24/05/13

Al-Ghazali - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Al-Ghazali
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī (c. 1058–1111); (‫اﺑﻮ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ اﺑﻦ‬ ‫)ﻣﺤﻤﺪ اﻟﻐﺰاﻟﻲ‬, known as Al-Ghazali or Algazel to the Western medieval world, was a Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic of Persian descent.[4] Al-Ghazali has sometimes been referred to by historians as the single most influential Muslim after the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[5]:14-16 Others have cited his movement from science to faith as a detriment to Islamic scientific progress.[6] Besides his work that successfully changed the course of Islamic philosophy—the early Islamic Neoplatonism developed on the grounds of Hellenistic philosophy, for example, was so successfully refuted by al-Ghazali that it never recovered—he also brought the orthodox Islam of his time in close contact with Sufism. The orthodox theologians still went their own way, and so did the mystics, but both developed a sense of mutual appreciation which ensured that no sweeping condemnation could be made by one for the practices of the other.[5]:14-16

Al-Ghazālī (‫( )اﻟﻐﺰاﻟﻲ‬Algazel)
File:Imam Ghazali.gif Full name Born Died Era Region Abū Ḥāmed Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad alGhazālī 1058 Tus Persia, Great Seljuq Empire December 19, 1111 (aged 52–53) Tus, Persia, Great Seljuk Empire Islamic Golden Age Great Seljuq Empire (Nishapur)[1]:292 Abbasid Caliphate(Baghdad)/(Jerusalem)/(Damascus)
[1]:292

School/tradition Sufism, Sunnite (Shafi'ite), Asharite Main interests Sufism, Theology (Kalam), Philosophy, Logic, Islamic Jurisprudence Major works Revival of Religious Sciences, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness Influenced by Influenced

Contents
1 Life 2 School affiliations 3 Works 3.1 Incoherence of the Philosophers 3.2 Autobiography 3.3 The Revival of Religious Sciences 3.4 The Jerusalem Tract 4 Al-Ghazali's influence 5 List of works 5.1 Works in Persian 6 Reception of his Work 7 See also 8 Notes
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Ghazali 1/9

[7]:57–59 School affiliations en. and to teach in the zawiya (private madrasa) and khanqah (Sufi monastery) that he had built.[7]:29in Nishapur. the powerful vizier of the Seljuq sultans. and consequently abandoned his career and left Baghdad on the pretext of going on pilgrimage to Mecca. named after Harun al-Rashid. he returned to Tus to spend the next several years in 'uzla (seclusion).[7]:26–27 Haruniyah (‫ )ھﺎروﻧﯿﮫ‬structure in Tus. and have posited a date of 448 AH (1056–1057 CE).org/wiki/Al-Ghazali 2/9 . a town in the district of Tus. though he continued to publish. the authenticity of which has been questioned in recent scholarship. According to 'Abd al-Ghafir al-Farisi he had several daughters.Wikipedia. Fakhr al-Mulk. in the Nizamiyya madrasa in Baghdad. After some time in Damascus and Jerusalem.wikipedia. on the basis of certain statements in alGhazali's correspondence and autobiography. This seclusion consisted in abstaining from teaching at state-sponsored institutions. with a visit to Medina and Mecca in 1096. 'Abd al-Ghafir al-Farisi. to receive visitors. fearing (rightly) that he and his teachings would meet with resistance and controversy.[7]:34 He underwent a spiritual crisis in 1095. grand vizier to Ahmad Sanjar. After al-Juwayni's death in 1085. which was likely centered in Isfahan.[7]:25 A posthumous tradition. Making arrangements for his family. but modern scholars have raised doubts about the accuracy of Ibn al-Jawzi's information. alGhazali reluctantly capitulated in 1106. Nizam al-Mulk advanced al-Ghazali in July 1091 to the "most prestigious and most challenging" professoriate at the time. the mausoleum of Al-Ghazali is thought to be situated at the entrance of this monument He later studied under al-Juwayni. pressed al-Ghazali to return to the Nizamiyya in Nishapur. He died on the 18 December 1111. a local teacher. Iran. he disposed of his wealth and adopted an ascetic lifestyle. but no sons. perhaps after a period of study in Gurgan. arose that al-Ghazali's father died in poverty and left the young al-Ghazali and his brother Ahmad to the care of a Sufi. records merely that alGhazali began to receive instruction in fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) from Ahmad al-Radhakani.[7]:53-4 He later returned to Tus. Al-Ghazali's contemporary and first biographer. the free encyclopedia 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links Life The traditional date of al-Ghazali's birth.24/05/13 Al-Ghazali . After bestowing upon him the titles of "Brilliance of the Religion" and "Eminence among the Religious Leaders". is 450 AH (March 1058–February 1059 CE). al-Ghazali departed from Nishapur and joined the court of Nizam al-Mulk. which lies within the Khorasan Province of Persia (Iran). the distinguished jurist and theologian and "the most outstanding Muslim scholar of his time".[7]:23–25 He was born in Tabaran. and declined an invitation in 1110 from the grand vizier of Muhammad I to return to Baghdad. as given by Ibn alJawzi.

The Incoherence also marked a turning point in Islamic philosophy in its vehement rejections of Aristotle and Plato.wikipedia.[9] Autobiography The autobiography al-Ghazali wrote towards the end of his life. from the orthodox Asharite school. The encounter with skepticism led al-Ghazali to embrace a form of theological occasionalism. Zayn-ud-dīn (‫)زﯾﻦ اﻟﺪﯾﻦ‬. in some aspects. Al-Ghazali received many titles such as Sharaf-ulAʾimma (‫)ﺷﺮف اﻷﺋﻤﺔ‬."[11]:66 he studied and mastered the arguments of kalam. in Varieties of Religious Experience. the epistemological course of Islamic thought had already been set. He was a scholar of orthodox Islam..[8] Works Al-Ghazali wrote more than 70 books on the sciences. Though appreciating what was valid in the first two of these. Socrates and other Greek writers as non-believers and labeled those who employed their methods and ideas as corrupters of the Islamic faith.. he tends to blindly accept all other views held by philosophers". Ḥujjat-ul-Islām (‫)ﺣﺠﺔ اﻹﺳﻼم‬. al-Ghazali recounts how. including scientific fact like the lunar and solar eclipse. The book took aim at the falasifa.[12]:307 en. he determined that all three approaches were inadequate and found ultimate value only in the mystical experience and insight (the state of prophecy or nubuwwa) he attained as a result of following Sufi practices. Islamic philosophy.24/05/13 Al-Ghazali .[citation needed ] In the next century. tend to categorically reject all views adopted by 'philosophers'.[10] In it. Averroes drafted a lengthy rebuttal of al-Ghazali's Incoherence entitled The Incoherence of the Incoherence. once a crisis of epistemological skepticism was resolved by "a light which God Most High cast into my breast. Some argue that al-Ghazali was the first intellectual to champion the separation between several disciplines wrongly classified under falsafa (Arabic word for philosophy but one that used to include physics. his beliefs and thoughts differ. however. Incoherence of the Philosophers His 11th century book titled The Incoherence of the Philosophers marks a major turn in Islamic epistemology. William James. he chose a slightly different position in comparison with the Asharites. belonging to the Shafi'i school of Islamic jurisprudence and to the Asharite school of theology.the key to most knowledge. He is viewed as the key member of the influential Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy and the most important refuter of Mutazilites.Wikipedia. Islamic philosophy and Sufism. And when that person is later persuaded of a certain view. and Ismailism. the free encyclopedia Al-Ghazali contributed significantly to the development of a systematic view of Sufism and its integration and acceptance in mainstream Islam. Deliverance From Error (‫ اﻟﻤﻨﻘﺬ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻀﻼل‬almunqidh min al-ḍalāl) is considered a work of major importance.[9] "Al-Ghazali argued that some fundamentalists. or the belief that all causal events and interactions are not the product of material conjunctions but rather the immediate and present Will of God. who perceive falsafa to be incompatible with religion.[citation needed ] This long-held argument has been disputed. at least.org/wiki/Al-Ghazali 3/9 . Al-Ghazali bitterly denounced Aristotle. maths and logic). considered the autobiography an important document for "the purely literary student who would like to become acquainted with the inwardness of religions other than the Christian" because of the scarcity of recorded personal religious confessions and autobiographical literature from this period outside the Christian tradition. However. a loosely defined group of Islamic philosophers from the 8th through the 11th centuries (most notable among them Avicenna and Al-Farabi) who drew intellectually upon the Ancient Greeks.

al-Ghazali wrote a concise exposition of Islam entitled The Jerusalem Tract . Al-Ghazali also played a very major role in integrating Sufism with Shariah. Many western scholars such as en. He studied at the University of Naples where the influence of Arab literature and culture was predominant at the time.org/wiki/Al-Ghazali 4/9 . Shehid Ali Pasha 1712. His works also strengthened the status of Sunni Islam against other schools. who made a study of the Arabic writers and admitted his indebtedness to them. He was also the first to present a formal description of Sufism in his works.Wikipedia. It covers almost all fields of Islamic sciences: fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence)." He then wrote a brief version of this book in Persian under The Alchemy of Happiness (Kimiya-yi sa'ādat). kalam (theology) and sufism. as Nizam al-Mulk was assassinated by the members of Ismailis. especially at the University of Paris. they could be taken back from Ihya'u Ulumiddin. Al-Ghazali strictly refuted their ideology and wrote several books on refutation of Baatinyas which significantly weakened their status. List of works Al-Ghazali had mentioned the number of his works "more than 70". However.wikipedia. Al-Ghazali's influence has been compared to the works of Thomas Aquinas in Christian theology. dated AH 509 (AD 1115-1116)." In addition. Making a judgment on the number of his works and their attribution to al-Ghazali is a difficult step.[13]:29 Al-Ghazali's influence Al-Ghazali had an important influence on both Muslim philosophers and Christian medieval philosophers. Then she emphasizes. there are more than 400 books attributed to him today. "The greatest of these Christian writers who was influenced by al-Ghazali was St. Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274). The Jerusalem Tract At the insistence of his students in Jerusalem. Norms of Daily Life (Rub' al'adatat). The ways to Perdition (Rub' al-muhlikat) and The Ways to Salvation (Rub' al-munjiyat). the free encyclopedia The Revival of Religious Sciences Another of al-Ghazali's major works is Ihya' Ulum al-Din or Ihya'u Ulumiddin (The Revival of Religious Sciences).24/05/13 Al-Ghazali . in one of his letters to Sultan Sanjar in the late years of his life. but the two differed greatly in methods and beliefs. The Batinite (Ismailism) had emerged in Persian territories and were gaining more and more power during al-Ghazali's period. Whereas al-Ghazali rejected non-Islamic philosophers such as Aristotle and saw it fit to discard their teachings on the basis of their "unbelief." Aquinas embraced them and incorporated ancient Greek and Latin thought into his own philosophical writings. Margaret Smith writes in her book Al-Ghazali: The Mystic (London 1944): "There can be no doubt that al-Ghazali’s works would be among the first to attract the attention of these European scholars" (page 220). The book has attracted much positive criticism: "If all Islamic sciences were made to disappear. Last page of Al-Ghazali's autobiography in MS Istanbul. Aquinas' interest in Islamic studies could be attributed to the infiltration of ‘Latin Averroism’ in the 13th century. It contains four major sections: Acts of worship (Rub' al-'ibadat).

224: are the names of the Chapters or Sections of al-Ghazali's books that are mistakenly thought books of his 225 . [in this book he refutes the Greek Philosophy aiming at Avicenna and Al-Farabi.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia William Montgomery Watt (The works attributed to Al-Ghazali). mostly influenced by Avicenna's works] Tahafut al-Falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers). Maurice Bouyges (Essai de chronologie des oeuvres d'Al-Ghazali) and others prepared a list of his works along with their comments on each book. "Revival of Religious Sciences". in favour of philosophy and presenting the basic theories in Philosophy.389: books of other unknown scholars/writers regarding al-Ghazali's life and personality 389 .24/05/13 Al-Ghazali . al-Ghazali's most important work Bidayat al-hidayah (Beginning of Guidance) Kimiya-yi sa'ādat (The Alchemy of Happiness) [a résumé of Ihya'ul ulum. an Egyptian scholar. and of which Ibn Rushd wrote his famous refutation Tahafut al-tahafut (The Incoherence of the Incoherence)] Miyar al-Ilm fi fan al-Mantiq (Criterion of Knowledge in the Art of Logic) Mihak al-Nazar fi al-mantiq (Touchstone of Reasoning in Logic) al-Qistas al-mustaqim (The Correct Balance) en.org/wiki/Al-Ghazali 5/9 .457: the name of the manuscripts of al-Ghazali's works in different libraries of the world The following is a short list of his major works: Theology al-Munqidh min al-dalal (Rescuer from Error) Hujjat al-Haq (Proof of the Truth) al-Iqtisad fil-i`tiqad (Median in Belief) al-maqsad al-asna fi sharah asma' Allahu al-husna (The best means in explaining Allah's Beautiful Names) Jawahir al-Qur'an wa duraruh (Jewels of the Qur'an and its Pearls) Fayasl al-tafriqa bayn al-Islam wa-l-zandaqa (The Criterion of Distinction between Islam and Clandestine Unbelief) Mishkat al-Anwar (The Niche of Lights) Tafsir al-yaqut al-ta'wil Sufism Mizan al-'amal (Criterion of Action) Ihya' ulum al-din.Wikipedia. Finally. prepared a comprehensive list of al-Ghazali's works under 457 titles: from 1 to 72: works definitely written by al-Ghazali from 73 to 95: works of doubtful attribution 96 .273: books written by other authors regarding al-Ghazali's works 274 . in Persian] Nasihat al-muluk (Counseling Kings) [in Persian] al-Munqidh min al-dalal (Rescuer from Error) Minhaj al-'Abidin (Methodology for the Worshipers) Philosophy Maqasid al falasifa (Aims of Philosophers) [written in the beginning of his life. Abdel Rahman Badawi.127: works which are not those of al-Ghazali with most certainty 128 .

The second part differs considerably in content and style from the well-known writings of al-Ghazali. Urdu and other languages. The greater part of it consists of the Persian translation of one of his Arabic books. Nasihatul Muluk was early translated to Arabic under the title al-Tibr al-masbuk fi nasihat al-muluk (The Forged Sword in Counseling Kings). The introduction to the book relates that Al-Ghazali wrote the book in response to a certain king who had asked him for advice. It is al-Ghazali's own Persian version of Ihya'ul ulumuddin (The Revival of Religious Sciences) in Arabic. Al-Ghazali makes an impressing speech when he was taken to the king's court in Nishapur in 1106. The book was published several times in Tehran by the edition of Hussain Khadev-jam. The first letter is the one which al-Ghazali wrote to Sultan Sanjar presenting his excuse for teaching in Nizamiyya of Nishapur. The longest letter is the response to objections raised against some of his statements in Mishkat al-Anwar (The Niche of Light) and alMunqidh min al-dalal (Rescuer from Error). Faza'ilul al-anam min rasa'ili hujjat al-Islam is the collection of letters in Persians that al-Ghazali wrote in response to the kings.24/05/13 Al-Ghazali . Ay farzand (O son!) is a short book of counsel that al-Ghazali wrote for one of his students. but a shorter work. The language and the contents of some passages are similar to the Kimyaye Sa'adat. followed by al-Ghazali's speech in the court of Sultan Sanjar. written most probably for Sultan Ahmad Sanjar ibn Malekshah. a renown Iranian scholar. Reception of his Work en. It contains in addition the same contents as the Kīmyāyé Sa'ādat. asking the sultan once again for excusing him from teaching in Nizamiyya and refuting the accusations made against him for disrespecting Imam Abu Hanifa in his books. It is one of the outstanding works of 11th-century-Persian literature. giving very influential counsels. the book consists of two parts of which only the first can reliably be attributed to al-Ghazali. His another Persian work is Hamāqāti ahli ibāhat or Raddi ebāhīyya (Condemnation of antinomians) which is his fatwa in Persian illustrated with Quranic verses and Hadiths. ministers.org/wiki/Al-Ghazali 6/9 . Pand-nāma (Book of Counsel) is another book of advice and probably attributed to Sultan Sanjar. Arabic. His most important Persian work is Kīmyāyé Sa'ādat (The Alchemy of Happiness). Bedāyat alHedāya (Beginning of Guidance). In the edition published by Jalāluddīn Humāyī. Turkish. The book was most probably written during the last years of his life. especially those of Anoshervān. It is translated to English. Apart from Kimya.wikipedia.Wikipedia. The collection was gathered by one of his grandchildren after his death. The book was early translated to Arabic entitled ayyuhal walad. Its manuscripts are in Kabul (Library of the Department of Press) and in Leiden. the most celebrated of al-Ghazali's works in Persian is Nasīhatul Mulūk (The Counseling Kings). The sultan was so impressed that ordered al-Ghazali to write down his speech so that it will be sent to all the ulemas of Khorasan and Iraq. Zād-e Ākherat (Provision for the hereafter) is an important Persian book of al-Ghazali but gained less scholarly attention. the free encyclopedia Jurisprudence Fatawy al-Ghazali (Verdicts of al-Ghazali) Al-wasit fi al-mathab (The medium [digest] in the Jurisprudential school) Kitab tahzib al-Isul (Prunning on Legal Theory) al-Mustasfa fi 'ilm al-isul (The Clarified in Legal Theory) Asas al-Qiyas (Foundation of Analogical reasoning) Works in Persian Al-Ghazali wrote most of his works in Arabic and few in Persian. under five sections/chapters. It contains the stories of preIslamic kings of Persia. jurists and some of his friends after he returned to Khorasan.

Their books bear witness to that. let alone as prominent scholars in that field.com 4.stanford. W. 2005 3. ^ Sawwaf. his knowledge of kalam and philosophy.php/islamic-articles/muslim-contributions/89-muslimphilosophy). he also received criticism from within Islam: Ibn Taymiyyah states: “ If we assume that someone narrated the view of the salaf but what he narrated is far removed from what the view of the salaf actually is. despite his brilliance. ended up in a state of confusion and resorted to the path of those who claim to find out things through dreams and spiritual methods. The Faith and Practice of Al-Ghazali (http://www. ^ Böwering. either at the time of death or before death. The Incoherence of the Incoherence. 2. 5. and a hadith which is fabricated and false. The Columbia Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia en..edu/entries/maimonides-islamic/) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.com/topic/al-Ghazali. 7. though the work was not well received in the Muslim community. such as Abu’l-Ma’aali. Frank. New York: Routledge. There are many such well-known stories. ed. June 30. Duke University Press. Frank (2009).ghazali.com/index. ISBN 9780195331622. Islamic Contributions to Science & Math. ^ "Ghazali. then he has little knowledge of the view of the salaf. ISBN 0415966906.ae.Wikipedia. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. This Abu Hamid al-Ghazali.encyclopedia. his devotion to Allah.ae/thenationalconversation/comment/how-the-decline-of-muslim-scientific-thoughtstill-haunts#full). which is similar to the situation of the ordinary Muslim. ^ R. who did not have enough knowledge of hadith to qualify them as ordinary scholars of hadith.htm). A. Al-Ghazali and the Ash'arite School. apart from what they heard. Ibn al-Khateeb and the like. ^ a b c d e f g Griffel.iranicaonline.24/05/13 Al-Ghazali . Frank (2006). famously responded that "to say that philosophers are incoherent is itself to make an incoherent statement.org/works/watt3."[citation needed ] Rushd's book. for they contain strange things and most of these scholars of ‘ilm alkalam (science of kalam) and Sufis who have drifted away from the path of the salaf admit that. thenational. Meri. Retrieved 2012-10-04.thenational. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 8. ^ Muslim Philosophy (http://www. ^ a b Griffel. ^ a b "How the decline of Muslim scientific thought still haunts" (http://www. Al-Ghazālī's Philosophical Theology. Gerhard. netmuslims. Medieval Islamic civilization : an encyclopedia. attempted to refute al-Ghazali's views. (1962) al-Ghazali: Etude sur la réforme Ghazalienne dans l’histoire de son développement (Fribourg).aspx). London 1994 9. ^ a b Watt. ^ The Influence of Islamic Thought on Maimonides (http://plato. Oxford: Oxford University Press.org/wiki/Al-Ghazali 7/9 . a rationalist. 10. "ḠAZĀLĪ" (http://www. 6."[14] ” Ibn Rushd (Averroes).netmuslims. Montgomery (1953). who cannot distinguish between a hadith which is regarded as sahih and mutawatir according to the scholars of hadith. Josef W.[15] See also Mujaddid Nasîhatnâme Notes 1. For none of these people had any knowledge of al-Bukhari and Muslim and their hadiths. the free encyclopedia Praise for al-Ghazali not withstanding. al-" (http://www.org/articles/gazali-i-biography).wikipedia.M. his asceticism and spiritual practices and his Sufism. Abu Hamid al-Ghazali.

Encyclopedia of Philosophy Dougan. Before their diaspora : a photographic history of the Palestinians. "Psychology from Islamic perspective: contributions of early Muslim scholars and challenges to contemporary Muslim psychologists".: Muslim Intellectual: A Study of al-Ghazali.nlm.html?id=4dxbqEmU-OkC&redir_esc=y The Ornament of the World: How Muslims. doi:10. A. trans. ^ Khalidi.asa3. Gerhard.org/vdch. W. Amber (2004).1093/jhmas/50. The Glimpse.wikipedia. ed. Emilie (1995). History of Islamic Philosophy 1996 Watt.html) on The Alchemy of Happiness The Alchemy of Happiness. 1876-1948 (http://btd.gov/pubmed/7876530) Further reading Laoust. 14.php?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.org/10.html). Journal of Religion & Health 43 (4): 357–377. M. "Attitudes toward dissection in medieval Islam".google. A study of the inner teaching of the Mishkat al-Alwar (The Niche for Lights) by Abdullah Dougan ISBN 0-9597566-6-3 External links Al-Ghazali website (http://www. Khalidi. A Moslem Seeker after God. from Al-Ghazali website Al-Ghazali (http://plato. commentary by Walid (1984).palestine-studies.org/content/introduction-last-days-ottoman-rule-18761918). Nasr and O. Encyclopædia Iranica. New York 1920 Nakamura. M.za/books/about/The_Ornament_of_the_World. Leaman. The Varieties of Religious Experience. ^ Böwering. Freedom and fulfillment : "al-Munqidh min al-Dalal" and other relevant works.co.C. p.org/works/taf-eng. ISBN 9780199691647.1. ^ http://books. K.org/ASA/PSCF/1994/PSCF3-94Aulie.islamtimes. Al-Ghazali.: Institute for Palestine Studies.php&title=1844). Richard Joseph (1980). ^ James.pdf). Walid. pp. PMID 7876530 (//www.org/wiki/Al-Ghazali 8/9 .Y. S.libertyfund. Bradley. William (2012).1.org/index. the Mohammedan Philosopher. M. by Mohammed Al-Ghazzali. Henry A. Homes (Albany.org) Ghazali and Islamic reform (http://www. N. PSCF 45. Matthew.nih.butler-bowdon.67 (http://dx. ISBN 0887281435.-n-t23nzz10d2. en. Boston: Twayne. ISBN 0805781676.67).: Munsell.ncbi. Washington. and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain References Haque. the free encyclopedia 10.H.org/10.1007%2Fs10943-004-4302-z) Savage-Smith. Paris 1970 Campanini. March 1994. 26–46. "Al-Ghazali Contra Aristotle: An Unforeseen Overture to Science In Eleventh-Century Baghdad" (http://www.24/05/13 Al-Ghazali . H: La politique de Gazali.1093%2Fjhmas%2F50.: Al-Ghazzali. in S. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 50 (1): 67–110. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 11. D. 13. "ḠAZĀLĪ" (http://www. Jews. Richard P.stanford.ghazali.com/the-alchemy-of-happiness.Wikipedia. Oxford Univ Press. ^ Majmoo’ al-Fataawa. Edinburgh 1963 Zwemer.edu/entries/al-ghazali) entry by Frank Griffel in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Short commentary (http://www. doi:10.doi. See original text in The Online Library of Liberty (http://oll. 1873).ghazali. part 4.html) Full text of Incoherence of the Philosophers (http://www. 12. Aulie.1007/s10943-004-4302-z (http://dx. 71 15.org/articles/gazali-i-biography).doi.iranicaonline. ^ McCarthy.

in http://www. additional terms may apply. Iran People from Mashhad Persian philosophers Shafi'is Sufi psychology Sufi religious leaders Persian Sunni Muslim scholars of Islam Iranian religious leaders Ash'aris This page was last modified on 20 May 2013 at 01:39.wikipedia. a non-profit organization.24/05/13 Al-Ghazali .Wikipedia.org/ (French) Profession de Foi de l'Imam Al Ghazali (http://www.wikipedia. en.. Inc. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.org/wiki/Al-Ghazali 9/9 .net/article-qawa-id-ul-aqa-id-alghazali-61087403.php?title=Al-Ghazali&oldid=555877925" Categories: 1058 births 1111 deaths Autobiographers Iranian Sufis Medieval philosophers Mujaddid Muslim philosophers People from Tus.org/w/index.blogspot.intellectualencounters.com/2009/09/tahafut-alfalasafah-incoherence-of. the free encyclopedia Review of Ghazali's Tahafat al-Falasifa (http://consideredbookreviews.at-tawhid.html) Retrieved from "http://en.org/KotarApp/BrowseBooks.html) Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (http://www. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.intellectualencounters. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.aspx? ExpandNodeID=2442$2443$2447&bAsImage=False). By using this site.

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