it is an input variable for the program used.94)L 93 . (15./. given by (531) and / of '< t'>jand is given by (586).2.oA 3p 4 1 . According to (29) we set uL /68 L$ (592) where al=1l according to [91. contained in the fine structure. 113] (see Table 1)..2. the values .>.  can also write 3 j .3. The value given above has been found to be satisfactory In order to obtain the total kinetic energy (see Chapter 10). are not important for the integration. . This approxi mation also seems somewhat daring but its error is inconsequential for the numerical integration and during the evaluation can also be tolerated because of L1 o0. Summary of the Locally_Isotr2pic and Inhomogeneous Parts If we add the locally isotropic part and the inhomogeneous part. 5.
2) 3) They must have the correct dimensions. Equation (593) satisfies (Requirement 1). At first glance.4. also satisfied. we must satisfy the following invariance requirements [34]. because there symmetric with /69 is a second order tensor on both sides which is respect to the subscripts. case: The following will show that this is indeed the 94 . They must be invariant with respect to the Galileo transformation ('displacement of the coordinate system).2. invariance property makes it possible to carry out a transfer to cylindrical coordinates. 1) The modeled terms must have the same tensor and symmetry properties as the original term. InvarianceProperties of theTrial Solution In order for turbulence models not to contradict the basic equations. the third requirement is also satisfied. The second requirement is apparently Since only velocity differences occur on the This right side.3 /# UX '1 1 '(595) 5. it may appear questionable whether the inequality is permissible. if the corresponding components of the deformation velocities are substituted on the right side.
and then take the J2% < For homogeneous turbulence we have: . Therefore. the limit transition to infinitesimal measures requires that because then both terms go to zero.  1.5.u. the model used here satisfies the required invariance conditions. using the Boltzmann axiom [119].5.We form the time average average over an i or a jarea: ~t of u . we have and S> Consequently we have. i F) O <<i' r  On the other hand. 5. I. If the diameter of the isurface now goes to zero and the diameter of the jsurface goes to infinity.2. Transfer to Cylindrical Coordinates and NonEquidistant Meshes Reynolds Stresses /70 5.1. 95 ..2.
2. if the tensor of the deformation velocities De t( is replaced by the corresponding one for cylindrical coordinates [531: We will substitute the following forthe two terms 9.v  where 7/= "i i *E' (599) The deformation velocity which determines the inhomogeneous part is just c2 lengths is calculated The constant 'ta : like for the Cartesian mesh Ax ' the edge using 5. Energy Calculation The following equation is used to calculate the kinetic energy E' 96 96 .In cylindrical coordinates. the formulas for the Reynolds stresses averaged over the areas are given by the same formulas as for Cartesian coordinates.2.5.
3.2." and are calculated just like for a corresponding Cartesian mesh with the edges . for Cartesian. j /71 P.rF 5.5. equidistant meshes. only slightly. and this will be discussed in the following chapter.. The calculation of the constants is done according to the methods derived. and the subscripts 1. The characteristic mesh edge lengths used are the average edge lengths which apply with respect to the center of the mesh under consideration. S are calculated using appropriate formulas for D 2 . just like in the case of Cartesian coordinates using Equation 596) ".ad used instead of x. . 3 are Transition to NonEquidistant Meshes Slightly modified difference formulas are used for nonequidistant meshes.tf. This is permissible if the mesh edge lengths vary * See Appendix 7 97 . The constants and areas are characterized by the subscripts x. 2.
Partial derivatives of velocities (only first derivatives) and we have two types: b 1) S4A 1  (Derivative perpenducular to the averaging area) (Derivative parallel to the averaging area) b) b 2) The quantities given by a) are approximated by arithmetic averaging of adjacent variables known in the grid. The notation used is 98 . Now we must also approximate the undetermined linear quantities.6.1. 6. They are approximated by a fine structure model. The result is a close system of different formulas which can be integrated for suitable boundary and initial conditions using a numerical method. the nonlinear terms remain undetermined during the integration of the basic equations over the mesh volumes according to Chapter 3. Nonequidistant meshes are considered as well as the variation of the mesh sizes with radius using appropriate weighting factors in the case of cylindrical coordinates. DIFFERENCE METHODS /72 According to the preceding chapter. Linear Difference Approximation Two types of linear quantities must be approximated: a) Area and volume average values of velocities and pressures which do not agree with the variables already stored with the grid.
. according to the following sketch. b.defined by 7:Z (61) The quantity bl) can be approximated without any truncation error of order Ax 2 without any problems by means of A because the derivative according to (313) is approximated by the /73 point halfway between two mesh surfaces. c can be calculated for given .. The asymmetric form of ylis selected and not for y2 because the derivative is always calculated in pairs for x1/2 and 99 .I .. If we now consider a Taylor series expansion and according to the stationary laminar solution if we assume that y(x) is given by a parabola having the form y = a x 2 + bx + c as a first approximation (coordinate origin x in the center of the central mesh) then the coefficients a. the derivative of a function y(x) must be determined at a point A.# ( as well as the derivatives /x(. and only the average values within the adjacent intervals of y are known. As far as b2) is concerned.
S. In terms where the radius r occurs more frequently in the denominator than in the numerator.AdX a=/ i.. however. The difference formulas are only given for cylindrical coordinates.e. The author does not know of any similar developments from the literature.. This will be considered in the following formulas.2. Difference Formulas / 74 Considering the "onedimensional" geometries used. these developments *=jwe have al= = only apply for nonequidistant meshes. We then obtain the following difference approximation: ax c)=. The corresponding formulas for Cartesian coordinates are found by substituting the value 1 for the radii r in terms in which r does not occur in both the numerator and denominator as a pair.meshes are only appropriate in the radial direction. nonequidistant. 6. t o * (62) where 0 "12 ( x 26 4 rd 2K 2 . r is set equal to zero (corresponding to the limit transition r I ) 100 .92Ax}/ C For equidistant meshes. they are important here.
6 I7a~Cr 10 + AT & r c3a r4... C . Difference Formulas forMomentum The difference formulas for momentum are: '  4 Ir r ?4 rlO1 L + fc3 = i'j t 6t Of x(Cr + . h' +>'.1.2.1 + v 00 + .'M + VJ R/ +9 V" U j V+V (64) 101 .F Cfr ZJ Co j. the averaging The symbol p refers to the apparent turbulent pressure fluctuations:  I 21 3 (63) 6. i~ Ir 5~ 6u rA [Crx C&+. bar is therefore omitted in the following...The velocities which occur are area averages..Ja y~ xrkx~ 6 r~ P ( Ox C~ur6r 3~~r I Cr r 1014 +4f + r a. frz0t.
for the turbulent flow case. n2 = N+l.4. It has been 141]. one starts again just like for nv 1. for The absence of the numerical damping. In addition. however.2. n+l.n2 = After /7 After N time steps the solutions at the time N+l are averaged using a solution which is found from no=nl=N.2. 79. 79]. nl. the boundary conditions become much more complicated.n. This socalled leapfrogmidpoint or jump method has an accuracy of order At 2 for the convective terms except for the first and last step. Since these inhomogeneous boundary conditions have a disturbing effect and also the 102 . It does not seem to be appropriate to use more accurate difference formulas in space. For the first time step n=l we have no=l. which are damped by averaging with respect to N steps. The convection terms and the diffusion terms which result for i = const correspond to the difference formulas of Williams [141] for equidistant meshes. n1 .. It is now possible to use different formulas having a higher degree of accuracy in time because of the difficult calculation of the pressure and the associated enlarged storage requirement. such as for example one suggested by Fromm [41]. The corresponding formulas for p 3 const and nonequidistant meshes have not been formulated up to the present. 33. following N time steps n = 2. used many times [29. 6. because it avoids numerical damping in contrast to the Euler onestep method [73.. Apparently the greatest errors are produced by the fine structure model.3.The superscripts no..2 from a Poisson equation with inhomogeneous boundary conditions. nl=2. can lead to 2Atioscillations because of the nonlinearities. this.. Difference Formulas for the Pressure p_and the Auxiliary Potential i The pressure required in (64) is in principle to be calculated according to Chapter 1. n2=2 and for the N we have no=nl. example. n2 refer to time steps. 42.
etc. correct solution u y. or that errors in the adherence to the continuity equation can increase from one time step to another. set equal to wall conditions So This velocity field a / (65) (6t' is. by Deardorff. However. this represents an and was used by AmsdenHarlow [31. improvement so far as accuracy and simplicity are concerned. /76 First of all a velocity field is "Y for a new point in time calculated using formulasf(64) but without considering the The velocity component perpendicular to the wall is zero for the new time step corresponding to the exact (15): pressure. 541. Compared with the methods suggested in [3. we set _  differ by n2 . Instead we will calcuthese #f which will remove all The method used here was suggested by Chorin [211. not the correct one. we will therefore not first calculate the pressure p itself.calculation of the source term q according to (120) is laborious and it must be assumed that the velocity field for the time steps no and nl exactly satisfies the continuity equation [54. [29. Williams. Compared with the method used 141. is an auxiliary potential and grad is the difference form of the gradient operator: rad r (67) 103 . late an auxiliary potential deficiencies. the omitted pressure terms. this solution can only the gradient of a potential from the Therefore.of course. because of because the pressure was not considered. 371. it becomes possible to calculate the pressure directly without solving an additional Poisson equation. (66) Here .
are superfluous here. 141]. Corrections suggested by HirtHarlow [56] and used in [29. for r = R2) Here ./rdt)wll41 is the radial acceleration at the wall which is\ obtained when the pressure is not considered. '/wall is the value ofi the auxiliary potential at the mesh adjacent to the wall.The direct velocity field un 2 must satisfy the continuity equation (18)  x of. (o 0 (68) The potential 7Vwis therefore the solution of the following O~ fi = " Poisson equation I (69) Because of (65) we have the homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions Owall Sy=' (610) This system of equations can be directly solved using the series expansion described in Section 4 and using the fast Fourier transformation (FFT) in a very effective manner. This is also true if the initial condition does not satisfy the continuity equation. In the following we will show that the pressure p can be simply calculated as follows without any additional solution of a special Poisson equation: (611) /77 S(. we consider the equation for determining the 104 . Then the velocity fields will satisfy the continuity equation after every time step up to a numerical rounding error. For proof of this.kO) t For all meshes inside of the flow space  7 wall^ + nlaZ wall At the walls (612) (+for r = R1..
have at &O1Lo t'a M2 .pressure.18) and Because of the similiarty of the Equations (69.T) t ".n. On the other hand for the wall meshesdiv12does not obtain'the contribution to the divergence which is a consequence 'of a/Y. 16). 12). which is given as follows according to difference form: (119) in with the boundary condition (613) g*a Because of div . Iwall . because according to (65) "t was set equal to the value which was a Therefore in this case we consequence of the wall condition.k (616) and in the second divergence operator the field values located in the interior of the flow are all equal to zero.i 00. (617) (618) With pl = p inside of all the meshes and Pl p1 p T A = + Z at wall\ I at the walls.7 for 105 . we find: div t =(2O) =wall\ . we find the result which has to be proved (611.. 10) and the linearity of the operator div grad. If we now form the divergence of (614) in a corresponding way and if we subtract this from (613.wall • t i kt' i (614) we have  . the calculation of at //wa/ll\ See Chapter 7.l1 (615) for all meshes which are not adjacent to the wall. (619) (617.
The convective terms are calculated with socalled "upwind". the analytical solution of (622) is given by 106) (623) 106 . Difference Form of the Energy Equation In the numerical integration of the energy Elquation (544.6. A) 'l4X/ CA o (620) These formulas insure that the new value of y at the next time step will not be negative if only the convection is considered.3. 100) / 78 we must determine that the energy j7 is always larger (or equal For this reason we will integrate for laminar flow) than zero. over time using the single step method. it is not permissible to use the jump method for the time integration here because it would always be unstable. Therefore we will use the Euler method here. Negative values of the energy field can occur under some conditions if the energy dissipation was calculated according to (Vl ~ ~. 73. As linear stability analysis can show (see Section 6). 72. 4 ( L .2. "down stream" or "corner cell" difference Formulas [49.YA t. (y)\ (621) Since and the dots stand for all terms besides the sink term. unless the initial field is nonnegative everywhere [123]. 57. 123]: 'L y d f Ort 1  (y CA.
b) c) d) Truncation errors.3. Agreement of the difference formulas with the physicall conservation laws which follow from the integrals of the differential equations 3) Numerical errors a) The most important results are the following: The deterministic linear difference approximations are only correct for the statistical average and for sufficiently smooth averaged fields. then this will be due to instabilities caused by steps which are too large for the integration of the energy diffusion terms. If we obtain a negative value of In such cases. the time step At is reduced.we integrate as follows here: (Vp)Ik&t (""' )1 (624) j71in spite of these precautions.1.3. Accuracy /79 In Section 5 we will discuss several aspects of the accuracy of the difference formulas. Aliasing errors. 6. Among these we have: Statistical errors of the linear difference approximations. Accuracy and Stability of the Difference Formulas 6. The instantaneous deviations from the statistical average have a standard a) 107 .
The effect of "false diffusion" will be discussed but does This error can lead to instabilities. d) The difference formulas must satisfy the condition that if there are no source and sink terms.deviation which is proportional to mesh edge length Ax are decreased. but this was not done. The area averaging results in a reduction in the error by only a factor of three compared with the consideration of point velocities. the time changes of momentum and kinetic energy integrated over the entire flow space must vanish. b) The truncation errors oflthe difference formulas have the order of Ax 2 for position and are of order &t 2 in time for the convective terms. The same conditions This condition apply for the differential equation. not seem to be important either. if followed. 108 . make Rules will be given which. <> AX I and there fore becomes smaller only as the dissipation <e> and the It is likely that the deterministic approximations can be replaced by a statistical method which can be determined quantitatively. / 80 is satisfied by the difference formulas used here. Phase errors can be ignored because of the small energy contribution of the short wave Fourier components of the solution. especially when extensive sums are formed. it possible to avoid these errors. but they are controlled in the conservation properties which will be discussed in the following. e) The reasons for the production of numerical errors have been demonstrated. c) The aliasing effect will be discussed.
For the general case of mixed convection and diffusion.6. which are calculated according to DuFortFrankel. b) c) 109 . First of all the permissible time steps are determined for the linearized difference formulas in their threedimensional form for cylindrical coordinates using the Neumann criterion [111]. a conservative time step can be easily determined algebraically. Stability As discussed in detail in Appendix 6. In the first case we have the second case A . The permissible time step At can be much smaller than the minimum of the time steps which result for the A formula is given according to which limiting cases. stability criteria will be investigated. the permissible time step At is determined numerically. Comparisons do not yet exist in the literature.2.w gate often suggested difference formulas which correspond to the are investigated.3. first type except for the approximation of the diffusion terms. For the third type At is a) arbitrarily large for stability and for pure diffusion. The following results are obtained (see Appendix 6): The permissible time step At (except for the second type) can only be given in an explicit algebraic form for the limiting cases of pure convection and pure in tand diffusion. Three types of difference formulas The first one corresponds to the formulas for the momentum calculation and the second one corresponds to calculation. As the third type we will investithe energy ".
Finally we would like to state why we do not use an implicit method [44. would become much too large. The increased numerical effort could not be compensated for by a larger time step At. because the inaccuracies.2. nonlinear systems of equations which are produced would be very high.1 especially regarding the nonlinear convection terms. b) c) 110 .1. one is led to smaller permissible time steps than those used here for multidimensional problems.2. The permissible time step is sufficiently large because At 1Ax.5. note the effect of the time step on the fine structure model according to Chapter 5. For example.d) When the Du FortFrankel form is used for small /81 viscosities. in Appendix 6 we will discuss the method of Hirt [57] for investigating the influence of nonlinearities on the stability. The reasons are as follows: a) The numerical cost for solving the large. In addition. 11] to avoid instabilities. From the result a) and according to the turbulent viscosity which varies according to (569) it follows that at high Reynolds numbers the permissible time step is always proportional to the mesh edge length Ax. It will be shown that this method is not practical here.
+ iCA. this boundary condition does not have a physical reality. for example in the axial direction. For this the basic equations are integrated over the wall meshes and the strongly varying profiles as well as wall roughnesses are considered by means of logarithmic wall laws. In all other cases. In the first approximation. for plate channels (or annulus channels with radii ratios R2/Rl close to 1) in the azimuth direction. 83. the periodic boundary condition can be justified as follows. tj2 ) ) ' ' (7.1. This is because the numerically simulated flow space cannot be selected as large as According to convention [29.. (xc. 94] periodic boundary conditions are used here: Cartesian Cylindrical (7. lengths are selected according to experimental results. Periodic boundary conditions The periodl There are assumed in the azimuthal and axial directions. are wall conditions in the radial direction.7. Such boundary conditions must be introduced artificially in the axial direction and. If the flow fields y in the axial 111 . Periodicity Condition The basic equations are elliptical as far as space is concerned and therefore require boundary conditions as all surfaces of the flow field being considered. desired for specified mesh sizes. 7.l) (71) These boundary conditions would be exactly correct if J= 27T and the channel were a torus with the circumference length X. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS /82 In this chapter we will give the boundary conditions for integrating the difference equations.
one z>X't .6 times the plate distance in the axial direction and about 0.7.e.Iy i) .X 1 =3. I)cX 9 2 r 27 R4/R2 o.1>k dx ~ . It is assumed that the coordinate system is not at rest but itself moves at the velocity VG. Exact Wall Condition and Galileo Transformation 7.y. the exact wall conditions can be simulated here without any problems: S3 wall wall= (73) For the two other components. Since only the reference area of the radial velocity component lies on the wall surface. The exact wall condition (15) is valid at the walls.8 times the plate distance in the direction /83 Therefore. In this way the basic equations are not changed.direction are only correlated over a length of X/2. when differences are formed. X 2 = 0. the following period length: Xd AV.6 can prescribe any arbitrary boundary condition without influencing .seemed to be too small based on the measurement results discussed above. we carried out a Galileo transformation.(x~(. which corresponds approximately to the average axial velocity with which the flow is moving in the axial direction. one can also require periodicity. From the measurements of ComteBellot [18] for plate flow. we selected perpendicular to the flow direction. However. additional approximations of (15) are necessary. For this see the following sections. for example. it is evident that the correlation length defined above corresponds to about 1. now the 112 .2. i.. In order to improve the stability properties and to reduce the numerical inaccuracies.and therefore. then for equals zero for z. (72) The values used by Deardorff [29].
Here the term must be considered separately. i is the value of to Figure 5. inner wall at r=rl we have: For a wall mesh along the /84 Ir 4 2 r 'r (7 1) with the wall shear stress Z 7  (76) The terms can be approximated at r=ra/l just like in the interior of the flow. then the approximation of the convective terms does not cause any problems because of ui wall However. this is not true for the diffusion terms.VG [29] (74) xr Wall Condition for the Axial Velocity Component One must start with the momentum conservation equation (315) averaged over the mesh volumes in the exact form. If we considered a wall mesh. wallix I wall = .wall condition for the axial velocity component becomes u. \' in the wall mesh at n = 1 according 113 .3. However. 7. we cannot set because the velocity profile varies too much in the vicinity of the wall.
we have <N3e> and therefore 4 (78) ZI '4 (# W. as is done in general [29.Instead. then we have the following complete form '4 ((&> CVGC4 A) . See Chapter 7.> If we consider the Galileo transformation (74).5 for this. 114 .> from a simple force follows: SPxR2RA) (710) In all other cases it is necessary to determine the average wall shear stress during the integration. ) % (79) For plate flow with the same wall roughness at both walls equilibrium as we can calculate J 7i. 120]. the following logarithmic profile for the average velocity in the vicinity of the wall: where k is the Karman constant and E 1 is the wall roughness along the inner wall. we will set:  A?> (77) If we approximately assume.
Deardorff [29] used the following values referring to the measurements of Laufer [76]: k = 0. we essentially have the same formulas However.5. (712) and the error Therefore we assume a linear variation of thereby produced is somewhat corrected by considering the turbulent viscosity rl which is the result of the fine structure model.4.4. Calculation of the Average Wall Shear Stresses the average wall As already mentioned in Chapter 7.For the constants k. since in this case the For the component \Y/wal as for the axial component.< Zw'can only be calculated for plate flows with the same wall roughnesses of both walls from a force balance and by considering the symmetry. 7. 2 are therefore constants which both consider the wall The value A =4 roughness and cannot be selected independently. Wall Condition for the Azimuth Velocity Component. and El.(>. In all other cases it is necessary to calculate<Z7w) from the numerical solution itself. For stationary turbulence. shear stresses <Tw. then we obtain the same profile for large distances from the wall if the constant used in (28) is set equal to A A = 4. E1. we obtain the time 115 . Following we will discuss the computation procedure for the inner wall. will therefore also be used in (588).810o (711) 85 If we calculate the average velocity profile using the Prandtl mixing length model (25) with the mixing length L according to (28). we set: V(r J.3. average velocity is always zero. E 2 . E1 = E = 8. 7.
7. This is calculated from I is known At the beginning of the integration the wall shear stress is specified per input and it is again recalculated when the stationary solution is obtained according to the formulas given above. 116 . see Chapter 10. This process is then repeated after the integration time Instead of the until the wall shear stresses no longer change.4. time average value we use the periodic average value as an approximation. according to the following diagram The wall shear stress can be calculated from a force balance if the average shear stress variation ' in the interior. which does not produce any error for sufficiently large period lengths * * However.average from a force balance on the ring of wall meshes.
and at the wall the radial gradient of the deviation of the velocities from its periodic average value must be known. If we consider the momentum equation of this com/87 ponent for such a mesh area element which occurs at the wall. and this is the area average value of the radial acceleration of the wall which would be obtained if the pressure were not considered. we will use linear gradient approximations. Wall Condition for the Pressure According to (612) it is necessary to know avvat/Wall. all terms vanish except for the radial diffusion term: wall r 7 wall (716) 117 . as experiments [18. 1 For these calculations.6.7. we will use c 1 1 (715) 0.7.2 When the source term is calculated for the energy equation. it can be seen that because of the wall adhesion condition. Therefore we set PEI Wal where O'< 011 in this paper. This wall condition can be considered in an exact way for the convective terms. Here 7. it is necessary to calculate the squares of velocity deformations. 76] have shown. know the gradient *=7Wall late this gradient from  It does not make sense to calcubecause has /Wal=/ a maximum very close to the wall. For the diffusion terms it is necessary to . Wall Condition for the Kinetic Energy E' All the velocity fluctuations vanish at the wall and therefore the fluctuation motion energy is also zero there.
INITIAL CONDITIONS /88 The initial conditions must be prescribed for the velocity fields u and the kinetic energy field Vj\of the fine structure. . these must be prescribed so that they already correspond to the stationary model in the statistical sense as far as possible. 8. 8. For calculating it we use the average values over the wall mesh which are available. In order to be effective. Initial Values of the Velocity Field The direct simulation of turbulent flows is based on the hypothesis that the initial values in principle do not have any influence on the statistical properties of the solution when it has reached a statistically stationary state [29]*. and we find: t a 1. 118 .From the continuity equation (18) it follows that o / (717) All of these terms vanish at the wall. but not their radial derivative. initial values will be selected which already correspond to the stationary state as much as possible.1. the same results are obtained for various grid sizes.  R4 fr 3j R A (718) . * This hypothesis can be seen to be valid because according to Chapter 10. In order to make the computation time small up to the point where this stationary state is reached. A similar relationship is obtained for the other wall.
Pot ) are designed 1 by 2 using a random number generator with a given fluctuation width in such a way that the kinetic energy on the average will correspond to the measurements of ComteBellot [18] for the three velocity components. .Fulfillment of the boundary conditions. 121] in order to observe the incompressibility condition: = fz ?Ot 4 I (81) /89 It can easily be seen that the velocity field determined in this way satisfies the continuity equation for all meshes and for arbitrary potentials (Pot 1 . In order to produce a Kolmogorov spectrum we use an algorithm which starts with a randomly determined prescribed value at the walls and at the center and which determines 119 . .Agreement of the average kinetic energies with the corresponding measurement data. In order to satisfy the first two requirements. The velocity fluctuations around these average values are calculated from the vector potential{PtPoP4j [2.Agreement of the average velocities with corresponding experimental data. the average velocity profile is specified according to measurements of Laufer [76]. the potentials (Pot . 2 In order to produce a velocity field with a reasonable energy distribution. .Reasonable energy spectrum which agrees with the Kolmogorov spectrum (44) at high wave numbers.The incompressibility condition is satisfied.I .The following requirements are placed on the initial values: . Pot ).
the potential values first at the point which is halfway between the meshes with already specified potential values, so that the resulting velocities are correlated with the neighboring values in proportion to r 2 / reference meshes. to the variation k
3
and where r is the distance between the two (45), this correlation corresponds Figure 16
According to
 5/ 3
of the Kolmogorov spectrum.
shows such a randomly
produced velocity field in the correspondThe agreement
ing energy spectrum for the axial wave numbers.
with the Kolmogorov spectrum is satisfactory even though the produced velocity field may seem somewhat too random. This is
based on the calculation of the velocities by differentiation of the potentials according to (81).
The method used here only has a heuristic basis. Deardorff
Fox
[44] indicate a method briefly for which the energy
spectrum is enclosed on the initial values in a mathematically justifiable way by specifying the Fourier transform of the velocity field. However, this method cannot be used for
cylindrical coordinates.
8.2.
Initial Values of the Kinetic Energy
,E
The kinetic energy of the fluctuation velocities inside of the meshes is determined from the velocity field in such a way that if the convection and diffusion terms are ignored, they will (544): (82)
correspond to the stationary solution of C3
C
D20
V
C
DZ
(83)
120
9.
THE PROGRAM TURBIT1 The numerical simulation of turbulent flows requires an
/90
optimal programming technique because of the extensive amounts of data and large calculation times. mostly programmed in FORTRAN. The programs used here are Assembler programs are used for
dynamic core storage use and in order to determine the permissible computation time. This is done so that,\if the time limit is A dynamic data management For this, the except for the exceeded, all of the solutions calculated up to that point can be saved on background storage units. system is used as one of the bases of the program. required data fields are divided into blocks, auxiliary potential 9.
A block includes all the values of a A subprogram Blocks not required at
variable in the same plane parallel to the walls. package [126] manages these blocks.
some time are automatically stored on direct access storage units if the core storage space is not sufficient. block a maximum of once per time step. By corresponding programming, it is possible to have a readout or readin of one Using the assembler subprograms, one is insured that the available core storage is used in the optimal way. A maximum of 34/ blocks must fit into The subprogram package is the core storage unit at the same time independent of the number of meshes in the radial direction. so effective that the costs of the calculation take on their minimum when the core storage unit is selected so small that this minimum number of blocks fits into the core storage unit. The program, therefore, requires a 820 K Byte core storage unit for problems with 64*32 meshes for a plane parallel to the walls as well as 32 meshes in the radial direction (without overlay for the program Modulus). for the auxiliary potential input/output buffer. Of these, about 260 K are reserved
p;j approximately 200 K are reserved
About 30 K are reserved for an
for the program instructions.
On the IBM 370/165 in Karlsruhe, the 121
available core storage space is about 1500 K Byte and therefore problems having 64*64*32 meshes can be calculated. It would be possible to reduce the core storage requirement by dividing the auxiliary potential y i into data blocks and solving the Poisson equation using the transposition method described in [125,128]. In order to avoid unnecessary calculation operations, all of the expressions which remain unchanged during the calculation are calculated once at the beginning of a calculation. because it cannot optimize over several subprograms. In addition, multiple subscripts are avoided and instead the required complicated linear subscripts are calculated without multiplications. In order to minimize the number of square E' but root operations, we do not store the kinetic energy This type of optimization cannot be assigned to an optimizing translator,
/91
?' (V)
instead.
In order to check the calculations and in order to present the results, we use subprograms [84, 1241 for graphical output of the scala fields. and vector fields in the form of height lines and vector These are especially suited for cylindrical and other The average quantities as a function
curvilinear coordinates.
of radius or wall distance are produced using the program GRAPHIC [39]. One major problem consists of demonstrating that the programs do not have any errors. There are no test problems having analytical or known numerical solutions for the geometries considered, for which all of the terms in the equations being integrated do not appear in a nontrivial way. laminar flows. The test problems used are The solutions for turbuFor this See Appendix 8 for this.
lent flows can only be tested using experimental results.
122
see the following chapter. The program built has been named TURBIT1. TURBIT is the
abbreviation for TURBulenter Impuls Transport, (Turbulent momentum transport)
10.
NUMERICAL RESULTS Specifications of the Calculated Cases al plate channel Both
10.1
Two different physical problems are treated:I
and an annulus channel with the radius ratio R2/Rl=5.
problems are characterized by K (Cartesian) or Z (Cylindrical). For each problem case, we consider four different cases Kl, K2, K3, K4 and Zl, Z2, Z3, Z 4 , respectively, which differ regarding the size and shape of the difference grid as well as the period length. Kl, Zl are the cases with the smallest mesh Tables number; K4, Z4 are the cases with the largest mesh number. 12 and 13 contain the exact data for specifying the 8 cases. Nonequidistant meshes are used for cases K4, Z4 in the radial direction: n 1 32 2 31 3 30o 4 29 5 28 6 27 7 26 8 25 9 24 o10 11 23 22 12 21 13 20 14 19 15 18 16 17 0.042
I
A'r o.o18 o.02
I
o.o22
I 0.027
I
0.03
I
o0.038
I
o.o40o
I
In the other cases we use equidistant meshes.
It should be
noted that the number of meshes in cases K4, Z4 is 65536 which is substantially larger than the number 6720 used by Deardorff These numbers do not [29] and the 32,000 meshes used in [331. represent the upper programming limit, which is given only by the available or the sensible computation time. As Figure 12
123
shows, the computation times
(Figure 4) are already so large that
a further increase in the number of meshes does not seem to be defensible. In the cases KlK3, ZlZ3 we started with random initial values according to Chapter 8. For the cases K4, Z4, the initial values are obtained by interpolation from the solutions deterIn this context, the integrated time steps mined in K3, Z3. as well as the machine computation times given for K4, Z4, conof the sum of the values given for K3, Z3 and for K4, Z4 sist alone. Table 14 shows the calculation time required per time step. fine structure energy requires on the Integration of the VFg average of 33% of the computation time. The velocities without 57% and the calculation of the pressure correction require auxiliary potential T , or of the pressure p requires only 10% of the computation time per time step. Qualitative Description and Evaluation of the Results /93
10.2.
10.2.1. _ThreeDimensionalFlow Models I Figure 17 to 20 give an impression of the effort required for the direct numerical simulation of a turbulent flow, as well These figures show threedimensional "instantaas the results. neous photographs" of the flow fields in the form of vector and Each of them corresponds tolan arbitrarily contour graphs. selected plane of the flow space. Only the fluctuation field ;U f4A of the velocities is represented. The velocity components in the plane of the drawing are characterized by vectors which start at the point under consideration and which have a length and direction corresponding to the velocity vector. The 124
fluctuation velocity perpendicular to the plane of the drawing is characterized by contours having a constant contour value difference. In this way we obtain a good plastic representation In addition, Figures 18, 19 and 20 show E of the flow processes.
the contour representations of the fine structure energy as well as the pressure p defined by (63). The contours
corresponding to negative function values are given by dashed lines and those corresponding to positive values are given by solid lines. The latter also had markings for identification These figures have of the height using the legend given. meshes.
markings at the edges which characterize the separations between For the solid ring figures, these markings are partly inside of the flow space (for example, Figure 17). Here one can clearly see the nonequidistant radial mesh separations as well as how the periodic boundary conditions are satisfied.
The most important results shown by the figures as one imagines turbulent flows to be. have any errors.
is the
fact that the flow fields presented are indeed as irregular This fact is an important argument for the fact that the program used does not As is well known,many program errors lead to some kind of regular features which cannot be explained physically. The systematic phenomena which are shown are exactly those one would expect from the physics of the problem. Everywhere one can see that in the vicinity of the wall, the greatest fluctuation motions occur. velocity gradient. the vE7 values. This is exactly where the kinetic energy production is great because of the large Because of the large velocity fluctuations, / 94 values are a maximum and the pressures have extreme The fine structure tips shown clearly in Figure 19
which are perpendicular to the flow direction and go from the wall to the center are very interesting. This could be one of the often observed intermittence processes [89,115, 120], for
125
( of the space functions vcxc). this.2.which the flow is relatively quiet over large regions and the stored energy is transported in pulses from the wall to the center now and then. because these functions are periodic according to Nevertheless. this dimensionless time at D = 18 cm. here for dimensionless wave numbers ) an Because there is no periodicity here at large frequencies (recalculated apparently large conThe spectra tribution of the Aliasing error is produced [50. this figure one can see that the flow apparently does not move towards a true stationary solution (as is the case for laminar flow). Rem = 240 000 und % = 0. one should conFrom a motion which fluctuates more here. we calculated the energy spectra and show this on the lower right of Figure 21. Perhaps one would have expected However. The figures for the problems with many methods are too confused to be able to follow the motions in detail. as well as the instantaneous product VOx. where according to Figure 44 the average shear stress v~'. and the fine structure energy starting. Time Functions and Spectra Figure 21 shows the flow behavior as a function of time at a location r=0.2. the time functions are also smoothed. where random initial conditions prevail up to t " 5. Figure 20 for case Zl is probably better suited for 10. also shown do not have such errors.80 m/ corresponds to about one second according to [18] in real time.' is positive. g  sider the factthat because of the space averaging over individual meshes.844. In addition it can be seen that after some time. In real dimensions.at t=0. () . both types of spectra have similarities 126 . "Reynolds stress" From the time functions given. The velocity components as well as the macroscopic energy calculated from it are shown.V1r the model. the Wa' i does indeed become mainly positive. 9].
the computation time is 2 hours on an IBM 370/165. For this. For example. all of the evaluations would have to take place simultaneously with the integration. under the given conditions (not completely stationary. However.1 we will discuss whether or not this state is indeed reached.order to produce this curve. only a small number of points) this did not actually happen and therefore the period average values shown in Figures 26 to 64 show large fluctuations.3. when there is a large number of meshes in the xLf ir x 1 x 2 planes. This is clearly also shown for the spectra corresponding to cases K4. The replacement of period averaging by time averaging alone is not practical.5 3 ing to k which drops off in proportion to k 7 at the high wave numbers. because it is almost impossible to have intermediate storage of the data for later evaluation for the cases with 65. respectively.of the type so that in the center there is a region correspond. This assumption was always made for the evaluation of the results. Figure 65 shows the velocities at a location as a function of time for the case K3. In the stationary state. 10.4. In Chapter 10. The combination of both types of averaging seems desirable.2. In. Problemof Formation of the Average Values The statistical properties of a flow should move towards a stationary state independent of the instantaneous space photographs or the unsteady variations at a point. It should be remembered that the values of the three velocity components plus the fine structure energy require 127 .000 meshes. Apparently this computation time is not sufficient to obtain average values with sufficiently small fluctuation widths. Z3 (Figure 22) where in the axial direction it is possible to represent more meshes and therefore more wave numbers. the time averaging should be able to be replaced by periodic averaging over these planes.
10. Z2. Therefore. The method used here simulates the turbulent momentum transport primarily by direct integration of the NavierStokes equations. 107 Byte. finer resolution corresponding to cases K4.2. The next region was calculated according to (592) and differs only slightly from zero.1.3. In particular we will make clear that even relatively coarse solutions give reasonable results for cases This means that the greater amount of effort for the K2. Only the shaded region can be attributed to the fine structure model according to Chapter 5. we can see the favorable result that most of the momentum transport is brought about by the macroscopic structure. The region above it finally is the energy contribution structure energy This energy contribution /96 produced by the macroscopic structure.106 Byte of storage per time step. In the following chapters we will discuss some of the individual results which will support the physical plausibility of the method. The models used for this are therefore not negligible for the local processes. 128 .3.2. apparently is not much greater than the contribution of the fine structure.2. between a zero line and the first curve corresponds to the fine according to Chapter 5. Z4 is not absolutely necessary for future problems. Figures 34 and 35 show the kinetic energy of the solutions The contribution coded according to the calculation methods.2. A magnetic tape contains about Contribution of the Macroscopic Structure to the Turbulent Processes N In Figures 43 and 44 we show the shear stresses as a function of radius (or wall distance) for one plate channel and one annulus channel each.
In the following we will compare the calculated maximum of the average velocity profile <'t). of the profile.10.. The measured values reported by ComteBellot [18] and Laufer [76] are shown by dabhed lines.3..1. See Table 15 for this.3.with corresponding data from the literature.2. The profiles for the annulus flow according to Figure 27 show the expected displacements of the maxima towards the The difference between a maximum and average inner edge. We can clearly see an improvement of the results compared with those of Deardorff. It can be seen that the calculated values agree well with the measured values. Barthels [111 and Maubach [88] predict a reduction of the maximum velocity by 12% compared with plate flow. Figure 26 shows the velocity profile calculated for plate flow. The agreement between the calculated values and the measured values lieswithin the experimental measurement errors for the corresponding Reynolds numbers. For the annulus. The differences between the measured values and numerical results can hardly be distinguished. The values calculated here lie between 010% under those This means that the tendency is represented for plate flow. correctly. This is probably due to 129 . Quantitative Comparison with Experiments MaximumVelocity 10. velocity is a better measure for the agreement between the calculated and measured profiles than is the graphical representation Corresponding numbers are given in Table 16.3.. Velocity Profile 10.
There the contributions of the fluctuation velocities were all higher than was the case for the measurements.1).3. In the vicinity of the wall. This corresponds to the physical realities because for Rl/R2 0. The numerical values do not have as large a variation with wall distance as do the experimental values. This is partly dud to the fact that the fine structure energy was assigned uniformly to the various components corresponding to the assumption of local isotropy.4. For plate flow. just like a plate. maxima of 5 were indicated for the axial velocity fluctuations. i.e. the fluctuation intensity has a minimum at the center. Fluctuation Velocities In Figures 2830 we show the average velocity fluctuations 1<1(V3 /e for the various components for plate flow. 10. This is about twice as high as the corresponding value measured by ComteBellot [181. The agreement of the average values can be considered good. In any case.3. The deviation for Z4 is attributed to insufficient stationary conditions (see Chapter 10. Corresponding results are shown in Figures 3133 for the annulus. these results are much better than those of Deardorff [29]. we also show the measured values of ComteBellot (dashed lines) for comparison purposes.the division of the fine structure model into a locally isotropic /97 part and an inhomogeneous part (Chapter 5.2. Figures 3133 show that (except for Z4) the fluctuation velocities for annulus flow are smaller at the inner edge than at the outer edge.1). 130 . for a circular tube. Here again we had better agreement because of the separation into a local isotropic and an inhomogeneous fine structure model.
CompariThe correlation /98 curves clearly verify the result found by Deardorff [29] according to which the axial component is correlated over a larger axial interval than the two other components. satisfactory. This result had These been found before Deardorff by ComteBellot [18] by determining the correlation lengths from spectrum measurements. (Steadiness) It is not easy to decide whether the solutions discussed here can be considered stationary in the statistical sense. an annulus. The period average values have large fluctuations after a relatively long This is especially clearly seen in Figures 45 and 46 in which the period average values of the accelerations are shown. integration time. Influence of the Model Parameter 10. Integration Time 10.3. but without any experimental comparison.5 (center) and in Figure 37 for x3=0. correlation lengths are shown in Figures 39 to 41 for the plate The dashed curve corresponds to the measurements of Here again we can consider the agreement to be Figure 42 shows the corresponding results for ComteBellot.5.4. The agreement of the numerical values is satisfactory within the framework of the statistical scatter for cases K2K4 for which the period length is 4.1.031 (vicinity of the wall). Corresponding correlations for the other velocity components are shown in Figure 38 for x 3 =0.4. 131 . channels. then the fluctuations of the average accelerations are remarkably large. son measurements are not known for this case. If we remember that the pressure gradient can only produce an acceleration having the magnitude 2.4. Axial Correlations The twopoint correlations of the axial velocity components in the axial direction were calculated and are compared with the measured values of ComteBellot [18] in Figure 36 for x3=0.10.
Period Lengths One measure for sufficient magnitude of the period lengths X1. show the following using contours for Kl. these variables are shown in Figure 47 as a function of time. curves we have the following results: the solutions Kl. X 2 /2 from zero. lucid representation of the correlations. already discussed in Chapter 10. A better measure for closeness to the stationary state is the variation in time of the macroscopic energy(g<>) and the fine structure energy averaged over the entire flow volume at a point in VY7>) (t) For cases Kl and Z3. 0/2 Axial correlation coefficients were Figures 24 and 25 give In Figure 24 we point correlations for the distances X 1 /2. are the deviations of the twoor X/2. K3: 132 .This is also true for cases Zl and Z2. K2. Z4. the substantial increase in the problem time for cases K4. From these and similar time.0. where according to (141) the required "startup time" has greatly been exceeded. It is only from the systematic variations of the accelerations for cases K4. cases K3. K2. On the other hand.X 2 or X. Z 4 that one can conclude that the stationary state has not been reached at least for this case.2.4.3.4. are not stationary in this statistical sense. Z4 cannot be defended because of the large computation times. Z3. 10.i respectively. Z2 can be looked upon as sufficiently stationary. For The cases /991 Z1. The oscillations are much smaller for Kl but this is not so for Z3. the deviations are probably only small. respectively. K 4 . however.
Z2.4. or J= 7r. the period lengths selected for K2K4. Nevertheless we were able to show /100 that it is possible to realize these conditions in practice. Mesh Size The mesh size is very important for determining the numerical effort as well as the period length.respectively. From Figures 24 and 25. Z3: The apparent symmetries are a consequence of the periodic nature and period averaging. Z2Z4 seemed to be sufficient. Zl: 60%). one can see that the correlations first decrease rapidly with increasing distance of the correlated points. For the cases K1 and Zl we still have substantial The period lengths X1 = 2 correlations (KL:l± 20%.7. Z4. In addition. respectively. all the cases having the same geometry were always treated with the same programs and model constants according to Table 13. As can be seen from the results already discussed and from the Figures 26 to 64. This demonstrates a deficiency of the Deardorff calculations with X2=0. it is only in the cases with x =4 or 0 = 2. 10. it also follows that X2=1 is too small. are not sufficient. at a distance of 1/2 of the period length.3. However.Figure 25 shows the following for cases Z1. the averaged results do not differ significantly from each other for the cases with different mesh sizes. On the other hand. The requirement KM>30 as a prerequisite for the existence of local isotropy is only applicable for cases K4. These results show that for the expenditure used for 133 . From similar figures for plate flow. that we have sufficiently small correlations (about ± 10%. This effect is reproduced to about the same extent in all cases.
003 At = 0. 134 . the However. the reverse holds true for the average velocities. to the total change within this time span of 0.0015 Cases b) and c) gave results for the velocities which differed by about 1% from the solutions for case a).4.8. This is also true for the correctness of the correction factor c. was also reported in [44]. 10.4. effects seem to be small. On the other hand. considered: Three cases were Case a) Case b) Case c) At = 0. The variation of the instantaneous results with a decreasing time step cannot be considered negligible.096 starting with the solution at t= 3. This experience In the statistical sense. (referred The results of case b) for the calculated fine structure energy are closer to the reference solution of case a) than for case c). it is possible to obtain physically reasonable results.096). we suggest a correction in future calculations which varies somewhat less with At than indicated by Equation (573).0015 At = 0. factor ic Based on this experience.cases K2.003 IBoth with Jc 9 According to (573) Jc 9 calculated according to (573) just as for At = 0. Time step_ At For the case K2 we integrated over an additional time span of 0. Z2. we have not yet carried out an exact investigation of this.
than at the wall meshes.8. we first found larger energies equation.6 and integrated over additional problem time of 1. which can be explained by the missing These increased fine convective and diffusion transport. clearly. would be very important for the accuracy of One can show that when the fine structure energies the result. which can be considered a model for equation (544) /101 dE h 0• C3 C3 =4 C = 135 . In the second case. are calculated from one transport equation.2. the statistical average values vary only slightly. In order to show this especially for small mesh edge lengths h. structure energies then lead to a correspondingly larger damping of the coarse structure fluctuations. One would have expected that the integration of this additional transport equation. we started with the solution at t=5. these are almost completely correlated with the source term P according to (544).1. we integrated the following initial value problem using Dysys [1221.5. Nevertheless. which.10.4. Effect of Integrationof the FineStructure Energy Equation For the case KI. First of all VE' was determined by integration of the transport equation derived and then we also used Equation (83) according to the method of Deardorff without integrating an additional transport for it. This is a remarkable result. in particular avoids the weakness of the Deardorff model indicated under a) in Chapter 5.
1 and (in order to clearly show the effect) h = 1.were determined numerifactors e. 21 1 K4. not serious. lated results for h = 0.A harmonic function is assumed for the deformation velocity. the effort saved is not particularly large. channel geometry and can be considered as "universal" constants in future calculations: The value of 01 given here is in contradiction to the data in Table 13. found for the unnaturally large mesh distance h = 1. This means that we have found an important positive result for future calculations which states that the effort of an additional integration of the energy equation is not necessary.6. cally and are shown in Figures 48 and 49 for cases Z2 and d are clearly closer to the It can be seen that the factors factor 3defined by (582). However. One can see from this that as the correlation E(t)l and the energy E (t) corresponding to the simpler model becomes Clear differences are only greater. because most of the computation time is required for calculating the source term. which was also assumed to However the deviations of 20% are As the figures show.4. and its average value approximately agrees with the true values V 2The factor h 5 . 0. as well as the I according to (514. and will now be explained. The Correction Constants 1' 2' 3 /102 An additional measure for the correlation between the fine structure and the macroscopic deformation velocity is the This factor. assumed value of one than the value be one in earlier theories. 15). 10. mesh size.j"'_W/ (4t S eoW) Figure 66 shows the calcu follows from (434). these factors are mostly independent of position. the smaller h becomes. 136 .01.
10. according to Chapter 2. Determination of Turbulence Model Constants EnergyLength Model Calculation of Quantities to be Approximated In order to prove the usefulness of direct numerical simulations for supporting turbulent models. Part of this effect could be explained and In addition it was found correlated according to Appendix 7.5 could not be carried out because the period averages used for this had fluctuations which were too large.10.5. Problem of the Model In the first test calculations using the method described in Chapters 3 to 8. production term LPROD defined by (214).2 was not considered. /103 10. structure model are too large. changed values of the constant d able to avoid this effect. we first had unexplainably large axial correlations. that the calculated viscosities of the locally isotropic fine Using corresponding artificially according to Table 13. 78).5. we were The reason for this weakness of the fine structure model is attributed to the fact that the correction cd suggested in Chapter 5.1.5. 2.2. 137 . we do not have any quantitative data for the numbers. In addition we find that the calculation of the wall shear stresses according to Chapter 7.1. The ratio of the wall shear stresses used corresponds to the data of Barthels [11]. lengths L according to (577. 10.5. The correction is supposed to take into account the deviation of the actual spectrum from the Kolmogorov spectrum for small wave However. we calculated the length L defined by (213) and the lengthFor the annulus.7.1.4.
The main variation corresponds to our physical expectations.091 0. signs of LwVl> and 8<u">/4@ can differ. the average The 4d. The large fluctuations in the center are a consequence of the mathematical uncertainty of Negative values indicate that the the definition of (0/0).. results calculated are as follows: Case Kl K2 K3 K4 ZI Z2 Z3 Z4 al 138 0. Calculation of the Constant al Since in addition to the length L we know the shear stresses qz . we can calculate the "constant" al1 according to (29) for each location z from 04 P' First of all it The results are shown in Figures 56.5.integrals Sljd&r are replaced by The results are shown in Figures 52 to 55.0592 0.0672 0.17 in the center.0463 . It is reasonable to have the production term vanish in the center because it is identically zero for homogeneous turbulence.).0848 0. 57.1. value al is weighted from al(z) and calculated with also discussed. /.0906 0.0835 0. as MaubachRehme [90] Based on the large fluctuations. The length L first increases with wall distance Z more than k'z (k=Kdrmdn constant) and has a maximum of about 0. The length production term is about zero in the center and increases towards the walls.2. the kinetic enbrgy £*'> and the average velocity pro file. The calculations show that there is a slight increase of the "constants" with wall distance. becomes clear that this "constant" is not a true "constant". 10.0685 0.
655 Z2 0. If we use the additional term with the constant a 5 suggested by Rotta. a5 for the individual cases from the minimum of the following expression f(a 4 .775 K3 1.513 Z1 0. (£ L' we calculate the values for a4 as a function of position.5. Using the definition L. 59. the separation of additional terms for approximating the length production is desirable. Independent of this.1. Determination of the Constants a 4 and a5 First a5 is assumed to be identically zero and only a 4 is considered.3.The average value is about 0. Because of the apparent variation with wall distance. the uncertainty in the is shown in Figures 58.075.17 K4 0. 139 . The fact that this value is /104 smaller than the usually assumed value is a consequence of the relatively large values of length in the vicinity of the wall. definition equation leads to large fluctuations in the center.PROD CV. and this Just like al.8.50 The general average value is a 4 = 0.748 Z3 Z4 1. ah LPRo 04r dr e. 10. there is a clear increase in the "constant" a 4 with wall distance.12 0.049 K2 0. The values of a 4 weighted with LPROD(Z I ) are: Case a4 K1 1. a 5 ): tcye 1 . then we obtain the values a4 .
92 0.39 0. For the plate in the center we have a 4 = 1.9 0.13 1.2 0.The results found for this are as follows: Case K1 K2 K3 K4 21 Z2 Z3 /105 Z4 a4 1.78 1. there are different optimum values of a 4 . 5 For the plate and the annulus under consideration. c) and for the annulus with R2/Rl = 5: we have a 4 = 0. 0.08 0.65 a5 0.6. a5 = 0. it does not seem justified to ignore the additional term weighted with a . a 5 = 1. From these results it\ becomes clear that new trial solutions must be developed 140 .4 The reason for these differences could be that the minimum of the production term is closest to the inner wall for the annulus than the maximum of the average velocity profile.5 1.95 0. The approximation theorem assumes that these locations coincide.1 1. a 5 . therefore.6 0.44 0. 0.40 0.13 From this we can see the following: a) b) The magnitudes of the constants can only be calculated with large uncertainties. The magnitudes of the constants a 5 have the same order of magnitude as those of a4.
53. Figures 60 and 61 show that the calculated correlations correspond to the expected variation.for approximating the shear stresses as well as the length production term. p. 141 . PU22.1.2. for which the coincidence of the zero point of these variables and the maximum of the average velocity profile does not have to be assumed in the trial solution. Calculation of Terms to be Approximated Turbulence models which contain transport equations require models for correlations for i'j These terms cause the energy exchange of fluctuation components [108. 2531. positive. Figure 62 shows that there are differences in the correlation magnitudes for the various cases. The fact that the magnitudes do not increase with the number of meshes apparently proves the fact that the correlations considered are indeed represented by the coarse structure. /106 10.2. PUl3 for one plate and annulus channel. energy is other components. 123.5. On thel other hand. _Pressure Deformation Velocity Correlation 10. PU33 are This means that because of the pressure. 115.5. PUll has the smallest magnitude for the case K4. PUll is negative and PU22. PU33. This is probably due to deficient stationary conditions. I transferred from the axial component to the PUl3 shows the negative proportionality with the shear stress (r' as predicted by Rotta [108]. These correlations are calculated only Figures from the coarse structure of the numerical solutions. Figure 62 showed the various results for PUll alone. of high intensity to those having a lower intensity p.l 60 and 61 show PUll.
in concentric annulus channels by direct integration of the NavierStokes equations.5. gated.18.1.. A numerical differencing method is presented with which it is possible to simulate threedimensional. then the magnitudes of the constants will be at 2. further evaluation of the numerical results in order to consider In addition. incompressible turbulent momentum transport for Reynolds number Rem>105 in plate and.8 on the average and then agree well with the 2.5. 142 . 51) and the velocity fluctuations could be investiObviously we have proven the usefulness of the numerical method for this purpose by means of the evaluations given above. the inhomogenuity of the turbulence in the model.5. Determination of the Constant k If we use the model trial solution of Rotta (Al48) and <c> is calculated from where L is given by Chapter 10.1 and we use the working variable a2 = 1. p. 126].10. 0. unsteady. As expected (Al48) only apply for homogeneous turbulence [108] and different values KP.2. As a rule The average value is If instead of a2=1 we use the value suggested by Rotta [116] a 2 =0.2. then it is possible to calculate the "constant" kp. j of PUij and different locations z. (z) are obtained for the various indices i. the values are all positive as predicted.1. 64.5 which follows from After this paper there should be a experiments [115. 11. the oftendiscussed relationship [4] between pressure fluctuations (Figures 50. as shown in Figures 63. CONCLUSIONS Summary of the Most Important Results /108 /107 11. for the first time.
which appear as unknown variables in the averaging of the NavierStokes equations over one difference grid. but only by the allowable computation times. and in two cases. where the mesh shape must vary with location. Based on this still insufficient number of meshes. a fine structure model is required with which it is possible to calculate Reynold stresses in an approximate way.This method is realized in the program TURBIT1. The inhomogeneous part makes it possible to apply the method even for relatively large meshes. This is much higher than mesh numbers used earlier. The maximum useable number of difference meshes is not restricted by the available storage because of a dynamic data management Eight system. the following characteristics: A distinction is made between the locally isotropic and the inomogeneous contribution. The turbulent viscosity is calculated according to a trial solution of the Boussinesq type from the macroscopic velocity deformation and the kinetic energy of the fluctuation motion within a mesh. the flow space under consideration was divided into 64*32*32=65536 meshes. different cases were simulated. as well as the difference quotients used. It is shown that these Reynolds stresses represent area average values of the fluctuation velocity In this paper we correlations and not volume average values. The model considers the different dimensions of the difference meshes in the various directions. develop a model which differs from earlier suggestions [29. A special transport equation is integrated 143 . The locally isotropic contribu1 tion vanishes according to definition when the time average is taken. This is an important assumption for the 81] by applicability of the method for curvilinear coordinates.
/ 109 The model for the locally isotropic part of the fine structure is calculated essentially exactly from the assumption of locally isotropic turbulence with the Kolmogorov spectrum. The results are mostly independent of the mesh number used. Numerical results have been given for plate flow and one Four cases were presented for both annulus channel (R2/R1=5). This is especially true for the velocity profile and the average velocity fluctuations. stability criteria are established for the linearized difference equations. In addition it was shown that the additional effort 144 . a substantial improvement over the results of Dearforff [29]. and they differ as to the number of difference meshes The numerical results agree well with the experimental values. problems. The solutions of the complicated integrals which occur in this case are approximated by convenient approximations. The difference method allows radial nonequidistant meshes. is discussed. it is shown that the assumption of a locally isotropic fine structure model is valid for Reynolds numbers Re > 105 if the mesh edge lengths are less than about 1/30 of the distance between the walls. of the type that have not existed before for such complicated formulas. Among other things. The pressure is exactly solved in an effective ive way by solving the Poisson equation using the fast Fourier transformation. according to the Neumann criterion. it is shown that the DuFortFrankel model for approximating the diffusion terms in multidimensional flows with small viscosities and simultaneous conThe accuracy of the differencing method vection is Inot suitable. except for rounding errors. Correspondingly. = Physically reasonable results are already obtained for 3216*16 8192 meshes. where we found and period lengths. By evaluating known experimental results.for this purpose.
to complete such models and to improve such models. Then one should attempt to remove the deficiencies of the model which were discussed above. In particular it is possible to simulate those From the numerical results.2. It is shown that the method is a useful tool for the quantitative determination of turbulence models.1 as well as A5.5.2. following: Consideration of the spectrum for small wave numbers (Chapter 5. 11. it is possible to also terms which are primarily determined by the coarse structure of calculate quantities which cannot be measured dr are difficult to measure. turbulence.2. In some cases it will be possible to simply refer to the already available space velocity fields without any further integration. where it will then be possible 145 .2. using the example of the energylength model and the pressurevelocity deformation correlation.1)j and the removal of the assumption of local isotropy for large mesh sizes. Among these we have the The program can be extended to annulus flows with simultaneous rotation of the walls or induced angular momentum.5.2). as well as flows in fourcornered channels. Suggestions for the Application and Further Development of the Methods Presented /110 In the future the methods developed will be used to test turbulence models.2. Problems occur in the quantitative determination of the fine structure model and in the calculation of the wall shear stresses.for integrating the fine structure energy equation is not necessary. Consideration of the random nature (Chapter 5.
periodic boundary The simulation of tube flows or similar problems conditions). one energy) are already contained in the method. for which the natural coordinates have singular points. etc.) [63] and around ribs. However. the stability of the atmosphere (already treated by Dearforff [331 for similar problems) could be investigated when there are large heat sources concentrated in space. such as for example flows around obstacles [75]. it seems possible that a quantitative can be derived from the theory of isotropic turbulence and by measuring the corresponding spectra [17. The additional effort is not excessive. especially when one wants to consider small Prandtl numbers. because four of the quantities (3 velocity components. An additional variable will therefore require only about 25% more effort. the turbulent transport of scala' variables such as for example the enthalpy Ican be simulated using the momentum. such as for example power generating stations. Fine structure models having a similar accuracy as well as momentum models do not yet exist. With a major effort. simulate recirculating flows. 166]. around buildings (houses. One assumption to be cooling towers. In addition. 146 . for model example. but this seems possible. This can be done without any It is more difficult to substantial increased theoretical work.to also consider secondary flows. For example. will be difficult. made here is that there is a limited flow space with boundary conditions defined on all sides (for example. it will probably be possible to investigate problems of environment and local meteorology using the method discussed here.
Kinematics of Isotropic Turbulence In this chapter we will describe and define a number of quantities for describing isotropic turbulence. Al..i  Kolmogorov spectrum We will report on the experimental These relationships are therefore of a kinematic In order to determine the fine structure model we will require correlations of velocities at two locations. ( ) = () I (Al2) 147 . 66] We define R.APPENDIX 1 The Theory of Isotropic Turbulence and Its Experimental Verification In this section we will develop the theoretical bases in detail which are required from the theory of isotropic turbulence so that the fine structure model can be determined quantitatively. the twopoint correlation as follows [53.1.. Al.J (7 (x  " (Ali) For isotropic turbulence because of the invariance with respect to translation we have R.(r) . verification of these factors.l. We will derive relationships (according to [53]) which follow only from the invariance condition of isotropy as well as from the continuity equation (16). Correlation R. nature.1... The local isotropic condition and the are especially important here.
Here F and G are scala functions of the magnitude of r 4.  (Al8) Energy Spectrum A turbulent flow can be imagined as a superposition of trigonometric velocity functions where the position x is a variable and with different wave numbers k [132]: k = k1 1 k2 . It is possible to determine the energy contribution of the velocity field within a certain wave number interval. 148 . k is the wave number vector with the dimension [1/length].From the invariance with respect to rotation we have [66]: 1.1.4) which can be interpreted as longitudinal and transverse correlation: e4(4 : r K 1(4) :  c '1IX ) (A15) (Al6) (:f E' r /112 Because of the continuity equation we have:  R (_) 0 (Al7) from which it follows that [66]: G (A1.(Al .2.
"( 4f / (AI15) 149 . (Al10) The onedimensional spectrum E 1 (kl) is defined as the (onedimensional) Fourier transform of the longitudinal correlation F(rl) according to (Al5) E )= kB. S R C() eAp " S _I1 :t f A. A)n At (Al13) Jjust like (Al3. which have a magnitude of k: E (A) I_= a 5 S Ed A.7 oF (AlII) The threedimensional scalar spectrum E(k) is finally defined as the integral of E.The distribution of energy into various wave number regions is called the energy spectrum. only Eij(k) can be described mathematically. :LT F(C } e f.(k)" (scalar) energy spectrum E(k)". (k) over all wave numbers k. We will be most interested in E(k) so that the following calculations will be needed [531 4 (A. average "onedimensional energy spectrum E 1 (k)". E 1 (kl) can be determined by measuring the correlation F(r). A distinction is made between a and a "threedimensional.8) we can show that: Ae E.. a "threedimensional tensor energy spectrum E.) (Al12) /113 In practice.. The tensor energy spectrum E ij(k) is defined as the Fourier transform of the correlation Rij(r) [531.
(r). if E(k) is known using (Alll) we can also determine R.ij(r) if E(k) is known and also can be used when E(k) is singular at k=O in a way which 2 is weaker than k2 First we will consider Rll(r) and R 33 are found in a similar way..1.3. 5.1. From (Al3) and (Al8) it follows that: If Equation (Al16) is substituted for F(r) and if we subtract R 1 1 (0) in order to avoid the singularity at k equal to zero. In the following we will derive a few formulas which are suitable for the direct calculation of R. Relationshipsbetween the Correlations and the Scalar Energy SpectrumE(k) According to Hinze [53] as a consequence of (Al3. 12) we have: Flo)=2 5 AS3 c ( " (Al16) Because of (Al3) and (Al8) we can therefore determine R. we find ) ) . (r) from 13 onedimensional measurements.A. 10.. (Al18) where A (A) and 150 150 (r C ( 4ri) o 2j (Al19) .
respectively The dissipation 6 according to (116) is defined as follows: Because of the following relationship which can be derived from the definition (Al1) for isotropic turbulence For the Kolmogorov spectrum.k n/ with n<2. 151 . It can be seen that the integrand is still not nonsingular if we have E(k). Al 1..ij(r) for i according to (Al3) and (Al8) as follows j are then found P'4' R(Al21) from the formulas given above../114j 7 and which is useful for the numerical ueia except for an error of 10 evaluation* of the integral for a small k'r for arbitrary E(k) results in **: A A3) AdI + (AI) as ollows 15 6?0  45)AS ) = l40 A 9 r4A.3..6. FORMAC [135] is found to be very helpful. see Chapter 4. * When such series expansions are determined.A series expansion which is valid in the range from 0 4 rk£ . The other correlations R.4 of theDeformaRelationships between the Suare tionVelocity. Dissipationand Energy Spectrum and Correlations. an analytical integration is possible.
24) it also follows that 4 the deformation velocity = EA) A A (Al25) and therefore we find the following for the average square of D 20(/Y J (A126) <i. 10 From (Al24) we find r' o(Al27) 2 a ' (r) .F'r) ( /115 (A124) From (416.a we havel Ak axe (Al22) (Al23) and therefore =K /. E )d (Al28) and in general we have [115. p. 991: 152 a (Al29) 152 .
and L the diameter of those turbulence balls which carry the greatest ( part of the kinetic energy of the fluctuation motion. another maximum could be possible which would represent the Brownian molecular motion.1.2. where we at least have: kgrid > kmax The region which cannot be resolved in the grid. Since we require 153 . Figure 6. lence.2 Energy Spectra Based on Models of the Dynamics of Locally Isotropic Turbulence A1.Lmax . the wave number range can be explicitly resolved in the grid between k = 0 and k=kgrid . We will now assume that using the differencing method. at the wave numbers E(k) then increases and has a maximum is considered to be .3) this maximum must be located at wave numbers which are much greater than the wave numbers for which the spectrum becomes zero because of the molecular viscosity. corresponds to wave numbers kkgril. For very large wave numbers. shows the principal variation of the energy spectrum for isotropic turbu E(k) is zero for k = 0. In order to be /116 able to consider the flow as a continuum (according to the assumption of Chapter 1. Summary In the previous chapter we saw that many variables used to describe isotropic turbulence are purely kinematic in nature if the scalar energy spectrumIE(k) is known. that is the fine structure.A1. At large wave numbers (according to equation (Al25)) the molecular viscosity forces bring about a conversion of the kinetic energy into heat and E(k) then goes to zero for large k. because for isotropic turbulence the average velocity is zero..
The /117 ball can only "swell" up to the point where the dissipation E&Vwj brings about its decomposition into smaller vortices. having a smaller characteristic length or a larger characteristic wave number. since we have in the Wave Number its rotation will increase in proportion to the diameter d. and this will finally result in a trial solution for E(k) based on dimensional analysis. However. The motion of the largest vortices itself is unstable and produces vortices elements"). 154 . Part of the model can be explained from consideration of the exact equations [103]. 93. and others [92. respectively.2Model of Energy_Transport Space ("Cascade Process") For sufficiently large Reynolds numbers it is possible to look upon a turbulent flow as the result of a transition of various sizes of vortices (" turbulence balls" or "spectral Only the largest of these vortices are a direct consequence of the instability of the average flow. a turbulence ball having a diameter d o and a rotation w is "swelled" because of turbulent diffusion and (as I would like to add) centrifugal acceleration. Weizsdcker [139].models for this fine structure. Accordingly.2. 52]. In the following section we will discuss the ideas of energy transport set forth by Kolmogorov [67]. we will present a turbulent model with which it is possible to give a quantitative description of the energy spectrum E(k) for kkgri . A1. TaylorGreen [131] gave an explanation for this instability.
KolmogorovPao Spectrum Kolmogorov Length According to the model described above.e. It is important to note that the viscosity forces are only effective for small balls or large wave numbers. This range is called the "inertial subrange" or "range determined by inertia forces". this is determined by the total dissipation <c>. the characteristic lengths are so small that the viscosity forces are greater than the inertia forces (the Reynolds number formed with the length becomes small)and the kinetic energy is transformed into heat.For an incompressible fluid. i. In the final analysis. are of any consequence. Al. we can only have an enlargement of the turbulence ball in the radial direction if fluid can flow to the ball parallel to the rotation axis. In this range. the manner of producing the large turbulence balls. it is postulated that in wave number space there is a range ko <k<k in which only the inertia forces are effective.2.4 for the value). neither the viscosity v nor the macroscopic geometry. This is a good example which shows that certain flow processes in turbulent flow can only occur in three dimensions. The upper limit k 0 of the inertial subrange is given by f/ao (Al31) 155 . the energy spectrum in the inertial subrange can only be determined by the sizes of the balls or their wave number k as well as by the energy transport from the small wave numbers to the large wave numbers. According to Kolmogorov and others. After a large number of such "cascade processes" have occurred. clusion ECA <6> (Al30) From a dimensional analysis we find the following con Here a is the Kolmogorov constant (see Chapter A1.2.3.
From a dimensional analysis we find in this case VY(Al33) Based on the exact model of Pao [1031. we find the following for the spectrum.2. 156 (A136) .6. The Kolmogorov spectrum (430) therefore applies in a range 4 (Al35) where it is probably more appropriate to replace the symbol < See Chapter 1. It can be seen that the measured values Therefore.1) which characterizes the ball diameter for which the viscosity forces and the inertia forces which cause energy transport (proportional to <e>) fromlthe small wave numbers to the large wave numbers have the same order of magnitude.7 for the various types of flows (also in a channel flow). estimation of the order of magnitude of n. Therefore we assume that the missing proportionality factor in (433) is equal to one.1 and Figure 2 for an by the symbol <<.4. Table 3 gives information on measurements.2 to 101. theoretical estimates and recommendations for the magnitude of the Kolmogorov constant a.41 and 1. The Magnitude of the KolmogorovConstants A1.where L is an integral length scale such as for example the Prandtl mixing length. the value scatter between 1. o56. The upper limit (Al32) is characterized by the "Kolmogorov length" n (see Chapter 1.6. which has the order of magnitude between 0 10 .
in contrast to the higher derivatives for the longitudinal correlations F(r) according to Therefore it seems that the Pao spectrum (Al34) is more general.115] state that either 10(Al37) or g .2. Heisenberg gave the following For k<< k>> we also find the Kolmogorov spectrum from this. this cannot be valid for arbitrarily large wave would no longer exist for l"m (Al24). . because otherwise integrals of the type > (A140) However. theoretical predictions [53.7 For we find the proportionality k $ numbers. A1.5. . For the range k>k spectrum [52]1 (Al38) /119 . 157 .seems reasonable and will be used in this paper. The Spectrum Outside of the Region Determined by Inertia Forces For very small wave numbers.
R 3) as well as using (Al21) R.1r h dIX c's(A' X Kf M4  . (r) = . Just as the Kolmogorov spectrum is only valid in al limited wave number region (Al35) these correlations only apply in a limited range i (A147) This becomes clear if we consider that in contrast to (Al24) from (Al45). 53]. then using the auxiliary formulas [13] 1 . for example for the Pao spectrum..6g A ) 3r (A143) (Al44) r(3) we finally find 4J' R2 3 2r' / (Al!I5) (similarly R 2 2 . the /120 derivations used here make it possible to calculate the correlations for other spectra numerically.% j ( (X) 0"_ O. (Al46) These results can. be found in [80.we would have 158 .2. for example.'x (Al41) i4 kf N C 4 X (Al42) for and partial integration. Calculation of the Correlation for Turbulence with theKolmogorov Spectrum If E(k) is substituted in (Al18) according to (Al30).6.Al. and considering the series expansion X=O as well as v dx =r/'( 2.
p. However. .1 There are numerous experimental proofs of the existence of local isotropy in turbulent flows which are macroscopically Pao [103] mentions 18 references in this regard.3. until there is an isotropic energy distribution. so that energy is transferred from components with a strong fluctuation intensity to components with a weaker intensity. and in contrast to experience. the pressurevelocity correlations bring about an energy exchange between the velocity fluctuations in the various directions.C t (Al49) 159 . R 1(r) would go to c A correlation which is valid for O < r LO and which in addition agrees exactly with (Al24) is obtained when the Pao spectrum (Al34) is used.3 Re p 106' according to Figure 2. the pressure due to incompressibility. Rotta suggested the following quantitative trial solutions for this In agreement with measurements of Uberoi [138] we have p a as an estimate. 1231 showed. the lower limit is noncritical for Reynolds numbers A1.Y= 0= / for (A48) r4o . As Rotta [108. 1 The reason for the existence of local isotropy is the effect of anisotropic. 115. Experimental Verification of the Validity of Local Isotropic Conditions and the Kolmogorov Spectrum Local Isotropy A1.
Laufer [76. 127m. He showed that the velocityfluctuation field referred to prime averages satisfies the relationships (Al23) within the framework of measurement accuracy for isotropic conditions. 4 and for wave numbers* k A 12. in order to be able to assume local isotropy within the mesh. Townsend [133] investigated the wake flow behind a dylinder in a flow by means of experiments.77] shows that for a quasi plate flow with e max 6. Laufer measured velocities as a function of time at a position and determined spectra as a function of frequency n. <(4= 15m/s .5 we have E1 . the local contribution of the Reynolds stresses turbulence for all wave numbers.0I4o0. just as in the case of isotropic meshes are required to represent the oscillations with a dimensionless wave number k.(kl) E 1 1 (k 1) = i. Since in a grid KM = 2 x k <%Ius' / vanishes for these wave numbers.In the following we will mention three papers on the proof of local isotropy. approximately 25 meshes were required as shown in Figure 7.e. The recalculation of frequencies into dimensionless wave numbers is usually done based on the Taylor hypothesis of "frozen turbulence" [130] according to the formula where 160 D= .
22.3.5I301 meshes.32) coincide for such small Reynolds numbers.02). Kolmogorov Spectrum Laufer [76.77] was not able to find a Kolmogorov spectrum in 60 0 0 1 . it seems possible 7 that the limits k o and k1 (A431.5 and about halfway between the center and the wall. /122 Based on these results.Similar data is obtained from the measurements of ComteBellot in a plate flow. if KM . In the center X 3 = 0.5._240000 are such that for the mesh numbers 15 KM 325 " 161 161 .23. we can assume local isotropic conditions within a mesh for wall.2.02 for Rem = 240000. This is shown in Figure 11 for Rein and 114000 S X3= 0. the limiting wave numbers for RE m . 30 I . the results are only slightly different. However. Nevertheless.1 For other Reynolds numbers. Laufer indicates that there are uncertainties in the measurements. Consequently we have determined local isotropic conditions. On the other hand.. In the immediate vicinity of the wall (X3 = 0.23) there is already sufficiently good agreement between the spectra for relatively small wave numbers corresponding to K. Re F m 105 except in the vicinity of the A1. 0. this is only valid after KM 1 300. Accordingly. 0. Rem K 460000 [18] for Reynolds numbers 114ooo Figures 8 to 10 show spectra E 2 2 (k1 ) and E 3 3 (k1 ) as well as spectra calculated from E 1 1 (kl) according to the relationship (Al15) applicable for isotropic turbulence at X 3 = 0. ComteBellot [18] was able to demonstrate a spectrum similar to the Kolmogorov spectrum for a similar geometry 46000. for example. The max his measurements of a quasiplate flow at measured spectrum corresponded more to the k variation according to Heisenberg (Al40). (X3 =10. however.
A2. nDimensional Rectangular Volumes V =V2=V The averaging volume V considered is defined by (A21) 162 . UberoiKavasznay [136] published graphs of the corresponding results for line.1. Here we will consider rectangular volumes and will algebraically determine the volume correlations.. We will assume isotropic turbulence with the Kolmogorov spectrum and will quantitatively determine the time averages of products of pairs of velocities for velocity derivatives averaged over volumes.ldefined according to (420). which are the averaging S volumes used for Cartesian coordinates in this paper. The limits The upper limit corresponds Even in the vicinity of the wall there is a k5/ 3 (X 3 = 0. A2.1. circular area and spherical volumes with V =V 2 . Therefore we can assume that for Rem KMg20 (in one direction) that lo and mesh numbers a spectrum according to Kolmogorov (Al30) exists for the fine structure. to the estimation given in Figure 2. the Kolmogorov spectrum exists for the fine increase slightly with Reynolds number.1. Calculation of the Volume Correlations which Occur In the following we will calculate the volume correlations P. APPENDIX 2 / Calculation of Correlations Between Space Average Values 123 In this appendix we will prepare the fundamentals for the quantitative determination of the fine structure model.06) at wave numbers KM201 dependence of the spectrum.we can assume that structure.
for = / 4.1 (01 /' g (A25) / 124 A2. The following sketbh shows one basic possibility.. All of the other possibilities are the result of rotating the coordinate system. T 163 ."Volumes" with Different Orientations In addition to volumes V 1 and V 2 which are equal and can cover each other.1. This results in triangular distributions [91 according to: Y4. V 1./Z (A23) o otherwise From this it is possible to calculate 0 iE zil) (A24) Convolution integrals over rectangular distributions correspond to the individual integrals. V 2 Rectangular Area.2. in this paper we will also use volume correlations between two rectangular areas having different orthogonal directions of the surface normals.The weighting functions]K(s) are therefore given by where 4/H.
=0 / A . I". according to the definition.2. 3 K . 164 .2 2 are X K ( I .: H. ( . Z /(')dp. the volume (414)...f 4)=F j=tj (A27) with w<43 J3 = k23 (6r ) = [ 4/ 3 for 43 14 H3/Z 43 otherwise /H K 44 ) 4for I4/ = (tj H4 /2 otherwise k (40) ki (2 for /11/d H4/Z otherwise S is the Dirac function: Both weighting functions satisfy the normalization condition For this.). /2 (A26) /.The area centers coincide. j=1. /Z ./2 1102_ H3 /A The corresponding weighting functions K (s). The volumes are defined by VA V2 :0 . . correlation is: 3 f±( ff~.*. .
. Just as in 5.i2) for (n. 3 i c. (A210) From (421.1 Dirac must be determined among rectangular functions and Both of these again result in rectangular functions.1. f2 .3.3. Calculation of the Average Energies The correlations to be calculated according to (424) are the following: V  (A29) where V n is defined by niXXe. A25) it follows that: (Y14 = X '~ 77 irrti I* dZA I(A2ll) Because of (45) and (438) we have: o.2.2. " .' " ) (A213) (A214) This integral can be determined analytically for n = 1: E () E5 (A215) 165 . it follows that <' '> where 1 1/1 t' .}] = 1 i [RL Rj If all lenths are normalized with h=' V " <'~e> / (A212) .(oK.This means that convolution integrals with respect to yl and y 2 /i_5 functions. for 4'fa ( = r y 3 we again obtain a triangular function .) (A28) A2. 4 otherwise (ita/. 1h ''.
15( A= O.7461 Since we must always have .6293 E3(1...2. 16( 1 kll.3. j: 3 3 = 2D Z  (A220) 166 ..1.1)0. ) = 0.For volumes of equal length 4A= we find the following numerical result: E2(1. Isotropic Properties of the Squares of the Deformation Velocity The time averaged squares of various space averages of the deformation velocities to be calculated according to (42 3 ) to (426) consist of the sums of nine sum terms characterized by i.1.oo i and therefore we have Er. ) (A219) and we find the following value by a least squares fit and this approximation function satisfies the limiting value condition (A218) exactly. . A2... (A216) (A217) the volume region V approaches a linear region for z. z~k ) _ ./.3 can be approximated with the following formula with a maximum error of 1% 4Z .and for n = 0. ?96? I h..1) = 0.b ~U J1 (A218) The numerical solution of the integrals for various edge lengths i.
CiA W14 (A222) 1 V .1. as given by the following formulas A CZ . Reduction of the Squares of the Deformation Velocities to Differences of "Space Correlations". if instead of M we use a suitably rotated grid. AX (A221) The other sum terms can be calculated with the same methods. k D2 1. M? AA Ax.2 (M) and M characterizes the grid. D1 /127 A2. A2.. D 2 D11 is as follows according to (423): 167 . 2V described the required rotation: (A223) These relationships follow from geometrical considerations.It is sufficient to derive the method of determining g (M). Therefore in the following we will first only consider kD.4. 2 1 12" D The following derivations will be done in detail for The results for the other variables are similar.4.
because the time averages do we 42.IA tions which are a consequence of (46) 168 . x 2 . fo 21 X 1 ./'V A A2 Y2 . .ind: we have (A224) Since the individual terms do not depend on the actual values A2.2 D2 1 12 we find: Starting with the definitions. for ID2 1 12 can again collect a few terms. we have: _ 2 .If we note the definition of the difference operator > . 2r tin wit thedef. S A e.iion.4. x 3 but only on the differente vector.
(A225) 6X2 6p A2.3. o o(A229) 4k <t2 "5 1694 I A I~ C r~ IM (A230) .4 <22Ud(IrrA A ))) 3 W (A228) 22 6.//~ 169 . (. 0.0)/ V UI ( 3 4X41. <2 >bo.then we have S 2 =   7 o. Similar Results 0 /128 /128 Z.i ZAA~l~i/01 . 2 f < 4*% l. * 1< ' .I~O~(~7 2 4.4. DVA 4 4LA()P~) (1 AX (A226) I~1.
4.4. 17 0 170 . Definition /129 We should note: if the "space the squares of the deformation velocity averaged over time according to (423) to (426) can be calculated correlations" 4 are known. 21Z 2L 2A dX~x A2.4 0/0 3UL < iNL  x.)~ d4 ~d~pxY. In particular we require (A232) d (A U4 V. O) 0 Yd~o% (A231) + 017 (2o o0) *('( U ( ) 44 3L7.
The other correlations<ft 4 (Ofcan be calculated from dl corresponding to the development in Chapter A2. where R11(r) and R 1 2 (r) are given by (45) and (46) and f 2 is given by (439).5 defined above will be calculated in the following section. Calculation of the Correlations Defined in A2.4. A2..5..1.2. The correlations dk..5 The calculation of the correlations according to Chapter A2. k=1.1.5 A2.4. Solution in Integral Form /130 We define the following abbreviations Therefore the results can be given in integral form 171 . k=1.2.3: (A233) Also we can calculate A < 0)Y according to ((A234 because the exchange averaging operations lead to the same volume correlations as according to (420)..4 dk'LY).2 and A2...2.. is carried out using the methods prepared in Chapters 4.4.
zf( Z  /~e~ dTtrZt53 _2 aT otr :2 _ tf I.k .z_ Gl (. 4 . V . . . For the integration.11 = 3 (. the subprogram QSF [65] is used which integrates equidistant tabulated The number NN of the support functions using the Simpson rule.4 hf f2 J:''(43 'L . Z>1 )e + e cZ £C~tt4~~~2I (A242) f h. It is designed for NN<100.1124 (A242) Table 4 shows FORTRAN subprograms with which these integrals /131 can be calculated numerically. .dk A. ?4. op Ace . . 10 . <4:.3 .f r. 172 . rl)''v / 1 oft 2 (A237) * 4 .  14 3 a" 5 Rt4 ev 72'.:C. (A40) AV 44o If 43 IrZr (r.. values of an integration variable to be specified in the COMMON region NNNNNN must be about 50 in order to have an accuracy of The COMMON region CWORK contains the working region required for integration.h1A 3 2 :t 4.
2. ooai <( 41 S_..§o) S4.POO 1 173.5.0)" 2 q .4 .A2. / If 43 0. 2/3 .1 dljr(44 3 oo =7 o0jk4 4 31 3f ~2 h ?  /3 ( 2 f 11( 4 E 31O / e. Among these we have the follow special values ing limiting values: f 2 L1 II.)O =. Therefore it is desirable to prepare as well as approximations which approximate these exact solutions possible. . L dA~(1 X *' )= o.. The approximations must provide the same results for of the parameters.1 4 41 01 00 C '1M.4 (44 . &Ao~U hA 45. c 2.2. Limiting Valuesof the Integrals and Approximations The numerical evaluation of the integrals given above requires a large computation time. & 3 (4. 72/2 Lf300)20 "73 173 .0/0> k 3 & I.
1.1. (1. z. .1.16 z2) d(1.0) 1 2 3 Since d4* is required the most for o.3 must agree exactly with the numerically obtained integral solutions at(1hl..0. values are: 3C4 l.1.1. .69 These reference on addition we require that the approximations for dk.1.61o4 . the approximation must satisfy the following requirement in agreement with the numerical results: d4* (1. . 4z. 1. 1.) ) 03 .61 0 These reference k .5506 o.6293 0. o. 2 z = ) (1.1. h2 .0. h2.1 )ao846/ only required for 174 .=d d.1/2.1376 d5*(1.1.0).0).1.0.2. h3.4? Since dl* is required the most for = / i=  and d5* is . k=1. dd( k 1 ./132 solutions at (h.1/2.1/2)= 0.1.
6. 40). See Chapter 4. the results are as follows after extracting the variables having dimensions 3A~4Li9 A=12 (A243) f2' f3 arelgiven by (439. integration or from the approximation functions.5. results are best presented in the form of a program. These Considering the subprograms D11. D13. it is possible to calculate the quantities k D 2 and FED. a Constant cl Here we will report on the calculations of Smagorinsky and Lilly of the value of the constant cl contained in the trial solution 175 . results.Approximations corresponding to these requirements are shown in Table 5 in the form of FORTRAN subprograms. Results for 2D 2 and FED /133 A2. D12. Table 6 contains a comparison of the results obtained by direct The errors of the approximations are not especially small.3 for numerical /134 APPENDIX 3 Determination of. but they can be tolerated because the constants of the fine structure model calculated according to the approximations deviate at the most by about 20% from those for the exact solutions. D14 and FED1 given in Table 7.3 to A2. Using the relationships derived in Chapter A2.
A C.)55(b. At the end of this appendix we will calculate the constant cl according to methods of this paper. 176 . This result can at best only apply for the immediate vicinity of the wall.4 One obtains this result [32] if p and c (A33) are set equal to their (A32) timeaverage values in a boundary layer with constant shear stresses.U. For this we have the logarithmic wall lawI[120]: < 1. = k..J/ 3 3 I.. and k is the Karman constant [120]: k : 0... meteorological simulation where c. Ew a constant which considers wall roughness) Here we therefore have 4 . according to our assumption. In addition we will summarize the experience of Deardorff and discuss his method for calculating the kinetic energy. global.)2 (A e)2 (A35) If the height at which p is being determined then (A32) follows.. is equal to h. A3.1 Calculation of cl according to Smagorinsky Smagorinsky [118] uses a trial solution corresponding to (A31) for the twodimensional. (c..' (A3l) We will discuss the assumptions and approximations../"w E (A34) (z' = wall distance.
33. + ." (A38) and for the second one we have: VVV (A3(A39) Neither of the two averaging operations was selected consistently. Deardorff [29] used the second operation.o L . AveragingOperation and Determination Equation for c1 For the derivation of the mesh averages of the basic equations Lilly [80. 81] A3.2. C:) (K Xh3.2. 81] and Deardorff [29. 4  (A310) ! D f4 (A310) The convection and diffusion terms Konv and Diff are of no consequence.441] made use ofj the following averaging operations.A3. 1j is 'defined as  V v (A311 177 . L.i " S" k /d 3d ¢d I( A 3 1 6 ) /135 For the first one we have: ex.1. =  (O. Calculation of cl according to Lilly [80. The basic equations for determining the constant c1 were derived by Lilly [81] using the first operation. and in addition he used (A38) as an approximation. The conservation equation for VT derived by Lilly using (A36) has the following main terms: 3 E.
(A312) X e'14 For stationary and locally isotropic turbulence.and there is also a term corresponding to the dissipation. Therefore we have Z A3. The additional term spectrum. It is assumed that the velocity field is locally isotropic and that it has an energy spectrum E(k) which corresponds to the Kolmogorov The trial solution (A31) is substituted into (A310). . equation .2 Estimation of < (Dij (A317) [] According to (Al27) we have Co 178 r (A318) 178 . Ivanishes because of the continuity J. averaged over time we have KWX> KDif 0=kowy O (A313) /136 and therefore we obtain an equation for the determination of cl: C 1:2f ] \ (A314) Here we will use the approximation as well as (A316) where e is defined (116).2. v V 1   :e1j .
3 Numerical Calculation of_ <5 Volume . and if we assume the following according k to Lilly [81] o . then we (A321) 3 have and therefore we obtain the following for c 1 together with (A314): C87 For a = 1. (A320) If we substitute (44) for E(k) according to definition. for a Cube If we assume the following approximation [80]: v v< then because of (Al23) we have: (A325) 179 .If the cubeshaped mesh with edge lengths h is approximated by a sphere with a diameter h and if we consider that only those parts of the energy spectrum contribute to K.J)whose wave numbers k can be represented by the macroscopic structure of the average velocity field.5 we have r(A322) c1 = 0.2. h (A319) it follows that '~ f> AVtL(k)CA .173 (A323) /137 A3.
5 he obtains the following result: <S . if the averaging volume V includes the entire flow space.  >V3< 'C (A326) (A327) Lilly [80] also investigated the influence of difference formulas on the constant c 1.2 and obtains the following results for a = 1. For a = 1. Lilly [80] numerically calculated the correlations which occur in (A325) according to Appendix 2 for a cube volume V having equal side lengths and by using the averaging operation (A37). (A332) 180 .22.(A324) only applies exactly. /r For this he assumed that instead of F (A328) r// we must substitute the following in (A317) v(A329) The following difference operator A i is defined: Ai Y (i) _([ Y (& L' ) I (A330) For the numerical evaluation of the expression (A328) defined in this way.2. Lilly numerically evaluates sixfold integrals according to the method given in Chapter 4.5: (A331) and cl = 0. as Lilly [80] himself determined.
3._ _ / 138 The calculations for the plate flow with a constant axial pressure gradient [28. 31.3.08< cl 0.12 (A334) For the investigation of the stability of the atmosphere the influence of buoyancy forces caused by a temperature gradient and the Coriolis acceleration [33].21 can always be used if the . 33] performed numerical calculaThe square of tions for plate flows according to Chapter 1. 30] showed that the values of c1 calculated by Lilly using (A333) are too large. found [33] that the value cl 1 average velocity is first subtracted when It was 0. the deformation velocity in (53) is calculated according to the following difference formulas (using the notation in Chapter 3): .10). which is considered as a plate flow. jus. Values of c 1 according to Deardorff Deardorff [29. where the calculations are performed c1 0. it was found that we also have c " with cl = 0. 30.5.21 (A335) This change is is used when there is a temperature gradient.A3. which would lead to large turbulent viscosities according to (53) if cl were not reduced.)tis calculated according to (A333). c1 would have to be in the range 0. However 0. 32. 29. In order to obtain turbulence statistics which would agree with experience.13 in the isothermal 1 case (except in the wall mesh.tified by the fact that a large contribution of the average deformation velocity is made to (A333) because of the Coriolis force in the isothermal case. therefore 181 .
results in the following: <E and with (44): E ALi 1k 4E>2/3 (A337) (A338) With £) according to (A321) it follows that > < Deardorff [29. Therefore it must not be explicitly known for the integration of the momentum equations. 33] calculates . =o.oo ') (A339) while referring to Lilly [81 (A340) from the following equation  V'= 1Z/ C )ZI with C. 3. Calculation of the Kinetic Energy E' The kinetic energy is an additional term in (A31). but it is required for the evaluation. 'I If p is given by follows that: (53) and c 1 is given by (A332). it 182 . A rough approximation corresponding to the approximation for <in Chapter A3.4. J ( . but it can be treated together with the pressure per unit of mass.d A3.o.2.SJ cr>)).(A336) + 2 (d.2.50.
O.5. which had proved itself in [331.21. and then if the average is taken over the entire flow space and if one ignores the molecular dissipation due to the macroscopic velocities. =. This was 183 .The kinetic energies of the fluctuation velocities calculated by Deardorff are therefore too large.o.f. 26).2. '. this does not mean that the viscosities calculated with this are correct for meshes not having equal lengths. we obtain the following for constant cl 44 where D and 2D 2 are defined by (425.2. If we use the results of Appendix 2 we find D12. Calculation of the Constant c 1 using the Method of Chapter 5. D13 are the FORTRAN subprograms given in Table 7.5 o.2.3. 24S  These values agree very well with the value cl=0. For (A346) C = . However. Equation (A346) also showed that the error in assuming (56) for the mesh sizes used by Deardorff [291 is small as far as the magnitude of the constant c 1 is concerned. A: 4): . and of Appendix 2 If the trial solution (A31) is substituted in the conservation equation (331) for F7 and if the time average is taken according to Chapter 5. we find the following numerical results: o= 1.o 0 . then with A3.2.2.2.3.
2 we established a Poisson equation with Neumann boundary conditions for calculating the auxiliary potential i or the true pressure p. / 140 Solution of the Poisson Equation using the Fast Fourier Transformation A4.zdirection: a) Periodicity in the Y:z direction: r  Al . r  i.. Problem In Chapter 6. k(A4 3 Boundary conditions: a) Periodicity in the . A =..1.. JA . We must satisfy the following consistency condition [87] to guarantee the existence of the solution: kM 1=..2.discussed in APPENDIX 4 Chapter 5. . P0 .." .. 9 is determined to within an additional constant.. Written out. (A44) 184 . b) Oat the wall: With these boundary conditions. __.. it has the following difference form for cylindrical coordinates (see Section 5): b)A = 0 at the wall: ) .I .. . O] .
transformation routines. The solution method is based on a series expansion of the source term q and the solution in the azimuth and axial direction into trigonometric functions. which are much more complicated numerically. 185 . cannot be completely stored in storage [128]. It is more advantageous to use complex eigen functions instead of real eigen functions (sin and cos) (as in [141). and does not have any stability problems [61]. with the transposition In conjunction algorithm! described in [38. the method used here makes it possible to use variable mesh separations in the radial direction. it will be necessary Also. Solution Method In the following we will describe the solution method. 125]. In addition. the principle of which was first given by Hockney [55]. special situations occur for D=M=Olwhich are avoided when the complex notation is used [50].A4. to deal with four products. respectively.2. which identically satisfy the periodic boundary conditions  (A42): inl4 (A45) I? t (A46) No series expansion in terms of eigen functions is used in the radial direction. because in this case it is necessary to use Bessel functions. very similar to the one used by Williams [14111. This is because instead of one product of two eigen functions. the /141 A direct method is used which is much faster than the iteration method [16] The method is The periodic boundary conditions make it possible to use the fast Fourier method used here can also be used effectively if the fields i and q.
are calculated according to the fast Fourier (FFT) method developed by Cooley and Tukey [19]. However.'. __ consists of IM*JM real numbers The initial data qi. .. When the sums in (A45.JM).. the periodic properties of harmonic functions are exploited in order to reduce a large number of multiplications to a single multiplication. The FFT therefore is especially effective (also for transposition [125].7) are evaluated directly.j.= c44.3. which is twice as many individual values. ./2 ) (real) . the number of operations is only proportional to (IMJM)ln(IM. For the FFT. it is only necessary to store onehalf of this data because we have: . the number of multiplications increases in proportion to (~M. For the FFT.'. gorithms also become 186 The alespecially simple if these prime factors .. if the factors IM and JM can be decomposed into as many small prime numbers as possible. Evaluation of the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) Equation (A47)and Equation (A45). A/= Co (The star characterizes the conjugate complex value) /142 A4. : . .JM)2 . Reference [20] contains a detailed description of this transformation.(4' CQ(l.k for K = const and the Fourier coefficients are made up of CQ IM'JM complex numbers.The complex coefficients CQ in (A46) can be calculated as follows based on the orthogonality properties of the eigen functions C A) "P. if CP values are known. 2.
2. After dividing by  we obtain the following result in an abbreviated form from The equations (A49.Ithat is..4 Establishment of the Difference Equation for CP (Abbreviation CP CP /. which is substituted into the trial solution (A45. These equations have unique solutions only ift also follows that because otherwise the solution is only determined up to an The case . Brenner [14] developed a program "FOUR2" It is used here.. * p/. KM. which corresponds to the FFT.M~+1/. /0.1.Aare determined from the difference equation (A41). We find A 4 CIO (A49) /4C ox( r = .0 (A(A49) must be treated separately.r.(If Cox ( ) equations forjthe complex coefficients C. A4. 10. . nly for additional constant. /40.6)..are all equal to two. k=o. A) The coefficients CP/... 11() representA C(A) Clinear (A12) .
F(k) for k = 1. +C(A/t 'k) r  '14 c (A413) Solution of the Differential Equation for CP A4. Case Vps._ P(A) .5... for these equations. )M From this it follows that: We will substitute both relationships (A412) and therefore we obtain the following conditions for arbitrary CP E(k) F(k) = 1/(B(k)C(k).where 8rA)t D A4.4 o The system of equations (A412) can be solved for Y using the Gaussian elimination algorithm.E(K1)) = (C(k)F(k1)+D(k)). which is simple and fast for such triple diagonal systems.E(k) The boundary condition we have E(O) F(O) (A411) is satisfied for k=l if = 1 = 0 Starting with these values it is possible to calculate all the E(k). The following trial solution is used: CP = CP. In addition it is very stable [111.KM from (A415).. E(k) just like 188 .5. A c .1.. 141].. which corresponds to the Gaussian algorithm. p. However. 1981..2. there is a simple recursion solution [111.
follows that The remaining CPoo... A4. once and for all as stated in [1411 From the boundary condition (A411) for k=KM and (A414) it follows that C= (A416) With this initial value then it is possible to calculate all the C I for k=KMl.p = 0.. for example C Po. = (4) =0 From the boundary condition (A411) and for (A412) it then can be calculated for k=3. ing to (A412) from CPoo...1...D(A ) (A417) In order to also satisfy the boundary condition k=KM (A411). according to (A414).KM accord CPPo. D(k) must satisfy a condition which corresponds to the consistency condition (A44) and which will now be derived: Using the following abbreviation for the gradient of CP it follows from (A49) that CQL& and from (A411) it follows that O=0 189 .v and therefore cannot be calculated .0 Consistency Condition For v =I = o we may arbitrarily set.o.4.2.KM2.Ct'A)CPo.A.5. Case v...B(k) is independent of i.. .
has the following advantages: . JM be powers of 2. l at the wall according to (65). This can cause nonconvergence of the iteration solution procedure. we must therefore have kk This condition is because for o directly equivalent to the requirement and from (A47) it CQ (A44) follows that  ___ Since qi'j'k is equal to the divergence of the velocity field . as our own numerical experiments have shown. therefore. Because of rounding errors. Also it is not possible to transfer the results to complicated geometric boundaries.very small computation time (see Chapter 10) The disadvantages are the requirement that the values IM. and its component i0. above is 1 must always be equal to zero the consistency condition given always theoretically satisfied according to (A511).O.exact solution (if rounding errors are ignored) after a finite computation time . The method described here is not sensitive to such rounding errors. The method described.By complete induction it is easily shown that we have In order for the boundary conditions 9(M"12 =0 (A411) /145 to be satisfied. the sum (A44) can be slightly different from zero. 190 .
AW'Z [.. 0 6. 191 .APPENDIX 5: Accuracy and Consistency of the Difference Formulas A5.1 Statistical Errors of the Linear Difference Approximations A typical linear difference approximation is the approximation 2x ..253 f24 <'t" A : (A55) This statistical error therefore decreases as the mesh edge xf/iis decreased. 41. only to be applied in the power 1/3. correct in the statistical sense.: • 0.o] W/ 0. using (A240. which is characterized by the following standard deviation f: Assuming locally isotropic turbulence.2 . this approximation is certainly Nevertheless. locally homogeneous turbulence..) /146 ~This approximation assumes that (x 4 . .. dX /. 42) we have f= <0. xf )is a sufficiently For smooth field. (A54) S length 0o. so that linear interpolations are possible. but only slowly according to the This result is. the approximation given above can have an error at a certain point in time. we find the following according to Appendix 2: (A53) For meshes of equal side lengths. of course..
the averaging operation reduces the error by about factor of 3 but does not change it in principle. constant values for homogeneous turbulence.2. Deardorff [33] 192 . structure model. were approximated If point velocities and not area averages by arithmetic averaging according to 4 then from (46) we obtain: 32 7 C" ""7I (A56) /147 a i. given by (A55).2. instead of the deterministic approximation (A51) given above. the error is The result given above is therefore a pessimistic one.1.2. Limited Phaseand Wave Number Resolution A5.2) were used. to large especially large for Fourier components corresponding the Galerkin wave numbers.2 As Orszag [96] discussed in great detail. where ~1 (46).5. because of the molecular viscosity.e. difference can cause erroneous approximations lead to errors which These errors are amplitudes and phases of the solutions. has an one could think of a statistical approximation which In contrast to the fine average value corresponding to (A51). as well as for very noticeable small mesh separations.3). where the smoothing becomes probably smaller. The phase errors would disappear if points out method (see Chapter 1. we even have a trial solution for specifying the standard deviation. Just like in the fine structure model (Chapter 5.according to region in which the Kolmogorov spectrum is valid strive to For very large mesh sizes. Truncation Error A5.5.
4). we obtain for . 193 .2. here. 94]. so that these (see Figure 23). it is in principle impossible to represent Fourier components with wavelengths smaller than 2'Ax [94]. which can lead to instabilities because of aliasing (see Chapter A5. then it is possible to determine the truncation error of the difference formulas. With difference approximations for grids with an edge length of Ax.4 =___ (A58) 3 because here the truncation error does not have any second derivative.2.that the energy spectra of the kinetic energy dissolved in the grid drop off very rapidly at the maximum wave numbers which can be resolved (approximately according to k errors have only a relatively small weight ). This type of approximation is therefore not used here. Truncation Error of the Convective Terms If we assume that the average velocity fields 9I can be represented by Taylor series expansions.. A5. example If we consider Clartesian coordinates. as was done in [ 5 4 . This has a favorable effect on the stability However. behavior. one disadvantage of this approximation is the the fact that the difference formulas do not correspond to conservation equations for kinetic energy.3 and A5.34 3 /148 It seems more favorable to use the approximation of AmsdenHarlow [3] . 79. (A57) 5 The truncation errors of the convective terms are especially important XIfX .
2N.. linear viscosity. The components with /149 a higher wave number are added to the components with the smaller In this way part of the physical energy transport This One solution for this is to from small wave numbers to large wave numbers is reversed. The mesh and length should therefore be parallel or perThis pendicular to the streamlines as much as possible. However.1. for example.96.I then a product is produced which contains Fourier components with k = 0. The error is based on the finite wave number resolution. False Diffusion False diffusion is discussed in [49]. was first demonstrated by Phillips terms.. 100]. it is only possible to represent the gradient (y2 Y 1 )/ A x as a maximum. grid for large gradients.2.1.79.3...3. 194 .A52.2. only the components with kNIl can be represented by the difference grid. wave numbers. The field y is therefore artificially smoothed which appears as a false diffusion.10.. effect can lead to instabilities. It [1001 for the convective Miyakoda [87] showed that it can be produced by nonThis error is also discussed in [1. ramp at xo 0 It is produced by the limited resolution capacity in the difference For example. the function y(x) has a Ih the difference grids.. This error becomes large if the maximum gradient is not in the direction of the coordinate line but along the diagonal of the mesh. If two position dependent functions are multiplied which contain both Fourier components with the wave numbers k = 0.N. assumption is satisfied for the average flow. Aliasing Errors The aliasing error is produced by nonlinear terms. A5.
3 (A59) Energy conservation: y o dV=O (A510) where V is the total flow volume and the velocity field satisfies the continuity equation exactly. because the convective terms were used in their conservative form and therefore. for example. if there are no field forces and if the viscosities are zero. we have Momentum conservation: SS 2. KM 1 3 k1 /k3 (A511) and the right side vanished because of u 3 =0. Consistency with the Physical Conservation Laws Based on the wall adhesion condition and the periodic boundary conditions. . be assumed that the continuity equation is also satisfied exactly 195 . A5. dV= e 2. These conservation laws apparently are satisfied for the difference formulas of the momentum.4. A similar statement However.4. in the difference form. The different formulas must be consistent with these physical laws and therefore we must require that the sums over the corresponding difference approximations over all of the difference meshes also vanish.structure the difference formulas in such a way that they contain energy according to Chapter A5. it must can be proven for the energy according to [78].
for three decimal places we have numbers.163E2 = O. in this case.I??FfO The difference is only accurate to one place in the example. the momentum is only conserved if the continuity equation is satisfied. equation is always satisfied to within a very small error because It seems that the of the very accurate pressure calculation./150 PiacsekWilliams [1051 derived difference formulas for which the requirement for energy conservation is not necessary. formulas of PiacsekWilliams are not required. As is well known. the continuity of the quadratic type of stability. for example because of the iterative solution of the Poisson Equation (69). according to the prescription FORTRAN: 196 . numerical errors are produced because of the limited number of decimal or dual locations which are available in the computer for representing floating decimal numbers. the suggestions of PiacsekWilliams are attractive if the continuity equation is exactly satisfied. but is usually ignored for the summation of a very large number of numbers having the same order of magnitude in a sum accumulator. For example.5. if a 3. because it is probably more because important to conserve the energy than the momentum In this paper. floating point installation is used to represent the addition of 10. This effect is known for the calculation of differences. 0 164E2 . This limited number of places is especially apparent in the calculation of the difference of two approximately equal For example.0. Numerical Errors A5.000 numbers A(I) having the order of magnitude of 1. Nevertheless. However.
DO 1 I = 1. then after 1.000 summations.10000 4 S = S+A(I) .S = 0. as many partiallsums as possible should be formed.100E4 Such numerical errors can be kept small if the following rules are observed.100E4 + O. the intermediate result in S differs by 3 powers of ten from the A(I).1E1 = 0. and the sum S no longer changes because of 0. Sum formation: Rule 2: When sum terms having different orders of magnitude are summed in an accumulator. and the sum of them is then formed. the sum must first be taken over the smallest order of magnitude. Difference formation: Rule 1: Transform the numbers such that their average value is equal to zero. Rule 3: /151 When the sum of many numbers having the same order of magnitude is taken. The summation given above is better programmed as follows: 197 .
Summary and Linearization The other rules have been taken into account In this chapter we will establish stability criteria for the linearized difference formulas. central difference quotients for convective terms. 24).1. 100 S1+A(J+(I1)*100) SO+S1 Rule 1 is considered by means of a Galileo transformation (see Chapter 7. Euler method in the time "upwind" differences for the convection terms 198 .100 0O DO 2 2 1 S1 SO = = J = 1.1. /152 APPENDIX 6: Stability of the Difference Formulas A6.2).1. In addition to the formulas used Type a) According to (64). time delayed diffusion terms Type b) According to (5100. jump method in time. Linear Stability Analysis A6. in the programming. 620.DO 1 S1 = I=1.
coordinates.another possible difference formula which has often been recommended [42. VV. Type c) Jump method in time.A. This uncoupling is exactly valid for Cartesian In this way we obtain the following / 153 In addition. the momentum equations are simplified so they become uncoupled.4 or the kinetic energy VE'.oA 4 D9 199 . (A61) 2At Type b) Type b) a (A62) '. '. linearized equations (y stands for one of the velocity components OxV. central difference formulas for the convective terms and DuFortFrankel method [l11] for the diffusion terms It is found that this method is worse than the other methods for small viscosities for more than one dimension. investigate the details. Therefore we did not The linearization refers to the following:1 Assumption of constant convection velocities Assumption of constant viscosities p Pressure gradients and field forces are ignored Decrease . 44. We found that the method would then become unstable.J'. In addition we investigated the possibility of using "upwind" differences for the convective terms for Type a) as well. of boundary conditions in all directions VX. 112] is investigated. equidistant meshes and isotropic viscosities are assumed. respectively): Type a) Yl'.4 In addition.A G0nd '.
2dcp" (i.. . p 4 . V .4fAL y 0 . A 0 (A68) (AY#k) 1 vx I / 4 1 j=( 4r +. M2 v ...Type c) where e. A  l. __ .... v   + (A66) 0 _  Y AP r _ ___ __ .. c 4) (A67) 200 .g ~. . .g 1 A* 6) &4 .'. DC (A63) '= V x  .: :. (A64) 4 b IV 2 ~c~j lk.A.
and k I ..4?r) . VA S 'x ) we have: Y U . YijA where The vectors Al.) (A613) C 2 =(=f2.4 The notation for the "upwind" differences according to (A65)/15 corresponds to the suggestion of Kirsch [72]. C E Co( (AAd. ) (A612) C Cor (A4 x) S i C2 coS (Arb). A6.A E (A6ll) S. equations have the general solution . (A69) + Al. _General Stability_Critrion_ [111. s 3 A.f0 X = Cof. Z1.2.1. si (A. 140] The linear homogeneous difference equations can be represented as follows in matrix form AASAr. 5s 2 S(. k 2 .3  From (A69) we therefore find an equation for the variation of the amplitude U with the time step n: 201 . A2 which are made up of seven elements each are These difference given in Table 8 for the various formula types.Y). because of .(A 3 4. k 3 are arbitrary weight numbers. el  (A610) For the vectorY .
111] then results from the requirement that the amplitudes of the perturbations U" .A2 U. ..E AG 4 AZ. necessary condition From this we obtain the following I4 202 =z (A618) . B 1 2 are given in Table 9 for the various formula types. A 1 2 .A 84 7 1 (A617) The stability criterion according to Neumann [110. B 1 1 . = A.E o (A616) 2 (A. + . A F U'. of the solution cannot increase when the time step n is enlarged. +i8 j 4 o0 The real constants All. (A614) According to Richtmyer [111] the variation of the / 155 amplitudes for one step to the next time step n can be described by M+L4 .UAj.j./ with the amplification matrix (A615) . The eigenvalues of this amplification matrix G are .
From I4. of course we have / (A619) where (A620) Il4 ' = o'b ] . 73.3.1.This condition is also sufficient if G is equal to its hermitic conjugate term [1101. Just like the requirement (A618). which is assumed as a rule 140]. 1ICI it follows that 203 .3. A6.1. 111. The permissible time step can only be specified in explicit algebraic form for the extreme cases of negligible diffusion or negligible convection: Case a) Pure convection ~4~(4=0 4 or) The eigenvalues AX A here have the following values + VV 3.1. Results for the Permissible Time Step At Type a DifferenceFormulas (Jump.b real From this we can determine the maximum permissible time step At._Delayed_ Diffusion) A6. [110. as will be done in the following sections for the individual difference formula types.
and with a relative accuracy of 10 4 . 12.. an optimization C3. .S=0 and we obtain the following permissible time step L4 Case c) Arbitrary parameter values  1 Ao22) A6 For the general case. 13. it is necessary to determine the permissible time step At numerically. s.= '". (Vy).) SVX K which results from this is I VP/ V = 0.=Sj. By means of interval containment.(v. Il. s3.The minimum AtK' for s. sO(vx) . /157 ZF produces the At>Wo so that the following relationship holds for the variables specified above 204 . The independent variables C 1 . r /IV r) I (A621) AN Case b) Pure diffusion ( V =V The magnitudes of these eigenvalues have their maximum at C = 2=C=1. For this. C are varied (14 is the sign in front of the square root in (A617)) so that a target function ZF is minimized. 14 where program is used which operates according to the evolution strategy [610].
o 0 _ "(A626) Af 4 is the minimum of the permissible resulting time steps which result for pure convection (AtK and pure diffusion d~4D) . " .50. The function At 2 is a conservative assumption for the permissible time step At.4AC. x = 10.0 0. 4 o.I o)0 (A625) ( f o o ..vS10 /o 0 o 0 d / . respectively... 205 . At 2 is the asymptote which results for pure diffusion corresponding to a viscosity which has been enlarged so much that At 2 takes on the same value for i = 0 as At K .o&~a as well as 6N .. These compari son values can be calculated algebraically according to (A621. . .22). fA r 40 ) (A624) as a function of viscosity p for three values of the convection velocity V . 0. From Figure 12 we can see the following: a) The permissible time step decreases with increasing viscosity p and increasing convection vellocity V b) AtK' AtD c) x The permissible time step At is smaller than the value for the limiting cases a and b considered above. c) O f4 . 0.30. fd 4* (01 jo.S0. I/ For comparison purposes we also show A o.The numerically determined permissible of 10 parameters: At is a function Figure 12 shows a numerical value for di i.
the amplification matrix G is reduced to a scalar value. S =S 2= therefore =0. A6. corresponding to pure convection. for the integration of the energy equation (5100). 74]. 206 .The practical calculations are therefore carried out by a time step determined by At 2 . This means that the time step according to (A626) is also conservative in this case. it is reduced by a factor which is input.shows At as a function of y for the same parameter values as in (A624). i. the permissible time step At can take on the same value as for Type a.1. / if/ and The magnitude of the eigenvalue has a maximum for The permissible time step is This result was derived in a different way by Krause [73. At2 also shown for comparison purposes according to (A625.5. Figure 13 . As an additional safety factor.3. The functions Atl. 26) clearly show that for these difference formulas.e. For pure diffusion.2. The eigenvalue is lvi  V( S for C =C2=C =1. Type b Difference Formula (Euler Method "Upwind" Differences) /158 For this one step method. its value can be twice as large. which typically has the value of 0.
. as was Figure 15 showed that this limiting value is only exceeded for viscosities p which are large compared with/. purposes. the permissible time step At cannot be calculated algebraically for the general case. this we can see the remarkable result. For pure convection.3.3. =V 7o)the magnitudes of the eigenvalues have a maximum for C1=C2 =C f4 3 A . we also show the functions Atl. for example. for di > 0. (this result corresponds to the threedimensional generalization of the data in [111]). according to (A621). For pure diffusion (V=V V.1. we find the same permissible time step Atk as for Type a. i for pure diffusion the difference formulas according to Du Fort Frankel are always stable. that At would take on a minimum for pure convection.3. assumed in [112]. Figure 14 shows the calculated results For comparison From for the parameter values corresponding to (A624). At 2 (A625..1. the permissible time step must be calculated numerically as discussed in Chapter 6. S 1.that for positive viscosities p (not too large). Type c Difference Method (Jump Method with DuFortFrankel for the Diffusion Terms) In this case as well as for Type a. At is considerably smaller (by a factor of 1/2 to 1/3 here) than for the Type a For small viscosities p . 207 .A6.2_30 (A628) All=14 that is.1. /159 For the general case of simultaneous convection and diffusion.26). it even goes One would expect below the otherwise conservative function At 2 . the permissible time step difference formulas.
for the onedimensional case 0.S 2 S C.is permissible. AS)" The root can be taken and the eigenvalues have the following S 208 (c2084 . the eigenvaluesof the matrix G are: AC8 (AC& A where A 2 t >> Vxl / Since we wish to show that At= 1~. . because it can be =o proven that. the viscosity p is small and the Du FortFrankel method is not suitable.iS)t AA  AI (C  .4  ) (A629) In this paper. Because of (A613) we have: (AfA values for B = 1 )ZA CC. The expression under the square root operator can be transformed as follows: (A C. however. At does indeed take on a minimum for v In the onedimensional case. we set B=1. In the following we will show that this statement is directly related to the three dimensionality.
/160 In the twodimensional case.e.0. not always satisfied in the twodimensional case for At = [lVxl/x IV4I]I). the eigenvalues are where A = AB A'VX/ i A / 2. we find that the This is proven by the numerical result.3. 209 . 1.4. of the permissible time steps for arbitrary viscosities Consequently this time step is not the minimum i. A2=2.tA If the time step. if we assume = .7. In contrast to the onedimensional case./41.0875 ./. At=axI//V/is a permissible time step for arbitrary viscosity . maximum magnitude of the eigenvalue for C10. then we must have B = 1..4) and that the time step given above is too For example Al=1/2. the fact that large. the expression under the square root operator cannot be converted into a quadratic form. and we cannot show that /. B2=0.l/ This is not a proof for /. IB A 8df A. i. Bl=0.. C2./ A (A630) Here B = 1 is permissible.=[_ 4 Il4~7is to be permissible for pure convection in this case as well.9 is is This example shows that the condition Jl1l.
210 .2. If a(x) is a sufficiently smooth function.Because of the small viscosities which occur for the simulation of threedimensional turbulent flows. Hirt [57] derives such criteria only for the twodimensional onestep method. For example. because no exact theory is available.2. it is not recommended that the Du FortFrankel method be used. In this paper we attempted to also derive stability criteria of this type for nonlinear terms for the threedimensional twostep distant formulas used. which are made up of products having the form A6. a (A) The factor a(x) is a function of the velocities and of the grid.1). We encountered the following problems: a) The truncation errors differ depending on whether the reference point of the Taylor series expansion is the central location point for the time step no or for the time step nl (according to Chapter 6. We could not decide which was the "correct" reference point. one obtains the results of the type where i are numerical values. The Heuristic Nonlinear Stability Analysis according to Hirt Hirt [57] gave a heuristic derivation of the fact that nonlinear instabilities are based on truncation errors of the nonlinear terms. In other words / 161 the truncation errors appear as additional diffusion terms with variable viscosities a(x).1.1see the example in (A57). it can be linearized and stability criteria In this way for this case can be derived as was done in A6.
corresponding way: Therefore. the first test calculations which had highly unequal meshes X4 AX/> X 3 (A71) resulted in velocity fields which did not have the expected random structure. . that is: They were almost constant ( . A72 effect could be explained because of the and its effect on the of the mesh edge lengths energy equation. l/x4) We found that this unequalness > <(aY > < (g>. we were able to remove it in a The source term P in (5 44) is proportional to a difference 2 form of the square of the deformation velocity Dij sists ( Drjr of 9 sum terms ( DC=va) . /162 APPENDIX Consideration of NonEqual Meshes in the Source Term of the Fine Structure Energy Equation After conclusion of the theory discussed in Chapters 18. that no practical stability criteria can be derived.(however. This was expressed by the fact that the velocity fields as only varied a function of xl with long wave. Instead they were definitely regular. here we have ( /Dj3r4 211 Because of the unequal mesh edge lengths. but only used the criteria which were derived from the linearized theory as well as additional safety factors discussed in Chapter A6. For these reasons we did not pursue the stability analysis further. the time . which con= . large amplitude oscillations.1.b) The resulting factors a(x) which result are so complex.1.3. as a function of x 2 and x 3 .
e. for example D 11 i is much smaller "'/ . where by chance there is Therefore.1< varies according to (A321) and approximately proportional to S or (A71) Therefore. the and therefore the viscosity p are large. this is not the case for locations at which PI~'lis large. In order to remove this effect.averages of the sum terms are unequal. For locally isotropic >approximately ). the calculated velocity fields take on the expected random structure which will be discussed in Chapter 10.1. at all locations . observed. than <D> . Starting Flow /163 A starting flow is calculated which is obtained for constant viscosity v (laminar) if a pressure gradient P =2 accelerates this fluid in the axial direction starting at the 212 . the energy vi a large gradient _ 3/dkgI At these points. the time average of all the sum terms will be of the same size if this restriction is With the incorporation of this correction (A73). velocity field is rapidly smooth again. the individual sum terms ( D1 Cj3 ) were multiplied by the weights j (A73) which can be calculated for locally isotropic turbulence with the Kolmogorov spectrum using the programs given in Appendix 2. (. APPENDIX 8 Program tests for Laminar Flows A8. After multiplying with these weights. However. a variation of the velocity field in the xl direction results in a lower contribution to the source term P than a variation in the x 3 direction. in the expression for the ratio of the mesh edge lengths.c) c turbulence with the Kolmogorov spectrum. i. and this is why the result (A72) is produced.
time t = 0.13. 0.00025.1. and therefore at this time the solution has come quite close to the stationary state.001.1. Ar = f0. method are compared with the The solutions of the differencing "exact" solutions calculated according The calculations to the program ANLAUF [36] from series "expansion". 0.40. ar = 1/16 (=const) Table 10 shows the deviations c between the exact solution and the difference method solution at various times. The data At the time t = 0.001. A r = 1/8 (=const) Case b) At = 0. maximum acceleration only amounts to 0.0.17. this still leaves open the possibility that a finer resolution for representing the turbulent fields.1 Case c) At = 0. 0. 0.25.1.062 instead of 2 at / the beginning. From Table 10 it can be seen that by using nonequidistant meshes.25.40 the are presented for 0<t 4 0. which fluctuate greatIly in the vicinity of the wall. are carried out for an annulus with R1=0. where u(t=0)=O. v = 1 Three cases are considered: Case a) at = 0. could be advantageous. 61 arelthe deviations in the mesh at the inner wall (the largest deviations occur there) and 62 are the deviations at r = (Rl+R2)/2. R2=1. However. 0. 213 . 0. there is only a slight reduction of the error for very small times at the wall mesh.13.17.
For w= .z . the azimuth diffusion terms. A8. " 0 c(. c 'f * U ) C. we have the following exact solution [94. For this case we have the exact solution [120]: V Y Since the R2  4 RiA 1 1 _IR s (W2A (_r 1. which rotate at different rotation rates c 4 j(inside cylinder) and ~c' (outside). we have the pressure distribution i V For =4L =L J we have This solution was reproduced with a relative error of < 1%o for KM=8 meshes in the radial direction using the difference method. (. V=. s('14 . Flow Between Rotating Cylinders As a second laminar test problem we consider the stationary flow between two concentric rotating cylinders.X Cox _ . . solution is in the center of the axial flow.A8.3 TwoDimensional TaylorGreen Vortex For the initial conditions o. conditions: 102] for the case of periodic boundary 214 . 131. r(+) is a linear function of the radius r In addition to which is obtained exactly by numerical methods. this example also tests the calculation of the pressure. Because of the centrifugal acceleration. it was investigated at the same time as problem A8.2.1 was investigated. 4 0=o and if no external forces are present. .
J. Computational Design for LongTerm Numerical Integration of the Equations of Fluid Motion. Table 11 shows the errors of the velocity components for A AX dX. The errors for the method used by Chorin were higher than those of Orszag by several powers of ten. 314324. Phys. This is approximately verified by Column III of Table 11 for the present difference method. pp. /166 REFERENCES 1. 1967. pp. Table 11 shows that the method used here is much more accurate for small times than the method used by Orszag. Comp. Column II has the errors calculated by Orszag for the same problem.U+ COJ C~x1)7jerp This test problem was also used by Orszag [94] and Chorin [211. Aziz. A. Vol. K. Theoretically. 0 exp p  [cot (2'. 10. 1W P=OI. the error should increase by a factor of 16. 116143. 215 . and J. Column III shows the factor by which the errors increase when the mesh size is multiplied by four. which was calculated using the described difference method. Arakawa. Numerical Solution of the ThreeDimensional Equations of Motion for Laminar Natural Con vection. for an accuracy of order Atji. 1. The reason for this is the implicit calculation of the pressure p at the time n2 according to (64). Vol. Hellums. when dris multiplied by four. Fluids. 2. D.'14 = U3 " O. os I Column I contains the errors of the numerical solution. (1966). Phys.
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One of the constants a 5' a1 a7' a8 follows 0. C. 0. 0. C 1. 2 froma42k a 5 +a6k aa 8 /a 2 a rectangular nozzle. a2 a3 k c 0.667 0. 05.113.5 .667 0.4 .055. CA i 0.8 /K D 0.38 C CD C.TABLE 1. Dissipation (a).5  LDiffusion ' a8 k L **) 1 3. PREVIOUS DATA FOR a1 .1 c C 0.723 CCD X  a7 k L * ( 1.634****) 6 0. C P  0.a8 [115.1 1 0. 0. ai Rotta RodiSpalding NgSpalding Runchal (1972) (1970) (1972) Spalding(1972) (V14'v a. 0. .91.22.31 0.67  (1+CkL ) **) ***) The values were derived from the data of Wieghardt [991.0 1.84 LSink I a6 CL 0.2 CB  1.31 0. k=o.133 LProduction a4 LProduction f a5 1. a****) X =1C+ C+ (L/i17.133 0. First number for free jet from second for circular nozzle.  0.56 0.18 0. Diffusion 1. 1/1./W E'). = 227 . 0. the table also contains the notation used in the various papers) Term. 0.116] /1861 (For comparison purposes. C =.20 0.33 //04 1.
TABLE 2.4 228 .2 0.1 q Cw 1.Dissipation a2 3.5 a7 0.9 LSink a2 * a6 3.) I Varied constant Average variation of the target values in percent LProduction a4 4.9 (E').Diffusion a3 0.1 Var.7 LDiffusion a7 * a8 0. ACCORDING TO NgSPALDING (1972): (Variation of the calculated target values /1871 for variation of one constant each by 5% [91].4 (E' . of the LSink with location z.
44 This paper *  1.06 1.77 1.58 1.6o 1. Burling 17 1972 " 4m + 0.Pond Wyngaard. Pao 46 47 o01 18 lo6 142 1962 1963 1963 1965 1971 1971 Tidal flow Free jet} Wind over waves•j Flat plate flow Wind Wind pver the ground: height 5.57  1.28 + 0.44 1.41 1. YeariI Flow typel deantinl deviationj Standard Average value"I valuel Grant et al Gibson Pond et al.TABLE 3 *J Kolmogorov .22 1.22.62 1.41 1.5 103 8o 115 1965 1966 1972 1.6 1.5 I Translator's note: Commas in numbers represent decimal points.56 b) Theoretical predictions Kraichnan Kraichnan c) Recommendationl Pao Lilly Rotta 69 70o 1965 11966  1.06 Boston. 229 .55 1.81 1. ComteBellot Paquin.66 .5 1.constant a /188j a)_ Experimental findings Authorsi Ref.7 10% + 0.
XS2I Y 3(131.I.E1O DO 2 12=1.225*A3**2. DO I IIlINl R2 A2/2.N3z IF(RG.EI0)GOTO 21 00 313.GT.CA3T31*R**DR3*F r\)COMMON/CWORK/ Yl(l100IY2(l00DY3(100).EI~lGOTO5 Y?(12)=(A2ABS(T2)1 *'. 9 D 4n=27.FUNCT IF(RI.I.MINO(99.*ZI(NiI/A3 RETURN END ION D4 (Al.Z2.IFI)((NN*AI4AXI( l.Y3t13.Y2..NII 1O.6666666666EO GOTO 4 CONTINUE xst2.Y3(loo).3lOoll)9iOlZ300 = XSI*XS2 30 z tl cn R *R * 11 IN Continued on next page .Y?4Z2.N21 01. R2.A2 . N2=AOI.N3) LOGICAL FIRST 22 DRI.N2 IF(FIRSTIGUTC15 IF(AbS(XS2T2).*Rl flR3/3./40..*RI 3 T3T3+H3 CALL QSF(H39Y3. 2*N)I I=1N QSF(1HI Y12.1I) 21 3: m=2T31 H C')SI(4* Y34131=(A3T31*R**DR3*F T3T3.2)N NDAMl N=AMX1 1.2.I CIL N=AMAR1 (l.Z311001 3 T3T3*H3 0) CCMMON/NNNNNN/NN CALL QSF(H3.ZlEIOOIZ21100).( T24XS21**2 IF(R2.E1l'IF1.LL 99.H3 CALL QSFtH3.+10 COFP!ON/NI4NNNN/NN FT= A2T.XS2I COPMNON/CW0RK/ YI100O).A3) )) 2 HI2.GT.*AI/NI NI=NI +1 I13=A3/N3 I N3=N3+1 TI.A31xsIXS2) FUNCTION N2.A3*XSI1S21 OHNwRKYllNl21o). *A2/N2 PEDR H3=A3/N3 D3(AI./1C.Z2(100)..A2fhII N3=MAXO(1O.A2 . N1=MAXCO(1C.S1** =T+S112! FXqI1 1I M H H~ 0 t 4 zo0 : Pip  ~ >r H H ) (DA22 t 3 P 0~lN c)q T3=0 2.A3l1fl HI =AI /NI N1=NlI +1 H2=A?/NZ N2=N2+1C): H3=A3/N3 N TI AI12.A3)*NN (N )/(A1*AltI*A3*A CA2.N3CCPMMON/NNNNNN/NN F= IT33 IF(R.*12(N21 /(A2*A2*A3*A3) RETURN NDIN 02(AI./3.LT..ll(1001.FUNCTION OI(AlvA2tA3vXS1.IFIX(NN*AMAX1E1.H2 CALL QSF(H2.N2) YlfII I2(N2) I T1Tl+Hl CMtL QSF(HItYIvZlNI) 03=2.139N3) Y2(12)Z31N +31 CONTINUE 2 T2T2+H2 CALL QSF(H2. /3.AI~III.Al DO I 11101 Rl=(TI*XSI I**2+XS2*XS2 Tn.XSI*XSI X2T2=( XS2T2 P**2 AT2=42ABS( T2) T 3 0 DO 3 13=1.Y2(10").E101 GOTO DO 3 131..A2.IFIX(NN*AMAXl(1...Z31(%O) FIST3I=N3I)G.Z3.I.(XSI*TlI**2/(4.N3+1 CCMiNON/CWORK/ YI(IAO)tY2(lOOI.N3 T3T3=T3*13 R=XS12+X2T24T3T3 Y31I3)=(A3T3)*AT2*IR**DRt)*(i XSZ/14.22 YI(I1I) Z3(N3)*(AIABSfTI)I N2=P4AX0(1oMINO(99.Z3(1COI COP4MON/NNNNNN/NN 3 DP3=1.A3./3.MIN0t9qIFIXENN*A'h~Ill. DR03B.MINO(99.I.Y3(1OOIZ(1OO21OOI. nC)0.N3) Y2(12)=13(N3) 1 GOTO 2 Y2(12)=DR940?*A3**DR83 T2=r2.GCTO 21 13lN31= DRt940*A3**DP83 .LT.I. A2)*N.9II(NA~111*) NI=MAO(IOMINC999tl~tfN*AMX1(1o~tf2)1I21 N3=?AX0(10.XSI.Y3.M1NCl( N3=MAXO( N)(A*A*3*3 RETURN H2=2.MINO( 99.RI.3 DR940=R.
5*Hl 00 1 Jl=1..AN2 H2A2N2 H3.A2) ) N43=MAXOIX'3.12(lOO). N1NI+l H3A3/N3 N 3N 3 1 TI.IF IX INN*ASIA~l.TABLE 4 (CONTINUED) IFIR.3.AIABSITII LA B?.Z3#N3) V 21I12 1.LT.3Sx2 CCMMON/CWORK/ Y1Ifo 1.MINO(99.A3/N3EN N3'N3+1 TI.i(SZ 00 1 III.5*H2 P IIT I XSI I P12RI*Rl 00 2 12=1.IFIX(NN*AMAXIEI. 1. I TI=T]*Hl CALL QSF(H1.10) GOTO 999 N3MAXOIIO.vZvl Yl AL SF(H3.IFIXINN*AMAZ1I1.E1O)G0T0999 OP3.Nl A. P.Zl.A.I.BI*4XSg DO 3 131.NI) 5 99S 0 5..N2) YIfl l=2(NZI TI=Tl+HI CALL QSF(HL.N2 T30l RZ212 X S2 R1I3R 12+R 2*Ft2 R2.Al)3lI N2=MAXO(1oPiINOC99.Nl) CONTINUE D4=0..Y3IlODIZI(10I.'R1*R2 00 3 131.Y1.DINC(99.Y2. LI.Z3 N31I 12=T?+H2 CALL QSFIH2..IFIX(NN*ANAXI(1. XS1*X S2 RR*P IFER.5*Z I(N II/A3 RETURN END fUNCTI0N D51AI.A311b NIsAI1*1 H2. £33 II) Hl' ?.l.Z3(100b COMMON/NNNNNN/NN DATA 0R3/0.Z2.N3 Y3( 13 I= A*(A3T31 48*XS2/(B2*T3*T3)**0R3 3?3 3+H CAZ T3=T3 H3.AlI IiI XSI.YI.AI XS2Q.M INOI 99.N3 R=R 13+T3*T3 V3413)(R2 /P**0R3)*(A3T3$ T3T3+H3 CALL OSF(H3tY3.2(l 001.E.11S2.6666667/ NI=MAXOIIO.ll.*AlIN. 5*Al XS2=A2 ZINI 30.O0.NI T2.MI1NO(99. NI=MAXO(1).5*ZI(Nl)/IIAI*A3*A3) RETURN 3 2 I 999 C C CD .1FIX(NN*AMAXIl1.
70 9*I9LCI*O.ji c.d (Z**(Ed*(S)X) +*I)/Ed zEd .o . 031 ELCE ic 6* 0 S EV 5 9 bZ Z Nr.ZI 82 ' '69YU81Z /1011 XIV3 8 NOI I.t)/Ix*lx*II qo ZN*ZX+IX*lx (0 L99999999*0*LSZL*U)**((10**CH+no**ZH)*(.H* 331'rSO4 IIZ**(034999999***IH*5LEE'))=j(j lfoilSei6Z 11 LLL96lip ' 'c.* I fZ**1?d*l. 3.N to id*tc.*1 1 id 0*'A * d Vd IIH*I) lid O*Edoid id (CH 'I) Ed O*ZX*zx Zd O*IX*IX td (no*_.d 4Zs*(Vd*IbM * *1 ).I I I 0 3 CEi k C EE E H*E H I 1 :) E L 9 4.(Z**(Zd*(L)XI **T)/Zd Zd (Z**(Id*19)XI *'I)/Id Id b*5d*Sd =rd (ZH 'I) =Sd D*td*lyd td (IH*I) =A7d * O*ld*Ed Ed lEHI) Ed O*ZX*ZX Zd O*IX*lx old (na4ocuoo 0 no (.aI/uO 0 4ZX'lX'fH'ZH'IH)NIG Noli:)Nn.d (ZH 'I) . 0 "d cfd Ed Ed Zd Zd Zd old old old I *no (n(]** 9) / Ix I x .3tEcc.)X+#Pd*(V)X*Ed*tf)X*Zd*(Z)Xttd*tIIX4(13)dX4*00*na 9 juqjoo/no)INiwv.d 5.4 R (Z**(Ed*l9)Xl+'t'/(d [.n(i pg %9 al11 .:)Nnj fZX'IX'EH#ZH'1H)NZU QN3 Ndnild NIG=IG 1 .d ld*id IH "I 9*na ii I nG i ZX*ZX+ly*ix nu I G4 * J+ I /LS#/899L*'SZIf'1 'SLk$ILII fd9RLLC*#0't6'p9SI*Z' )X IV38 1390VIlfVZ*'Z9SlS8Z'4135EU04 SE NOII)Nn.0 no jo*jqnu):jj =nG ZX*ZX+IX*IX .*IId*(9)X1I +'ll/ld 14 O*gd*Sd . (ZX'IX'kH'ZH'IH)NCO ON3 Nbni:id NZUZO WNZO b ido(S)X* Vd*(IPIX*Ed*iE)X+Zd*(Z))(*Id*ll)X*40)dY4*)atrio IMUOlklyo 666 NO /.d 0* td*'Yd .%!)*na).M+*D/i'd Zdot'd ZH"I 4Z**(Tds(VM+*I)/.'1.fj (Z*slSds(OIM+'U/Sd Sd (Z**(/ds(6)Xl **I)/rd = ..Ivd vd IZ**(Cd*(S)X) +*I) Fid Ed (Z**iZd*(LIX) *'I)lZd =Zd (Z**lId#(9)X) 4*1)fld Id D*SdoSd =Sd 1214 . * I+ ZL9****1031#fSO4 l*Z**(DjLggggggl**f7.1. S11.*u**nu*((n(i*. in. T_ = : l c P srivuOSINI HqgVl C\j m C\j HH1 dO NOIIVqnDqVD HIVNIXOUddV HOd WVUO IdgflS NVHIHOJ ..*I MIST 1 (Z**lid*(0I)X)+*I)/Gd id IZ*W d*( SM #*I)/td .Ef.=NA a66 =U (ld*g)*ZX*IX =ld Cd*Ib)k+Zd*lR)X+Id*I))X Ed (Z**jjd*(9)X)4*j)/Cd Ed Ed*fd (fH'I) Ed =Zd IZ**(Zd*(S)X)+*I)/Zd Zd Zd*Zd (ZH*l I =Zd Id Ies*(Id*I'#lWWl)/Id ld Id*Id (IH 'I I =ld I 03L99999999'*llZ**1EH*lE )XI *Z**IZX*IZ)X+ZH)*Z**( IX*( IIX4 IIM/ 4(E)X*IE)X 666 0109 ZX*IX=fj /Q"'0(ZU66b*'1 6ZIE66911UIIL66tf'llSZi8Lv*Z"VIILIIJLLiiLltill 169E6/(6:X 1VJd IZX'IX'EH'ZH'!H)g'.47*u 00 LszLoll.lld (Z*4(Ccj*(8)X1 *oil/Ed Ed (Z**(Zd*(L)X) 4*1)/Id ed IZq.G\ P.69 Nn:i 043 dnIj m N 0= .661 .GN(ITT7NM 043 N7dnigm NL(J=E(J 9=NiU fd*(S)X*td*itt)X*Edoi()X*Zd*JZ)X*ld*(I)X*10)dY3*0(1+nO =6 j*uqIoo/no)"LNIWV=6 1Z**(Sd*1CI)X)+'II.rd (IH*Ik vd b*fd*Cd Ed (EH *I) =Ed bZX*ZX Zd O*IY*IX =14 (no+co)/.I*( d EH.
0 .6250 1.91877 1. 225960E02 . 355640E01 . 1484? .5000 .56198 2.857132 .09591 2.635318 .000 1.0 .361 NAEHERUNGSUERTE 1.13527 .0 .57484 1.05389 1.41)16 1. 465344E01 .3825 3. 105170E02 .000 1. 1.0 .000 .08718 1.58315 T.7943 . 106793 .5000 NAEHERUN GSWERT E1.26963 1.000 1.2525) 1.34955 1.450 .751760 1. 599543E51 1.819140 791416 1.53633 1. 16980S .99534 1.5000 4.000 .0 *f0 .000 2.49312 2.59738 1. 170391 .8386E01 1.4863)3 .000 1.00474 .0 .15612 1.0 e9 .19412 1. 497372E02 .983607 2.0 .53617 2. .484572 .000 1.0 . 150400 .006 .03323 1.962490 1. 674606E0n .8000 2.14938 1.009 . .587q34 *588521 .869887 887366 .63253 1. 642200E01 . 127162 .524992 .550611 . .58017 2.37322 1. .0 *845673E01 .0 . 226165 .9325E01 . 463789E01 .000 1.21832 1.99329 2.20377 1.000 .08 1160.502591 .fn .474 NAEHEPUNGSUERTE1.000 .2496 NAEMERUNGSWERTE 2.000 . 917400E01 .5722 68829 .000 1.976992 .838 1.87729 1*88864 1.0 .9127 . 909008E01 .30 .422 NAEHERUNGSWERTE 1.1 .5316 .16782 2.9645 .000 NAEHERUNGSWERTE.5672 2. 389743 .000 1.235 6.000 NAEHERUNGSWERTE1. 265150E02 .5003 .32613 1. 27619252 .550591 .0 *.1309E06 .429627 .1929 . 165887 o.57613 1.526 1.0 .000 .681659 *582437 *502878 .0 .0 .629273 *629293 .8E47 .40314 1. 277261E01 .000 1.0 .18869 2. 845673E01 .51448 2.000 1.48395 2.07857 1. 5411 1.0 .9940 .05133 1.4891 NAEHERUNGSWERT E 1.849997 .0 3.12 1160.5671 .8000 NAEHERUNGSWERTE .548969 .179 NAEMERUNGSWERT .5000 . 628895E01 .860252 .16995 2. 556944E01 . 876968501 .000 NAEHERUNGSWERTE. 167111 .000 NAIHERUNGSWERTE1.000 NAEHERUNGSWERT 4.0 1.23135 1.000 1.000 1.4815 1.857378 1.620180 .617 9.977707 .01253 .619722 *599134 .22267 * ** Exact values for NN = 50. 150400 . 2.63334 1. .62638 2. 21t453E3 .000 1.*21765 1163.2948 .0 .5000 1.000 NAEHERUNGSWERTE.814433 1. 232628 .953560 1.706 NAEHERUNGSWERTI 4.000 1.5547E01 .0 .3804 2.000 NAEMERUNGSWERTE.8000 1.60853 1.58322 2.1526E04 NAEHERUNGSWERTE 1.0 .000 .0 . 862264E01 .495 1. 194115 .514422 .4402E01 .810274 . 116638 .8858 .487552 .610374 *610363 .003 1.481 .99081 1. 887003E03 .7213 .6303 .0621) 1.55947 1.24406 1. 101013E01 .000 1.796553 1160.250 .0 .04397 1.000 1.000 NAEHERUNGSWERTEr .2352 .89255 1. 129708 . 20949002 .804990 1160. 233 Approximate values .000 4.0 .000 1.601811 *584646 .0 .32711 1.0 3.0 f .91177) .39668 1.603 1. 159498E3e .0 4.0 . 129191 .617508 .23629 1.000 1.690003 .0 .11657 1.0 . 117807 . 140615E31 .458 .0 .0 .13323 2.0 .37186 2. .07605 1. .874311 1. 687301E31 .512840 .8000 NAEHERUNGSbERTE 1.)3211 .5051 NAEHERUNGSWERTE.925362 .873158 .3971E01 .14885 D3 .07891 1.0 .978648 1.21)71 2.16542 2.52312 .000 NAEMHEPUNGSWERTE4.21811 1.0 . 621171503 .60454 2.88756 2.07653 .000 " XS1 . .0 .6250 . 1. 444264E01 . 483967E01 .0 .12 .0 .61436 1.46739 2.000 4.31730 1.45 .5000 7TS39 . 226153 .961849 .5000 .000 .5273 * .819854 .30459 . 163858 .030 4. 134593F01 .761321 .5000 .000 NAIHFkUNGSWERT 1.784 1.45353 1.8112 01 .750833 .04672 1.0 .811418 .000 1..6)417 2.0 * .0 . 436002131 47302E31 . 137926 .12505 1.425 .0 .4 2 6 54~01 DS .5000 2.0 2.5229 2.779179 *761372 .985 NAEKERUNGSWERT E 1.0 .2957F01 .000 .0 . 214470 .74151 1.435 .8165E01 .15344 .05290 1. 209434101 .0 .250 NAEHERUNGSWERTE1.000 1.90275) 1.845786 .18160 1.TABLE 6.174 NAEHERUNGSWERTE 1.0 .1272 .824927 1.37 11s*.631080 o966936 .000 .934152 1. .583699 *565463 . 156930 .000 .1895 NAEHERUNGSMERTE .000 NAEHERUNGSWERTE1.0 .0 .35439 1. 778719E01 . 348292E01 .667991 .8316 NAEMERUNGSWERTIE 1.0 .5004 . 122855E01 .18651 2.08412 1.06414 1.51128 .000 .59448 1. 387563 . 176798E.08750 1. COMPARISON BETWEEN EXACT AND APPROXIMATE SOLUTION OF THE\ 1.660351 . 217366 .60383 1.000 NAEHERUNGSWERTe8 2..85482 1. 5 INTEGRALS\ k 50 EXAKTE NN= WERTE FUER /192 OX3 1.4112 XS2 .0 . 483762E33 . 651390E02 . 1.5208 . 200665 . 452523E31 .0 1.0 .98134 DXl DX2 D2 .13849 .822632 . 215942 .000 1.04511 1.0 2.884936 .000 .4391 .16759 D4 .891261 .0 .38342 1.0 .0 ..5000 NAEHERUNGSWERT.0 .12704 1.09238 2.58706 1.
*O1(HPt.O)02(H1.JO11.*42) O1(HlH2.).5*Hl..HINHI 1 21 REFTURN END FLNCTION DI412(N1.5*H1.5*( SQRTIH2*143*ENERG2IN21431 )*01212(HlN2143I I SQRTIHI*143*FNERG2(H1..*D4IHl .1.0.143.*D1(H1.5*Hl.O.012) DIMENSION HH1(31.*H2*H21 (7.142. FORTRAN SUBPROGRAMS D11.N(l)) RE TURN END FUNCTION 011111141. DO I 1.X3.01312 D13SDIJ(Xl.*HlO.X3.Nq(21.I) +ll5.12tM31 ni11i14.HI143.01(H1.v4Il +01(1429. D12.3.E.*(D1(H1.*04(H1.0.H3.2.3 F1.5*HI .13) I 2 3 . D14 and FEDI ACCORDING TO CHAPTER A 2.FEDII.5*Hl1 .13.. H2.'1.E4) GOTO 2 S.I17. H3) RETURN EIVD FUNCTION 01312(HIH2.5H2I/IH2NH2I 1 +2.N1.12t.O.2.X3.H2.2X3l EXTERNAL D1111.1(3) 141(1)HI HH!421=142 HHll31143 IF(I.N3.*HlI).5*12)1(11*142) RE TURN END FLNCT ION D14111H1vH2vH43) D1411=(14.H3.D.)O1EHlH2.Hl.*0)IJ(X1.01112 Di1=SDIJ(X1.N3) D1lI2=.H3) DI 311=DlII1IHIwH .X2.*DI (141.N2.N2.0.5*H42)D4(Hl142143.*141*H2) RETURN END WUNCTION FEDIEXlX2.14243I RETURN FUNCTION OllXC..3 1 F2.DI4l2 DI'SOIJlXIX2.0112 RETURN END FUNCTION OI2EXltX2. I)/(HI*HI) 2 +4..ABSI1.01212) RETURN END FUNCT ION .H3..O..H3.X3) EXTERNAL 01211.12.FI1I1 RETURN END FUNCTION DIJNt l. . 5*14. X3.XZ.X3.H2.*HlI /(8.O.N2.)+DIEHlH2...1.Nl.O.5*H2I 6 D4..X31 EXTERNAL FEOII .SDIJIXIX2...01412) R ETUR N END FUNCTION SOIJIXI . *142)) 7 8 /(4.42.01311901312) RETURN END FUNCTION D14(XI.))(. 01411.X3vOll11 . 01211.N3.TABLE 7...X3) EXTERNAL D1411.O.133.0.5*H2I/(H1*N2I END FUNCTION FED121FftH2wH3) FED12.H2.J) GOTO 201 H(l)HHII) 14(21=141(J) 14(3)H14161J) DIJ.H2.H3.*(01( H .H13.*'D4(H1.M3tfl. .2.5*1.X2.lHI .N2.1.Hl).NXN3.N2.H3..H3.N1.K3.H2.H3. D13.FEDI2 FEDI . X3) EXTEkNAL 01311.FiI2). .43I *LT.III(H1*N1) RETURN END FUNCTION D12I2(M1qH29M31 D1212(O3EN1.O.. FL.NCTION D1211(HNI.*D5(H1.H3.N2)I/(H242*1 *4.H1 .142.01 (M1.D.H3)I*0121(H.*Dl(H2./FII//Fl2/I IF(ABS(1.43.1.X2.*42 ).2.*OIJIX1.143.rl.5*141.143.O.I.2.H2)+ABS(.3141 tH.*2.5*142)D4(HI1.I)/(M1*lI RETURN END FUNCTION DII1Z(N1.142. 3.NIN3)I RETURN END RE TURNI' .1..H3. SDIJ=S RETURN 2 SOIJ.N2.*(02(HlH.5*NIHDIINI*N2) RE TURN END FLNCT ION 01311 (HIN2.0.D12(H(IlfH(21.6.*H1*Hl) Sfll(12.H31 O131?=(01(HlN2.O.D.H3..1.K3..li2H3.)8 *DI(l29HI#H!90.Ol..*2)D03EN1.13.H. 00 1 J1.FED121 RETURN END FUNCTION FEO1II(Hl.0.N1.D1(12. .H2143) FED11=SQRT(H12*13*ENERG2(143.72'"30 012114 .H3))*D1212("2. )Dl (H2.13 (XI tX2.11I(H1.H2))/(N2*H2I I 1o1(H2.X2.01212 012SDIJlXIX2.D1(HIN2143.I +2.0.H2.13. I 1HH(1I) H121HHIJJ) HI 3)HH16IJJ) OliJ D111(1).H(3)) RETURN 200 JJ=MOD(I.H2.X2.*N10.6.))/(8.EQ.0.143.0.132.
2( V .24k 2 Aq ( v ..TABLE 8. A Xr ) A1(6) At at v AL * f 2 1y v y' ry A1(5) Al(7) F_ a atv at "t .tt2 Vx .6 A""t" At. A1(5) _t AxrAXI . A vi At v 1 /4 Ar AV dr '4 f Continued on next page 235 . A2 /1941 ACCORDING TO (A69) Al Type a) (Jump)l Type b) (Euler)l Type c (DuFortFrankel)! Al(2) _ t_ y XtI . . COEFFICIENTS OF THE VECTORS Al.
4 A2(2) a O O A2(3) A2(4) O t_# h.TABLE 8 (CONTINUED) A2 Type a) (Jump) Type b) (Euller) Type c)DuFortFrankel A2(1) .L o A2(5) _ 0 0 A2(6) 2A6~u(. 0 0 236 .z  0 A2(7) +.
.)( TAlp / tii 4'i Jd A i v.TABLE 9.l/ A. COEFFICIENTS OF THE AMPLIFICATION MATRIX G /1951 ACCORDING TO (A616) Type a) (Jump) A =  V + 4 2A a . UI( (c.  rg Type b) (Euller) ) =6tjUc. *ap r 7 =2= S Ax  a S3 rL +3 A = 0 Type c) (DuFortFrankel) AAA (A (4d) ( x4 + 40 i Vx s sVV(4 rL atL +  ) j 4 j) 4 "fdy 237 .42jpir 842 = s 5i S3 2 tj 2 .
22 .2.0.93 .0.2.1000 (Center) a)..o .24 .2.23 . A r =1/8 = const b) A4rw + 1/ 8 const 0) A r = 1/16 = cons #const t o.13.63 .1.0.1.o.61 .6o .2.o.2.74 .0.39 .92 .21 .32 .o04 0.55 .01 + 0.11 + o.2.68 .0.89 .0.o8 o.34 .0. .24 .0.0.0.4o .0.0.1.25 + o.08 .0.o6 .02 o.12 . c ERRORS IN THE DIFFERENCING METHOD FOR LAMINAR INCIDENT FLOW E " 1000 (Wall mesh) Fall: a) r = 1/8 = const b) ar o 1/8 c) r =1/16 = const E2.97 + 0.2.34 .2o 0.31 .24 .ol .o.69 .1.49 + 0.2.48 .16 0.21 .0o.0.2.63 .TABLE 10.0.57 .06 .2.25 .0.0.0.12 0.47 .0.72 .86 .36 .
3 16.107 4.1 2.TABLE 11.1 6. TEST PROBLEM TAYLORGREEN VORTICES I II III Time step Error of the method used here *105 here _ Error of the method used by Orszag *105 Factor of error enlargent when l hcreasing mesh size by _four. enlargemen z 1 3 5 7 9 0.26 8.1 10 14 17 26 19 16 14 13 20 37 37 12 R\ kO .29 12.
0625 0.042 o4 XisX X2.125 1 0.o4 1.a xa 0.25 5 0.0625 2 1 16 8 16 2048 64 3.0625 0.25 5 0.0625 5 0.125 Ax ..0625 2 Tr 8 16 16 2048 64 4.1 916 r/16 0.8 1488 14h Time steps 1440 35' 35 14o8 2h30' M(esh 9h computation 240 . IM JM KM IM.0625 0.88 12.125 1 0. SPECIFICATION CF CASES KI  K4.43 1.9 736 6h 0.46 0.018 0.0625 4 2 32 16 16 8192 64 2. /198 K1 K2 K) K4 Zi Z2 Z3 Z4 R2/R1 a4.3 3200 5h30' T/32 0.FULLLUUT k~FOLDOUT F TABLE 12.125 0.8 0.0625 4 27 32 64 16 32768 32 1.13 5./x 1 0.0625 0.125 0.13 1.6o 7.6 0.0625 1 0.KM N t 103 Probleml t ime 4 217 32 64 32 65536 32 1.4 1088 Th40' 7r/32 0.0625 0.125 5 0.042 4 2 64 32 32 65536 32 1. Z1  24.81 3.0625 4 2 64 32 16 32768 32 1.JM.4 1664 40' iF/16 0.0625 4 21T 16 32 16 8192 64 3.
2 (5 .13) (1 .65) 1.jrl 1.87) (7.3 010 011 E1.(4 C 7 .8) 0.14) 10000 300000 Re mkrit (5 . Value /199 Re Rem (1 .2 88000 Aw 1.15) (7 .4) (5 .90) 2100 .871 3Plate 5 31 Annulus' 6. Eq.TABLE 13.46) 3 241 .01 0.2 (588) 4 Plate 1i Annulus 0.1 4' 2 D (5 55) (5 .5 0. CONSTANT CASE PARAMETERS Symbol Def.
CALCULATION TIMES PER TIME STEP /2001 ON THE IBM 370/165 Contril 'butions! K1 Zi K2 Z2 K3 Z3 K4 Z4 see % see % sec % see N Energy 1.5 34 17.6 S3.7 60 14.6 33.9 100 52.TABLE 14.1 100 24.3 100 242 .33 9.54 9 2.8 57 Ap0.9 9.4 Totail 1.4 100 6.1 56.9 ~1 8.5 4.5 29.
6 2. COMPARISON OF MAXIMUM VELOCITIES /2011 ZWc>max R2/R1 1 5.7 27 1 1 1 1 1 4.3 27.5 27. Re m Reference 31.6 5 5 3 3 Z2 z3 27.1 1 QQ Deardorff [29] 28.6 1 1 3 3 K3 K4 28.8 31.4 27.9 5 3 z4 243 .0 5 3 21 28.TABLE 15.89 31.4 1 Clark (22] ComteBellot [18] Laufer [76] 30.3 1 1 3 3 K1 K2 27.
74 3.87 1 2.60 1 3 3 K1 K2 1 1 3 3 K3 K 2.70 1 Barthels (11] 2.52 2.32 1 1 3 Clark [22] 2.TABLE 16. COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN /202 THE MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM VELOCITY axR2/R1 Rem* 105 Reference 2.75 2.17 2.19 3.68 5 3 5 1 oo Deardorff [29] 3.155 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 zl Z2 Z3 z4 244 .
Plate flow /2V131 U <U> V /U D U3w Annulus flow R2 p ¢=2rT Figure 1. Channel geometries considered 245 .
s 10 106 7 10 Estimation of required resolution 246 ./2041 102 Thickness of the laminar sublayer/D KolmogorovLength/D 103 Dimensionless length 7/8 (vRem N Re~1 / 16 1 10 Rem 10 s 10' Figure 2.
/205 Core storage 2MK  / 40  85 1 IBM 370/165 1MK /  / 100K Static Dynamic / / / 10 100 KM Number of meshes Figure 3. Required storage capacity as a function of meshes in one direction 247 .
meshes in one direction 248 ."/206 Id Computation time/ (IBM 370/165) 10h for a dimensionless time unit' At = D/uo 2h40' 2h 32 h c KM' 30' 10' 10' 16 KM Number of meshes in one direction 10 I 50 II 100 Required computation time as a function of number of Figure 4.
1 _ z . Overlapping mesh grid (staggered grid) 249 .n 2 1 2 nI n x n X3 ..m~n .1I10 Vl.g(sg E <] P.mn Pe. r n1 I KM MFg X2 5 m+1O m./207 D=1 t[x1.m. n n Xrrm.m.1 mm.nI 2 Figure 5. n x X 1.m.
Principle variation of the energy spectrum of isotropic turbulence at large Reynolds numbers 00 . Lo K k I [1/length] Region resolved by mesh grid 4 Figure 6.( E(k) Dependent Independent of type of turbulence production / 2/35/3 N <E> k Turbulence balls qarrying energy Region determined by inertia: forces 7 k Region determined by viscosity forces I kmo  I.
12 7 m U= 15m/s n2. Estimation of required mesh number KM for allowing the local isotropic assumption. = 61 600 KM= 2 nD . according to measurements of Laufer [77] 251 .n Sn (') 15 i F(n) D=0.500 4000 4500 5000 20 I 30 I 40 I 50 I KM Figure 7. Ell (n) 0 0 500oo 1000 o o 2000 n (sec') 2500 3000 ./209 COMPARISON OF 3o _ _ e AND ua ' 5PECTRA Laufer (1950 ) Rem.
5 10' Cllt E ed fromk) "1 I I " I l!. Estimation of required mesh number KM for reliability of local isotropic assumption according to measured value of ComteBellot [18] for the channel center (X3 =0.(cm 1 Figure 8.5) 252 . 10 10' 100 10' k.10' 3 E22 (kl) 30 100 300 KM /210 103 10' 10 0 o Channel center_ 10' O Rem= 240 000 Measurement values of[ Es? (kl) E22 (kt) e' Measurement values ofl x3= 0.
21 e Measured values ofIE22(k)x0.235 _ 1 10' 100 10' k (cm Figure 9.105 3 30 100 300 iKM . according to measured values of for x1/ 18 ComteBellot 253 253 . /211 xI= H225 0 100 ' Rem 240 000 II I 11 11111 O Measured values of E33(k)x3=0. Estimation of required mesh number KM for reliability of local isotropic assumption.
02) 254 . of local isotropic assumption..  30  300 + 1000H.00 X018 100 10' k (cm) 1 Estimation of required mesh number KM for reliability Figure 10. according to measured values of ComteBellot [18] near the wall (x 3 =0.02 100 Rem= 240000 0 Measured values of * Measured values of iCalculated fro o2 Eit(ki) 10o 10 33 (k x3= 0. KM /212 to' E22.02( E22 (kl) X3= 0. ('k) Wall vicinity X3/D 0.
240000 Rem = 460000 101 X3= 0.22 700 10"2 10' k.(cm') 102 The range of validity of the Kolmogorov spectrum Figure 11.3 30 300 ' /2131 10 I II o in E m e k ) 11  370 .i I o Rem = 114000 x3 = 0. 1 based on measurements of ComteBellot [18] for x3= /4 255 .225 a e 10' Rem .225 x3= 0.
05 = Ar r o AVt 2 427Eo03  p = Vx/10 Vr 6YV.FOLDOUT FRA.uDOUT FRAME //214 9*60E03 SAt 8*5a03 tk V.5GE0i 2*E0i 320E0i 3SEE0i 384EOi Figure 12.125 = 0. I I I I I I I I I I I I 320E02 640E02 960E02 i2BEOi i.05 = 0. for Type a) difference formulas 256 .07E03. = VX/10 = 0 V =30 23E03 . Allowable time interval At as a function of viscosity p where convection velocity V is x the parameter.V =50 i. !. 10 At Type a)I 747E03  Ax 640E03rAp At 533E03 = 0.60EOi iS92EOi 224E0i 2.
Z7E03 3OE03 .40E03 At 2 5.33E03 4.FoLDOUT FRAMB FOLDOUT FRA 15 853E03 7. V is the parameter.47E03 At Type b) At G.30 07E03 I t 3zOE0? 640E0? 396E0 I ijEOi iGOE01 iSEi I 2e4E01 I 2SEO I 2E0Oi 5E01 3OE01 3 t 384E01 I Allowable time interval At as 4 function of viscosity p where convection velocity Figure 13. for Type b) (other pgra'eters as in Figure 12) X 257 .
40E02 9 Figure 14. Allowable time interval At as a function of viscosity 'p where convection velocity V is the parameter. for Type c) (DuFortFrankel) an small viscosities (other parameters as inx Figure 12) 258 .( JOLDOU FP 9*60E03 853E03fAt F Type c) smallviscosities I 7.47E03  640E03 At 533E03 4*27E03 10 320E03 2i03 i 07E03 VxC. 320E02 6E02 i28E0i i60E0i i92E0i 224E0i 256EOi 28E0i 320E0i 352E0i 384EOi .
Allowable time interval At as a function of viscosity p for Type c) difference formulas (DuFortFrankel) and largel viscosities (other parameters as in J Figure 12)1 259 . 30 142E03 i07E03 71.3*S03 320E03 2B4E03  Type c).E04 3*5E04 5o0EOi 112ECeO2 iEEE0 24Eo2 *BOEG02 33EE02 39E2 44 02 S04EO2 5CE02 641GEO 672EE Figure 15. 24E03 large viscosities vI Linear interpolation I 7FE03 V.
. .  . .60 2. * *> * . . *     / . . (. ... '<.80 3.. .62 0. .. ~ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i .26 0.O)o "  . t1 0.20 1.'  30 .10 0.00 0..    .r. . .28 0.80 0.20 3." .( .80 1. I  I I I I I i j I I II I i I i I I I I I I I jI i I j I I I __ . a M 0. ..  .00 0. " 0 0 ..2 . 02 0.. O t . .8 .  * .... . I "..33 .  . .. .) in the x3xl plane and . Initial values of the velocity field (Ucorresponding energy spectra .I..I L .46 0. . 2.o00 2. V 3 >.64 0.82 LOG (KI) Figure 16..4 2..60 LOG (SPEK 3k 0. .'13E.: t% .. .1 t _.. . J .0. .  . 1.A   *.  f A   a\ _~. 00 0.  " ..N . 40 0... ' .
Turbulence velocity fie'ld in an annulus":  261 . IN./219 Z4 t . i I r  • .. <I 1. \ Figure "17.
s So.sast * o.11) 0e Ot Figure 18.eIr o0 0.6821 at 0 ./220 Z4 . pressure p in annulus and (Continued on next page) 262 . Kinetic energy of the fine structure.
.0010 01 Figure 18 (Continued from premedling page) 263 .\I /I : t Y +\ ' i "°' *0. 0.0210 * * Cl Cl 0.00 Cl I 4 s 0.2C9 ..0530 CI 0.
 • 0. 1O 2.20 1. 40 2../' . .. kinetic energy of fine structure and pressure p in the x3x plane of a plate channel N) .. I .5:32E 01 ) H ~ IC / N' .4571c 01 If I a 0.. . i _.316C 01 . .0O0 2..00 2. ? \n.649C 00 *# 0. ..t .7 * 0. .ei 0. 0.40O 7 .1%27C 01 01 " 0..80 .. 300C 00 . 60 2. .. 01 i it .80  3.637C 01 ZZIIZ' .._ 00. / /. . . ." # .. . 21C 01 ti O 0.20 ' 3. I 0.' 0% 0% 01 40.2. .20 3.60 2...60 2.^~~~~~~C~' cC~.60 "" • 0. .. . .80 3." J. .60 *0o. I ..20 3 60 to0. K4 X o. > . ' .00 0.80 1..0 '.0O0 .00 0.'jYr01 *0.40 0. . c~ I H I p U i $ . .276C. 20 1.1.51*C 01 a 0.257C H.' 0 Figure 19.351t .. 80 1.00 2. 0 0o ..40 0.< . 3.. . Turbulent velocity field 1 k 1<Y>).Sf~ . I F .901C O *0.20 1.' . . " ' ' . ..0.
11. ' . kC .0 1...80 1.60 1..0.. .1 .171E 01 0. 01.129C 01 S.2s4 r~..20 1."*5'.1 .S82C 00 S0.O...I22C 01 Ch 0.56201   I T z0..601" . 104E 01 ) S . S ~.E . Co .334C 00 P / ( t .20 0.60 0. \"I.    0.346E 01 0...  .00 0. '. 5 1 01 v0..  0._00. .124C 00 a O.721o 000 ( a0.80 r Turbulent Figure 20.421E 00     ..L \ 0. of an annulus pressure field p and velocity field(~_. ) 1 ' ' / 4 . . " Idx* 0.. 0.150t 01 . \ \ t \ I g LL 125 01 I. .833E00 0 .40 0. . ..00 1'..>) in the rx plane 1u ru .. \ at o.
Z2 S/223 Vr VP .844. and comparison of corresponding spatial and tempo'al energy spectra 266 . Turbulent fluctuations of the coarse structure as a function of time t at a location of r=0. a (Vx28) t LUVU 3U 0 2k1 VE2 1. and tempoa energy Turbulent fluctuations of the coarse structure LOf (XII positionof functions thei Spectra position functionsJ time functionsof the Spectra time functions ki Figure 21.3 /)2 1 Eparison (k) corresponding spatia Figure 21.
6 LOG (Ku Figure 22.64 0.E22(k ) E33 (k) 0o. averaged over the plane parallel to the wall at x =0.8 0.47 for the plate and annulus.OG (KI I LOG (SPEK) Z3 Ell (k 1) .32 0.16 .00o 0. respectively.16 0.4 0.eo 0.32 0. Energy spectra of the velocity fluctuations as a function of the axial coordinate.LOG (SPEKI K4 El (ki) E22 (ki) /224 Oo (S (VR) . 267 .07 and r=0.
60 .273E 00 .80 3 20 3. X ..00 0. * S2 L  00 0.1 * x 2.959C 00 Figure 23.60 2. o.soi 00 v 0.0 .40 2.40 0.9eE 00 a 0.es 5700 # 0.40 2.Ia . 0. 00 a 0.80 3.00 2.1 Bar 00 .20 1.35.60 o.511c 00 x 0. * 00 0. mesh sizes Correlation R (x Yx) 1 for plate flows with various period lengths and .20 1._  0.0 0.596C 00  _ _ 0. = A 4 =L  S.91 00  0.39.60 K3 .80 1.0.870E 00 0.L0 0.60 2.20 3.153C 00 a 0.O a O.01 * 0.K 00 0. 00 2.204r 00 .C 1.80 1.0 1.00 0 'r 0.0.S760 00 • .0.00 2.0. 00 .531E 00 2 o.392E 00 * 0.51:c 00 .00 0.273E 00 # 0..150C 00 v o.0 0 0.33BC01 .153E ..80 3.  K0.870 .20 3.60 a 0.
iii: . "710 :0.627C 00 00 00 Z 0..333E 00 0. Correlations Rii(r.20tE 00 4 Z 0.32E o00 @0.z S .868 0 0.172E 00 Z1 /226 .19 00 S0.985 00 0.503C 00 r .600E01 2 .747 v 0. period lengths and mesh sizes )Ifor annulus flows with various 269 .5. .654C 00 a 0.989E 00 Figure 24..857E 00 S0.8 v 3. * O.oA S0.192 00 *0.50E 00 x 0.00.857E 00 S I z 0.338f 00 0.5952 00 + 0. "0.149 00 So0. 000. .t"' .
270 .00 26. Figure 270 * Translator's note: Figure 25 missing from German text./227/ gK1 AK2 4 >max +3 o Th.o 0.60 0. 0.80 X3 1.20 o.
05 1.SZ2 0.25 RRODIUS R Figure 27.15 0.85 1.65 0.1 271 .25 0.
/2281 o0 Ki )K2 22 A 0U.CC 0. 20 U./ 272 . . 40 O. CIO X3 . 60 1.Figure 28.
40 X3 U.CI Figure 29 . 273 .(_ K I K2 K3 U. 2 U . I0 L.CO c.U U.
00 Figure 30.00 U. 274 . X3 Cs J./229 CDi 2p 2 #.0 U.60 J.8 1.40 0.
SZ24 00.5 (.85 1.C tvt.25 RqDI US FR Figure 31.65 0. 275 .05 1.25 0.
05 1.85 1.45 0./230 Z2 XZ3 o i Z 0. 276 .65 0.25 RfRDIUS F Figure 32.25 4 0.
277 .RROJUS B Figure 33.
278 .20 0.D :0.80 1 .00 0.40 0. 00 X3 Figure 34.60 0.
ci) o 25 .65 0.45 0.85 1. 279 .05 1.25 RDIUS R Figure 35.
1 280 ./232 O.s x= X3 / CDK1 ( K AK 2 S+K3 XKq X' Z j  (481 0C Xl Figure 36.S 0.
X 3 . 0.80 X1 1.00 281 281 .00 Figure 37.03 Ak23 +K2 +K3 0.G 0.20 1.60 2.
S0. (D 1 IrK2 +K3 "CE ci Xl Figure 38. 282 282 .
0 K1 AK 2
SK3
NXK
C)
0000
0. 20
I
I
I
.40
o0.60
0. 80
U,
1.00
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Figure 39.[
283
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OK1 AK2 (+K3
f Rx
o o
L1
I
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281 2814
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i
33
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Figure 41.
285
Z3
j4
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.X"
Jo
.25
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5
0.65
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RRDIUS R
1. 25
Figure 42.
286
/236/
+K3
Theoretical Svari ation
Contribution ofi
fine structure
Contribution of coarse\
S
0.
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I
I
'0.00
0.20
U.L0
0.60
0.80
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Figure 43.
287
O
Contribution of fine structure
C.
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Contribution of coarse\
I
I
'0.25
i. iS
o065
0.85
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RAD!US R
Figure 44.
288
/237 gK1 '1t 0 o AK2 +K3 0 0. Figure 45 .90 0.20 0.60 .1 O.00 289 .80 .
o  0g D XZ3 Z 1 '0.45 0.25 0.65 0.25 RRDJULS R Figure 46.05 1. 290 .85 1.
20 Time f 4. 20 Figure 47.40 3.40 7. .0 I1. o \ V I I I I I I I I I 0.O KD c0 1 J .00 ) 0.60 2.00 4.60 6.80 5.
00 X3 Figure 48.00 0.60 0.20 0. 292 ./239 xK / cu CI 4 4 0 '0.40 0.80 1.
CnJ
C>
.
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0.25
0.45
0.65
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Figure 49.
293
/240
lK1
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coI
to
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i t]7I
..
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.00
Figure 50.1
0.2a
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X3
0.60
0.80
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294
cu
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3
ZZL
1 .05 1.25
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5
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Figure 51.
295
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Figure 52. /
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296
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.
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. 25 0.5 0.65 0.85 1.05 1.25
RRDIUS R
Figure 53.
297
K1 AK2 + K3
XK
1
.. _o
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U. 20
0.40
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1t.00
Figure 54.
298
145 1 0.65 0.0 Z2 j0 o ZZ4 I xZ3 0.85 1.25 I I 0.05 I 1. 299 .25 I RRDIUS R Figure 55.
80 1. O / 0.®K1 K2 )+K3 o 0 '4q C> .00 0.00 Figure 56.60 0.20 0. 300 .
25 RRO J US R Figure 57.95 \ 0.05 1.25 0.85 1. 301 .0 +Z2 x23 1o ZZLI 0.
00 X3 Figure 58. 0.60 0. 302 .00 o0. 80 1.0 K1 K2 +K3 o 0 .20 0.
25 RRDJUS R Figure 59.Z2 c23 I0.85 1.65 I 0.45 0.05 1. 303 .
20 0.00 X3 Figure 60.K3 y Mp Figu 11 # 22 S33 13 0 o x dl 0 . 304 .60 0. 0 0.00 0.80 1.
05 1.85 1.Y 1 11 22 ) 33 0 I1 I I I I I 0.25 RADIUS R Figure 61. 305 .25 0' 5 0.65 0.
20 0.K 2 * +K3 XK4 u44 =. \ SI I I I I 0'00 0. 40 0.80 1.00 X3 Figure 62. / 306 .0 K1 ..60 0. 0 . pU0 .
K3 yKv 1 1 y K.20 0.60 0.80 1.11.0 0.4 '0.00 X3 Figure 63.00 0./247.2 2 ap = F (Pu ) K13 3 . 307 .
q5 0.05 1.25 RRDIUS R Figure 64. 25 o. 308 .85 1.65 0.Z3 y Kpl I =jf(PuI3) K2 2 Kpl 3 0 II I I I I 0.
case K3 .C3 8atEn0si 8 0c1 9strE0i 9aasEOi iofoi 00 t Figure 65. C) Q1 Velocity fluctuations of the coarse structure as a function of time t at a location x3=0.01i6OOlE01t 00E01i 70 4O EOi 800E0i i20E 00i6GOE 00 200E 00 '.6 for plate flow.2OE 00  K3 i20E 00800Ei 4*00EOi .
00 10. California. by SCITRAI . P. 5. NASw 2483.00 45.00o (t E M (\JEo H= 0. EO(t) 15.E (t) is the quasi. E(t) is the solution of the model differential equation. H=.00 30.00 Kinetic energy of fine structure as a function of Figure 66.00 o 15. s. Box 5456.00 20.00 4o0.00o 40.00 35.H= 1 \ Eo (t) E (t) Ln 0.00 2s.00 20.O.00 35.o00 45.01 0. time t for periodic source at various mesh sizes H. 93108 310 .00 1o.stationary approximation Translated for National Aeronautics and Space Administration under contract no.CO E(t).00 25. Santa Barbara.o00 30.
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