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COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEM ENGINEERING ECC 3108 ELECTROMAGNETICS WAVE TITLE: X-RAY

Group Member LEE HONG KEN CHUN PUI HAN NG YONG ANN

Matric Number 163663 161416 161207

Abstract
Resonant (elastic) soft x-ray scattering (RSXS) offers a unique element, site and valence specific probe to study spatial modulations of charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom in solids on the nanoscopic length scale. It is not only used to investigate single-crystalline materials. This method also enables one to examine electronic ordering phenomena in thin films and to zoom into electronic properties emerging at buried interfaces in artificial heterostructures. During the last 20 years, this technique, which combines x-ray scattering with x-ray absorption spectroscopy, has developed into a powerful probe to study electronic ordering phenomena in complex materials and furthermore delivers important information on the electronic structure of condensed matter. This review provides an introduction to the technique, covers the progress in experimental equipment, and gives a survey on recent RSXS studies of ordering in correlated electron systems and at interfaces.

Introduction
X-rays were first observed and documented in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Rntgen, a German scientist who found them quite by accident when experimenting with vacuum tubes. A week later, he took an X-ray photograph of his wife's hand which clearly revealed her wedding ring and her bones. The photograph electrified the general public and aroused great scientific interest in the new form ofradiation. Rntgen called it "X" to indicate it was an unknown type of radiation. The name stuck, although (over Rntgen's objections), many of his colleagues suggested calling them Rntgen rays. They are still occasionally referred to as Rntgen rays in Germanspeaking countries. X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays have a wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometer corresponding to frequenciesin the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (31016 Hz to 31019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. The wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and longer than of gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is called Rntgen radiation, after Wilhelm Rntgen, who is usually credited as its discoverer, and who had named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation. Spelling of X-ray(s) in the English language includes the variants x-ray(s) and X ray(s).X-rays with photon energies above 5-10 keV (below 0.2-0.1 nm wavelength) are called hard X-rays, while those with lower energy are called soft X-rays. Due to their penetrating ability hard X-rays are widely used to image the inside of objects, e.g. in medical radiography and airport security. As a result, the term X-ray is metonymically used to refer to a radiographic image produced using this method, in addition to the method itself. Since the wavelengths of hard X-rays are similar to the

size of atoms they are also useful for determining crystal structures by X-ray crystallography. By contrast, soft X-rays are easily absorbed in air and the attenuation length of 600 eV (~2 nm) X-rays in water is less than 1 micro meter. The distinction between X-rays and gamma rays is not universal. One often sees the two types of radiation separated by their origin: X-rays are emitted by electrons, while gamma rays are emitted by the atomic nucleus. An alternative method for distinguishing between X- and gamma radiation is on the basis of wavelength, with radiation shorter than some arbitrary wavelength, such as 1011 m, defined as gamma rays. These definitions usually coincide since the electromagnetic radiation emitted by X-ray tubes generally has a longer wavelength and lower photon energy than the radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei. The properties of X-ray are X-ray photons carry enough energy to ionize atoms and disrupt molecular bonds. This makes it a type of ionizing radiation and thereby harmful to living tissue. A very high radiation dose over a short amount of time causes radiation sickness, while lower doses can give an increased risk of radiation-induced cancer. In medical imaging this increased cancer risk is generally greatly outweighed by the benefits of the examination. The ionizing capability of X-rays can be utilized in cancer treatment tom kill malignant cells using radiation therapy.It is also used for material characterization using X-ray spectroscopy. Attenuation length of X-rays in water showing the oxygen absorption edge at 540 eV, the energy-3dependence of photoabsorption, as well as a leveling off at higher photon energies due to Compton scattering. The attenuation length is about four orders of magnitude higher for hard X-rays (right half) compared to soft X-rays (left half). Hard X-rays can traverse relatively thick objects without being much absorbed or scattered. For this reason X-rays are widely used to image the inside of visually opaque objects. The most often seen applications are in medical radiography and airport security scanners, but similar techniques are also important in industry (e.g. industrial radiography and industrial CT scanning) and research (e.g. small animal CT). The penetration depth varies with several orders of magnitude over the X-ray spectrum. This allows the photon energy to be adjusted for the application so as to give sufficient transmission through the object and at the same time good contrast in the image. X-rays have much shorter wavelength than visible light, which makes it possible to probe structures much smaller than what can be seen using a normal microscope. This can be used in X-ray microscopy to acquire high resolution images, but also in X-ray crystallography to determine the positions of atoms in crystals. X-rays interact with matter in three main ways, through photoabsorption, Compton scattering, and Rayleigh scattering. The strength of these interactions depend on the energy of the X-rays and the elemental composition of the material, but not much on chemical properties since the X-ray photon energy is much higher than chemical binding energies. Photoabsorption or

photoelectric absorption is the dominant interaction mechanism in the soft X-ray regime and for the lower hard X-ray energies. At higher energies the compton effect dominates. Furthermore the probability of a photoelectric absorption per unit mass is approximately proportional to Z3/E3, where Z is the atomic number and E is the energy of the incident photon. This rule is not valid close to inner shell electron binding energies where there are abrupt changes in interaction probability, so called absorption edges. However, the general trend of high absorption coefficients and thus short penetration depths for low photon energies and high atomic numbers is very strong. For soft tissue photoabsorption dominates up to about 26 keV photon energy where Compton scattering takes over. For higher atomic number substances this limit is higher. The high amount of calcium (Z=20) in bones together with their high density is what makes them show up so clearly on medical radiographs. A photoabsorbed photon transfers all its energy to the electron with which it interacts, thus ionizing the atom to which the electron was bound and producing a photoelectron that is likely to ionize more atoms in its path. An outer electron will fill the vacant electron position and the produce either a characteristic photon or an Auger electron. These effects can be used for elemental detection through X-ray spectroscopy or Auger electron spectroscopy. Moreover compton scattering is the predominant interaction between X-rays and soft tissue in medical imaging. Compton scattering is an inelastic scattering of the X-ray photon by an outer shell electron. Part of the energy of the photon is transferred to the scattering electron, thereby ionizing the atom and increasing the wavelength of the X-ray. The scattered photon can go in any direction, but a direction similar to the original direction is a bit more likely, especially for high-energy X-rays. The probability for different scattering angles are described by the KleinNishina formula. The transferred energy can be directly obtained from the scattering angle from the conservation of energy and momentum.

Methodology
Rayleigh scattering is the dominant elastic scattering mechanism in the X-ray regime. The inelastic forward scattering is what gives rise to the refractive index, which for Xrays is only slightly below 1. Since X-rays are emitted by electrons, they can be generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity. The high velocity electrons collide with a metal target, the anode, creating the X-rays. In medical X-ray tubes the target is usually tungsten or a more crack-resistant alloy of rhenium (5%) and tungsten (95%), but sometimes molybdenum for more specialized applications, such as when softer X-rays are needed as in mammography. In crystallography,

a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem.The maximum energy of the produced X-ray photon is limited by the energy of the incident electron, which is equal to the voltage on the tube times the electron charge, so an 80 kV tube cannot create X-rays with an energy greater than 80 keV. When the electrons hit the target, X-rays are created by two different atomic processes. X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. This process produces an emission spectrum of X-rays at a few discrete frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines. The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines. Usually these are transitions from upper shells into K shell (called K lines), into L shell (called L lines) and so on. Bremsstrahlung: This is radiation given off by the electrons as they are scattered by the strong electric field near the high-Z (proton number) nuclei. These X-rays have a continuous spectrum. The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube.So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines. The voltages used in diagnostic X-ray tubes range from roughly 20 to 150 kV and thus the highest energies of the X-ray photons range from roughly 20 to 150 keV. Both of these X-ray production processes are inefficient, with a production efficiency of only about one percent, and hence, to produce a usable flux of X-rays, most of the electric power consumed by the tube is released as waste heat. The X-ray tube must be designed to dissipate this excess heat. Short nanosecond bursts of X-rays peaking at 15-keV in energy may be reliably produced by peeling pressure-sensitive adhesive tape from its backing in a moderate vacuum.

Result
Result of recombination of electrical charges produced by triboelectric charging. The intensity of X-ray triboluminescence is sufficient for it to be used as a source for Xray imaging. Using sources considerably more advanced than sticky tape, at least one startup firm is exploiting tribocharging in the development of highly portable, ultraminiaturized X-ray devices. A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators. Its unique features are X-ray outputs many orders of magnitude greater than those of X-ray tubes, wide X-ray spectra, excellent collimation, and linear polarization. X-ray

detectors vary in shape and function depending on their purpose. Imaging detectors such as those used for radiography were originally based onphotographic plates and later photographic film but are now mostly replaced by various digital detector types such as image plates or flat panel detectors. Forradiation protection direct exposure hazard is often evaluated using ionization chambers, while dosimeters are used to measure the radiation dose a person has been exposed to. X-ray spectra can be measured either by energy dispersive or wavelength dispersive spectrometers. Medical use since Rntgen's discovery that X-rays can identify bone structures, Xrays have been used for medical imaging. The first medical use was less than a month after his paper on the subject. In 2010, 5 billion medical imaging studies were done worldwide. Radiation exposure from medical imaging in 2006 made up about 50% of total ionizing radiation exposure in the United States. On the hand, A radiograph is an X-ray image obtained by placing a part of the patient in front of an X-ray detector and then illuminating it with a short X-ray pulse. Bones contain much calcium, which due to its relatively high atomic number absorbes x-rays efficiently. This reduces the amount of X-rays reaching the detector in the shadow of the bones, making them clearly visible on the radiograph. The lungs and trapped gas also show up clearly because of lower absorption compared to tissue, while differences between tissue types are harder to see. Radiographs are useful in the detection of pathology of the skeletal system as well as for detecting some disease processes in soft tissue. Some notable examples are the very common chest X-ray, which can be used to identify lung diseases such as pneumonia, lung cancer or pulmonary edema, and the abdominal x-ray, which can detect bowel (or intestinal) obstruction, free air (from visceral perforations) and free fluid (in ascites). X-rays may also be used to detect pathology such as gallstones (which are rarely radiopaque) or kidney stones which are often (but not always) visible. Traditional plain X-rays are less useful in the imaging of soft tissues such as the brain or muscle. Dental radiography is commonly used in the diagnoses of common oral problems, such as cavities. In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the radiation dose without contributing to the image. Hence, a thin metal sheet, often of aluminium, called an X-ray filter, is usually placed over the window of the X-ray tube, absorbing the low energy part in the spectrum. This is called hardening the beam since it shifts the center of the spectrum towards higher energy (or harder) x-rays. To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest. A second image is then taken of the same region after an iodinated contrast agent has been injected into the blood vessels within this area. These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels. The radiologist or surgeon then compares the

image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel. Furthermore, Head CT scan (transverse plane) slice - a modern application of medical radiography Computed tomography (CT scanning) is a medical imaging modality where tomographic images or slices of specific areas of the body are obtained from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken in different directions. These cross-sectional images can be combined into a threedimensional image of the inside of the body and used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines. Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique commonly used by physicians or radiation therapists to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of a patient through the use of a fluoroscope. In its simplest form, a fluoroscope consists of an X-ray source and fluorescent screen between which a patient is placed. However, modern fluoroscopes couple the screen to an X-ray image intensifier and CCD video camera allowing the images to be recorded and played on a monitor. This method may use a contrast material. Examples include cardiac catheterization (to examine for coronary artery blockages) and barium swallow (to examine foresophageal disorders). The use of X-rays as a treatment is known as radiation therapy and is largely used for the management (including palliation) of cancer; it requires higher radiation energies than for imaging alone. Abdominal radiograph of a pregnant woman, a procedure that should be performed only after proper assessment of benefit versus risk Diagnostic X-rays (primarily from CT scans due to the large dose used) increase the risk of developmental problems and cancer in those exposed. X rays are classified as a carcinogen by both the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer and the U.S. government. It is estimated that 0.4% of current cancers in the United States are due tocomputed tomography (CT scans) performed in the past and that this may increase to as high as 1.5-2% with 2007 rates of CT usage. Experimental and epidemiological data currently do not support the proposition that there is a threshold dose of radiation below which there is no increased risk of cancer. However, this is under increasing doubt. It is estimated that the additional radiation will increase a person's cumulative risk of getting cancer by age 75 by 0.6 1.8%. The amount of absorbed radiation depends upon the type of X-ray test and the body part involved. CT and fluoroscopy entail higher doses of radiation than do plain X-rays. To place the increased risk in perspective, a plain chest X-ray will expose a person to the same amount from background radiation that we are exposed to (depending upon location) every day over 10 days, while exposure from a dental X-ray is approximately equivalent to 1 day of environmental background radiation. Each such X-ray would add less than 1 per 1,000,000 to the lifetime cancer risk. An abdominal or chest CT would be the equivalent to 23 years of background radiation to the whole body, or 45 years to the abdomen or chest, increasing the lifetime cancer risk

between 1 per 1,000 to 1 per 10,000. This is compared to the roughly 40% chance of a US citizen developing cancer during their lifetime. For instance, the effective dose to the torso from a CT scan of the chest is about 5 mSv, and the absorbed dose is about 14 mGy. A head CT scan (1.5mSv, 64mGy) that is performed once with and once without contrast agent, would be equivalent to 40 years of background radiation to the head. Accurate estimation of effective doses due to CT is difficult with the estimation uncertainty range of about 19% to 32% for adult head scans depending upon the method used. The risk of radiation is greater to unborn babies, so in pregnant patients, the benefits of the investigation (X-ray) should be balanced with the potential hazards to the unborn fetus. In the US, there are an estimated 62 million CT scans performed annually, including more than 4 million on children. Avoiding unnecessary X-rays (especially CT scans) will reduce radiation dose and any associated cancer risk. Medical X-rays are a significant source of man-made radiation exposure. In 1987, they accounted for 58% of exposure from man-made sources in the United States. Since man-made sources accounted for only 18% of the total radiation exposure, most of which came from natural sources (82%), medical X-rays only accounted for 10% of total American radiation exposure; medical procedures as a whole (including nuclear medicine) accounted for 14% of total radiation exposure. By 2006, however, medical procedures in the United States were contributing much more ionizing radiation than was the case in the early 1980s. In 2006, medical exposure constituted nearly half of the total radiation exposure of the U.S. population from all sources. The increase is traceable to the growth in the use of medical imaging procedures, in particular computed tomography (CT), and to the growth in the use of nuclear medicine. Dosage due to dental X-rays varies significantly depending on the procedure and the technology (film or digital). Depending on the procedure and the technology, a single dental X-ray of a human results in an exposure of 0.5 to 4 mrem. A full mouth series may therefore result in an exposure of up to 6 (digital) to 18 (film) mrem, for a yearly average of up to 40 mrem. Engineering is the application of scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge in order to design, build, and maintain structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes. It may encompass using insights to conceive, model and scale an appropriate solution to a problem or objective. The discipline of engineering is extremely broad, and encompasses a range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of technology and types of application.

Why is sustainable design important in engineering particularly for EM application?


Sustainable design (also called environmental design, environmentally sustainable design, environmentally conscious design, etc.) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability. The sustainable design importance in prepares students for careers in planning, designing, building and operating sustainable buildings and infrastructure to maximize their life-cycle economic value, their net contribution to environmental functions and services, and their social equity. Creating a sustainable world that provides a safe, secure, healthy, productive, and sustainable life for all peoples should be a priority for the engineering profession. Engineers have an obligation to meet the basic needs of all humans for water, sanitation, food, health, and energy, as well as to protect cultural and natural diversity. Improving the lives of the five billion people whose main concern is staying alive each day is no longer an option; it is an obligation. Educating engineers to become facilitators of sustainable development, appropriate technology, and social and economic changes represents one of the greatest challenges faced by the engineering profession today. Meeting that challenge may provide a unique opportunity for renewing the leadership of the U.S. engineering profession as we enter the twentyfirst century. Electromagnetics radiation spans across Gamma rays to Radio waves. The wave nature of electromagnetics allows us to spread the learning from one type of wave physics to other. Solution to Maxwell equation is the foundation to solve electromagnetic problems. Electromagnetic wave interaction with structure also changes as function of wavelength to interacting feature size. This phenomenon is used to solve electromagnetic equations with appropriate approximation for solving real life problems. The interaction physics of the solar electromagnetic waves with engineering structure depends on the size. The ray optics governs most of the physics. We do specialize on interference, diffractive, photonic and meta interactions also. We offer, Static, transient, harmonic and Eigen frequency electromagnetic simulations. The various type of electromagnetic simulations offered by ATOAST include Ray tracing, Electro and magneto statics, Conductive media DC, low frequency electromagnetics and Electromagnetic wave propagation. The electromagnetic static services are targeted towards, Electric Motors, Generators, circuit breakers, Induction/ RF/ Dielectric heating applications development. The electromagnetic wave propagation simulations are aimed to solve problems related to Antennas Waveguide and resonator, Optical fibers, Photonic structures and Transmission lines. Simulation services for Material design for higher electrical

conductivity, ultra low dielectricity is also on offer. Optimal Material with high thermal conductivity combined with low electrical insulation design is also possible. Electromagnetic Metamaterials for engineering unusual properties is latest offering from our Research and innovation. Solar energy is the universal Energy source. We have dedicated design team to simulate and predict the interaction of solar spectrum with engineering applications. The solar transmission, absorption, reflection, concentration, secondary heat transfer properties are predicted for maximizing the efficiency,

Examples of new technology that demonstrate sustainability concept


The optical spectrum of electromagnetic shows us what we see, hence, ATOAST offers services related to photometric performance simulations. Contract Research on the engineered surfaces for functional optical surfaces, Photonic band gaps, meta surfaces, interference and diffraction effects is also on offer. Engineers of the future must be trained to make intelligent decisions that protect and enhance the quality of life on Earth rather than endangering it. They must also make decisions in a professional environment in which they will have to interact with people from both technical and nontechnical disciplines. Preparing engineers to become facilitators of sustainable development, appropriate technology, and social and economic changes is one of the greatest challenges faced by the engineering profession today. Meeting that challenge may provide a unique opportunity for renewing leadership of the U.S. engineering profession as we enter the twenty-first century.Earth Systems Engineering, in the past five years, a new, promising concept called earth systems engineering (ESE) has emerged as an alternative to the usual way engineering has looked at the world. ESE acknowledges the complexity of world problems and encourages the use of more holistic and systemic tools to address interactions between the anthrosphere (i.e., the part of the environment made and modified by humans and used for their activities) and natural and cultural systems. In 1998, Allenby (1998) introduced the concept of ESE with reference to industrial ecology. The latter is defined as "the multidisciplinary study of industrial systems and economic activities, and their links to fundamental natural systems" (Allenby, 1999). First proposed in Japan in 1970, industrial ecology was brought to the attention of people in the United States in the late 1980s and 1990s through several studies by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) on the relationship between engineering and ecological systems. Industrial ecology was also the subject of two Gordon Conferences in 1998 and 2000 at Colby-Sawyer College in New London, New Hampshire. The success of industrial ecology, along with the recommendations in Our Common Journey, a report prepared

by the National Research Council Board on Sustainable Development (NRC, 1999), motivated NAE to organize a one-day meeting on ESE on October 24, 2000 (NAE, 2002). In that meeting, and in the exploratory workshop that preceded it, the following working definition of ESE was adopted: ESE is a multidisciplinary (engineering, science, social science, and governance) process of solution development that takes a holistic view of natural and human system interactions. The goal of ESE is to better understand complex, nonlinear systems of global importance and to develop the tools necessary to implement that understanding. ESE acknowledges that, so far, humans have demonstrated a limited understanding of the dynamic interactions between natural and human (non-natural) systems. This is partly attributable to the complexity of the problems at stake. On one hand, natural systems are traditionally nonlinear, chaotic, and open dissipative systems characterized by interconnectedness and self-organization. Small changes in parts of natural systems can have a big impact on their response to disturbances. On the other hand, human (anthropogenic) systems are based on a more predictable Cartesian mindset. Understanding the relationship between natural and non-natural systems remains a challenge. We do not yet have the tools and metrics to comprehend and quantify complex systems and their interactions. According to Dietrich Drner (1996), this is one of the many reasons technology often fails. Other reasons cited by Drner include the slowness of human thinking in absorbing new material and human self-protection through control. According to Drner: "We have been turned loose in the industrial age equipped with the brain of prehistoric times."

The impact of engineering solutions in societal, cultural, global and environmental context
In 2001, I co-organized a three-day workshop at the University of Colorado at Boulder on ESE sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The workshop brought together about 90 industry, government, and university participants from engineering, physical sciences, biological sciences, and social sciences. The overall goals of the workshop were to provide an intellectual framework for interdisciplinary exchange, to make recommendations for changes to engineering education, research, and practice that would further the understanding of the interactions between natural and non-natural systems at multiple scales, from local to regional and global; and to create a plan of action to implement the recommendations. More specifically, the workshop addressed the interactions of natural systems with the built environment. The workshop participants unanimously adopted the following definition of the

"engineer of the future": The engineer of the future applies scientific analysis and holistic synthesis to develop sustainable solutions that integrate social, environmental, cultural, and economic systems.The workshop participants also recommended the adoption of a transformative model of engineering education and practice for the twenty-first century that (University of Colorado, 2001):unleashes the human mind and spirit for creativity and compassion, expands engineers? professional and personal commitments to include both technical and nontechnical disciplines ,inspires engineers to embrace the principles of sustainable development, renewable resources management, appropriate technology, and systems thinking and prepares engineers for social, economic, and environmental stewardships.Since 2001, ESE has been endorsed as a major initiative in the College of Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. An example of the application of ESE to engineering for the developing world is presented below. For Engineering for Developing, Communities Engineering schools in the United States do not usually address the needs of the most destitute people on our planet, many of them living in industrialized countries (including the United States). This is unfortunate because the needs of the developing world for engineering solutions are likely to increase as population grows. How can engineers in the industrialized world contribute to the relief of the hunger, exploitation, injustice, and pain of people trying to survive day by day? How can they contribute to meeting the United Nations "Millennium Development Goals" (United Nations Development Programme, 2003; World Bank, 2003; World Federation of Engineering Organizations, 2002)? Clearly, we need to train a new generation of engineers to meet the challenges and needs of the developing world. The College of Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder has started a new program called the Engineering for Developing Communities (EDC) Program (www.edccu.org). The overall mission of the program is to educate globally responsible students who can offer sustainable, appropriate technology solutions to the endemic problems of developing communities worldwide (including the United States). The proposed interdisciplinary program, which involves both engineering and nonengineering disciplines, is offered to engineering students interested in community service and international development. The program is being developed in partnership with a wide range of academic and nonacademic groups in the United States and developing countries to address a wide range of issues, such as water provisioning and purification, sanitation, health, power production, shelter, site planning, infrastructure, food production and distribution, communication, and jobs and capital for developing communities, including villages, and refugee settlements. Finally, the three components of the program are: outreach and service; research and development; and education. Outreach and Service The outreach and service component of the EDC Program was launched in fall 2001 with a national initiative, Engineers Without

Borders. This new activity was created as a follow-up to fieldwork in May 2001, when I took 10 undergraduate students from the Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering to help with the construction of a water distribution system for a small Mayan village in southern Belize.The work in Belize led to the creation of a nonprofit 501(c)(3) tax-exempt corporation, called Engineers Without BordersTM-USA (www.ewb-usa.org). In general, the purposes of EWB-USA are (1) to help disadvantaged communities improve their quality of life through implementation of environmentally and economically sustainable engineering projects, and (2) to develop internationally responsible engineering students. Projects are initiated by, and completed with, contributions from the host communities, which are then trained to operate the systems without external assistance. The projects are carried out by groups of engineering students under the supervision of professional engineers and faculty. The students select a project and go through all phases of conceptual design, analysis, and construction during the school year; implementation is done during academic breaks and summer months. EWB-USA has about 50 projects in 22 different countries. In 2003 alone, more than 50 students from U.S. schools were involved in projects in Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Thailand, Haiti, Belize, Nicaragua, Afghanistan, and Peru. The EWB-USA model of education goes beyond traditional service-learning concepts and models in engineering (Tsang, 2000). By involving students in all steps of the projects and through experiential learning, students become more aware of the social, economic, environmental, political, ethical, and cultural impacts of engineering projects. EWB-USA is a member of Engineers Without Borders-International (www.ewb-international.org), a network of likeminded humanitarian organizations that transcends national borders. As of April 2004, the EWB-International network includes 24 groups around the world. Research and Development The field work conducted by EWB-USA has revealed an urgent need for appropriate technologies specific to the developing world. An "appropriate technology" is usually characterized as small scale, energy efficient, environmentally sound, labor-intensive, and controlled by the local community. It must be simple enough to be maintained by the people who use it. In short, it must match the user and the need in complexity and scale and must be designed to foster self-reliance, cooperation, and responsibility (Hazeltine and Bull, 1999; Schumacher, 1989). Because appropriate technology is often perceived as "low tech" and unimportant, it is not usually addressed in engineering education or university research. Studies by the World Bank and the United Nations have shown, however, that appropriate technology is critical to bringing more than three billion people out of poverty. To respond to the need for research and development in appropriate technology, a Center for Appropriate and Sustainable Technology (CU-CAST) is under development in the College of Engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The center has three

goals: (1) to provide a university research environment where teams of undergraduate and graduate students can work under the supervision of faculty and professional engineers; (2) to foster the innovation, development, and testing of technologies that can be used to address water, sanitation, energy, shelter, and health issues in the developing world; and (3) to provide services in database development and maintenance; the testing and improvement of existing technologies; technology transfer; and education and training. Examples of ongoing studies by students and faculty include: prototype rope pumps for water wells and ram pumps; pesticide removal during basic treatment of drinking water; attenuation of pathogens from latrines to nearby water sources; phytoremediation affects on wastewater treatment; thin-shell acrylic concrete roofing; solar pasteurization, cooling, heating, cooking, and pumping; production of biofuel and biomass; and earthenware cooling techniques for storage of food and vaccines. In Education, The EDC Program brings together courses in engineering, sustainability, appropriate technology, renewable energy, international education and development, business, and various fields of humanities and provides an opportunity for undergraduate students in engineering to enroll in a regular program of study in the College of Engineering and, at the same time, take some of their socio-humanities electives, technical electives, and independent study classes in courses emphasizing engineering for developing communities. The success of EWB convinced me that we need new engineering courses to provide students with better tools and skills for work in the developing world. Students are asked to create, design, and construct appropriate technological systems, processes, and devices for a variety of settings associated with the developing world. Examples include: production of biodiesel; production of biomass from bananas; generation of electricity using water turbines; heating of water for refugee camps; water filtration systems; solar-powered refrigeration; and solar-powered water pumping. The educational component of the EDC Program also includes continuing education and training for U.S. engineers and foreign personnel in international development and capacity building. The EDC Program sponsors and organizes workshops and conferences, bringing world experts and leaders to the University of Colorado at Boulder for discussions and sharing of research and applications in areas dealing with the developing world. For instance, last year, the EDC Program co-organized Sustainable Resources 2003: Solutions to World Poverty, which was attended by about 800 participants from 44 different countries. Engineering solutions have always had a major impact on society. In some cases this impact has been clearly positive, such as in the case of house appliances and water purification. In some cases the impact has been negative, as in the case of bombs with ever-increasing destructive power. Finally, in some cases the impact of engineering products has been both positive and negative, as in the case of the automobile. For the most part engineers have always given the proper attention to the

safety and cost of their products, two aspects that impact all users of engineering products and therefore society as a whole. More recently, engineers have also become more sensitive regarding the environmental impact of their products. On the other hand, there have been many cases where the engineers involved in the creation of a particular solution, constrained with a limited view of the situation they were trying to address, were not aware or could not possibly imagine the impact their product would later have on the society as a whole (ex. CFCs which caused destruction of the ozone layer or the atomic bomb). In the era of market and work-force globalization engineers need to have a solid understanding of the impact their products will have locally as well as globally sothey can make a sound evaluation of the pros and cons. The American Society for Engineering Education expresses the need for this global and societal perspective as follows: Engineering colleges must not only provide their graduates with intellectual development and superb technical capabilities, but, following industrys lead, they must educate their students to work as part of teams, communicate well, and understand the economic, social, environmental, and international context of their professional activities.. Moreover, the US Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) recently put a new spin on this requirement in engineering education. Specifically, outcome 3h of Engineering Criteria 2000 states that engineering programs must demonstrate their graduates have the broad education to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global / societal context. This outcome may be one of the most difficult to truly achieve since it requires not only a strong technical understanding but also an informed societal and historical perspective that is particularly difficult to achieve in curricula with few liberal arts courses.There are numerous examples of engineering projects that have a major effect on society that illustrate this need. While hydroelectric power results in no pollution or greenhouse gas emissions, students must be encouraged to examine the greater environmental and social ramifications of creating a new dam in a community. For example, people may be displaced and farmland and cultural sites flooded. Negative environmental impacts may include ponding and eutrophication, and the fish population may be adversely affected. On the other hand, new dams may help control flooding. Many articles have recently been published about the expected positive and negative effects of the Three Gorges Dam project on the Yangtze River in China, which is displacing over a million people ME111 Fluid Mechanics Fluid mechanics is a junior level course required for aerospace, mechanical and civil engineers. In the most recent offerings of the course, one group wrote about oscillating water columns in the worlds oceans as a renewable source of energy. In November 2003, the first commercial wave-power station went into service at the Scottish island Islay generating a peak power of 500 kW, enough to run about 400 island homes. A schematic of this station is shown in Figure 1. Some research

suggests that less than 0.1% of the renewable energy within the worlds oceans could supply more than five times the global demand for energy, if it could be economically harvested . 1: Wave capture chamber set into rock face 2: Tidal power forces water into chamber 3: Air alternately compressed and decompressed by oscillating water column 4: Rushes of air drive the turbile, creating power. Schematic of the Islay wave power station. Some global/societal issues that students address include the global impact of waste water, down and drag force in automobiles, water flow in fire systems, and hydroelectric power generation. The thermodynamics course is favourable for introducing and discussing the global and societal impacts of engineering solutions not only because of the relevance of this topic but also its place in our curriculum. Therefore have an understanding of the basic analysis techniques and tools used in the field and are poised to not only learn more specific and advanced analysis techniques but also to evaluate issues in a broader context. Various applications of thermodynamics and their global and societal impacts are discussed in the lectures concurrent with the relevant technical theory throughout the semester. Examples of these applications are Use of CFCs. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds used to be commonly used as refrigerants in refrigeration and air conditioning applications. Upon discovery that CFCs results in destruction of the ozone layer that protects us from harmful ultraviolet radiation, a ban was instituted, and less harmful refrigerants developed, such as R-134a. The Montreal Protocol, which was the initial global meeting to phase out the use of CFCs, is discussed along with temporary problems that arose in Europe when they tried to phase out the use of CFCs on a very fast schedule. Engineering opportunities that have resulted from new governmental standards are raised in class. Recent measurements have shown that the ozone hole over the polar caps has been decreasing as a result of the ban.Global warming. Global warming is an adverse consequence of an overabundance of carbon dioxide (and other gases) in our atmosphere, which is produced primarily by the burning of hydrocarbon fuels. Products of combustion and their consequences are discussed with the Rankine, Brayton, Otto and diesel power cycles. An overview of competing scientific theories is presented along with scientific and economic challenges that have been raised. The views of the most recent presidential candidates are presented, and in class the students discuss whether or not the United States should sign the Kyoto Protocol, legislating a reduction in these greenhouse gases. Some links giving an overview of the Protocol as well as arguments for and against the United States signing it can be found at Pollution. Air and water pollution is an unfortunate consequence of many industrial applications including energy generation and transportation. Combustion byproducts responsible for acid rain and smog are discussed as well as thermal and radiation pollution from nuclear power sources. A photograph documenting the effects of acid. Aerodynamics is a junior level course following fluid mechanics. In

the most recent offering of the course, students presented the following applications, which bring to light a variety of economic, environmental and safety issues: Formation flying: The added lift and reduced drag experienced when airplanes fly in formation can save fuel, boost range and cut pollution emissions. Flight tests have demonstrated up to 20% drag reduction, resulting in an 18% fuel savings and a 100130 mile range increase. A 10% reduction in drag on a commercial airliner travelling daily between New York and Los Angeles would translate into a savings of half a million dollars a year per aircraft. Moreover, emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide greenhouse gases could be reduced by 10% and 15% respectively. Laminar flow wings: Laminar flow control promises up to 30% reduction in fuel consumption and is the only aeronautical technology that offers the capability to design a transport that can fly non-stop without refuelling from anywhere in the world to anywhere else in the world and stay aloft without refuelling for 24 hours. Winglets: Similar benefits to the ones described above have also been demonstrated with winglets. Moreover, aircraft with winglets can climb more efficiently, so they can get to their cruise altitudes faster and at lower thrust settings, both of which reduce aircraft fuel consumption and noise footprint, not to mention extended engine life. Better climb performance can also translate into a higher allowable takeoff weight, which means more passengers and cargo, especially on hot days. Wingtip vortices: Flying into the tip vortices of a large transport can cause serious accidents (ex. 1994 crash of USAir flight 427 when it encountered the tip vortices of Delta flight 1083). This problem requires adequate spacing of air transports at busy airports, often causing delays in departures and arrivals. In addition, buildings near busy airports suffer property damage from these vortices. In the Heathrow airport area houses had their roofs damaged by wake vortices, forcing local authorities to spend 5 million pounds to reinforce 2,500 roofs. Compressible flow is a senior level course. The following applications are discussed in the lecture and explored further by the students through their research papers: High-Speed Civilian Transports: Students discuss the global warming, ozone depletion and sonic boom effects that may result from a large fleet of hypersonic vehicles, should they become mainstream in the future. They also look into passenger safety, as these vehicles may accelerate / 5decelerate rapidly and fly at very high speeds in extreme environments. The health risks from atmospheric radiation on passengers and crew at very high altitudes presents an additional concern. Space tourism: Students discuss current attempts to fly in space for very low cost and the vision to make space tourism affordable in the near future. They also look into high altitude pollution, which may result from a large number of flights into space. Helicopter noise: Students discover the primary sources of helicopter noise, which are impulsive noise from the main rotor (blade-vortex interaction noise plus transonic effects on the advancing blade. Aerospace Propulsion is also a senior level course

usually taken in the same semester. It is a required course for aerospace engineers and an elective for mechanical engineers. The following applications, which bring to light a variety of economic, environmental and safety issues, are discussed in the lecture and explored further by the students through their research papers: Fuel consumption and pollution: Students explore the differences in fuel consumption, emissions, and noise pollution between the different propulsion systems used in aerospace vehicles, from reciprocating engine / propeller combinations, turboprop, turboshaft, turbojet, turbofan, unducted fan, propfan, ramjet and scramjet all the way to rocket engines. Engine noise: Jet engines are the primary source of noise during takeoff and landing. Most of this noise comes from the turbo machinery inside the engine (fan, compressor and turbine). However, in the high-speed transports of the future, additional noise will come from shock waves at the inlet and the exhaust. Students explore different ways to design engine components for reduced noise as well as to lower the exhaust velocities by cooling the gases with surrounding air. Aircraft Design is a 2-semester senior design, capstone experience. Students design, build and fly an airplane (remotely controlled or autonomous) for a specific mission. One or more teams participate in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) heavylift Aero Design West international student design competition. Some students may also choose to design full-size airplanes, (ex. a supersonic transport or a short take off / landing commuter). In their final design reports, students discuss any environmental / safety issues and economic tradeoffs related to their airplane. Moreover, each student chooses and presents a current global / societal issue related to airplane design. The following topics were presented in academic year 2003-2004: Safety aspects of very large air transports (VLA): A new generation of VLA weighing more than one million pounds will soon begin service (Airbus A380 will have a takeoff weight over 1.2 million lb and the stretched version of Boeings 747X will be close to this number). These aircraft present additional challenges, such as more powerful wingtip vortices and their associated problems discussed earlier, difficulties in ground maneuvering and emergency evacuations. For example, can passengers from the upper deck be evacuated in 90 seconds?Airport expansion and redesign to accommodate VLA:Students explored the environmental and economic impact of all the modifications needed to accommodate VLA. Although allowing the airplanes to oversteer (by design) is one way to help VLA pilots turn on the ground, fillets edging at runway / taxiway intersections may have to be added to keep the main landing gear from rolling off the paved surface. Moreover, runways have to be expanded and obstacle-free zones for balked landings must be provided. These modifications could cost millions of dollars in construction costs to airports. Airplane design to guard against possible terrorist attacks: In light of recent attacks on civilian airplanes with shoulderfired missiles to incorporate safety features to guard air

transports against such attacks. Environmental effects of de-icing fluids and run-off pollution from airports. Fuel dumping: Many air transports are designed with a landing weight much lower than the takeoff weight. The reason behind this practice is to reduce landing gear weight. However, should an emergency occur immediately after takeoff forcing the pilot to return for landing, several thousands of fuel must be dumped, usually in residential areas, in order to reduce the weight for a safe landing. The promise of new generation, single-engine airplanes to provide safe and economic air transport.

Conclusion
As a conclusion, the world is keep changing and advancing, electromagnetic wave actually play an important part in the process. If we can make full use of the latest technology and application related to electromagnetic wave, surely we will have a better place to live.

Reference
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003337.htm http://www.engineeringchallenges.org/cms/7126/7356.aspx http://cee.stanford.edu/prospective/grad/programs.html http://www.indiana.edu/~wanthro/sust.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainability http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002151/215119E.pdf http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/nikos/pdf/UICEE%2005%20Jamaica-1.pdf http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l1/history1_xray.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray