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Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders

18 Documents that cite: Ostroumov S.A. Some aspects of water filtering activity of filter-feeders (2005) Hydrobiologia, 542 (1) , pp. 275-286.

1 Sewage-exposed marine invertebrates: Survival rates and microbiological accumulation Stabili, L., Terlizzi, A., Cavallo, R.A. 2013 Environmental Science and Pollution Research 20 (3) , pp. 1606-1616 Stabili, L.ab , Terlizzi, A.b, Cavallo, R.A.a a Istituto per l'Ambiente Marino Costiero Sezione di Taranto A. Cerruti-CNR, via Roma 3, 74100 Taranto, Italy b Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, CoNISMa, 73100 Lecce, Italy View references (76) Abstract A large number of bacteria, including agents responsible for diseases, characterise sewage-polluted seawaters. Apart from standards for bathing waters and bivalve aquaculture waters, there are no general microbiological standards applicable to seawaters to help decide if bacterial pollution is within acceptable ranges. This study represents an attempt towards the issue of comparing the susceptibility of different marine invertebrates subjected to polluted seawater with a high microbial contamination. We explored the survival rates and the microbiological accumulation of mollusc bivalves, echinoderms and crustaceans species exposed to sewage-polluted seawaters. Microbiological analyses were performed on the polluted seawater and on the homogenates of exposed and unexposed specimens. Culturable bacteria (22 °C and 37 °C) and microbial pollution indicators (total coliforms, Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci) were measured. When exposed to the sewage-polluted seawater, the examined invertebrates showed different survival rates. In the filter feeders, bacterial densities at 22 °C and 37 °C rose after 96 h of exposure to sewage. The highest concentrations of total coliforms and intestinal enterococci were found in exposed bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. The concentrations of bacteria growing at 37 °C were lower in the exposed deposit feeders compared to the polluted seawater. Some yeasts were absent in several exposed species although these yeasts were present in the polluted seawater. Our data suggest that the examined filter feeders, given their capability to survive and

accumulate bacteria, may counteract the effects of sewage and restore seawater quality. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Author keywords Bioremediation; Deposit feeders; Filter feeders; Microbial pollution indicators; Sewage pollution; Yeasts Indexed keywords GEOBASE Subject Index: bioaccumulation; data processing; invertebrate; marine ecosystem; microbial community; microbiology; seawater; survival; water pollution; water quality Species Index: Bacteria (microorganisms); Bivalvia; Crustacea; Echinodermata; Enterococcus; Escherichia coli; Invertebrata; Mollusca; Mytilus galloprovincialis ISSN: 09441344 CODEN: ESPLESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1007/s11356-012-1103-xDocument Type: Article View in table layout References (76) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography

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Stabili, L.; Istituto per l'Ambiente Marino Costiero Sezione di Taranto A. Cerruti-CNR, via Roma 3, 74100 Taranto, Italy; email:loredana.stabili@iamc.cnr.it © Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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2 Comparing the invasibility of experimental "reefs" with field observations of natural reefs and artificial structures Dafforn, K.A., Glasby, T.M., Johnston, E.L. 2012 PLoS ONE 7 (5) , art. no. e38124 Dafforn, K.A.a , Glasby, T.M.b, Johnston, E.L.a a Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia b New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, Nelson Bay, NSW, Australia View references (81) Abstract Natural systems are increasingly being modified by the addition of artificial habitats which may facilitate invasion. Where invaders are able to disperse from artificial habitats, their impact may spread to surrounding natural communities and therefore it is important to investigate potential factors that reduce or enhance invasibility. We surveyed the distribution of non-indigenous and native invertebrates and algae between artificial habitats and natural reefs in a marine subtidal system. We also deployed sandstone plates as experimental 'reefs' and manipulated the orientation, starting assemblage and degree of shading. Invertebrates (non-indigenous and native) appeared to be responding to similar environmental factors (e.g. orientation) and occupied most space on artificial structures and to a lesser extent reef walls. Non-indigenous invertebrates are less successful than native invertebrates on horizontal reefs despite functional similarities. Manipulative experiments revealed that even when nonindigenous invertebrates invade vertical "reefs", they are unlikely to gain a foothold and never exceed covers of native invertebrates (regardless of space availability). Community ecology suggests that invertebrates will dominate reef walls and algae horizontal reefs due to functional differences, however our surveys revealed that native algae dominate both vertical and horizontal reefs in shallow estuarine systems. Few non-indigenous algae were sampled in the study, however where invasive algal species are present in a system, they may present a threat to reef communities. Our findings suggest that nonindigenous species are less successful at occupying space on reef compared to artificial structures, and manipulations of biotic and abiotic conditions (primarily orientation and to a lesser extent biotic resistance) on experimental "reefs" explained a large portion of this variation, however they could not fully explain the magnitude of differences. © 2012 Dafforn et al. Indexed keywords EMTREE medical terms: abiotic stress; algal community; article; artificial habitat; biomanipulation; biotic stress; comparative study; coral reef; environmental factor; estuarine species; field experiment; habitat structure; invertebrate; native species; natural habitat; nonhuman; organism community; spatial orientation; species dominance; species richness; biomimetics; biota; environmental aspects and related phenomena; introduced species; light; sediment

Species Index: algae; Invertebrata MeSH: Biomimetics; Biota; Coral Reefs; Ecological and Environmental Processes; Geologic Sediments; Introduced Species; Light Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. ISSN: 19326203Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038124 PubMed ID: 22666459Document Type: Article View in table layout References (81) First 80 references displayed (View all references) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography

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** Ecological drivers of the Ediacaran-Cambrian diversification of Metazoa Erwin, D.H., Tweedt, S. 2012 Evolutionary Ecology 26 (2) , pp. 417-433 Erwin, D.H.ab , Tweedt, S.ac a Department of Paleobiology, MRC-121, National Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012, United States b Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501, United States c Behavior, Ecology, Evolution and Systematics (BEES), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, United States

View references (82) Abstract Organismal modifications to their physical and chemical environment play a significant role in structuring many modern ecosystems, and experimental evidence suggests that such behavior can increase diversity. Despite the important role such activities play in connecting ecology and evolution, less is known of the macroevolutionary impact of such influences, especially their role during major evolutionary transitions. The Ediacaran-Cambrian diversification of Metazoa encompassed the appearance and early diversification of virtually all major clades of marine animals and the establishment of metazoan-dominated ecosystems. Here we assess the role of positive ecological feedbacks using a new compilation of the first occurrences of all metazoan phyla, classes; orders and equivalent stem taxa, as well as data from a previously published compendium on fossils from the early to middle Cambrian of China. The results reveal relatively minor feedback during the Ediacaran, but a substantial increase during the Cambrian, principally through bioturbation and the appearance of a number of structural engineers, including sponges. Chemical modification of the environment through filtering and bioturbation seems to have had the largest impact. Data on taxic diversity is a poor proxy for abundance, or for the actual environmental impact of these activities, however. Future assessments of the influence of ecological feedbacks on this event will require standardized assessments of the abundance of taxa with different ecological roles. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA). Author keywords Cambrian; Ecology; Ediacaran; Feedback; Niche construction Indexed keywords GEOBASE Subject Index: abundance; assessment method; Cambrian; cladistics; ecological approach; ecosystem structure; Ediacaran; environmental impact; fossil record; marine environment; new record; new species; niche; paleoenvironment; physicochemical property; proxy climate record; species occurrence; sponge; standardization; taxonomy Species Index: Animalia; Metazoa ISSN: 02697653 CODEN: EVECESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1007/s10682-011-9505-7Document Type: Article View in table layout References (82) First 80 references displayed (View all references) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography

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The lipidic extract of the seaweed Gracilariopsis longissima (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales): A potential resource for biotechnological purposes? Stabili, L., Acquaviva, M.I., Biandolino, F., Cavallo, R.A., de Pascali, S.A., Fanizzi, F.P., Narracci, M., (...), Cecere, E. 2012 New Biotechnology 29 (3) , pp. 443-450 Stabili, L.ab , Acquaviva, M.I.a, Biandolino, F.a, Cavallo, R.A.a, de Pascali, S.A.b, Fanizzi, F.P.b, Narracci, M.a, Petrocelli, A.a, Cecere, E.a a Institute for Coastal Marine Environment (IAMC), CNR, U.O.S. Taranto, Talassografico A. Cerruti, Via Roma 3, 74100 Taranto, Italy b Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies (Di.S.Te.B.A.), Università del Salento, Via Prov. le Lecce Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy View references (58) Abstract In recent years seaweeds increasingly attracted interest in the search for new drugs and have been shown to be a primary source of bioactive natural products including antibiotics. In the present investigation the antimicrobial activity of Gracilariopsis longissima lipidic extract was assayed and its

chemical characterization was carried out by means of advanced analytical techniques such as gaschromatography and multinuclear and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. G. longissima lipidic extract showed an antibacterial activity against several Vibrio species. These results are interesting considering both the resistance against antibiotics developed by vibrios and the need to control fish and shellfish diseases due to vibriosis. Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters performed by gas-chromatography showed that palmitic acid methyl ester (16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid (42%), while, among monounsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid methyl ester (18:1) prevailed (8.5%). Because the palmitic acid represents the main component of fatty acids we hypothesized its involvement in the antibacterial activity observed. However, a pure sample of palmitic acid did not show an antibacterial activity. The fatty acid profile of G. longissima revealed also an interesting composition in polyunsaturated fatty acids and in particular the ratio of ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids was >1 thus suggesting that this macroalga may be used as a natural source of ω3. Moreover, the 1H NMR spectrum in CDCl3 of algal lipid fraction shows the characteristic signals of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids as well as other metabolites. Interestingly, in the lipid extract the presence of polyhydroxybutyrate, a linear biodegradable and biocompatible polyester, was clearly identified by NMR spectroscopy. In conclusion, the lipidic extract of G. longissima on account of its antimicrobial activity, nutritional value and content in biodegradable and biocompatible polyester represents an interesting potential biotechnological resource. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Indexed keywords Analytical techniques; Anti-bacterial activity; Anti-microbial activity; Biocompatible polyesters; Characteristic signal; Chemical characterization; Fatty acid methyl ester; Fatty acid profiles; H NMR spectra; Lipid extract; Lipid fractions; Macro algae; Main component; Multidimensional NMR; Natural products; Natural sources; Nutritional value; Oleic acid methyl ester; Palmitic acid methyl esters; Polyhydroxybutyrate; Potential resources; Primary sources; Rhodophyta; Vibrio species Engineering controlled terms: Antibiotics; Biotechnology; Chemical analysis; Disease control; Esterification; Esters; Gas chromatography; Microorganisms; Monounsaturated fatty acids; Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Oleic acid; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Saturated fatty acids; Seaweed Engineering main heading: Palmitic acid EMTREE drug terms: algal extract; antibiotic agent; chloroform; fatty acid ester; Gracilariopsis longissima extract; monounsaturated fatty acid; oleic acid; oleic acid methyl ester; omega 3 fatty acid; omega 6 fatty acid; palmitic acid methyl ester; poly(3 hydroxybutyric acid); polyester; polyunsaturated fatty acid; saturated fatty acid; unclassified drug EMTREE medical terms: antibacterial activity; antibiotic resistance; antifungal activity; article; biotechnology; Candida; Candida albicans; candida famata; Candida glabrata; controlled study; Enterococcus; fish; gas chromatography; Gracilariopsis longissima; lipid analysis; lipid composition; metabolite; nonhuman; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; priority journal; proton nuclear magnetic resonance; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; seaweed; shellfish; signal transduction; Streptococcus agalactiae; Vibrio; Vibrio alginolyticus; Vibrio cholerae; Vibrio salmonicida; Vibrio vulnificus; vibriosis MeSH: Animals; Fatty Acids; Fish Diseases; Fishes; Gracilaria; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Plant Extracts; Seaweed; Shellfish; Vibrio; Vibrio Infections Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document.

Species Index: algae; Gracilariales; Gracilariopsis longissima; Rhodophyta; Vibrio Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: chloroform, 67-66-3; oleic acid, 112-80-1, 115-06-0; oleic acid methyl ester, 112-62-9; palmitic acid methyl ester, 112-39-0; poly(3 hydroxybutyric acid), 26063-003;Fatty Acids; Plant Extracts ISSN: 18716784Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2011.11.003 PubMed ID: 22100430Document Type: Article View in table layout References (58) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography Page

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Stabili, L.; Institute for Coastal Marine Environment (IAMC), CNR, U.O.S. Taranto, Talassografico A. Cerruti, Via Roma 3, 74100 Taranto, Italy; email:loredana.stabili@iamc.cnr.it © Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved. © MEDLINE® is the source for the MeSH terms of this document.

** Bioremediation of bacteria in aquaculture waste using the polychaete Sabella spallanzanii Stabili, L., Schirosi, R., Licciano, M., Mola, E., Giangrande, A. 2010 New Biotechnology 27 (6) , pp. 774-781 Stabili, L.ab , Schirosi, R.a, Licciano, M.a, Mola, E.c, Giangrande, A.a a Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Italy b Istituto per l'Ambiente Marino Costiero, Sezione di Taranto, CNR, Italy c Orovivo dell'Adriatico, Brindisi, Italy View references (39) Abstract The excessive release of bacterial pathogens from animal waste into the aquaculture environment has become a major concern for the aquaculture industry. The biological filtration by macroinvertebrates contributes to water purification as a result of the bacterioplankton removal from the water. The filterfeeder polychaete Sabella spallanzanii is known for its ability to accumulate bacteria from the marine environment. In the present study we evaluated the survival, growth and capability of this species to remove several bacterial groups from aquaculture waste in order to ascertain its employment as bioremediator in a farming scenario coupled with the conversion of the wastes into polychaete proteinrich biomass of potentially marketable value. In comparison to other technologies, the employment of S. spallanzanii in waste treatment represents a more attractive option to reduce bacterial loads. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Indexed keywords Animal wastes; Aquaculture industry; Bacterial load; Bacterial pathogens; Bacterioplanktons; Biological filtration; Macroinvertebrates; Marine environment; Sabella spallanzanii; Water purification Engineering controlled terms: Agricultural wastes; Aquaculture; Bacteriology; Biofiltration; Bioremediation; Ecology; Industrial waste treatment; Water filtration; Water supply Engineering main heading: Bacteria EMTREE medical terms: aquaculture; article; biomass; bioremediation; farming system; filter feeder; nonhuman; priority journal; Sabella spallanzanii; waste management

MeSH: Animals; Aquaculture; Bacteria; Bacterial Load; Biodegradation, Environmental; Biomass; Humans; Polychaeta; Seawater; Water Purification Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Species Index: Animalia; Bacteria (microorganisms); Polychaeta; Sabella spallanzanii ISSN: 18716784Source Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2010.06.018 PubMed ID: 20619371Document Type: Article View in table layout References (39) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography Page

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© Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved. © MEDLINE® is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. **

Bacterial accumulation by the Demospongiae Hymeniacidon perlevis: A tool for the bioremediation of polluted seawater Longo, C., Corriero, G., Licciano, M., Stabili, L. 2010 Marine Pollution Bulletin 60 (8) , pp. 1182-1187 Longo, C.a, Corriero, G.a, Licciano, M.b, Stabili, L.bc a Dipartimento di Biologia Animale ed Ambientale, Università di Bari, Via Orabona, 4-70125 Bari, Italy b Disteba, Università del Salento, Via Prov. le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy c IAMC, Sezione di Taranto-CNR, Via Roma, 3-70400 Taranto, Italy View references (64) Abstract Sponges can filter large amounts of water, which exerts an important grazing impact on free bacteria, an important component of the diet of sponges. We examined the accumulation of bacteria in the Demospongiae (Hymeniacidon perlevis). Analyses were performed on homogenates from unstarved and starved sponges in seawater from their sampling site (the Ionian Sea). Culturable heterotrophic bacteria (22°C), total culturable bacteria (37°C) and vibrios densities were measured on marine agar 2216, plate count agar and TCBS agar, respectively. Total and fecal coliforms, as well as fecal streptococci, were determined by the most probable number method (MPN). H. perlevis was able to accumulate all of the six microbiological groups. Bacterial groups differed in their resistance to digestion by H. perlevis. Our data suggest that H. perlevis may accumulate, remediate and metabolize bacteria and that they may be employed as a useful bioindicator and bioremediator. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Author keywords Filter-feeders; Hymeniacidon perlevis; Microbial pollution; Total coliforms; Water quality; Water selfpurification Indexed keywords Bioindicator; Culturable bacteria; Culturable heterotrophic bacteria; Fecal coliforms; Fecal streptococci; Filter-feeders; Ionian sea; Marine agars; Microbial pollution; Most probable number methods; Sampling site; Self-purification; Total coliforms Engineering controlled terms: Algae; Bacteriology; Bioremediation; Feeding; Polysaccharides; Purification; Seawater; Water quality Engineering main heading: Water pollution

EMTREE drug terms: sea water GEOBASE Subject Index: bioaccumulation; bioindicator; bioremediation; fecal coliform; filter feeder; microbiology; seawater; self purification; sponge; water pollution; water quality EMTREE medical terms: article; bacterial count; bacterial metabolism; bacterium culture; bioaccumulation; bioremediation; colony forming unit; controlled study; fecal coliform; heterotroph; nonhuman; plate count; sea pollution; sponge (Porifera); Streptococcus; temperature; tissue homogenate; Vibrio MeSH: Animals; Bacteria; Biodegradation, Environmental; Porifera; Seawater; Water Pollutants Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Species Index: Bacteria (microorganisms); Demospongiae; Hymeniacidon perlevis Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: Water Pollutants ISSN: 0025326X CODEN: MPNBASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.03.035 PubMed ID: 20434181Document Type: Article View in table layout References (64) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography

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** Declining amphibian populations and possible ecological consequences - A review

Mohneke, M., Rödel, M.-O. 2009 Salamandra 45 (4) , pp. 203-210 Mohneke, M. , Rödel, M.-O. Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity, Humboldt University Berlin, Invalidenstraße 43, 10115, Berlin, Germany View references (58) Abstract Amphibian declines likely result in measurable changes in aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Here, we concentrate on potential consequences of the loss of larval anurans for aquatic ecosystems. In rural savanna regions of West Africa, freshwater ecosystems are essential water resources for humans and cattle. Altering these ecosystems therefore may have important economic and health consequences. Prospective impacts on water chemistry, algae and aquatic invertebrate taxa are highlighted. © 2009 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Herpetologie und Terrarienkundee. V. (DGHT). Author keywords Amphibia; Anura; Decline; Ecosystem services; Freshwater; Hoplobatrachus occipitalis; Malaria; Tadpoles Indexed keywords Species Index: algae; Amphibia; Anura; Bos; Hoplobatrachus occipitalis; Invertebrata ISSN: 00363375Source Type: Journal Original language: English Document Type: Review View in table layout References (58) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography

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Rödel, M.-O.; Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity, Humboldt University Berlin, Invalidenstraße 43, 10115, Berlin, Germany; email:mo.roedel@mfnberlin.de © Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

**

Links between estuarine condition and spatial distributions of marine invaders Dafforn, K.A., Glasby, T.M., Johnston, E.L. 2009 Diversity and Distributions 15 (5) , pp. 807-821 Dafforn, K.A.a , Glasby, T.M.b, Johnston, E.L.a a Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia b New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Centre, Locked Bag 1, Nelson Bay, NSW 2315, Australia View references (115) Abstract Aim Non-indigenous species pose a significant threat to the environment and to global economies. Predictive and preventative measures are widely considered more effective in curtailing invasions than are eradication or control measures. Of key importance in the prediction of regional invasion risk are the environmental conditions that enable successful establishment. Location We surveyed native and nonindigenous sessile invertebrate diversity in each of two commercial (600-1500 vessels per year) and two recreational estuaries (seven to nine marinas) in New South Wales, Australia. Methods A nested hierarchical design was employed to investigate variation in sessile invertebrate diversity at the scales of site (1-3 km apart) and estuary (40-180 km apart). Settlement plates (15 × 15 cm) were used to sample invertebrates and background heavy metal loads were assessed using bioaccumulation in experimentally deployed oysters. Other physico-chemical variables were monitored monthly. Manipulative experiments were used to test the direct effects of exposure to copper and tributyltin (TBT) antifouling paints on sessile invertebrates. Results Native and non-indigenous species richness differed at various spatial scales, but showed no consistent difference between commercial and recreational estuaries. Instead, individual species distributions were strongly related to metal

contamination, temperature, turbidity and pH. In experimental studies, several species (mostly invaders) were more abundant on plates exposed to copper and/or TBT antifouling paints. We found higher levels of copper (and in some instances TBT) in recreational marinas than in commercial harbours. Main conclusions Our results demonstrate the importance of metal pollution and physico-chemical variables in the establishment of invaders in new regions. We have identified several native Australian species that have been exported overseas and suggested mechanisms contributing to their transport and establishment. Combining physico-chemical information about donor and recipient regions with species tolerances could go some way to predicting where future invasions may occur. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Author keywords Biological invasions; Copper; Fouling assemblage; Recreational vessel; Shipping; Tributyltin Indexed keywords GEOBASE Subject Index: antifouling; bioaccumulation; biological invasion; copper; environmental disturbance; estuarine environment; hierarchical system; invasive species; marine environment; physicochemical property; recreational activity; risk assessment; shipping; spatial distribution; tributyltin; vessel Species Index: Invertebrata; Ostreidae ISSN: 13669516 CODEN: DIDIFSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2009.00587.xDocument Type: Article View in table layout References (115) First 80 references displayed (View all references) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography

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First 80 references displayed (View all references) Dafforn, K. A.; Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia; email:k.dafforn@unsw.edu.au © Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., ** 12 Community and foodweb ecology of freshwater mussels Vaughn, C.C., Nichols, S.J., Spooner, D.E. 2008 Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27 (2) , pp. 409-423 Vaughn, C.C.a , Nichols, S.J.b , Spooner, D.E.cd a Department of Zoology, Graduate Program in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, United States b US Geological Survey, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, United States c Oklahoma Biological Survey, Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, United States d Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8, Canada

View additional affiliations View references (95) Abstract Freshwater mussel (Superfamily Unionoidea) communities are important components of food webs, and they link and influence multiple trophic levels. Mussels filter food from both the water column and sediment with riliated gills. Differences in cilia structure and arrangement might allow mussel species to partition food resources. Mussels are omnivores that feed across trophic levels on bacteria, algae, detritus, zooplankton, and perhaps, dissolved organic matter. Living mussels and their spent shells provide or improve habitat for other organisms by providing physical structure, stabilizing and bioturbating sediments, and influencing food availability directly and indirectly through biodeposition of organic matter and nutrient excretion. Effects of mussel communities on nutrient translocation and cycling depend on mussel abundance, species composition, and environmental conditions. Nutrientrelated mussel effects influence multiple trophic levels. Healthy mussel communities occur as multispecies assemblages in which species interactions are probably very important. Food limitation and competition among species have been documented, but so have positive species interactions, and rare species have been shown to benefit energetically from living in species-rich communities. Effects of mussel species on ecosystem services and food webs vary across spatial and temporal scales, and the relative importance of competition and facilitation might change at different scales. © 2008 by The North American Benthological Society. Author keywords Context-dependent effects; Feeding behavior; Nutrient cycling; Species interactions; Unionoidea Indexed keywords GEOBASE Subject Index: bioturbation; bivalve; community ecology; feeding behavior; food limitation; food web; interspecific competition; nutrient cycling; nutrient dynamics; omnivory Species Index: algae; Bacteria (microorganisms); Eukaryota; Unionoidea ISSN: 08873593 CODEN: JNASESource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1899/07-058.1Document Type: Review View in table layout References (95) First 80 references displayed (View all references) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography

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Vaughn, C. C.; Department of Zoology, Graduate Program in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, United States; email:cvaughn@ou.edu © Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., **

Evaluation of microbiological accumulation capability of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica (Schmidt) (Porifera, Demospongiae) Stabili, L., Licciano, M., Longo, C., Corriero, G., Mercurio, M. 2008 Water Research 42 (10-11) , pp. 2499-2506 Stabili, L.ab , Licciano, M.a, Longo, C.c, Corriero, G.c, Mercurio, M.c a Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, Università del Salento, Via Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy b Istituto per l'Ambiente Marino Costiero-Sezione di Taranto-CNR, Via Roma 3, 74100 Taranto, Italy c Dipartimento di Zoologia, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy View references (43) Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological accumulation capability of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica. Six microbiological parameters were researched in two sampling periods in the water and in reared sponge samples coming from sites with different degrees of microbial contamination: an off-shore fish farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Southern Adriatic Sea) and a noimpacted area displaced into the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Apulian coast-Ionian Sea). We detected the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 °C on Plate Count Agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total and fecal coliforms as well as fecal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. Bacterial densities were always higher in the sponge homogenates compared with the corresponding seawater in the sampling points and in both sampling periods. As regard vibrios, total culturable bacteria at 37 °C and fecal streptococci concentrations, the highest values were observed in the sponge samples coming from the off-shore fish farm during the summer period. The ability of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica to accumulate the microbial pollution indicators suggests that this species can be employed as a bioindicator for monitoring water quality. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Author keywords Apulian coasts; Bioindicator; Bioremediation; Culturable hererotrophic bacteria; Filter-feeding activity; Microbial pollution indicators; Spongia officinalis; Vibrios Indexed keywords

Engineering controlled terms: Biomarkers; Bioremediation; Contamination; Water analysis Engineering uncontrolled terms: Apulian coasts; Culturable hererotrophic bacteria; Filter-feeding activity; Microbial pollution indicators; Spongia officinalis Engineering main heading: Microbiology EMTREE drug terms: agar; biological marker; citric acid; sea water; sodium chloride; sucrose; thiosulfate; water Fluids engineering descriptors: Biomarkers; Bioremediation; Contamination; Microbiology; Water analysis GEOBASE Subject Index: accumulation; bioindicator; bioremediation; detection method; fecal coliform; heterotrophy; marine park; population density; sponge EMTREE medical terms: article; bacterium culture; bile; controlled study; fecal coliform; homogenate; microbial contamination; microbiological examination; nonhuman; parameter; pisciculture; pollution monitoring; population density; priority journal; sampling; seashore; sponge (Porifera); Streptococcus; summer; Vibrio; water contamination; water pollution indicator; water quality MeSH: Animals; Bacteria; Geography; Porifera; Temperature Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Regional Index: Adriatic Coast [Italy]; Eurasia; Europe; Italy; Lecce; Porto Cesareo; Puglia; Southern Europe Species Index: Bacteria (microorganisms); Demospongiae; Porifera; Spongia officinalis Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: agar, 9002-18-0; citric acid, 126-44-3, 5949-29-1, 77-92-9, 800214-0; sodium chloride, 7647-14-5; sucrose, 122880-25-5, 57-50-1; thiosulfate, 14383-50-7; water, 773218-5 ISSN: 00431354 CODEN: WATRASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2008.02.008 PubMed ID: 18325562Document Type: Article View in table layout References (43) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography Page

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Changes in the immune response and metabolic fingerprint of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus) in response to lowered salinity and physical stress Bussell, J.A., Gidman, E.A., Causton, D.R., Gwynn-Jones, D., Malham, S.K., Jones, M.L.M., Reynolds, B., Seed, R. 2008 Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 358 (1) , pp. 78-85 Bussell, J.A.a , Gidman, E.A.b, Causton, D.R.b, Gwynn-Jones, D.b, Malham, S.K.c, Jones, M.L.M.d, Reynolds, B.d, Seed, R.a a School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge, Anglesey LL59 5AB, United Kingdom b Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Trophic Interaction Facility, Aberystwyth University, Cledwyn Building, Ceredigion SY23 3DD, United Kingdom c Centre for Applied Marine Science, Marine Science Laboratories, Ynys Faelog, Menai Bridge, LL59 5AB, United Kingdom d Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Orton Building, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UP, United Kingdom View additional affiliations View references (50) Abstract Mussels, such as Mytilus edulis, are common keystone species on open coasts and in estuaries and are frequently used in environmental monitoring programmes. Mussels experience a wide range of environmental conditions at these locations, including rapid changes in salinity and physical disturbance (both natural and from aquaculture practices). This paper addressed the hypothesis that reduced salinity will lower mussel blood immune function and influence mussel blood metabolic responses, and that this will in turn increase the susceptibility of mussels to other stresses such as physical disturbance. To test these hypotheses, experiments were conducted in controlled laboratory tank conditions and mussel blood was analysed using a combination of metabolic fingerprinting with FT-IR and

immunological assay techniques. Reducing seawater salinity to half that of normal caused a significant reduction in several measures of immune function, including the concentration of haemocytes, percentage of eosinophilic haemocytes and phagocytosis. Mechanical shaking of mussels for 10 min caused a reduction in the level of respiratory burst activity. However, there was no evidence of additive or interactive effects of lowered salinity with shaking on the immune response. Analysis of mussel blood metabolic fingerprints revealed differences in response to half salinity (vs. full salinity) but there were no detectable effects of shaking. Increasing frequency and magnitude of flood events at coastal sites due to climate change could lead to longer, and more frequent, periods of reduced salinity. The potential impact on the immune function of this keystone species within or near estuaries could have knock-on effects on the wider ecosystem including altered nutrient cycling, changes in biodiversity and aquaculture production. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Author keywords Aquaculture; Climate change; Immune response; Mussel; Salinity; Stress Indexed keywords GEOBASE Subject Index: aquaculture; bivalve; climate change; environmental monitoring; immune response; keystone species; metabolism; physical disturbance; salinity; salinity tolerance Species Index: Mytilus edulis ISSN: 00220981 CODEN: JEMBASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2008.01.018Document Type: Article View in table layout References (50) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography

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Bussell, J.A.; School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Menai Bridge, Anglesey LL59 5AB, United Kingdom; email:j.bussell@bangor.ac.uk © Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved. **

Filter-feeder macroinvertebrates as key players in culturable bacteria biodiversity control: A case of study with Sabella spallanzanii (Polychaeta: Sabellidae) Licciano, M., Terlizzi, A., Giangrande, A., Cavallo, R.A., Stabili, L. 2007 Marine Environmental Research 64 (4) , pp. 504-513 Licciano, M.a , Terlizzi, A.a, Giangrande, A.a, Cavallo, R.A.b, Stabili, L.ab a Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali (DiSTeBA), Via Prov. Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy b Istituto per l'Ambiente Marino Costiero - Sezione, Taranto - CNR, Via Roma 3, 74100 Taranto, Italy View references (64) Abstract The present study investigates the effect of the filtering activity of Sabella spallanzanii on the culturable heterotrophic bacterial community through the comparison of the bacterial diversity in transplanted polychaetes and the surrounding seawater. For isolation of culturable heterotrophic bacteria, seawater samples as well as polychaete homogenates were plated in triplicates onto Bacto Marine Agar 2216 (Difco). All the colonies grown were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, biochemical and cultural methods. Some bacterial genera showed higher average abundances in polychaetes than in seawater (i.e. Lucibacterium and Photobacterium). Aeromonas represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community both in S. spallanzanii and seawater. The presence of Cytophaga and Pseudomonas was also relevant in the examined seawater samples. The selective concentrations of some bacterial genera inside S. spallanzanii either by grazing on bacteria or their capability as bacterial reservoirs, provides evidence for the role of macrobenthic invertebrates as key determinants for microbial diversity. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Author keywords Culturable heterotrophic bacteria; Diversity; Filter feeders; Mediterranean Sea; Polychaeta; Sabella spallanzanii Indexed keywords Engineering controlled terms: Biodiversity; Marine biology; Seawater Engineering uncontrolled terms: Culturable heterotrophic bacteria; Filter feeders; Polychaeta; Sabella spallanzanii

Engineering main heading: Bacteria EMTREE drug terms: sea water GEOBASE Subject Index: abundance; bacterium; biodiversity; filter feeder; macroinvertebrate; polychaete; seawater EMTREE medical terms: Aeromonas; article; bacterium; bacterium colony; bacterium culture; bacterium isolation; culture medium; Cytophaga; filter feeder; homogenate; Lucibacterium; macroinvertebrate; microbial diversity; nonhuman; Photobacterium; Polychaeta; Pseudomonas; Sabella spallanzanii; sampling MeSH: Animals; Bacteria; Biodiversity; Colony Count, Microbial; Feeding Behavior; Polychaeta; Seawater Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Regional Index: Mediterranean Sea Species Index: Aeromonas; Bacteria (microorganisms); Cytophaga; Invertebrata; Photobacterium; Polychaeta; Pseudomonas; Sabella spallanzanii; Sabellidae ISSN: 01411136 CODEN: MERSDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2007.04.004 PubMed ID: 17548107Document Type: Article View in table layout References (64) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography Page

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Aquatic zooremediation: deploying animals to remediate contaminated aquatic environments Gifford, S., Dunstan, R.H., O'Connor, W., Koller, C.E., MacFarlane, G.R. 2007 Trends in Biotechnology 25 (2) , pp. 60-65 Gifford, S.a, Dunstan, R.H.a, O'Connor, W.b, Koller, C.E.a, MacFarlane, G.R.a a School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia b NSW Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Centre, Private Bag 1 Nelson Bay, NSW 2315, Australia View references (46) Abstract The ability of animals to act in a bioremediative capacity is not widely known. Animals are rarely considered for bioremediation initiatives owing to ethical or human health concerns. Nonetheless, specific examples in the literature reveal that some animal species are effective remediators of heavy metals, microbial contaminants, hydrocarbons, nutrients and persistent organic pollutants, particularly in an aquatic environment. Recent examples include deploying pearl oysters to remove metals and nutrients from aquatic ecosystems and the harvest of fish to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the Baltic. It is probable that many animal taxa will possess attributes amenable to bioremediation.

We introduce zoological equivalents of the definitions used in phytoremediation literature (zooextraction, zootransformation, zoostabilization and animal hyperaccumulation), to serve as useful benchmarks in the evaluation of candidate animal species for zooremediation initiatives, and propose that recognition of the concept of zooremediation would act to stimulate discussion and future research in this area. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Indexed keywords Engineering controlled terms: Biodiversity; Ecosystems; Health care; Hydrocarbons; Marine biology; Nutrition; Polychlorinated biphenyls; Water pollution Engineering uncontrolled terms: Microbial contaminants; Phytoremediation; Zooextraction; Zooremediation; Zootransformation Engineering main heading: Bioremediation EMTREE drug terms: polychlorinated biphenyl EMTREE medical terms: aquatic environment; bioaccumulation; chlorination; ecosystem; molecular recognition; oyster; priority journal; review MeSH: Animals; Biodegradation, Environmental; Fresh Water; Metals, Heavy; Mollusca; Organic Chemicals; Porifera; Seawater; Terminology; Water Pollutants; Water Pollution Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Species Index: Animalia; Pinctada Chemicals and CAS Registry Numbers: Metals, Heavy; Organic Chemicals; Water Pollutants ISSN: 01677799 CODEN: TRBIDSource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2006.12.002 PubMed ID: 17173992Document Type: Review View in table layout References (46) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography

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Gifford, S.; School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia © Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved. © MEDLINE® is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. **

Filtering activity of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica (Schmidt) (Porifera, Demospongiae) on bacterioplankton: Implications for bioremediation of polluted seawater Stabili, L., Licciano, M., Giangrande, A., Longo, C., Mercurio, M., Marzano, C.N., Corriero, G. 2006 Water Research 40 (16) , pp. 3083-3090. Stabili, L.ab , Licciano, M.a, Giangrande, A.a, Longo, C.c, Mercurio, M.c, Marzano, C.N.c, Corriero, G.c a Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, Università di Lecce, Via Prov.le LecceMonteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy b Istituto per l'Ambiente Marino Costiero-Sezione di Taranto-CNR, via Roma, 3, 74100 Taranto, Italy c Dipartimento di Zoologia, Università di Bari, Via Orabona, 4, 70125 Bari, Italy View references (46) Abstract A study on the filtering activity has been carried out on reared specimens of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica coming from an off-shore farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Ionian Sea). The experience was carried out under laboratory conditions, by using natural seawater collected from the sponge environment. The study demonstrates a high efficiency of the sponge in removing bacteria. Bacterial concentration significantly decreases in presence of the sponge, with a marked drop after 2 h from the start of the experience. The maximum clearance rate was 210 ml h -1 g -1 DW at 60 min. Retention efficiency reached the highest value of 61% at 120 min. The bacterial density removed by the S. officinalis filtering activity was 12.3±1.8×10 4 cells ml -1 corresponding to a biomass of about 11.7±1.4 μg C l -1. The sponge fed preferentially large- and medium-size bacteria, whereas the small ones are fed after the removal of the largest size categories. The results obtained suggest that S. offcinalis is a suitable species for marine environmental bioremediation. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Author keywords Bacterioplankton; Bioremediation; Clearance rate; Filtering activity; Northern Ionian Sea; Retention efficiency; Spongia officinalis

Indexed keywords Bacterioplankton; Clearance rate; Filtering activity; Retention efficiency; Spongia officinalis Engineering controlled terms: Bacteria; Bioremediation; Environmental impact; Filtration; Seawater Engineering main heading: Marine pollution Fluids engineering descriptors: Bacteria; Bioremediation; Environmental impact; Filtration; Marine pollution; Seawater GEOBASE Subject Index: bacterioplankton; bioremediation; pollutant removal; water treatment EMTREE medical terms: article; bacterioplankton; biofiltration; biomass; bioremediation; clearance; controlled study; marine environment; Middle Pleistocene; nonhuman; priority journal; sea pollution; sponge (Porifera); statistical significance MeSH: Animals; Bacteria; Biodegradation, Environmental; Eating; Feeding Behavior; Plankton; Porifera; Seawater; Water Pollution Medline is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. Regional Index: Eurasia; Europe; Ionian Sea; Italy; Mediterranean Sea; Puglia; Southern Europe Species Index: Bacteria (microorganisms); Demospongiae; Porifera; Spongia officinalis ISSN: 00431354 CODEN: WATRASource Type: Journal Original language: English DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2006.06.012 PubMed ID: 16884759Document Type: Article View in table layout References (46) Page Export Print E-mail Create bibliography

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Stabili, L.; Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, Università di Lecce, Via Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy; email:loredana.stabili@iamc.cnr.it © Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved. © MEDLINE® is the source for the MeSH terms of this document. **

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