The Lifeworld Of People Engaging With Cochlear Implant Users: What Will Be Gained By Studying Parental Experience Of Hearing

Differentness?

Tema A
Liz Adams Lyngbäck, Stockholm University, Sweden

The advancement of cochlear implant technology over the past 20 years has changed how perception through sound is contemplated and has brought about new questions in regard to language, communication, identity and distribution of resources in education. Hearing has been redefined to include a biotechnical extension of the body that is said to provide the use of CI technology to 95% of children born deaf or with a severe hearing impairment in Sweden (Karolinska Institutet, 2007). These biomedical practices influence attitudes and beliefs about sign language use and bilingualism. Due to the fundamental value that language use has for interpersonal relationships and socialization, I propose that the experiences of people who interact closely with CI users need be studied from a phenomenological perspective. Interdisciplinary research in education, informed by exploring the lifeworld focuses on taken for granted experience which can help us understand the recurring rhetoric at the societal level of individual solutions for hearing problems framed in technological and economic terms. Guardians of candidates for CI surgery engage in making the decision for a corrective measure which determines potential perceptual experiences and existence. This involves managing new technology, negotiating how to use services and therapies offered to families and making choices about language environment. Findings from a pre-study include a survey of the research on child cochlear implantation, ethnographic field work and a pilot interview. This work in progress will study the first person perspective accounts of people engaged in communication with CI users who initially experience the world differently (deafness/hearing impairment) and then use a technically aided acquisition of spoken language and/or sign language. People close to CI users also experience going in and out of ways of being in the world when they are directed and engaged with them as they go through these changes. The initial interest for this research will come from the accounts of people who are parents or guardians of CI users. In focus will be an investigation of experience of interpersonal relationships under newly forming linguistic circumstances and how people understand changes in ways of being in the world, their own as well as others‘.
Keywords: cochlear implant (CI), lifeworld, deafness, Swedish Sign Language, phenomenological, interpersonal relationships

Parents' Counterproductive Behaviors And teachers‘ Job Satisfaction: An Underestimated Relationship? Tema A
Loredana Addimando, University of Milano-Bicocca Milan, Italy Stefano Castelli, University of Milano-Bicocca Milan, Italy

Job satisfaction is a substantial topic in our daily lives: research literature suggests that it is a strong predictor of general subjective well-being (Kahneman and Krueger, 2006). For what concerns teachers, job satisfaction is an important protection factor against job stress (McCarthy et al., 2010), and it can affect teachers‘ emotional behaviors in managing parents‘ counterproductive behaviors at school.

Parental involvement can be generally defined in terms of any parenting behaviors directed towards children‘s education (Sheldon and Epstein, 2002) but the continual exposure to counterproductive behaviors can seriously deplete teachers‘ emotional and physical resource, leading to impulsivity, rigidity, or feelings of anger (Everaert and Wolf, 2007), thus reducing the levels of job satisfaction. Under this point of view, parental involvement practices present pros and cons. When teachers and parents do not share a common vision about their roles, they can experience conflict relationships that become counterproductive for the entire organization. The present study explores the relationship between parents' counterproductive behaviors and teachers‘ job satisfaction in a sample of primary and secondary teachers (N = 1025) of Lombardy region (Italy). Discriminant Analysis (DA) was conducted by grouping the respondents in: satisfied teachers (IS) and not satisfied teachers (INS). The results show that the model predicts 76,9% of cases in groups (=.765, 2 = 39.1, p = 5.1.10-5). Uncooperative and uninvolved behaviors seem to be the INS group‘s predictors, while overprotective dimension does not contribute significantly to the discriminant function. The implications of the study will be discussed in the light of empirical research on effects of teacher training courses.
Keywords: teachers' job satisfaction, counterproductive behaviors, parental involvement, discriminant analysis

Longitudinal Study Of A 12–Year Program To Educate Non-College - Prepared Parents To Prepare Their Children For College Tema D
Yolanda Aguerrebere, Pepperdine University and Hispanicc Outreach Taskforce, U.S.A. Sharma Henderson, Los Angeles Co-op, U.S.A. Diana B. Hiatt-Michael, Pepperdine University, U.S.A.

A 12 year longitudinal study on the Parent Education Conference (PEC) on preparing your child for college was undertaken by Hispanic Outreach Taskforce (HOT)), organizers of the program. HOT developed, implemented and annually evaluated PEC since its inception. In 2000, members of HOT connected with Whittier College to sponsor PEC to increase enrollment of Hispanic students at their college. HOT is a non-profit organization with the mission to support further education and health of the Hispanic population. Non-profit organizations tend to be short-lived without sustaining qualities. Thus, this study was designed to determine HOT‘s sustaining qualities. HOT administered surveys to all parent attendees at the end of every conference, and the researchers interviewed HOT members. Surveys from 2000 indicate that 89 parents from one city and two high schools attended the first conference. Across the years, findings reveal that attendance reached a high of 530 and averaged 400 parents per year depending on the available space at the sponsoring location. The 2012 Conference brought together four cities, including six school districts. Parents from 44 elementary and 19 secondary schools attended this weekend event. Data noted that 80% of attendees are female and 20% are male. Parents report that their desire their child attends college is the primary reason to attend. The study revealed the importance to revise the next year‘s program based upon parent feedback on the evaluation forms. Records reveal that the first conference included four sessions that depended on presenters‘ desires. Based upon last year‘s evaluations in which parents felt overwhelmed by a large number of offerings (10) but could attend only two sessions, this year‘s conference utilized a carousel approach. Parents were organized into groups based upon primary language - English or Spanish- and age of their children – elementary or secondary. Parent groups moved from room to room so that all parents participated in all three comprehensive presentations. This year‘s topics have evolved to include only presentations that represented the parents‘ highest interests from the 2011 evaluation. These topics were

information on the requirements to attend various colleges, how to motivate your child to be college bound, and how to develop college-bound action plans for your children. This study revealed that HOT encompassed several sustaining qualities. First, HOT increased its basis of support from one college to two, from a single city to four cities, from one school district to six school districts, and from two schools to sixty to seventy –five schools. Second, HOT selected a council leader and members that have remained committed to HOT across the years. Third, HOT ‗s conference attendance by parents is supported by funds from the school districts. HOT‘s mission is being met as the parent conference has evolved to a must-attend event for the parents in eastern Los Angeles. Evaluations indicate that the primary reason parents attend is because of their high motivation that their children do well in school and attend college. Keywords: parent education, homework, student achievement

How To Measure The Involvement Of Parents In School: Validation Study Of The Scale: "Association School, Family And Community" to The Context Of Ecuador. TEMA A
María Elvira Aguirre Burneo, Technical University of Loja, Ecuador

This study refers to the validation process of the Scale ―Association school, family and community‖, authored by Karen Clark Salinas, Joyce L. Epstein, Mavis G. Sanders (John Hopkins University), Deborah Davis and Inge Douglas (Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory), the same that was developed to measure how schools are involving parents. This study uses data from 5750 parents and 279 teachers for elementary schools of Ecuador. The Epstein´s scale, consists of six subscales: Parenting, Communicating, Volunteering, Learning at home, Decision Making, Collaborating with the Community. To confirm this structure, were subjected to scale items initial exploratory factor analysis using orthogonal rotation methods (Varimax) and oblique (Direct Oblimin). The analysis provided a solution with seven factors with values greater self one with both. We selected the solution with oblique rotation, to allow greater flexibility in the relationship between factors that theoretically should be related. The solution in seven factors explained a 53.03% of the total variance, with 32% of variance explained by the first factor, and 5.4% of variance explained by the second factor. The remaining factors individually accounted for less than 5% of the total variance. This work will provide suggestions for future research of parental involvement, using Epstein´s scale for Ecuadorian population, as a result schools would be able to develop programs and practices of parent involvement.
Keywords: Parent Involvement, School, Family, Community, Epstein´s Model for Parental Involvement, Parenting, Communicating, Volunteering, Learning at home, Decision Making, Collaborating with the Community, Validation process.

Involved Parenthood In The School – Parental Involvement In The Danish Public School From A Parents‘ Perspective TEMA A

Maria Ørskov Akselvoll, Roskilde University, Denmark

During the last 30-40 years the boundaries between home and school have become increasingly blurred, as a more intensified home-school relationship has emerged, primarily in the form of school‘s increased expectations and demands on parents in being involved in many different aspects of their children‘s schooling. These aspects are both formal and informal, and involve being informed on the daily activities through the school‘s internet based communication platform (known as ‗Parent -Intra‘), attending parent meetings and parent-teacher conferences, participating in themed workshops, helping children with homework, as well as taking part in different committees, social activities such as playgroups, parties and outings etc. In my currently ongoing Ph.D. project I investigate what two differently located schools in the Copenhagen area ask of parents, from a parents‟ perspective, by studying electronic documents that flow between the school and parents, as well as between parents. Through interviews with parents I investigate how different parents/families perceive, experience and handle the expectations and demands of the school in their everyday lives. Analyzing with a class perspective and drawing especially on Pierre Bourdieu‘s concepts of capital, habitus and field, the aim is to investigate which underlying resources the school‘s expectations and demands calls for in parents , and how different social and cultural resources influence parents‘ experiences and strategies for dealing with these demands. My paper discusses preliminary findings on the interconnectedness between parental involvement, parenthood ideals, social class and equal opportunities in school. Keywords: home/school relationships, school`s expectations, student achievement, cultural resources

Interactive Learning Spaces For Teachers, Parents, And Immigrant Students Together In Bilingual Steps To College Through Science Workshops TEMA B
Martha Allexsaht-Snider, University of Georgia, USA Elif Karsli, University of Georgia, U.S.A. Shakhnoza Kayumova, Susan Harper, Max Vazquez, Cory Buxton,

In the European Union (Rethinking Education, European Commission, 2012) and the U.S. (Next Generation Science Standards, National Research Council, 2011), as well as other countries around the world, we are continuing to set 21st century educational goals. With these new standards, nations are raising expectations for students, but also for their families and their teachers. In order to meet goals such as college and career readiness for all with the increasingly culturally and linguistically diverse school populations emerging across the globe, educators and researchers are creating and examining new interactive learning contexts (e.g., Allaire, et al., 2011; Gallo & Wortham, 2012; Mendel, 2012). In the research presented here, we investigate one such context- the Steps to College through Science bilingual family workshops-where we have studied the potential for immigrant Latino middle school students, their families, and their teachers learning together since 2009 (Allexsaht-Snider & Buxton, 2011; Buxton, et al., 2012). The workshops are held on Saturdays in high school, technical school, community college, and university science lab settings where all participants engage in: 1) language-rich science inquiry activities; 2) family conversations about preparation for college and careers that address student and parent

questions and concerns; and 3) science investigations and sharing of research projects led by faculty from the host institution. Drawing on three years of data collected in teacher focus group interviews and student-parent family interviews, we conceptualize this unique outside-of-school ―third space‖ (Gutiérrez, et al., 1999) for teacher professional learning and family learning where immigrant students and their parents and teachers are imagining previously unforeseen academic and career trajectories. In conclusion, we consider the implications for contributions to research and practice in teacher education and familyschool-community partnerships in diverse contexts (Ball & Tyson, 2011; Chavkin, 2005; Tate, 2012; Weiss, et al., 2005). We argue the value of integrating students‘, parents‘, and teachers‘ perspectives on the ways in which they are developing new understandings and expanded relationships for supporting bilingual immigrant students‘ educational aspirations.
Keywords: Immigrant families; Family-school-community partnerships; Teacher education

Vocational Guidance And Educational And Social Inclusion. Study On Ecuadorian Students In 4th Year Of Compulsory Secondary Education In Spain TEMA B
Beatriz Álvarez González, National University for Long Distance Education, (UNED), Spain Óscar Jara Albán, National University for Long Distance Education, (UNED), Spain

The number of Ecuadorian students enrolled in Spanish schools, during the term 2010/2011, was 91,058 people, this figure represents the second most significant migrant nationality, just behind the group from Morocco. This means that Ecuadorian students are 32% of Latino-American children, and 12% of total foreign students in Spain. The Autonomous Communities with the highest concentration of Ecuadorian school children are Madrid and Catalonia. Approximately 15,000 students are in Madrid and about 10,000 in Catalonia. The students‘ age ranks from 15 to19 years old. These students are in the final stage of compulsory secondary education, and therefore, they must decide whether to continue their studies, in any of the educational pathways, or to start their working lives. Within the group of immigrant students living in Spain, the Ecuadorian one is of great importance, given its high number, and their potential for the development of human and talent capital. In this sense, there emerge the need to carry out in-depth studies on the Ecuadorian students that will complete their compulsory education in the next two years of schooling, in order to deepen the knowledge of their personal and family interests and expectations, as much as the possible discrimination circumstances they may face. The results of these studies will allow the design of action lines, programs and public policies, which in turn, from the general Spanish perspective, may offer answers to the needs of immigrant students, and from the particular perspective, may help the development of Ecuadorian policies aimed for their migrant students (National Secretariat for Migrants, SENAMI) This paper presents two studies conducted in the Autonomous Communities of Madrid and Catalonia. The first gathering of data was accomplished on 200 Ecuadorian students and their families, in the level of 4th ESO (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria), in Catalonia. The second study has been carried out in the Community of Madrid, with the same objectives as in the first case. The results provided in this paper come from the first analysis of data from the "Ecuadorian students in Spain" questionnaire. The objective of the questionnaires, in both cases, is to know further about these students‘ personal and family interests, expectations, and difficulties in order to overcome situations that may constitute a barrier for an adequate social and educational inclusion in the Spanish educational context. Keywords: Educational inclusion, social inclusion and family expectations.

Parenting Educational Styles And Childhood Obesity In A School Population Of Valencia, Spain TEMA E
Teresita Alzate Yepes, University of Antioquia, Colombia Paz Cánovas L., University of Valencia, Spain

Background: In 2006 the authors made an exploratory study with some nutritionists about their assessment of the nutritional status of children more often associated with each family‘s educational style. The results led to this research project. Objective: To analyze the relationship between PES - parenting educational styles- and the nutritional status of children in Valencia, Spain. Materials and methods: The research was done in three different schools in Valencia with 177 children between the ages of 6 and 10, and their parents. The nutritional assessment was made based on the BMI for each age group using the WHO (2011) guidelines. The PES was measured according to the Alonso and Roman‘s scale (2003). We applied average and standard deviations as well as ANOVA and MANOVA tests for independent samples and combined effect respectively. Results: The gender factor has a PES related effect on the nutritional status of schoolchildren as measured by the BMI, which was significant at 90% confidence level (p-value <0.10). The interaction is inverse by gender: for girls the authoritarian parenting style is associated with increased overweight, whereas on boys, such effect is caused by their parents‘ permissive style. Conclusions: Within the family, mainly the mothers have a strong influence- although somewhat different- over how boys and girls behave in relation to food and nutritional status with regard to three different dimensions: behavioral, physiological and symbolic, which are influenced by the interpersonal communication and educational style they favor.
Keywords: family, obesity, nutritional status, education

Family And School Cooperation: Developing Effective Partnerships TEMA E
Isabel Amaral, Politechnic Institute of Setúbal, PortugalI Clarisse Nunes, Politechnic Institute of Lisboa, Portugal Patrícia Galvão, ―Pais em Rede‖, Parent Network Association, Portugal Marcelina Souschek, ―Pais em Rede‖, Parent Network Association, Portugal Paula Jardim, “Pais em Rede‖, Parent Network Association, Portugal Maria Judite Paulo, ―Pais em Rede‖, Parent Network Association, Portugal

Families of students with disabilities have not been fully involved in designing Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for their children in Portugal. Although the law 3/2008, ruling special education services clearly states that families must be involved and play an active role in programming IEP‘s, there is still no understanding on how to effectively develop school-family cooperation. ―Pais em Rede‖(Parent Network Association), an organization who has been encouraging parents of children with disabilities to take a more active role in the life of their children, developed a practical training program involving teachers and parents as a way to help develop an understanding of what their

respective roles are in the process. The program included four training sessions of 25 hours each. Each program involved a group of teachers both from regular and special education (10-15 teachers in each program) as well as two specialists in special education preparation and four trained parents. The first 25 hour training program was used as an exploratory study, in November 2012. Assessment of this exploratory study was conducted and results used to help implement the remaining sessions. Preliminary results of this training program indicate that it is useful to involve parents and teachers in training programs for IEP development. It also indicates that teachers did not have a clear picture of how they could involve families in the process and that the practical work done during this exploratory study was viewed very positively as a way to help understand both family needs and what their role can be in the process. In this presentation we will discuss the assessment results from the exploratory study, as well as the changes introduced in the program and the final results of the training sessions. Such results help draw orientations for cooperation between families and school services. Keywords: home/school relationships, parent education and parents expectations

School Inspection Complaints: Parents Safeguarding Their Children‘s Education? TEMA A
Katharina Ayton, Linköping University, Sweden Ann-Marie Markström, Linköping University, Sweden

Teachers‘ and parents‘ perspectives concerning home-school relations have been in focus in earlier studies in Sweden and elsewhere, for instance in interviews and in surveys. In this study we are interested in how parents express their thoughts about their children‘s right and their own responsibilities to safeguard their children‘s rights to a good and safe education in school. In Sweden the so-called School Inspection was constituted in 2008 to control schools and oversee children‘s rights in relation to school. The Inspection offer parents the opportunity to make complaints and to report this to the School Inspection on-line. According to the instructions on the web site they do, however, anticipate that the parents first tries to solve the problem together with the school. It is if this does not help the situation that the School Inspection will act and inspect and control whether the school has been in arrears with its obligations towards the child. if the school has been guilty of negligence or any other irregularity with respect to their obligations. According to School Inspection the complaints to them mainly deal with individual students but there are also parents who report general deficiencies in a school (Skolinspektionen 2012). The deficiencies and the criticism are mainly adressed at students not recieving the education and care they have the right to. The intent of the paper is to shed light on what characterizes parents‘ complaints in regard of their children‘s everyday life in school that are expressed in the reports that are sent to the school inspection. The focus is directed towards questions about children´s right to get a good education and to the parent´s and the school´s responsibilies for children´s education and wellbeing in school. In this paper the results from analysis of a strategic selection (25 %) of all documents sent to the Swedish School Inspection from parents in 2011 concerning complaints on children‘s situation in school is presented. The material analysed in this study consist of 250 documents related to children in the ages between 6 and 16 years old. In the analysis attention is paid to WHAT and HOW parents express what the problem is and WHO is responsible for the problem. Various discursive aspects, for example, how the positive or negative character of the written text, to the use of adjectives, intensifiers and other qualifying

words, to the use of modals or to contrastive connectives in the narratives will be analysed (Wood & Kroger, 2000). The preliminary main results will be presented in the paper, as well as the significance of the study.
Keywords: home-school cooperation, complaints, school inspection, document analysis

Parental Empowerment Groups: Enabling Parents To Participate In Their Children‘s Inclusion Process TEMA E
Tânia Boavida, ISPA - University Institute of Psychology, Social and Life Sciences; ―Pais-em-Rede‖ (Parent Network Association), Portugal Teresa Rolão, Applied Behaviour Analysis Center; ―Pais-em-Rede‖ (Parent Network Association), Portugal Júlia Serpa Pimentel, ISPA- University Institute of Psychology, Social and Life Sciences, ―Pais -em-Rede‖ (Parent Network Association), Portugal

―Pais-em-Rede‖ (Parent Network Association) is a Portuguese Parents‘ Association aiming at building a family support network, to promote the inclusion of persons with disabilities, operating nationally. ―Oficinas de Pais/Bolsas de Pais‖ (Parents workshops/Parents Helping Parents) is a joint Project with ISPA-University Institute aiming at supporting and enabling parents thereby enhancing their autonomy and skills. In this paper we will focus on Parental Empowerment Groups (6 sessions/18 hours in a workshop format) that have three major goals: (1) parental capacity building and empowerment; (2) acquisition of skills to enable responsible management of their children‘s education and social inclusion and (3) planning an inclusive future for their children. In a literature meta-analysis on family-centered practices, Dunst, Trivette, and Hamby (2007) concluded that parent family and child behavioral functioning, particularly intervention outcomes, mediated by self-efficacy beliefs, are strongly influenced by participatory helpgiving practices. Throughout the workshop, inspired by the current Early Childhood Intervention models and the research regarding self-efficacy beliefs and family participation, we challenge parents to reflect on their everyday activities and time spent with their children. They are also invited to reflect about the abilities their children need to acquire that would make these everyday moments easier/more pleasant/more functional for the whole family. We also invite them to think over the different supports their children have (therapies and others), how these supports are related to their specific needs and how parent participation is promoted or restricted by teachers and other professionals. We anticipate that parents will be enabled and empowered, feeling more competent to became true partners in the process of their children‘s education, reversing the present situation where parents feel confused and helpless. We will present qualitative evaluation data from 57 parents that were enrolled in the first 5 Parental Empowerment Groups from October 2011 to December 2012. Keywords: parent empowerment, educational inclusion and student achievement.

Complementary schools the case of Sweden ―It‘s about preserving my culture and learning something new‖ TEMA B
Laid Bouakaz, Malmö högskola / University, Sweden

How are parents engaged in their children's education outside the regular school? The study presents a type of school which is partially hidden from researcher, teachers, politicians and decision makers, at least in Sweden. It is the "complementary school‖. A school form where children and young people of minority background are offered help in different curriculum subjects, mother tongue tuition, culture and religious education that is highly organized by nonprofit leaders (parents) after the regular school and during the weekends. The report is written within the framework of the research project: “An education policy dilemma: Multicultural incorporation and school success.” The project is funded by the Swedish Research Council Education Committee. Part of the study presented part presented here is to introduce complementary schools and get a better understanding of the parent‘s hidden struggles in multicultural and urban districts. The purpose of this study is to examine in depth the complementary teaching methods as parents organized in Malmö. This report provides answers to the following questions: • What types of complementary schools are located in the town of Malmö in Sweden? • Why are complementary schools established and who are those actors behind their establishment? • What type of teaching is taking place in those schools? • What role do these complementary schools play in the qualification, socialization and subjectifcation of children and adolescents in multicultural schools and community? The study is built upon insights from previous international and national studies. The empirical material consists of both quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative data is mainly to give a picture on the number of the complementary schools, the total of student engaged in such activities and the type of subjects studied. Furthermore three types of complementary school are presented as cases. The study shows that there are three different types of complementary schools in Malmö. First, those who engage in homework and teaching in different subjects, and those that offer children and young people opportunities to explore the culture and heritage and those with religious content. Parents / teachers' views on multicultural incorporation can be summarized in three points. They believe that children and young people: • equipped with the knowledge and skills of their religion, language (mother tongue) and culture, • master the Swedish language at least as good as native Swedish children and, • get an education and a job together contributes to each child exercising their civil rights as the Swedish native whatsoever. The study concludes with recommendations to schools to better visualize and recogn ize parents‘ involvement in complementary schools. And create opportunities to develop common values for a citizenship based on dialogue, mutual respect, acceptance and recognition of diversity.

Training Families, Schools And Communities For Productive Learning Partnerships Preparing Pre-service Teachers For Family School Partnerships D
E.J. de Bruïne, Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands T.M. Willemse, Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands J. D’haeme, William Paterson University, USA

P. Griswold, William Paterson University, USA S. Vaneynde, Leuven University of Applied Sciences, Belgium L. Vloeberghs, Leuven University of Applied Sciences, Belgium

Parental involvement in the education of their children is considered important worldwide. The last decades have seen a rise in research on practices of school, family and community involvement in education (Desforges & Abouchaar, 2003; Sanders & Epstein, 2005). Research has shown that partnerships between teachers and parents contribute to students‘ wellbeing, academic achievement and socio-behavioral development (e.g. Epstein, 2011; Hattie, 2009; Menheere & Hooge, 2010). Therefore, it is not surprising that national policies put a lot of effort in the promotion of school, family and community partnerships (e.g., Desforges & Abouchaar, 2003; European commission, 2008; Sanders & Epstein, 2005). However, establishing partnerships is quite a challenge and not all teachers feel well prepared (e.g., Ingvarson, Beavis & Kleinhenz, 2007; Espstein & Sanders, 2006). Despite the attention and support given to the idea of strong home-school relations, teacher education institutes (TEI) often pay little or no attention to the preparation of prospective teachers to build effective and sustainable partnerships with parents (Epstein & Sanders, 2006; Graue & Braun, 2003; Denessen, Bakker, Kloppenburg & Kerkhof, 2009). Moreover, little is known about how preservice teachers are taught to establish these partnerships, in particular what they need to learn and what are effective teaching- and learning strategies. In 2012 an explorative multiple case study was conducted in universities in Belgium, The Netherlands and the USA about how preservice teachers for primary and secondary education are prepared to work with parents. These three institutes have programs for teachers in primary and secondary education. The central question in this study was ‗How are preservice teachers prepared for family school partnerships during their teacher education programs?‘ We studied the formal curricula and interviewed a total of 65 students and 31 teacher educators about characteristics of teacher preparation for partnerships with parents. In addition we aimed to improve our training programs from each case and our collaboration. Based on the interviews, we found that teachers educators emphasized that student teachers need to develop positive beliefs and attitudes towards parents. However, attention only appears to be given to training communication skills according to student teachers, and teacher educators. The latter seems to be in line with the findings of Denessen and colleagues (2009). Moreover the preparation of student teachers to work with parents seems to be unplanned and depends on individual teacher educators. In this paper we will present the findings of our multiple case study and address propositions for possible improvements of the curricula in our universities.

Telling stories of the value of co-responsibility: An Educational Strategy To Train Families In The Values Of The Work-Life Balance D
Maria Rosa Buxarrais, University of Barcelona, Spain Alexandro Escudero, University of Barcelona, Spain

The inclusion of women in paid employment has not resulted in a fair reallocation of household chores within the family. This situation has had two harmful consequences: firstly, mothers experience difficulties in finding a work-life balance; and secondly there are undesirable changes in their children‘s performance at school, their health and leisure time. A number of legal reforms and public policies about employment in Spain foster a work-life balance with flexible working hours, different models of home-working, the digitization of manufacturing processes and part-time work. The actions are necessary but not enough. It is essential to democratize family practices by taking into account gender equality, and to foster a system whereby children will be instilled with the right values in order to achieve a work-life balance.

Our research, which has been conducted using Grounded Theory, identified the strategies that some families in Barcelona (Spain) apply on a daily basis in order to achieve a work-life balance. The results show that families have practical concerns, such as the incompatibility of working hours, family finances, or the risk of children falling ill. As a rule these problems are resolved with the help of the wider family, with paid help or with the involvement of parents. Nevertheless, following a more thorough analysis, the study data reveal that families have an overriding concern about which there is no certainty or sign of a solution: all the people interviewed said that they wanted their children to be happy and good people, but do not carry out systematic actions to achieve this objective. Based on the above findings, an educational proposal was drawn up, designed to foster values for a work-life balance. Its basic principles are: 1) to make teaching values of co-responsibility the core of the family project; 2) to act in the appropriate way during the first years of life; 3) to tell true stories or children‘s stories about the values of co-responsibility; and 4) to reflect and engage in a dialogue about them with their children through recreational, informal and spontaneous activities.
Keywords: moral education, families, co-responsibility, Grounded Theory, work-life balance.

Mediation In A Communitarian Education Project
Ana Paula Caetano , University of Lisboa, Portugal Isabel Freire, University of Lisboa, Portugal Mónica Mesquita, University of Lisboa, Portugal

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This communication aims to present various facets of mediation, implemented at a communitarian education project, in order to promote the intercultural encounter between three communities: a multicultural community in a slum, a fishing community and an academic community. It starts with a broad conception of mediation, where listening and dialogue are key words for a holistic understanding and intervention in order to empower people and communities. It emphasizes the role of people, cultural devices, educational practices as literacy and life histories, and of intercultural encounters. As the project is in progress, we only present the work of intervention and research done in the first cycle of fieldwork, which has already finished. Also, we question the steps to follow in the next cycles, having in consideration the role played by those mediations both in the communities' development, and also in the relationships between those communities
Keywords: communitarian education; mediation; intercultural education;

Home-School Relations In Cyprus: Hope And Deception
Eleni Damianidou, University of Cyprus, Cyprus Helen Phtiaka, University of Cyprus, Cyprus

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Research has shown that parental participation in the educational process enhances learning, school success and prosperity for children, particularly disabled children (e.g. Beveridge, 2004; Phtiaka, 2001). Based on this view we conducted a preliminary exploratory research, so as to examine family-school relations in Cyprus today. Using as the main research instrument the semi-structured interview, we gathered data from interviews with three parents of disabled children. Data was analyzed with thematic analysis. The interviewees revealed some gloomy aspects of law implementation which are far removed

from inclusive practices. In particular, regarding prejudice and stereotypes, disabled children in Cyprus are represented as weak and pathetic creatures, unable to approach the prevalent normality. Coupled with low expectations from the teachers, this notion seems to result in school failure and low performance. A second theme was segregational education practices, which stem from power relations and hinder meaningful inclusion. At the same time, the monopoly of the specialists seems to enhance exclusion, while the specialists‘ decisions often contradict the parents‘ wishes. Thirdly, the interviewees reported poor home-school relations, which become worse through transactions with specialists and result to feelings of bitterness and disappointment. Such relations have negative implications for the development of disabled children. Hence, it was concluded that poor home-school relations in Cyprus are the consequence of ineffective communication between parents and teachers, arrogance and authoritative attitude on behalf of the specialists and prevalence of the charity and medical models of disability, which foster prejudice and reproduce stereotypes. However, since home-school relations play a decisive role in the future of disabled children (Ware, 2002) and the truly inclusive school takes the parents‘ views in consideration (Hodge & Runswick-Cole, 2008), it seems essential to foster positive relations between home and school, so as to unbar the barriers to learning and ensure social justice (Phtiaka, 2007). In this way, disabled children‘s progress, school success and prosperity may be promoted effectively (Phtiaka, 2007· Ware, 2002).
References: Beveridge, S. (2004). Pupil participation and the home-school relationship. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 19(1), 3-16. Hodge, N. & Runswick-Cole, K. (2008). Problematising, parent-professional partnerships in England. Disability and Society, 23(6), 637-648. Phtiaka, H. (2001). Cyprus: special education and home school ‗partnership‘. Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies, 6(2), 141-167. Phtiaka, H. (2001). Special and Inclusive Education in Cyprus. Athens: Taxideftis. (in Greek) Ware, L. P. (2002). Amoral conversation on disability: risking the personal in educational contexts. Hypatia, 17(3), 143-172.

Becoming A School Child Through School-Home Relations
Karen Ida Dannesboe, Aarhus University, Denmark

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This paper addresses children‘s navigations between school and family in Denmark. The aim is to explore the complex processes of becoming a school child through school-home relations. The argument is that the production of school child subjects is shaped by and shapes relations between school and family. The paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork among a group of 12-14 year old children attending the same school in the area of Copenhagen. With a focus on these children‘s everyday life and school practices I will demonstrate how relations between school and families are enacted through negotiations between children, parents and teachers and their expectations regarding the children‘s school life. Furthermore I will address how the relations between and across generations differentiate and affects children and produces (un)comfortable school lives. The study is part of the Danish research project ‗School-home cooperation as a cultural given‘

Production Of Home-School-Relations In Everyday Life In A Danish Context
Karen Ida Dannesboe, Aarhus University, Copenhagen, Denmark Niels kryger, Aarhus University, Copenhagen, Denmark Birte Ravn, Aarhus University, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Based on ethnographic studies, interviews and policy studies the paper explores the complexity of home-school relations in a Danish context. It is argued that relations between home and school are produced in multiple ways in everyday life and cannot be reduced to formal school-home cooperation. The paper focuses primarily on children and their families as active co-producers of these relations. In the dominating discourses of education school-home-cooperation is considered of great importance and seen as a positive contribution to children‘s wellbeing and academic progress. It is taken for granted that all activities that have gained a status of home-school cooperation are ―for the best of the child‖. However, our study challenges these dominating discourses by focusing on the significance of school-home relations in children‘s and parents everyday life. The analyses show that these relations not only have an impact on children‘s school life, but also have great influence on organization of everyday life and on the mutual relations at home. It will be argued that not all parents and children benefit from school-home relations. Instead the relations to the children‘s school produce stress and feelings of insufficiency and powerlessness among children and parents. The empirical material is part of the research project ―Home -school cooperation as a cultural given‖.

Teachers‘ Contributions To Effective Parent Involvement Practices: A Review Study
Eddie Denessen, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands Marjolein Dennissen, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands Helma Oolbekkink, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands Joep Bakker, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Recently, the Dutch government has put family-school partnerships as a focal point on the national policy agenda. The Dutch Minister of education has acknowledged the relevance of school-family partnerships for children‘s education (e.g., fostering academic achievement, supporting career choices, and prevention of drop-out). The national policy stimulates schools to invest in their relations with parents and to develop effective partnerships. To guide the national policy, we were requested to perform a review study on teachers‘ contributions to effective parent involvement practices. Goals of our review study were twofold. First we aimed at an update of the available empirical literature on parent involvement effects on children‘s educational outcomes. We focused on effects of different types of parent involvement (home involvement, parent-teacher communication, and participation at school) on outcomes of students of different age groups (pre-school, elementary school, secondary school, higher education). Second, we reviewed the empirical literature about teacher effects on parents‘ involvement. We not only focused on teachers‘ behavior but also on conditions that affect teachers‘ contributions to effective parent involvement. Those conditions are on the level of parents (such as their role perceptions and cultural family contexts), on the level of the teachers (such as their competences in communicating with parents and their attitudes towards parents and parental involvement) and the schools (such as schools‘ policies regarding parents‘ participation in school improvement programs and the schools‘ vision regarding parents‘ involvement). We reviewed approximately 300 empirical studies that were published between 2003 and 2012. These empirical studies provide a broad overview of parent involvement effects and teachers‘ contributions to parent involvement practices. Preliminary findings are that the studies of parent involvement effects on student outcomes show a similar picture of review studies performed in the past, although, methodologically, research has progressed in terms of the use of more longitudinal designs and the application of advanced statistical techniques such as multi-level regression analyses. Results regarding the role of teachers revealed that teachers can make a difference. The quality of teacher initiated communication with parents appears to impact various parent involvement practices. Of

major importance are teachers‘ attitudes towards parents. Teachers who stress the value of diverse family cultures, who are open to parents‘ input for their daily practice and who inve st in obtaining knowledge about children‘s backgrounds seemed to be more effective in involving parents in their child‘s schooling. These results provide several implications for teacher intervention programs to improve their partnerships with parents.

Single Mothers Return to School: A Family-School-Community Partnerships Pilot Project A
Rollande Deslandes, University of Québec in Trois Rivières, Canada Marie-Claude Rivard, University of Québec in Trois-Rivières, Canada Paula Duguay, ―Mom Goes Back to School‖ Organization, Canada Claire Lalande, ―Mom Goes Back to School‖ Organization, Canada Gabriel Marchand, ―Mom Goes Back to School‖ Organization, Canada Sylvie Théberge, ―Mom Goes Back to School‖ Organization, Canada

In this communication, we present findings from the first phase of a pilot project conducted with community partners in a region situated at the Center of Quebec and for which a non-profit Organization ―Maman va à l‘école‖ (MVE) took the leadership. The high school dropout rate in the region has increased among girls over the past years (CSQ, 2008; Venne, 2012). It is well known that these girls often become single mothers who experience social exclusion, poverty and dependency. Compared to fathers, they are the ones who are more involved in their child schooling, a fertile ground for the transmission of difficulties from one generation to the other. Hence the importance of intervening with single mothers who have dropped out of high school. Working with a consultation Table involving MVE and school board representatives, adult education directors, psychologists, and stakeholders in the employment sectors and from the region teachers‘ union, we conducted during spring 2012 group discussions lasting 90 minutes. We met exactly six groups of 6 to 7 mothers (40 single mothers) who had returned to school to adult education (academic and vocational training). The study was based on Bronfenbrenner‘s (2005) ecosystemic framework and on relevant literature on high sch ool and adult education dropout and perseverance (Fortin et al., 2004; Janosz, 2010; QISAQ, 2011; Marcotte, 2012; Villemagne, 2011). The objectives were to identify: 1) facilitating conditions and challenges single mothers face when they return to school, (2) ways or measures to promote their integration and to support them throughout their academic formation, i.e., in their role as students, and (3) to assist them in monitoring their child schooling, i.e., in their role as parents. Analyses were done using the NVivo software. The coding was mixed while letting new categories to emerge (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992; L‘Ecuyer, 1990). Preliminary results indicate that some improvement is needed with regard to certain teachers‘ attitudes and teaching strategies, school schedule and resources as well as family support such as respite services, and community resources such as transportation means and childcare centers. Findings highlight the role of MVE, a non-profit private organization that aims at mobilizing academic institutions and social organizations concerned by single mothers eager to obtain a first diploma and to integrate the labor market (Duguay, 2011). Children whose mothers persevere in their own training are more likely to succeed, more likely to persevere in school. This project includes the major players in the field of adult education and vocational training. Its success will serve as lever and provide inspiration for similar initiatives in other regions of Quebec. Ideas regarding the future steps that should be taken will be discussed.

Educational Territories Of Priority Intervention In Portugal (2006-2012): A Path For Active Participation Of Students, Families And Communities? F
Mariana Dias, Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon, Portugal

This article aims to reflect on the priority education policies that are being implemented in Portugal in order to analyze their contribution to the affirmation of the principles of equity, quality and participation in education. We will begin our analysis with a brief characterization of the Territories of Priority Intervention Program (TEIP), which is the main government initiative in this area and indicates the presence in the country of a new generation of policies for priority intervention, developed in the name of the modernization of educational systems and of social cohesion. Throughout our communication we will analyze the strategies of change and the objectives of the TEIP program, the achievements in relation to school failure and students dropout and the participation of families and communities in schools covered by the program. This analysis is based on empirical research work which focused on the following areas: analysis of legislative guidelines documents and evaluation reports on the TEIP program; statistical analysis of the academic performance of the students involved in the program in the 9 th grade national tests (2007 - 2011), and the analysis of results of opinion surveys applied in TEIP schools in the region of Lisbon (students, parents and teachers). The research carried out shows that the current policies of priority education grant an unprecedented importance to students' academic results, clearly visible in the monitoring and evaluation of the program. In contrast, in the field of democratization of school governance , the program's impact has been less visible and the strong presence of experts in "relationships" and ―mediation "in TEIP school groups does not seem to translate into empowerment and active citizenship of local actors. The way the program was defined and implemented with limited participation of local communities, and the statutory differences between teachers, "technicians" and "families" contribute to hinder the transformation of the centralized educational standards that have characterized Portuguese educational system.

Families Formal And Informal Networks: Results Of The Project ―Oficinas De Pais/Bolsas De Pais‖ (Parents Workshops/Parents Helping Parents) For Families With Disabled Children And Youth E
Sandra Dias, ISPA-University Institute; ―Pais-em-Rede‖ (Parent Network Association), Portugal Júlia Serpa Pimentel, ISPA-University Institute; ―Pais-em-Rede‖ (Parent Network Association), Portugal Maria João Santos, “Pais-em-Rede‖ (Parent Network Association), Portugal

―Pais-em-Rede‖ (Parent Network Association) is a Portuguese Parents‘ Association aiming at building a family support network, to promote the inclusion of persons with disabilities, operating nationally. The development of formal and informal networks is crucial in enhancing the quality of life and is of utmost importance to families who have children with disabilities who frequently feel isolated. ―Pais-em-Rede‖ and ISPA - University Institute designed the Project ―Oficinas de Pais/Bolsas de Pais‖ (Parents workshops/Parents Helping Parents) in order to support parents and optimize their social community-based networks. Empowerment philosophy (Dunst, Trivette & Deal, 1988, 1994) is the conceptual base of the project and parents can participate in three different levels: (1) Emotional Support Groups; (2) Parental Empowerment groups; (3) Training parents in help giving. The main goal of this project is to enable parents to help other parents in different settings and life cycles. From March 2011 until December 2012, with the participation of the Universities of, Algarve, Aveiro, Évora and Porto, the project has involved more than 300 parents in different Portuguese regions.

In this paper we will focus on Emotional Support Groups (18 hours/7 sessions). These groups have three major goals: (1) analyse the impact that having a child with disability has on themselves and their families; (2) personal experience sharing; and (3) emotional support from group members. We will present results on the needs of families and the formal and informal networks that they developed as a response. We will analyze data from Support Functions Scale and Social Support Scale (adapted from Dunst, Trivette & Deal, 1988), provided by all the participants. In a first evaluation (Pimentel, Dias, Oliveira, Beltrão & Santos, 2012) with data from 97 families from Lisbon, we found mainly informal networks, restricted to their nuclear families. In concerning the benefits of the Emotional Support Groups, participants found that the project enabled them to feel part of a group, expand their social network, lessening their isolation. It also allowed them to ―reflect and grow‖ feeling more confident and competent. The results from participants that have completed the first level of the project up to December 2012 will be examined by children‘s pathologies and age ranges. We will also analyze qualitative evaluation data concerning parents‘ opinions about the impact that their participation had on their lives.

Children, Families, Schools, ICT And Social Inequalities
Ana Diogo, University of Açores, Portugal Pedro Silva, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal Carlos Gomes, Universityt of Açores, Portugal Conceição Coelho, José Saraiva Group of Schools, Leiria, Portugal Conceição Fernandes, José Saraiva Group of Schools, Leira, Portugal Joana Viana, University of Lisboa, Portugal

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During the last decades several government programs have been carried out together with substantial investments in information and communication technologies (ICT) in schools, in most European countries, including Portugal, in the perspective of the digital inclusion of the new generations, particularly the social disadvantaged groups. Our research - on the school and social uses and effects of the Magalhães computer in two administrative groups of schools - originally aimed at finding answers to multiple questions, including: who uses the Magalhães computer? What are its uses? In what contexts? What are the modes of regulation of its uses? By whom? What are the effects, school and social, of its uses by the various social actors and their interactions? In particular, in the school-family relationship and in the classroom? Some data point to the fact that the program.e.escolinha, that produced and distributed the Magalhães computer in 2008-2009 and the following school years, in the 1st cycle of basic education, meant the democratization of access to these technologies (Silva & Diogo, 2011). It should be raised, however, the question of to what extent this democratization of access is being translated into a real democratization of uses, i.e., into a democratization of success on its use. We are interested in framing this issue through the question of social inequalities in the field of education, more specifically in the analysis of the relationship between school and family in the old and new processes of social and cultural (re)production (Lightfoot, 1978; Lareau, 1989; David, 1993; Vincent, 1996; Silva, 2003; Stoer & Silva, 2005; Van Zanten, 2005; Diogo, 2008). Thus, from two case studies, one in the Central Region and another one in the Azores, based on extensive methods (survey of parents, students and teachers) and intensive methods (interviews with parents and teachers and ethnographic records of a class), we propose to analyse, in a comparative perspective, how children from different social groups use the Magalhães computer and as such use is mediated by the school and the family. The results point to a massive adhesion to the Magalhães laptop, but, at the same time, to an unequal use of it according to the social class divide.

Keywords: School-Family Relationships; Children; ICT; Social inequalities in education. References David, M. (1993). Parents, Gender and Education Reform. Cambridge: Polity Press. Diogo, A. (2008). Investimento das Famílias na Escola – Dinâmicas Familiares e Contexto Escolar Local, Lisboa, Celta Editora. Diogo, A. & Silva, P. (2010). ―Escola, Família e Desigualdades: Articulações e Caminhos na Sociologia da Educação em Portugal‖ in P. Abrantes (Org.) Tendências e Controvérsias em Sociologia da Educação . Lisboa, Mundos Sociais, 51-80. Lareau, A. (1989). Home Advantage - Social Class and Parental Intervention in Elementary Education . New York: The Falmer Press. Lightfoot, S. (1978). Worlds Apart - Relationships Between Families and Schools, New York, Basic Books. Silva, P. (2003). Escola-Família, Uma Relação Armadilhada. Porto: Edições Afrontamento. Silva, P. e Diogo, A. (2011). ―Usos do Computador Magalhães entre a Escola e a Família: sobre a apropriação de uma política educativa em duas comunidades escolares‖, Arquipélago - Ciências da Educação, nº 12, 9-48. Stoer, S. & Silva, P. – Orgs. (2005). Escola-Família, Uma Relação em Processo de Reconfiguração , Porto, Porto Editora. Van Zanten, A. (2005). New Modes of Reproducing Social Inequality in Education: the changing role of parents, teachers, schools and educational policies, European Educational Research Journal, Volume 4, Nº 3.

How Parents Understand Evaluation Process–Mental Models As The Main Obstacle For Engaging Parents In School Evaluation A
Roman Dorczak, Jagiellonian University Institute of Public Affairs, Department of Educational Management, Cracow, Poland Grzegorz Mazurkiewicz, Jagiellonian University, Institute of Public Affairs, Department of Educational Management, Cracow, Poland

Recent reforms of the school inspection system in Poland has introduced the idea of evaluation to Polish schools. One of the most important elements of that reform is a strong focus on parents voice in the process of collecting data during evaluation process in schools. More than three years of experience with that new system shows that still there is a lot of confusion concerning the understanding of the evaluation process among all groups involved actively in evaluation process such as: external evaluators (school inspectors), heads of schools, teachers, representatives of school partners, parents and students. The authors claim that this is the most important obstacle in promoting evaluation as a crucial element in the process of school development and the main reason for the mistakes and problems that the new school evaluation system is facing. The paper presents an attempt to describe different understandings of school evaluation among parents active in the process of school evaluation in randomly selected Polish schools of different type that took part in external evaluation project. Group of parents were asked to finish in a few words the sentence: Evaluation is like…. The metaphors used by parents were then categorized and on that basis thinking about evaluation connected with certain types of metaphors was described. The paper gives detailed description of those different understandings, showing at the same time how they can influence participation of parents in external evaluation process and following developmental activities that take part in schools. The authors claim that good understanding of different ways of thinking about evaluation gained through analysis of metaphors used by parents can be a very good basis for drawing some recommendations for those working on parents participation in transforming school reality.

Keywords: parents involvement, school development, evaluation, metaphors.

Language Diversities And Home-School Relationships: New Methodological Approaches And Policy Implications C / F?
Joana Duarte, University of Hamburg , Germany Tsjerk Bottema, Senior policy advisor, Provincie Frislan, Germany

Within the scope of research on migration-induced and minority-related language diversity there is a persisting disparity between familial home language practices and the so-called ―monolingual Habitus‖ (Gogolin 1994) of educational institutions. Although most European school systems have a monolingual self-understanding, the actual reality of these states is linguistic diversity; the languages of migrants and minorities are indeed extremely vital in Europe (Extra 2008). The "Super Diversity‖ (Vertovec 2007 ) reference frame offers a theoretical starting point to grasp this disparity, as it is understood as a characterization of social positioning by means of a dynamic teamwork of linguistic, cultural and social phenomena which exceeds the magnitude and presents understanding of complexity in societies. Such a framework opens up research questions looking at language use, both in view of the individual development as well as concerning events in social subsystems (such as family, educational and other social institutions). It thus allows for a change of perspectives also in relation to the home-school relationship regarding language diversity. It states that the present knowledge of the impact that the complexity of the situation has on individual development is systematically insufficient as the categories employed in the analysis reify images which are no longer appropriate for the current social environment or the practice of individuals in societies. The OECD-PISA study offers an example for this disparity (Klieme, Artelt et al. 2010; Klieme, Artelt et al. 2010), as it captures language use by including the most frequently spoken language at home by 15-year-olds as a proxy for language use within the family. Such observations formed the starting point for the Linguistic Panel Study on language development (LIPS - http://www.lima.uni-hamburg.de/index.php/en/research/ interdisciplinary-network/63-lima-panelstudy‐lips). Within this context, instruments were developed in order to capture the multifaceted dimension of language use within multilingual families, as well as their relationship to schools. One example which is closely related to school outcomes are so‐called home literacy activities. Studies have revealed firm relationships between home literacy activities, children‘s language development and later school achievement in reading and writing (Baker et al. 2001; Karass & Braungart‐Rieker, 2005; Leseman & van Tuijl, 2006; Sénéchal & Lefevre, 2002). The paper will first present results from the LiPS-Panel Study giving evidence for the complexity of migration-induced language (super-) diversity, specifically drawing on the example of home literacy activities. Furthermore, it will summarize conclusions for educational institutions. In a second stage, examples of possible educational policy measures specifically targeting the homeschool relationship with respect to language diversity and use will be provided, from the perspective of minority languages (Frisian will be taken as a concrete example). The paper thus focuses on practical implications deriving from Vertovec‘s framework for the development of instruments able to capture language use in ―Super Diversity‖ contexts. Furthermore, consequences for home-school relationships in contexts of language diversity will be drawn from the perspective of both migrant and minority languages.
References : Baker, L., Mackler, K., Sonnenschein, S. & Serpell, R. (2001). Par ents‘ interactions with their first--‐grade children during storybook reading and relations with subsequent home reading activity and reading achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 39 (5), 415‐438.

Extra, G. (2008). Immigrant languages in multicultural Europe: Comparative perspectives. Wieser Encyclopaedia. U. AmmonundE. Haarmann. Klagenfurt, Wieser Verlag: 489-519. Gogolin, I. (1994). The ‚monolingual habitus‗ as tertium comparationis in the intern ational comparison of teaching in the language of the majority. Landskrona Papers. A Report from the IMEN-‐workshop in Landskrona, Sweden, 14-16 May 1993. R. Delnoy, S. KroonundL.-G. Malmgren. Lund, Lunds Universitet: 45-59. Gogolin, I. (2007). Sprachlich-kulturelle Differenz und Chancengleichheit. Bildung-Lernen. Humanistische Ideale, gesellschaftliche Notwendigkeiten, wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse. D. LemmermöhleundM. Hasselhorn, Wallstein Verlag: 167-181. Hobsbawm, E. J. (1990). Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: programme, myth, reality. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Karrass, J. & Braungart-Rieker, J. M. (2005). Effects of shared parent–infant book reading on early language acquisition. Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 133-148. Klieme, E., C. Artelt, et al., Eds. (2010). PISA 2009: Bilanz nach einem Jahrzehnt. Münster, Waxmann. Leseman, P.P.M. & van Tujil, C. (2006). Cultural diversity in early literacy development. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.). Handbook of early literacy research (211-228). New York: Guilford Press. OECD (2010). OECD Reviews of Migrant Education - Closing the Gap for Immigrant Students: Policies, Practice and Performance. Paris, OECD. Sénéchal, M. & Lefevre, J. (2002). Parental involvement in the development of children‘s reading skill: A five -year longitudinal study. Child Development, 73, 445-460. Vertovec, S. (2007). "Super-diversity and its implications." Ethnic and Racial Studies 30(6): 1024-1054.

The Image Management In The Education Market
Susana Faria de Sousa, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

We intend to discuss the growing importance of communication as a tool for strategic management of educational institutions. The coexistence of different cultures under one collective identity, allows that the same myths, beliefs and symbols, can take different meanings for different actors interacting in the educational field, triggering divergent behaviors. The communication arises in this perspective as a management tool that insures the involvement, participation and performance of different actors that are part of an educational community or that are related to it. Since relationship with families becomes a relationship as difficult as beneficial to students, there is no doubt about the need to build a school policy directed to families. This necessarily goes through the inclusion of this objective in the projects of school, but also involves the definition of media capable of bridging the gap between cultures. Moreover, managerialism, claiming transformational leadership and an effective communication system as essential to the success of educational institutions, makes image management A key task to develop by the 'new school managers', alongside the traditional management of human, financial and assets resources. In Portugal, this task seems shyly assumed by the management, but in other countries it is already the subject of an advanced theoretical approach. The relationship between the image of a school and its viability is becoming quite clear, according to a study conducted in England by Gewirtz, Ball and Bowe. Actually if many of the factors that influence the recruitment of students - such as demographic or socio-economic characteristics of the catchment area of a school - are outside the control of schools, the image is something that can be managed by them. These authors show that some families have always been particularly aware to the messages sent by different educational institutions but now the financial consequences of recruitment policies are more immediate. The institutional autonomy of schools makes that, regardless of their position in the 'market', the schools feel the need to become more attractive to 'consumers' and, therefore, be more reflective about the messages they send abroad; to cultivate an image more attractive for parents in general, and for some parents, in particular.

The field work that we developed in a group of basic education schools in Portugal, confirmed that, here too, a school of 'quality' is a school that is committed to communicating with its various publics. Pressured by the 'new public management', educational institutions are increasingly investing in communication because of this investment depends on its survival in the 'market' education.
References: Faria, S. (2012). ”Comunicação e transformação da identidade em contexto de mudança – um modelo de análise para as organizações escolares" in Sociologia da Educação – Revista luso-brasileira, Edição Especial. Rio de Janeiro: IPEA, 189-210. Faria, S. (2012). ―A comunicação ao serviço da ―qualidade‖ – uma meta-ideia‖ in Manuel Ferreira Patrício, Luís Sebastião, José Manuel Mata Justo e Jorge Bonito (Org.) Da Exclusão à Excelência: Caminhos Organizacionais para a Qualidade da Educação. Montargil: AEPEC, 139-146. Gewirtz, S.; Ball, S. and Bowe, R. (1995). Markets, choice and equity in education. Buckingham: Open University Press. Santiago, R. A.; Magalhães. A. e Carvalho. T. (2005). O surgimento do managerialismo no sistema de ensino superior português. Coimbra: CIPES. Silva, P. (2003a). Escola-família: Uma relação armadilhada: Interculturalidade e relações de poder . Porto: Edições Afrontamento. Stensaker. B. (2004). The transformation of organizational identities: Interpretations of policies concerning the quality of teaching and learning in Norwegian higher education . Twente: CHEPS/UT.

Cyberbullying, School And Family Environment - Perceptions Of Portuguese Youngsters About Parents And Teachers‘ Roles G
Isabel Freire, University of Lisboa, Portugal Ana Paula Caetano, University of Lisboa, Portugal João Amado, University of Coimbra, Portugal

Bullying among children and youngsters is a concern since a long time. There has been much international research on the subject and increased knowledge about its nature and effects. There is also growing experience of the effectiveness of a range of school-based intervention strategies. With the advent of the new information and communication technologies have emerged new forms of bullying, generally designated cyberbullying, based on the use of technological tools to systematically mistreat others. Cyberbullying is a form of aggression often more insidious than traditional bullying. The technological environment makes relations and social environments more complex, due to the expansion of space and time, and this makes the inequality of power between victims and perpetrators incomparably greater. Research shows that systematic experiences of bullying situations have a tremendous negative impact on the development of its protagonists. So, the intervention must be based on a preventive, pedagogical and humanistic approach, sustained on a systemic view of these problematic. This communication presents some results on the two main stages of the research project named "Cyberbullying - a diagnostic of the situation in Portugal" (FCT, PTDC/CPE-CED/108563/2008). In the first step, exploratory, 339 pupils of 3rd cycle of basic education and secondary schools completed a questionnaire with open questions. The answers allowed perceive the importance that young people attach to the role of adults (including parents, teachers and policy) in the prevention and action against the cyberbullying. Especially parents are those more trustful, and whose expectations rely on, as principals actors in Cyberbullying incidents‘ resolution. Teachers and the policy are also considered as main actors whom is recognised relevance as listeners and active interveners, enable to solve Cyberbullying incidents. In the second stage of the study, a questionnaire with closed answers was administered to around 4000 pupils who attend schools of the same levels of education in various regions of the country. It was intended to contribute to characterize the prevalence of cyberbullying in Portuguese youth population, as

well as to identify the feelings experienced by the youngsters involved, both in the role of victims, and of perpetrators or bystanders. The data also allow relating cyberbullying with home and schooling environments. Keywords: Cyberbullying; home environment; school environment; trusted adults

Parental Participation In Improving Social Competence And Social Integration Of Rejected Children In Primary Education
Juan Francisco García Bacete, University of Balearic Islands, Spain Ghislaine Marande Perrin, University of Balearic Islands, Spain Inés Milian Rojas, University of Balearic Islands, Spain Ofelia Torres Carrillo, University of Balearic Islands, Spain Andrea Rubio Barreda, University of Balearic Islands, Spain

During the last three courses the authors of this paper have been implementing a multicomponent program with the overall goal of promoting social and academic integration of children rejected by their peers in primary education. The influence of the family in peer relationships becomes increasingly important when analyzing the causal processes and design intervention programs. As for rejection, there is wide evidence of the influence of parenting style in the children‘s relationships with others. Dishion a nd Stormshak (2007) found that the adjustment of children and adolescents is a function of how parents handle the educational situation, and their daily interactions with their children. Thus, they have developed a curriculum for professionals concerned with helping parents in their parental role (Dishion, Stormshak and Kavanagh, 2011). Meanwhile Coplan and Schneider (2009) have developed the Hugs program to help parents of shy children. The work of F. Frankel (1996, 2010, Frankel and Myatt 2003) is well known, as much as Parker‘s tripartite model of the relationship between family and peers (Parker et al., 1994). Currently Mikami et al.(2010) have launched this model in designing a program, "Parental Friendship Coaching " structured in three areas: improving parent-child relationships, helping parents teach their children social skills, organization of play dates. Finally, another line of influence repeatedly mentioned in international studies consists in enhancing the connections between school and family (Garcia-Bacete and Traver, 2010). Regarding the interventions for families in this program, two general actions have been implemented: a) regulating and taking advantage of parent-teacher interviews, b) involving parents at home in the tasks of the emotional program curriculum, as well as two specific actions: a) parents as facilitators of their children's friendship; b) cooperative work between teachers, families and researchers in conducting individualized plans for each rejected child. This communication describes these four actions aimed at parental involvement, illustrating each action with some specific elements or activities

Training Family Competences At School To Improve The Educative Outcomes
Miquela Ginard, University of Balearic Islands, Spain M.Antònia Gomila, University of Balearic Islands, Spain Belén Pascual, University of Balearic Islands, Spain Marga Vives, University of Balearic Islands, Spain Rosario Pozo, University of Balearic Islands, Spain

D

Evidence based programmes centred on training family competences have largely shown their efficiency in the field of drugs and behaviour problems prevention among children and adolescents. Among them, the SFP (Kumpfer and DeMarsh 1985; Kumpfer et al. 1989) has been stressed by the Cochrane Review as one of the most successful programmes. This programme is an evidence-based family skills training program that involves the whole family, aiming at the improvement of the parenting competence, the social skills, the behaviour of children, and the family relationships. The Spanish adaptation of this programme is the Family Competence Programme (PCF) and it has been successfully implemented in several parts of Spain (Orte et al. 2008). The PCF has also school based interventions in connection with other social institutions in order to detect those families who show higher risk factors. The results of the interventions already carried out show important benefits in the elements that help the improvement of academic outcomes of the children as well as efficient in the prevention of disruptive behaviours affecting the school social environment. The programme seeks the implication of the families in their educative responsibilities, especially in those presenting disruptive relations and dysfunctional organization. The participation to the programme leads towards a higher involvement of these families in the school and, therefore, towards an improvement of the relations among the involved agents. It becomes then, a space to create links between the families, the school and the community allowing a partnership to improve the outcomes at the academic and the social level. The paper aims to present the project of implementation of the PCF at primary schools, in coordination with the Confederation of parent‘s associations of the Balearic Islands. The project intends to attract families to the school and to get more involved in school activities as a way to create a solid network involving the school, the families and the community (practitioners and social services, as well as other community institutions) that leads to the improvement of the social cohesion.

Implication Of Parents In The Educational System: An Analysis Of Spanish Legislation. E
Amelia Granda-Piñan, University of Valencia, Spain

A correct parents‘ involvement in their children‘s education has a undeniable importance. So many aspects need parents‘ commitment and a tight collaboration between parents and school in order to be able to achieve a comprehensive development of the child. Numerous authors study the relationship between families and schools, agreeing with the great importance a correct action and cooperation have. As the consequences of this relationship family-school affect the society and its evolution, it has been considered the need of establishing legally the margins of a correct intervention from this sector in the educational system. Therefore, legal documents define the parents‘ rights and privileges as well as their duties, establishing also the procedures schools should follow to implicate parents in their children education.

After accomplish a detailed analysis of the educational legislation in force in Spain, and more concretely in the Valencian Community, we have concluded that the relationship of parents and schools is based in three main aspects that are clearly defined: information, participation and cooperation or collaboration. Knowing how to cope with the three of them would contribute to get a better quality in education. Spanish legislation demarcates the field of action of schools and parents concerning the information both should share, the educational aspects in which they should coordinate the action and the means and procedures parents may use to participate in school decisions. On the one hand, taking always their main responsibility in their children‘s education as a starting point, parents should know what legislation allows them to do in the educational formal system and how to do it. On the other hand, teachers and directorial teams should know what obligations they have and how they should let parents collaborate in formal education.
Keywords: education - family - legislation - participation- responsibility

Homework Conceptions And Practices In Chinese And Swedish Schools: A Comparative Study Of Educational Efforts, Quality And Equity B
Limin Gu, Umeå University, Sweden Margaretha Kristoffersson, Umeå University, Sweden

This paper presents the ideas and design of a joint research project between Umeå University in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. The overall aim is to carry out a comparative study of homework conceptions and homework practice at lower secondary school in Sweden and China. The project will last for four years, and consists of several sub-studies comprising a combination of data collection in forms of policy analysis, questionnaire based survey and interviews with students, parents and teachers in lower secondary school in both countries, samples from Västerbottens län, Shanghai and Hangzhou. The specific objectives of the project are to investigate and analyze the status quo and characteristics of homework and/or homework load situation in both countries/regions; to identify and analyze the similarities and/or differences in the definitions, conceptions, foci, strategies, policies and perspectives on homework and homework load in different contexts; to investigate and examine models and cases of homework design and management and the best practices; and to promote communication and collaboration among Swedish and Chinese researchers and PhD students. Contextual and constructivist learning approaches are central to understand and analyze homework conceptions and practices. The expected results could provide scientific evidences on and pedagogical applications into fundamental issues concerning educational efforts, quality and equity. Through cross-cultural comparative study, the research project could analyze homework conceptions and practices in different culture and social contexts and find out common factors that contribute to appropriate homework arrangement and management and a set of best practices for guidance and thereby the promotion of students‘ learning. Homework investigations and policy measures from both countries could offer valuable lessons and experiences to each other. The project could also promote a long-term cooperation in education and research, and to improve the internationalization process of both universities.
Keywords: Homework, homework-load, Sweden, China, lower secondary school, survey, interview.

Rescuing The Childcare Centre: Developing Collaborative Partnership For Quality Childcare
Zahyah Hanafi, University of Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

This study uses qualitative methods to tell the story of a principal at a childcare centre who was faced with increasing demand by parents to place their children at the centre. Currently, there are 200 children enrolled, aged 2 – 6 years and the centre has stopped admission of children. The large enrollment has posed a concern as the centre faces a shortage of childcare providers and teachers to handle the growing number of children. To cater for the immediate needs of the centre, the principal has decided to employ assistant childcare providers with minimal high school qualification. Hence, the centre is equipped with untrained staff, the children are being handled by unqualified childcare providers and teachers and the principal has a hard time trying to motivate the staff to be more committed and interested in their job. Thus, this article describes how the researcher and the principal initiated measures to save the childcare centre through collaboration: observation and discussions led to planning of training sessions, motivational talk and consistent meetings with staff for the implementation of procedures for teaching and learning are the approaches taken to ensure the staff is able to embrace change in order to provide and ensure quality care at the centre.

School-Family Compacts: A Powerful Tool For Improving Student Learning
Anne Henderson, Connecticut State Department of Education, U.S.A. Judy Carson, Connecticut State Department of Education, U.S.A.

D

The goal of this presentation is to describe how a routine requirement in United Stated education law has become a powerful tool for collaborating with families to improve their children‘s progress in learning. This presentation will describe how the state of Connecticut revitalized school-family compacts using focused conversations about learning between parents and teachers at each grade level that help families understand what their children are learning in class and extend meaningful learning opportunities into the home. As a result, participating schools have developed better designed programs for family engagement that are linked to the goals of the school improvement plan and respond to families‘ ideas and concerns, leading to improved student outcomes.
References: Anne T. Henderson, Karen L. Mapp, Vivian R. Johnson and Don Davies, Beyond the Bake Sale: The Essential Guide to Family-School Partnerships (New York: The New Press, 2007) www.thenewpress.com/bakesale Anne T. Henderson and Karen L. Mapp. A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family and Community Connections on Student Achievement (Austin TX: Southwest Educational Development Lab, 2002) www.sedl.org/connections Anne T. Henderson, No Child Left Behind: What‘s in it for Parents (a reader -friendly analysis of the parent involvement provisions in the NCLB law) www.prichardcommittee.org/Portals/1059/CIPL/Staff/NCLB%20guide.pdf Ten Steps to Success in Developing School-Family Compacts www.schoolparentcompact.org Connecticut State Department of Education, School-Family-Community Partnerships Project: http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/cwp/view.asp?a=2678&q=320732&sdePNavCtr=|45493|#45544 Anne T. Henderson, lead author, Family-School-Community Partnerships 2.0: Collaborative Strategies to Advance Student Learning (Washington DC: Priority Schools Campaign, National Education Association, 2011) http://neapriorityschools.org/engaged-families-and-communities/family-school-community-partnerships-2-0collaborative-strategies-to-advance-student-learning

Article on compacts/Bridgeport: http://neapriorityschools.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/BridgeportConnecticut_Profiles.pdf

Parent Involvement And Outreach Efforts In A 6-Week Summer Residential Academy For At Risk Youth B
Sharma Henderson, Pepperdine University and, President/CEO of CO-OP Los Angeles, U.S.A.

CO-OP is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to provide high-needs individuals and families with opportunities and resources they might not normally receive. Upward Bound (UB) is an educational outreach project funded by the US Department of Education (DoE). The CO-OP UB program provides a 6-week Summer Residential Academy (SRA) held at a local college campus to high school students who have been identified as at-risk for academic failure. This paper analyzes the efforts of the program to outreach to the parents of these students before and during the SRA. The first CO-OP SRA was held in 2004 with the most recent in 2012. Over the course of those 9 years, the program has developed a model for parent outreach and inclusion that has been duplicated at other sites. This study examines the effectiveness of the parent involvement activities of the CO-OP UB program during its SRA. The DoE has shifted its parent involvement mandate in UB to only include financial literacy workshops during the most recent grant-cycle. However, the role of parents remains crucial to the success of the at-risk youth enrolled in the programs. The techniques used by the CO-OP UB have been duplicated by other local UB projects since 2007. The author participated in the study as a researcher-participant and annually collected data on the program activities targeted towards parent involvement. Data includes observer notes and documentation such as flyers, invitations, case notes, and workshop handouts. In addition, parent surveys were evaluated annually which includes demographic data, 10 Likert-Scale questions, and 5 open-ended questions. 10 parents were interviewed at the close of the 2012 SRA and those interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed in comparison to the other data. The CO-OP UB SRA begins the last week of June and ends the first week of August. The number of participants ranges from 50 to 110 depending on funding with 50 participating in Summer of 2012. Parents of these students are provided with a variety of information throughout the year and leading up to the SRA such as orientation workshops, videos and pictures of previous SRAs, newsletters, and information sessions. Parents are invited to join the students on move-in day, tour the campus, and are provided with lunch. Each year, over 65% of parents take advantage of this opportunity. Since the program runs Monday through Friday, the program utilizes a variety of communication tools to interact with the parents, resolve disciplinary issues, and to keep parents informed of the progress of their children. Some of these tools include: weekly progress reports from both teachers and tutors, posting of pictures and updates via social media, use of email and text to communicate specific issues, phone calls, and face-to-face meetings. 93% of the parents who responded to the 2012 survey indicated that the outreach activities were effective compared to 66% in 2004. The program staff is specifically trained to encourage parent involvement and to utilize culturally responsive techniques and communication styles to interact with the parents. This is particularly important since 100% of the program participants are from under-represented backgrounds with 87% being Latino and African-American in the most recent year. 93% were low-income and potential firstgeneration to college students.

The use of multiple methods of contact, culturally responsive and sensitive techniques, and year-long informational activities created a sense of trust among the parents that enabled them to encourage their children to participate in the SRA. New parents requested the involvement of past parent participants during the orientation process to the SRA.

―From Difficulties To Strength‖. Using Multiple Informants In Order To Support Pupils‘ Well-Being And Strengthen Home-School Relationship. D/E
Heli Hjälm, University of Eastern Finland, Finland

The child often has the perception of being ―a hidden customer‖ in the home -school relationship. This study is a continuum from the licentiate thesis research about children‘s participation. At the pupils‘ point of view, the home-school co-operation often signifies sending information to each other and is problembased. It is important to transform the perspective into more positive. Information from multiple sources is recommended when assessing students‘ emotions and behaviours. The purpose of this study was to extend the cross informant agreement research of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (BERS-2) with sample of Finnish pupils, parents and teacher. The BERS-2 is widely used in the United States (US) schools and mental health services. In order to use a test instrument, the BERS-2 was translated into Finnish (Lappalainen et. al. 2009). The BERS-2 contains 52 items that form five subscales: Interpersonal Strengths [IS], Family Involvement [FI], Intrapersonal Strength [IaS], School Functioning [SF], Affective Strength [AS], as well as an overall Strength Index score. Individual items are rated on a 4-point Likerttype scale. Although the BERS-2 has originally been developed to assess student strengths, in this study it is also used as a tool for home-school co-operation with a strength-based approach. For the first time we had the same instrument in order to see whether there is a difference between the cross informant agreement of pupils, parents and teacher. It was a starting point to equal conversations, where all of three participants‘ perceptions were taken into consideration.
Keywords: home-school relationship, pupil‘s point of view, multilateral, BERS, support

Effect Of Parents‘ Belief And Involvement On Adolescents‘ Career Aspiration: Examining The Expectancy-Value Model E
Esther Sui-chu Ho, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China

Using data from a current international study, Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA2006), this paper examines the career aspiration of adolescent of based on the expectancy-value choices model of Eccles and Wigfield (2002). This paper focuses on the concepts of achievement related choices, which is measured by career aspiration of adolescents. The results indicated that school‘s economic-socio-cultural mileu; parent‘s belief and involvement behavior, children‘s self-schemata, and their subjective task value including their interest-enjoyment value, attainment value and utility value are useful in explaining the career choice of young people. In particular, school economic-socio-cultural context, parents‘ belief, expectation, values and behavior, and adolescents‘ gender, self -efficacy, their interest towards learning, and their instrumental motivation towards learning were found to be the most powerful factors in explaining adolescents‘ career aspirations.

The Disempowering And Empowering Influence Of School‘s Power Use On The Agency Construction Of ADHD Diagnosed Pupil‘s Mothers A/B
Juho Honkasilta, University of Jyväskylä, Finland Tanja Vehkakoski, University of Jyväskylä, Finland

According to Finish national core curriculum for basic education (2004), Basic Education Act (2003/477) and its reform (2010/642), home –school partnership is represented as a valuable means of carrying out both students‘ welfare and inclusion in the context of primary schooling (see also Norwich et al., 2005). The co-operation between home and school, as well as its successful fulfillment, can be characterized as a field of negotiation of power relations (Fish, 1990; Goldberg, 1989; Strickland, 1982; Lake & Billingsley 2000), trust (Dunst et al. 1992; Adams & Christenson, 1998; 2000; Lake & Billingsley 2000), service delivery, constraints, valuation, knowledge, communication and needs (Lake& Billingsley 2000). For children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) functional home – school co-operation plays significant role. Although ADHD symptoms correlate with negative long-term prognosis of different sectors of life, such as difficulties in psychosocial and school functioning (e.g. Biederman et al., 1996; Dupaul & Weyandt, 2006), negative outcomes cannot be explained merely through medical paradigm but the knowledge, understanding and know-how of social surroundings play crucial role in the development of individual trajectories of ADHD diagnosed children. Parents are the ones to gain and possess knowledge of their children‘s symptoms and to pass it forward and therefore researching ADHD from the point of view of home-school co-operation is essential, yet rather little researched topic. This paper concerns the ousting power usage of school institute constructed by mothers (n=11) of ADHD diagnosed children in Finland. The power relations between home and school are studied through mothers‘ agency construction at their children‘s school attendance. Data is collected through thematic interview and the analysis of transcriptions is based on principles of discourse analysis. Mothers construct their agency, as regards attempting to improve their children‘s inauspicious school circumstances, strongly according to the limitations provided by the school and so dominantly construct school as one to ignore educational partnership between home and school. Also, significance is given towards individual mother – teacher relationships in which mothers construct their agency‘s being accepted. The significance of home-school partnership in the context of ADHD is discussed.

A Subject Teacher, A Change Agent Or Not? - That´s The Question.
Ulla Hotti, Finnish Language and Literature Education, Finland

Finnish teachers on all level of training are involved with cultural and social diversities: how to deal with them? In order to get well, the task of teacher education is to give quality keys to do well in all educational situations. This is printed and red in the written curricula of the teacher education. But how can we make sure that all will happen as it is designed? We know the fact that the written curriculum is not the same with the realized curriculum. We also know that one relevant tool is to evaluate the realized curriculum by quering the partners in different positions about the quality for professional work. In this academic social system respondents are subject teacher students. The task of this article is to shed light on how the subject teacher student assessed the realizing subject teacher curriculum in 2005-08 as a pedagogical environment from the point of view of becoming a professional. The purpose was to examine from a professional point of view the symbolic and operational compatibility of the curriculum at the time as experienced and assessed by subject-teacher students. The students were questioned on how the academic curriculum as a learning environment showed them how

to progress from novices to experts. The research material was comprised of the teacher students´ feedback on curriculum innovation from the academic years 2005−2008 (N=1550), gathered using feedback forms consisting of quantitative and qualitative material. The research material was examined systemically within a normative-theoretical research framework: the normative framework was constructed on European and Finnish laws concerning academic teacher education and the norms and strategies of the University of Helsinki, whereas the theoretical framework was constructed on Rogers´s (2003) Innovation and Diffusion Theory (the frame theory) and as well as essential background theories concerning academic teaching, supervision and learning to teach. The Innovation and Diffusion Theory provided a relevant perspective for examining the implementation of the subject-teacher education curriculum and how students re-innovate and re-invent it. This kind of student-cent approach and examination allowed for the students´ voices to be heard teleologically, according to the strategy of University of Helsinki (2007-09): students take part in improving the quality of teacher education curriculum.
Keywords: change agent, social system, innovation research, interpretation, subject teacher education, assessment, knowledge, academic pedagogy

Childhood's Reminiscences. Adultus Parvus And The Re – run Generation As Different Meaning's Phenomena In A Changing Social Reality
Małgorzata Karczmarzyk, University of Gdansk, Poland Agnieszka Bzymek, Ateneum Szkoła Wyższa, Poland

In the reality of mass - media, which does not provide sense of security and stabilization in the world of value and valid standards, mass-culture is becoming an educational determinant of the youngest generation. Industrial concerns,which supply "supermarket" of culture, release and promote specific life style of the generation known as the Re – run Generation. The Re – run Generation makes sentimentality of the past and resists the future. It is a kind of indulging in nostalgic memories supported by the industry, which refers to the 60's, the 70's or the 80's. These escapes into the past are reactions, which resulting from fear of the adulthood and responsibility. They also construct new meaning's phenomena, which we will try to examine in this article. In our reflections, we define the child of the postmodernity era as adultus parvus (small adulthood), which is for his / her parents the most costly / biggest expense. The adults, in turn, we call as the Return Generation, because it seems to refer to infantalisation and to retro-returns. The main purpose of our work is phenomenographical analysis, which compares two images of childhood. We will base on qualitative interviews with 9-year-old children and with adults, who make childhood's reminiscences. The reflection about behaviours created by social – cultural reality and attempt to perceive effects of ―supermarket culture‖ accompany us in our article.
Keywords: childhood, mass – culture, adultus parvus, Re – run Generation, retro – returns, sentimentality of the past

Dialogs With Parents On Children‘s Mathematics: Engaging Parental Perspective On Classroom Learning Through Video
Elif Karsli, University of Georgia, USA Martha Allexsaht-Snider, University of Georgia, USA Melissa Freeman, University of Georgia, USA

Calls for parental engagement in children‘s mathematical learning echo around the globe, reflecting recognition of the importance of mathematics in children‘s lives and the instrumental role of mathematics in society (Cai, 2003; Goos & Jolly, 2003; Sheldon & Epstein, 2005). Young children‘s mathematics in both and in- and out-of-school contexts is highlighted in the educational literature; however, much of this research has underestimated the potential role of parental involvement in mathematics education. Partnerships with family and community can be key to supporting children‘s mathematics learning since recent research on family involvement in mathematics presents positive outcomes for both children and diverse families, as well as for teachers (Allexsaht-Snider, 2006; Baker, Street, & Tomlin, 2006; Civil, Planas, & Quintos, 2005; Martin, 2006). Following this perspective, the research presented here investigates mathematically-rich engagements of four-year-old children in a prekindergarten class and parental perspectives about those engagements occurring at school. In this video-cued multivocal ethnographic study (Tobin, Wu, & Davidson, 1989), the researcher recorded videos of children when they engaged in mathematics in the classroom, and then, showed 15-minutes excerpts from these videos to parents to engage in dialogs about their children‘s mathematics. Drawing on conceptual frameworks of Bakhtin (1981), the researcher analyzed parental dialogs inductively utilizing Bakhtinian concepts of heteroglossia, and authoritative and internally persuasive discourse. The researcher will present and analyze videos of children and dialogs with three parents from diverse cultural backgrounds. Implications for researchers and educators working on young children‘s mathematics as well as methodological implications for conducting research with families will be discussed.
Keywords: Parent involvement in mathematics; family mathematics; early childhood mathematics References: Allexsaht-Snider, M. (2006). Editorial: Urban Parents‘ Perspectives on Children‘s Mathematics Learning and Issues of Equity in Mathematics Education. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 8(3), 187-195. Baker, D., Street, B., & Tomlin, A. (2006). Navigating School Numeracies: Explanations for Low Achievement in Mathematics of UK Children From Low SES Background. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 8(3), 287-307. Bakhtin, M.M.(1981). Discourse in the novel. In M. Holquist (ed.), The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M.M. Bakhtin (C. Emerson and M. Holquist, trans.), University of Texas Press, Austin. Cai, J. (2003). Investigating parental roles in students' learning of mathematics from a cross-national perspective. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 15(2), 87-106. Civil, M., Planas, N., & Quintos, B. (2005). Immigrant parents‘ perspectives on their children‘s mathematics. Zentralblatt für Didaktik der Mathematik (ZDM), 37(2), 81-89. Goos, M., & Jolly, L. (2004). Building partnerships with families and communities to support children's numeracy learning. In I. Putt, R. Faragher & M. McLean (Eds.), Mathematics education for the third millenium: Towards 2010 (Proceedings of the 27th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Townsville, pp. 279-286). Sydney: MERGA. Martin, D. B. (2006). Mathematics Learning and Participation as Racialized Forms of Experience: African American Parents Speak on the Struggle for Mathematics Literacy. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 8(3), 197–229. Sheldon, S. B., & Epstein, J. L. (2005). Involvement counts: Family and community partnerships and mathematics achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 98(4), 196-206. Tobin J., Wu, D., & Davidson, D. (1989). Preschools in Three Cultures: Japan, China, and the United States. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Influence Of Parents On The Life Of School In The Context Of Educational Law In Poland.
Joanna Kołodziejczyk, Jagiellonian University, Poland Jakub Kołodziejczyk, Jagiellonian University, Poland

Cooperation between school and parents is one of the key conditions of development of students and school as an organization. This requirement is set by the Polish educational system and is reflected in the provisions of the law. Parents have right to participate in the life of school and schools are obliged to provide conditions for parents‘ participation. In the article we discuss the issue how the parents‘ participation legitimate by the provisions of the law in the life of school influences the decision-making process in school. The data used in the analysis come from external school evaluations carried out in 2009.
Key words: participation, cooperation between school and parents, representative participation, educational law.

Combined Family And School Interventions – Adequate Support To Students With Behavioral Disorders A (B? / E?)
Emina Kopas-Vukasinovic, University of Kragujevac, Jagodina, Serbia. Emilija Lazarevic, Institute for Educational Research, Belgrade, Serbia

This paper presents the causes of disorders in student behavior. The steps towards preventive interventions have been clearly outlined. The aim of research was to determine the possibilities of family and school preventive interventions aimed at offering support to students with behavioral disorders. The assumption is that such interventions would help students solve problems of discomfort, poor functioning in activities and personal failure, which may occur as a consequence of the disorders. Combined family and school interventions can be seen in the context of clearly defined causes and signs of disorders. We opted for the three behavioral disorders in children, which are easily recognized and are common examples in practice: aggression, poor concentration, and a child who is trying too hard to fit in. The research was conducted using descriptive and comparative methods, procedure of content analysis and interviews with high school students. Results confirmed our hypotheses: a) that any behavioral disorder must be perceived complexly, b) the individual's behavioral problems are interconnected and interdependent. Without a clearly defined cause and recognition of a common ground, it is not possible to plan adequate prevention of behavioral disorders in order to offer support to a child (student). Prevention involves three levels of adult intervention for children: 1) prevention of occurence of disorders, 2) early detection of disorders, 3) prevention of recurrence of the disorders. Each of these levels implies determination of the specific procedures and clear boundaries of family and school interventions for children with behavioral disorders.
Keywords: behavioral disorders, family, school, combined interventions, the boundaries of interventions.

Construction Of A Youth Identity Between Home And School - In A Danish Context A / D (F?)
Niels Kryger, Aarhus University, Copenhagen, Denmark

The paper presents findings from a study based on interviews with 62 Danish adolescents (15-16 years old) from ninth grade in three Danish schools (The Danish Folkeskole). The focus is how they narrate about their shaping an identity of themselves in home school relations, and especially how they from their diverse positions (given by themselves as well as by the social settings) manage to face the ambiguous demand for creating an identity as independent and autonomous in the context of home and school (and relations between these). One of the issues discussed is that the school in addition to its function as the

official academic school, also functions as arena for ‗youth cultural‘ positioning. And another is that an important element in young people‘s shaping a youth identity is negotiation of generational relations to the ‗near-by-adults‘ which implies both parents and teachers and their mutual relations. The paper is part of the project: ―Home-school cooperation as a cultural given‖

What Kinds Of Stories Are You Going To Tell Your Children? Representations Of Korean Immigrant Parents‘ Perspectives In Picture Book Choices
Jaehee Kwon, University of Georgia, USA Martha Allexaht-Snider, University of Georgia, USA

Parents‘ goals for their children‘s learning in- and out-of-school have been documented in research with diverse ethnic groups around the world (e.g., Bernhard, & Freire, 1999; Gillanders & Jimenez, 2004; Kwon, Suh, Bang, Jung, & Moon, 2010; Li, 2006; Li, 2001). Researchers have argued the importance of knowledge about families from specific ethnic groups for effective culturally responsive teaching (Gay, 2002). By seeking this kind of knowledge, teachers can build bridges for diverse children among their home, community, and school learning experiences. This study examines how parents read, interpreted, chose, and responded to picture books about Korean immigrants. Most prior research on stories about immigrants has examined the social and cultural contexts for children‘s and adolescents‘ responses to these storybooks (Beach, 1993). Because parents play a pivotal role in providing literacy resources to their young children, we need more research about parents‘ these texts. Parents enlist certain picture books not only for developing their children‘s reading skills and habits (Adams, 1990), but also to help their children understand themselves and shape their values and commitment to society (Ozturk, Sendogdu, Seker, & Tekinsen, 2011). Parents‘ choices, however, are not neutral, because factors such as their educational and socioeconomic backgrounds and culturally-situated beliefs may influence their picture book selections. The participants in this study were five Korean mothers in their 30s who had lived in the southeastern United States for from three to ten years. The mothers took home ten picture books about Korean immigrants to read at their own pace and were then asked to distinguish the three they liked the best and least. Individual 90-minute semi-structured interviews (Patton, 2002) were conducted, discussing mothers‘ book choices and educational expectations for their children‘s futures. Data were analyzed based on the constant comparative method (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). The findings showed that the parents wanted to tell stories that included pride in being Korean and overcoming difficulties in order to help their children to address similar challenges in the future. Furthermore, mothers prioritized books that they saw supporting their goals for using education as a means for children to achieve social mobility and prestigious jobs as members of the middle class and a minority group in American society. As teachers of young children committed to understanding the lives of diverse families seek classroom texts, parental voices can provide important insights. Particularly as they work to support their immigrant students in shaping positive ethnic identities (Chi, 1993; Leu, 2010), educators and researchers can learn from the interactive, responding-to-texts methods employed in this research as they work to co-construct culturally responsive pedagogy with diverse parents of young children.
Key words: Korean immigrants, parents, culturally responsive pedagogy References: Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Beach, R. (1993). A teacher's introduction to reader-response theories. Urbana, Illinois: National Council of Teachers of English. Bernhard, J. K., & Freire, M. (1999). What is my child learning at elementary school? Culturally contested issues between teachers and Latin American families. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 31(3), 72-94. Chi, M. (1993). Asserting Asian-American children's self and cultural identity through Asian-American children's literature. Social Studies Review, 32, 50-55. Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(2), 106 –116. Gillanders, C., & Jimenez, R. T. (2004). Reaching for Success: A Close-Up of Mexican Immigrant Parents in the USA Who Foster Literacy Success for Their Kindergarten Children. Journal Of Early Childhood Literacy, 4(3), 243-269 Kwon, K., Suh, Y., Bang, Y., Jung, J., & Moon, S. (2010). The Note of discord: Examining educational perspectives between teachers and Korean parents in the U. S. teaching and teacher education. An International Journal of Research And Studies, 26(3), 497-506. Leu, S. (2010). Exploring Bicultural Experiences: Responding to a Chinese American Young Adult Novel. Language & Literacy: A Canadian Educational E-Journal, 12(1), 57-75. Li, G. (2006). What do parents think? Middle-class Chinese immigrant parents' perspectives on literacy learning, homework, and school-home communication. School Community Journal, 16(2), 27-46. Li, J. (2001). Expectations of Chinese immigrant parents for their children's education: The interplay of Chinese tradition and the Canadian context. Canadian Journal of Education, 4, 477-494. Ozturk, M. B., Sendogdu, M.B., Seker, E., & Tekinsen, H. K. (2011). Parents with children in preschool children's picture book review elections. Procedia - Social And Behavioral Sciences, 15, 1906-1910. Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

The Role And Place Of Parents Of Children With Disabilities In Inclusive Education In Serbia A
Emilija Lazarević, Institute for Educational Research, Belgrade, Serbia Emina Kopas-Vukašinović, University of Kragujevac, Jagodina, Serbia

The current Law on the fundamentals of the education system adopted in 2009 states that inclusive education is a legal obligation in Serbia, which has resulted in increased accessibility of education to children with disabilities in regular schools. In keeping with the contemporary trends in education, this Law has created prerequisites for introducing numerous novelties. Hence, the focus has been shifted from professional debates on the justifiability of this type of education to the question of how to implement inclusive education most successfully. Numerous challenges have been encountered in the implementation of inclusive education in our country, while the role and place of parents of children with disabilities in inclusive education has remained very important. In spite of the changes made so far, system solutions for enabling support, procedures and mechanisms for accomplishment and development of partner relations between teachers and parents in inclusive education have not yet been sufficiently developed in our education system. Parents of children with disabilities in our country are not very often partners in the process of education in which their children are involved. It is very important to take into account this fact since the role of teachers in the light of inclusive education does not only presume accomplishment of the prescribed curriculum, but also demands from teachers to create the most optimal conditions for the development of students with disabilities, suitable to their specific developmental and educational needs. Understanding the development of these students and offering support cannot be achieved from the perspective of only one theoretical framework or paradigm. Extensive knowledge of theory and its adequate implementation in practice is vital, and the place and role of parents in this process is essential and invaluable. This paper discusses the role and place of parents of children with disabilities from the aspect of the current situation in inclusive education.
Key words: parents of children with disabilities, role and place of parents in inclusive education, teachers/school, cooperation, support.

Student Developmental Needs Based Parent Partnership: A Case Study Of Qilun Elementary School In Minhang District, Shanghai A
Jiacheng Li, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China Peiying Wang, Qilun Elementary School in Minghang District, Shanghai, China Zhongxian Chen, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China

China is experiencing a transformation period with a soaring urbanization, and more and more rural students are swarming into urban schools. This, on the one hand, brings diversity to urban schools; one the other hand, causes many problems for such schools. Under this background, parent partnership in schools plays an important role in promoting the education equity and improving education quality. By applying the qualitative and quantitative research methods, such as survey, observation and interview, this paper takes the Qilun Elementary School in Minghang District, Shanghai as an example, exploring the enormous value of promoting students‘ development conceived in their diversified activities and practices between the parents and school. Through the study, we find out that the case school has a very diverse culture background. Among its 463 students, 336 come from 18 other Chinese provinces outsider of Shanghai, which occupy almost 60

percent of China‘s territory. Most of its students are the offspring of the alien workers with low social and economical status in Shanghai. Those parents are less educated, and most of them are just graduators of middle school. Under such circumstances, students‘ parents, together with the school, have carried

out a series of activities which are various in forms and broad in contents.
The case of Qilun Elementary School shows that parent partnership should base on students‘ developmental needs and focus on promoting students‘ development. To promote the parent partnership, we should establish a system of organizations and operating mechanisms to carry out colorful activities and build various relationships. By self-innovation, schools and parents should energize the ecosystem and achieve self-development.

Six Home-School Partnership Mechanisms To Reduce School Drop-Out
Mariette Lusse, Hogeschool, Roterdam, The Netherlands

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Home-school partnership in education can reduce school drop-out (Severiens & Verstegen, 2007; WRR, 2009). Good parenting at home (e.g. having high expectations and talk with children about school), seems to be the most important indicator for success in school (Desforges & Abouchaar, 2003; Fan & Chen, 2001; Henderson & Mapp, 2003; Hill & Tyson, 2009; Jeynes, 2007). To improve academic socialization it is important to reach out to all parents, especially those whose child is at risk for school drop-out. This is most challenging in disadvantaged neighborhoods where the barriers for parents to come to school are high (Karsten et al, 2006; Lareau, 2003; Lee & Bowen, 2006; Lawrence-Lightfoot, 2003; Pomerantz et al., 2007). The need to decrease school drop-out and to improve home-school partnership in these neighborhoods is most urgent and most difficult at the same time. In the conference I will present and discuss six mechanisms to improve home-school partnerships that may reduce school drop-out. This study aimed to find answers on how home-school partnership in disadvantaged context should be organized to contribute to a decrease of school drop-out. The study was conducted in the Southern area of Rotterdam, which socioeconomic situation is remarkable low compared to the rest of The Netherlands. This area of Rotterdam has for example the highest rates of school drop-out and poverty and the lowest levels of education of the Netherlands (Deetman & Mans, 2011). Based on a literature review and a field study on four secondary schools a guide is designed for professionals in urban secondary education to prepare these schools for a future in which all parents are included. The guide contains a cluster of interventions and six mechanisms in the involving process, based on for instance Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler (2005) and Mapp (2002). This research assumes that these mechanisms advance the role taking of parents at home and the perceived feeling of welcome, reciprocity and mutual trust in the relationship. The mechanisms should also increase the feeling of pride and trust in the career perspectives of the pupil by both parents and adolescents. During the school year 2011-2012 fifteen secondary schools in the Southern part of Rotterdam used the guide to improve their partnership with parents. Data was collected by means of observations and questionnaires. Analyses were conducted to verify the relation between the interventions and the assumed mechanisms. A well designed introductory conversation for instance seems to support the mechanisms. The administrated attendance rate of parents at school demonstrates the feasibility to reach out to (almost) all parents. The main issues in the presentation of the results of this research are: • which mechanism seem to contribute to improvement on home-school relationship in secondary education in disadvantaged contexts and which interventions seem to contribute to these mechanism? • what is the opinion of teachers, parents and pupils about the effectiveness of the selected interventions and did the schools succeed to include all parents?

References: Deetman, & Mans (2011). Kwaliteitssprong Zuid. Final advice of team Deetman: Mans on the approach RotterdamZuid. Desforges, C. & Abouchaar, A. (2003). The impact of parental involvement, parental support and family education on pupil achievements and adjustment. A literature review. London: Department for education skills. Fan, X & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students' academic achievement: a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13(1), 1-22. Henderson, A.T., & Mapp, K.L. (2002). A new wave of evidence. The impact of school, family and community connections on student achievement. Austin: Southwest Educational Development Laboratoy. Hill, N. E., & Tyson, D.F. (2009). Parental involvement in middle school: A meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 740-763. Hoover-Dempsey, & K.V., Sandler, H.W. (2005). Final performance report for OERI Grant 3 R305T010673. The social context of parental involvement: a path to enhanced achievement. Nashville: Vanderbilt University. Jeynes, W. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42(1), 82-110 Karsten, S., Jong, U. de, Ledoux, G., & Sligte, H.W. (2006).The position of parents and pupils in the governance policy. Amsterdam, SCO - Kohnstamminstituut Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods. Class, race, and family life. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California press. Lawrence-Lightfoot, S., (2003). The essential conversation. What parents and teachers can learn from each other. New York: Ballantine books. Lee, J. & Bowen, N. (2006). Parent Involvement, Cultural Capital, and the Achievement Gap Among Elementary School Children. American Educational Research Journal. 43(2) 193-218. Mapp, K. L. (2002). Having their say: Parents describe how and why they are involved in their children‟s education. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Pomerantz, E.M., Moorman, E.A., & Litwack, S.D. (2007). The How, Whom, and Why of Parents' Involvement in Children's Academic Lives: More Is Not Always Better. Review of Educational Research, 77(3), 373-410. Severiens, S.E. & Verstegen, D.M.L. (2007). and failure in pre-vocational education. Explanations for school careers in pre-vocational education in the region of Rotterdam. Results of three years of research. Rotterdam: Risbo WRR (2009). Trust in school. About the drop-out of 'overloaded' adolescents. WRR-rapport nr. 83 Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press

Love-Based Practice In Education

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Kaarina Määttä, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland Marju Määttä, University of Applied Sciences, Rovaniemi, Finland Satu Uusiautti, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland

Teachers‘ authority relies partly on the mastery of substance but that is not enough if the purpose is to enhance students‘ overall growth, self-knowledge and well-being. In today‘s schools, a variety of new phenomena (e.g. multiculturalism, exclusion, etc.) challenges teachers‘ work and teachers have to be able to cooperate with not only various pupils but also with parents and the community. In this presentation, we will discuss pedagogical love as a part of teachers‘ work. Using pedagogical love in teaching means the way of teaching where love for various pupils is manifested as trust and belief in their talent and progress. But how could teachers use love in practice, when teaching classrooms and when working and interacting with pupils, parents, and the surrounding community? The study is a part of the research project called ―Love-based leadership – an interdisciplinary approach‖ (www.ulapland.fi/lovebasedleadership) launched at the University of Lapland in 2011. We will introduce our analysis of research on love and how it can be applied in education. The purpose is to increase the positively sensitive actions of love-based leadership through training and

activities on savoring and mindfulness, gratitude, optimism and resilience at schools. Character strengths are promoted by identifying students‘ signature strengths and having them use these strengths in everyday life. The fundamental aim is to provide activities in education that increase students‘ sense of meaning and fulfillment, and with experiences of success. We also discuss how teachers‘ love -based practice may enhance the emergence of productive learning partnerships.

The Challenging Role Of Educating Children At Home
Raquel-Amaya Martínez-González, Oviedo University, Spain Lucía Álvarez-Blanco, Oviedo University, Spain Mª Teresa Iglesias, Oviedo University, Spain Mª Henar Pérez-Herrero, Oviedo University, Spain

E

Many studies all along decades have shown that parents and families play a key role on children‘s school achievement and on preventing children‘s conflicts at school. Parental involvement in their children‘s education and school-families partnerships have also been identified as important indicators of school effectiveness. Being aware of the difficulties families in Europe face to raise their children, and considering both that the family is a primary unit of society and that parenting plays a fundamental role in society and for its future, the Council of Europe proposed the Recommendation 2006/19 on Positive Parenting. This proposal is part of a broader study granted by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (EDU2012-38074). The main objective of this research is to identify educational strategies parents need to learn to be more effective in building up positive family dynamics which promote their children‘s academic success. It was performed following an exploratory descriptive methodology, aimed at identifying parenting needs. Both quantitative and qualitative procedures to gather information on the issues under research were used in order to identify parental educational needs regarding children‘s upbringing. The variables under research were classified into seven dimensions related to children‘s development as well as to parents‘ cognitive, emotional and social competences for positive parenting. The sample is composed of 246 Spanish parents from urban and rural areas of the Principality of Asturias (North of Spain). These parents have different educational backgrounds and took part in the study voluntarily. Their children were enrolled in kindergarten (0-6 years old), primary school (6-11 years old) and secondary school (12-18 years old). A questionnaire by Martínez-González (2009), including closed and open questions was applied to gather quantitative and qualitative information about the dimensions mentioned. The Cronbach Alpha was .817. Results show that most of the parents participating in this study perceive they have adequate selfesteem; nevertheless, they demand to learn further effective strategies to become more assertive and consistent when bringing up their children. This happens mainly when establishing clear behavioural norms, limits and when applying the logical consequences in the cases those limits are trespassed, which will facilitate family dynamics.

Exploring Determinants Of School Dropout: An Empirical Tool For High School Students A
Raquel-Amaya Martinez-Gonzalez, University of Oviedo, Spain Loredana Addimando, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy Alessandro Pepe, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy, Lucia Alvarez-Blanco, University of Oviedo, Spain

This study investigated the psychometric characteristics of the Drops-Out Open Door (DOOR) Questionnaire–Students version. DOOR is an European project on the Risk of Dropping Out of High School (Socrates, 112578-CP-1-2003-1-NL-COMENIUS-C21), involving Austria, Cyprus, Spain and The Netherlands. Its main objective was to identify educational needs associated to the risk of dropping out as they are perceived by the students, their parents and teachers. In fact, the identification of major determinants able to prevent school dropout and reasons underlying situations of underachievement at school represent a crucial set of knowledge allowing both researchers and practitioners to develop more focused and consistent school intervention programs. To this end, a self-report questionnaire was developed to survey what causes underachievement from the point of view of high school students (n =188). In this contribute, we firstly focused on the quantitative assessment of the measurement model of the tool administered to the sample and then on the evaluation of reliability and validity measures of the corresponding scales. Results suggested that teachers‘ (Cronbach's α = .880) and parents‘ educational support (α = .740), together with students‘ motivation to learn (α = .781) and positive attitude towards learning (α = .821) are key factors to understand the dropout phenomenon. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Key words: Students‟ dropout, Teachers‟ and parents‟ educational support, Drops-Out Open Door Questionnaire – students version.

Relationship School-Family-Community: When All Learn With All
Maria Martins de Sousa, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal Teresa Sarmento, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal

Despite the weak involvement of families in the school life of their children, there is a widespread perception and a tacit acceptance of the importance of this involvement and implication, by the strong and positive correlation that it has with the school and educational success of children, adolescents and youngsters. In a research carried out under the PhD in Educational Sciences and from the perception of parents and teachers who play the roles of Class Tutors, it was possible to identity very significant benefits that can result from a close and constructive relationship between the school, the surrounding community, and particularly families. The joint reflection on these results as well as the objective to put it at the service of the improvement of the school educational activity, the project "PARENTS AND TEACHERS IN TRAINING / ACTION" was born. Aiming the promotion of an active and informed participation of families in their children's school careers and relying on the commitment of the internal actors, this project chooses as primary intervention strategy the training of parents and teachers as they are more directly responsible in the educational process. Through the development and deepening - by specialized teams - topics / issues, mostly suggested by recipients, a contribution to the construction of a space of reflection around the complex daily school life is provided, in joint pursuit of the most appropriate responses to the problems and constraints that characterize it. By fading the differences and disagreements among parents and among them and teachers, through both the standardization of a professional and relational language and the educational skills, as well as the coordination of wills and deeds, this space may contribute to the development of a co-educative and colearning community, capable of anticipating a future with greater equity in education as far as the SchoolFamily-Community concerns.

Parent Cafés: A New Secret Weapon Of Modern School? D

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Alexei Medvedev, BQM Beratung Qualifizierung Migration, Hamburg, Germany

The following contribution examines a socio-cultural phenomenon that has been emerging in Germany in the recent years – so-called „Elterncafés‟ (parent cafes) in schools and other education-related institutions, obviously an attempt to attract more foreign-born parents through establishing an institutionalized but at the same time low-threshold setting that combines both Oriental and Occidental traditions of coffee houses and tea rooms. A closer examination of this phenomenon would lead us to the conclusion that most parent cafes at schools have emerged only in recent years: the oldest are about five, the majority is not even three years old. Parent cafés seem to be an attractive format of cooperation between parents and schools. It is too early to claim the school-based parent cafés would manage to evolve a long-awaited breakthrough in home-school policies and replace out-of-date structures of school-parent communication in this country. Nevertheless, the fact is that nationwide the parent café model finds more and more advocates across all school types. The contribution offers several possible approaches to explain this phenomenon. Meanwhile, the term ‗Elterncafé‘ seems to be accustomed by school development practitioners. Therefore, it still raises the question of definition, namely, whether the prototype of the ‗parent café' with its specific features corresponds to the ‗normal street café‘ the way it has been existing in the last 350 years in the Western hemisphere. The core of the following contribution is dedicated to a long-standing cooperation between the Europe School Gymnasium Hamm and BQM Consulting Qualification Migration, a Hamburg-based think tank at the school-to-work transition. Five years ago BQM launched a project which aims to improve the involvement of parents with other than German cultural and linguistic background into school affairs. Among others BQM started a peer-to-peer training program for active migrant parents. The successful participants of this program become so-called ―Moderatoren‖ (facilitators) and disseminate their knowledge on school-to-work transition issues to migrant communities and to their neighborhood. The author reflects these experiences and proposes 7 principles of the school-based parent café based on the co-operation between the school, the BQM and the BQM volunteer facilitators.

Parental Identity As Educational Transition From Childhood To Parenthood
Maria Mendel, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Education, University of Gdansk, Poland

The memory serves our identities. The researchers say that the identity is a filter of memory (Niedzwienska: 2012). Due to identity work we differentiate our reminiscences and some of them we treat as more, some as less valuable for us. The grounded convictions about who and what we are lead us to treat the reminiscences which support them as more valuable than others (ibidem, p. 171). Such reminiscences valuable for identity are usually present in narratives as the sentences which could be easy located in a category: I remember this like it was yesterday… In the paper, I will present my findings of the qualitative research in which I analyzed the biographic narratives of parents who participated in the project Parents, school and educational transition in Poland: 1989-2009 (University of Gdansk, 20062009). The project was based on theory of ritual transition applied to social, political and educational transformation after the Polish upheaval in 1989 (Mendel 2005). The parents told stories about their childhood (when they attended schools in the reality of former system) and about their parenthood through which they experienced the new social order in their children‘s school performance. Being interested in identity work in the light of work of memory, I comparatively analyzed parts of the interviews (census: the year 1989) reflecting the category I remember this like it was yesterday. It resulted in a descriptive reconstruction of the identity of school parent, which is only partly influenced by the performance of their children and their schools. Such parental identity is, as well, strongly informed by the parents‘ reminiscences of their own experiences in regards to their education. On the one hand, such

memories seem to shape their approaches to the teaching staff and school education. On the other, they show how much parents learned from their transition from childhood to parenthood. In this educational transition some of the aspects of their identity remain the same in spite of the change of social and political context of education. Therefore one could say that parental identity, having its solid basis in the past, may determine the future, the challenges of change in schools, especially in family-school partnerships.
References: Niedzwienska A. (2012): Tożsamosc jako filtr pamięci (The Identity as a Filter of Memory) [in:] Wieslaw Lukaszewski, Dariusz Dolinski, Aleksandra Fila-Jankowska, Agnieszka Niedzwienska, Piotr Oles, Tomasz Szkudlarek: Tozsamosc. Trudne pytanie kim jestem (The Identity. A Difficult Question Who I Am), Smak Slowa, Sopot Mendel M. (2005): Educational Transition in Poland as the „rittes de passage‟. Briefing paper for the countryfocused presentation at European Science Foundation Exploratory Workshop: 15 Years On: Educational Transitions in Central and Eastern Europe, Directions for Educational Research and Policy in the PostCommunist EU Accession and Candidate Countries; Oxford, United Kingdom, 8-10 July 2005, http://tissa.net/archive/2005/Mendel.pdf (January 14, 2013).

Social Network Analysis In School Violence Research – Methodological Implications C
Sara Merlini*, CIES-IUL João Sebastião*, CIES-IUL Joana Campos**, CIES-IUL/ESELX Mafalda Chambino,* CIES-IUL The present communication intents to bring to discussion Social Network Analysis (SNA) as a research approach to the problem of violence in schools, expressing the specificities, potential and methodological implications of this kind of analysis through two practical applications on research. On one hand, SNA has shown appropriate for understanding how the various local partners were related to intervene and regulate school violence, and for the local dynamic interventions study, as for the links between policies, programs and local measures, and the collaboration among agents and institutions responsible for policy implementation at the local level. Moreover, the inclusion of the network relations established by students with reiterated misconducts (at informal, family and institutional levels) was relevant in the explanation of socialization and institutionalization processes of violent conceptions, attitudes and practices. Understanding the position occupied by these students in the social structure and the properties emerging in their relations, allowed us to access a less explored dimension in this type of problematic. In both, were conducted interviews with students and inquiries with local agents, which were identified in a diagnostic phase. The use of SNA is nowadays a common practice in Anglo-Saxon research and has been gaining ground among Portuguese speaking scientists, being often designated as the connectionist paradigm of sociological theory (Miranda, 2003:88). Mainly because it presents a potential association between theory and empiricism, adaptability and complementarities of research methods as well as overcoming a partial, conditional and categorical view of social phenomena through the unification and coordination of the various levels or analytical degrees in the social scene of human life. The relationships between schoolfamily-community are thus seized through the interactions established between them, allowing the explanation of how individual behaviors or opinions depend on the structures in which they operate. We must therefore show how this perspective applies in this framework of relationships, in a systematization

exercise of the results achieved with the dual purpose of demonstrating the progress made and the implications for the school violence object of study. * CIES-IUL ** CIES-IUL/ESELX

Parental Involvement In Children‘s Achievement In Mathematics With French Pupils A/D
Ana Lobo de Mesquita, University of Paris Diderot (Laboratoire de Didactique André Revuz & IREM Paris) , France Nathalie Pasquet-Fortuné, Ecole Elémentaire Arago, Paris, France

Many studies in literacy in mother tongue have shown that children‘s knowledge and achievement is improved with collaboration between generations (Villas-Boas, 2001). Could we extend this trend to other domains, and in particular to mathematics? Thus, a group of teachers and researchers from different European countries conducted studies about the influence of specific strategies based on cultural grounds to promote both parental involvement and children‘s achievement in their specific domain: literacy and mathematics. The framework used in these studies was similar, issued from Villas-Boas (2008). In our two studies the mathematics domain, we have analyzed the case of increasing parental involvement and promoting student‘s achievement when mathematical activities are used. We have worked with two groups of French pupils 2nd graders (pupils from 7 to 8 years old), and 4th/5th graders (9 to 11years old), in a setting similar to those of literacy studies. In both studies, students came mainly from middle class families and the teachers were experienced teachers. Our first qualitative results seem to confirm the trend that parental involvement can be improved, and, thus, it helped to improve student achievement also in mathematics. In this presentation we will focus on the intervention program which consisted of mathematical enhancing activities which were used with the two groups of pupils from the two different age-classes and their parents. We will also compare some of these results.

Vulnerable Children Health
Muftawu Mohammed, Grand Rock Foundation, Ghana Daniel Asiedu, Grand Rock Foundation, Ghana

Here comes a day which called for a cause facing vulnerable children and young people and their families which has been an abstract concept that hindered so many defenseless and innocent people of today. In deed, our hand‘s full of abstract ideas about each present day relationship in life toward the younger‘s generation in our families as to find the betterment of tomorrow. In view of the cycle of life, as it is stated that, only the bricks and block build a house, but the laughing of the children make a home, and in attempt to this, in everyday life every individual in this world endeavors to achieve happiness and tranquility, and struggle days and nights to reach their dream in the field of life which appear like war arenas. They fight in this field willingly in most cases to sacrifice everything in order to witness the bird of happiness fly over their heads. So they may live beneath the shadow of their lost of their life.

Unfortunately, in today‘s industrial societies parents, because of being surrounded by numerous mental involvements do not have opportunities to think or ponder about the aim and philosophy of their own lives, while the moments, hours and days pass by speedily. Very often the days pass into nights: new day begin and week and months pass by without parents finding suitable occasion to indulge into serious communications with their off springs. Although, the problem of raising responsible, mature, conscientious and righteous children is a serious matter that all parents are worried about but how to deal with the younger generations and to establish a friendly, rational and logical communications with them is an art, and naturally all of us are not skilled artists so, the things remains whether the chests of parents awaiting for an appropriate opportunity, which very often never arises or at least when it is already too late. At this critical and sensitive juncture, looking at the condition living in Ghana in the western part of Africa, people living with disability, poverty and enable to enjoy certain right always live in complaining ‗‘although disability is not inability‘‘, but the lack of logical communication with their families makes their souls a toy of discomfort and insecurity. But however in most cases this couldn‘t have been a situation which have to enveloped them, but due to inadequate certain facilities and basics rights to enjoy as a citizens have made them so. In addition to our various deprived areas, children who are well talented and skillful are seem not release this as their potential, simple because of lack of education. The infrastructure of the school buildings are very poor, there is not enough classes as well as the school facilities to be given to the children to learn. Always the parents find it difficult to send their children to school and also as a result of this condition of the poor infrastructure it discourages the children to learn as well. In the note shell despite of this fact, parents subjected themselves to certain factors there by abusing and molesting the right of children today, for instance in the community of the rural area in Ghana, children who are suffering from domestic slavering cannot be counted. Ignorantly, parents taught so much of themselves claims to be taken the right responsibility of the children, in forcing them to be going out involving prostitution, arm rubbery, moving on street as street children when as only to hear is that‘‘ they are orphans‘‘. In the street of Ghana today, one notices numerous children loitering about while most of them are not engaged in any activity, the few hawk petty items of merchandise. Some of these children go into the streets very much against their will. Most children go into the streets to eke out a living. Unable to cater for their children most parents push children into the streets to fend for themselves. For other children, it is peer group influence which draws them out for their home into the streets. These unfortunate children face several difficulties on the streets. As they spend all the time on the streets, they do not acquire any education, mean while, these are usually children of school going age. Denied education at childhood, these children remain illiterate throughout their lives. But it is not only formal education that is denied street children, they do not benefit from the moral and spiritual guidance of their parents. As they spend both and night hustle outside home, the children cannot sit down with their parents to be taught more lessons. However street children also gain some experience in their interaction with people. Most of the people, street children come into contact with on the streets, are usually criminals. Therefore, they pick up vices including pick pocketing, swindling, drug abuse and trafficking as well as prostitution. When they are not architects of crime, street children become victims of crime. Female children are raped on the streets; some have their wears stolen while others are even murdered. They also stand the risk of being run over by vehicles. And it is not only criminals who pose a threat to street children; the weather is usually hostile towards them. Street children suffer from rain, scorching sun and harmatan winds. Some spend their nights sleeping on the street under terrible weather conditions. The bad weather usually affects their health. Also most of the street children wake up early and sleep late in the nights. They spend the sleep hours hustle the streets. And a real hustle the street life is! As the street is usually crowed with people and vehicles, there is a lot of pushing and shoving around. It is only strong people who can survive the hectic street life.

Thus children find it very difficult to cope with the hustle and bustle of street life. They are often required to do very tedious work. Some street children have to carry trader‘s wares and push trucks to earn a living. Such difficult work wears down children whose limbs are not strong. The health growth of such children is thus hampered. Finally, some children contact contagious diseases on the street as they come in contact with manner of persons, street children may contract tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and whooping cough from patients of these diseases. These very children could have been in school train to become tomorrow leaders in the society. Last but not the least, having realize the extent of this when days gone by and this issues which has been the most problem hindering the right and futures of tomorrow leaders is not putting on stop, believes, values, culture and norms of the people will disappear and we the future of tomorrow leaders shall no longer have respect and dignity and humans values shall doom to extension.

Valuation, Quality And Familiar Education: Three Concepts Forgotten In Local Administration B
Ánxela Murillo Casas, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain Carlos Alberto Pereira, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain

The family is a dynamic social institution that evolves of continuous form to the compass of the social changes, which has allowed him adapt to the requirements that each society and historical moment imposed. This constant transformation turns it into an area of investigation of big interest, so much from a psychological and social as pedagogic point of view. The accelerated rhythm of the social change has a deep repercussion not only in the configuration of the familiar system like privileged surroundings of integral development of the people but also in the capacity of the parents, main models of behavior for the children, to assume his functions and exert them properly, so that they favor said development and collaborate in the educational project of his children that from other instances are carrying out. All this, added to the lower time that the members of the familiar system happen together, affects in the need to set up integrated initiatives in a global familiar politics and organized around the maximum welfare and quality of life of the families and of the community. A politics, likewise, that include measured sustained in the effectiveness and efficiency and that turn around the central axis of the empowerment and leadership of the family in his process of change and development. That is to say, measures that allow to the parents the acquisition of the educational and psychosocial tools necessary for the best exert of his functions and that facilitate them the enjoy of a time shared with all the members of the familiar system, indispensable conditions for an optimum development. Taking into account the previous premises, results urgent evaluate and analyze the quality of the initiatives of Familiar Education that develop in the different systems of Social Services. An evaluation based in coherent models and that insert in systems of management of quality directed to a continuous improvement, always having present to the community like protagonist and subject of all the actions scheduled. In the Spanish case, and particularly in Galicia, the model of evaluation that better results has given until the moment has been the Model EFQM of Excellence, although with some adaptations to the clear-cut context by the Social Services, where the direct deal with the people dyes to said system of some special characteristics. By all this, specifically, in this communication will analyze the need to carry out an evaluation of the quality perceived by the users of the Social Services of familiar education in Galicia, standing out the importance of the participation and implication of the consumers of services in his management and planning so that the level of quality was satisfactory and, like consequence, improve his effectiveness and efficiency.

Keywords: Family, familiar education, social services, evaluation of quality, perception of quality, user‘s satisfaction.

Comparative Analysis Of Parental Skills Perceptions From Students, Parents And Teachers In Vulnerable Contexts F
Ruth Navarrete, Teresa Izquierdo, Angélica Vicuña, Pedro Moreno, Raimundo Montero, Magdalena Sánchez, Teresa Ramírez, Foundation CAP, Chile

The present article is based on the inquiry about the perceptions on parental skills, in the framework of an educational program developed by Fundación CAP1 in public schools that aims to promote the sociofamily effect in students´ learning and development. The data here presented corresponds to surveys answered by parents, students and teachers from 12 urban schools that depend on the municipal agencies, in Santiago, Chile. The inquiry is directed to finding out about the perceptions that students, teachers and parents have on the latter´s ability to promote the students´ learning and development. The results evidence a clear contrast between what parents and teachers perceive. Nevertheless, students perceive their parents as generally competent. The conclusions intend to give guidance about the ways through which the family school effective link could be enhanced, knowing that it is crucial for the school to recognize the potential contribution that families make to the learning and development of the students.
Keywords: parent involvement, family school partnerships, family protective factors

School And Family, Partners In Learning ―Learning In Family‖ D
Ruth Navarrete, Fundación CAP, Chile Teresa Izquierdo, Fundación CAP, Chile

In an effort to improve academic results and guard an integrated development of the child, research studies show that the ―family/ student factor is crucial in school results‖ (Brunner & Elaqua, 2003; Desforges & Abouchaar, 2003). The aim of this review is to share our experience in working with families, schools and communities for productive learning partnerships. The theoretical framework of this project shows the importance and urgency to establish effective public policies that integrate working with families to the school´s daily work. The aim of presenting this three years program (Aprender en Familia) with its methodology and principal results is to share our experience, characterized by systematic and profound work with more than 20.000 families in 50 public schools along Chile. The assessment of the process after two years shows a significant rise in eight of the ten factors of parent‘s skills assessed.

Peaceful-Coexistence Problems From The Point Of View Of Parents And Mothers: An Exploratory Study In The City Of Querétaro (México).
Azucena Ochoa, Autonomous University of Querétaro, México Salvador Peiró, University of Alicante, España

In the recent years the impersonal dynamic of the conflicts into classrooms was increasing. Thus, the studies concerning those issues have promted (Peiró, 2001), events about this theme was developed (Peiró, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005; Ochoa y Peiró, 2010, 2011, 2012); and research programs was stated to

understand it (Peiró, 1985 a 2012). Many of these studies have focused on bullying, taking it as a focus of analysis and prevention (Olweus desde 1970‘s: Bullying Prevention Program), or describing the reality by observatories (Worlwide –Debarbieux-, French –Balya-, Spanish, Regionals –Queretaro, Valencia-, etc.). This was demonstrated in the ECER 2007 (Peiró: Variables & factors of peaceful coexistence in educational system): There are factors in teachers‘ performance, but many others are coming from families, and these are most significant and fundamental, and other concerning the milieu, but those could be controlated by parents. That is, the family is decisive, those few programs are be developed, except some like Epstein (2012). On this way, it was issued laws in order to prevent the schools‘ violence, like the case of México (2010, nº 535), which stated the implication of the families in the Council of the Social Participation, that guaranties its introduction into the schools. Although programs concerning families have been developed, such a ―Experience of parents‘s education like trainers of students in risk‖ (Peiró & Ramos: ECER, 2010), previous researches about what are thinking parents on this problem, is not made. But this question is very important to take decisions, morest at national level. To address this style on to do, we conducted an exploratory study concerning Queretaro‘s city fathers and mothers (México), with the aim of knowing their observa tions and the causes they attribute those. This information shall be organised in three parts: a) concerning teachers, b) related the school organisation, and c) about families. The founds show parents recognize a lot of problems, but most people think an inadequate treatment. It is significant they distinguish causal factors only individuals, but a positive discovery is sucha parents perceive themselves as a ke to improving the educational institution.

The Socio-Educational Role Of The Families. Perspectives From The Social Pedagogy In Spain E
Carmen Orte, University of Balearic Islands, Spain L.I. Ballester, University of Balearic Islands, Spain M.X. March, University of Balearic Islands, Spain M.A. Gomila, University of Balearic Islands, Spain Joan Amer, University of Balearic Islands, Spain

Processes of family socialization are essential for the educational development of children. In this paper, a panoramic critical review approach is adopted, considering the socio-educational role of the families as one that takes into account the plural and changing reality of families, social contexts, family and parenting education proposals and different school-family relationships in Spain. First, different definitions of the educational and socializing role of the families are revised. Second, family models and their political and socio-economic determinants are analyzed, in a context (Spain) where the implicit and explicit family policies and the dismantlement of the Welfare State impact upon the socio-educational role of families. Third, family and parental education proposals in Spain are considered, moving from positive parenting to family competence programs. In the paper we argue that family perspectives are rather further appropriate than just only-parenting approaches. Last, family-school relationships in Spain are discussed, exploring those positive relations models based on cooperation and debating which should be the role of public policies. Related to this, we contrast our proposal of family-school relationships to the one which is implicit in the future Spanish Education Law.

Parental Involvement Among Low-Income Parents Of High-Performing Students – A Case Study In Malaysia
Shuki Osman, University Science Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia Shaik Abdul Malik M Ismail, University Science Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

The present paper describes parental involvement that contributes to student achievement among lowincome parents. In this qualitative study, eight low SES parents with children achieving high academic performance were interviewed to examine their parental behaviours and practices within home and family environment. The aim of this case study is to find out how these lower-income parents are involved in their children‘s education despite their shortcomings, and how their involvement differ from that of middle-income parents found in the literature review. Findings in this study indicate that while their home-based involvement, within limits, are consistent with the findings of previous studies, especially in terms of expectations, modeling, supervision and providing support, these parents exhibit other behaviors and practices to assure that their children perform high, especially during early school years. While practices such as communicating about school and rewarding for achievement are limited, these parents place full responsibility on them to help improve their children learning. When helpless, they also seek for divine ‗help‘ asking for their children success.
Keywords: Low-income parents, Home-based involvement, Home environment, Indigenous practices

Being A Parent And Not a teacher: The Case Of Specific Learning Disabilities
Susana Padeliadu, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece Anastasia Chideridou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Living with a child with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) can be highly demanding or frustrating at times. Even simple activities, may require the parents‘ intervention in order to be successfully completed and when it comes to school problems and the required support, parents report significant demands on their part. Most of the available relevant literature refers to how parents can cope with either the idea of SLD or with the school demands. In this paper we take a different glance to parents‘ experience. We focus on the everyday reality and demands on the parents, their relationship with their children, and their reflection on these experiences. In order to collect our data and respond to the research questions, we selected the qualitative approach, to reveal various unique issues that parents experience and the meaning they apply on these experiences. Through semi-structured focus-group interviews, we collected data from 15 parents (13 mothers and two fathers) in groups of 4-6 individuals. All parents had children in the late secondary grades. The two major questions around which the interviews were structured were 1) How did the child‘s Specific Learning Disabilities impact on the everyday life of the family and especially of the parents? 2) What would they need and do differently if they could go back in time, and support their child? Based on the analyses of the interviews, three major issues were revealed: the high time demands and lack of leisure-personal time, the lack of knowledge regarding SLD, and the retrospective regret and guilt of the parents. All parents referred to high time demands especially during school years. They reported that they had to tutor their children constantly, underlying that they were often forced into playing two, conflicting roles: the parent and the teacher roles. They appeared to struggle to balance between these two roles, and often tilt towards the teacher one, focusing more on the academic support than the emotional support for their children. Having left behind most of the school years, the parents appeared to shift their interest away from school success, towards the need for self-determination and autonomy for their children. Looking back, they strongly regretted the pressure they had asserted on their children, often leading to verbal and even physical abuse events. All the reported experience of emotional stress and pain on part of both children and parents, can be minimized, as suggested by our data, if SPL are diagnosed early, if parents are well informed about the condition and what their children need and feel and if appropriate educational support for children with SLD is provided within the school system.

Within The Limits Of Equity And Diversity: Participation And Experiences Of Migrant Families With Children With Special Education Needs. A / F
Alejandro Paniagua Rodriguez, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain

This paper describes the diverse experiences of involvement of migrant families with children with special education needs (SEN). In particular, we aim to discuss how the Special Education proceedings and devices have influenced these children‘s pathways and school experiences. The context of Special Education has been identified as a privileged space for studying participation in educational environments (eg. Vincent, 1997). Parents with SEN children have also been described as being permanently under a ―constant state of vulnerability‖, facing an uncertain future for their children and trapped in a highly professionalized context where they are pushed to act in the ―right‖ way according to professionals‘ views. Therefore they must learn quickly and effectively how to navigate and manage complex information and proceedings, that in the case of migrant families can represent important barriers for their

involvement. Secondly, other authors have argued that most professionals and educators in this area have long been assumed the participation and collaboration of families as a central element of their interventions (eg. Harry, 2008). Finally, the historic problem about the overrepresentation of migrant or ethnic minority children in those devices designed for SEN students has not yet studied in Spain, thus this paper attempts filling this gap studying the problematic intersection of migration, SEN children and parental involvement. Methodology This paper is based on structured and semi-structured interviews with 15 professionals – Special Education Teachers, psychologists, principals and social workers – and 17 migrant families coming from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. Here we understand SEN in a wide sense, therefore including children with disabilities, learning difficulties and other non-identified problems, the main criteria being that these children receive some kind of additional support at school. We found particularly useful to follow the model used by Trainor (2010) in the way he analyzed the experiences of families with SEN children according to three specific areas: the process involving the identification of the disability/educational problem; the way specific services are requested or used and finally the extent of the inclusion their children have experienced. Along with these areas, we also focus on all the resources these parents use other than those offered by school professionals, especially their relations with other families and associations (Hess et al., 2006). References:
Harry, B. (2008). Family-professional collaboration with culturally and linguistically diverse families: Ideal vs. reality. Exceptional Children, 72(3), 372-388. Hess, R.; Molina, A. y Kozleski, E. (2006). Until somebody hears me: parent voice and advocacy in special educational decisión making. British Journal of Special Education, 33, 3:148-157.

Education As A Survival Strategy: Korean Immigrant/trans-migrant Mothers‘ Educational Engagement And Aspirations In The U.S. Context A
Keon-Ryeong Park, University of Georgia, U.S.A. Martha Allesaht-Snider, University of Georgia, U.S.A.

In recent years, researchers have built an extensive body of research on parent involvement with immigrant groups in many regions of the world, ranging from research with Latino families in the United States (Carreon, G., Drake, C., & Barton, A., 2005; Suárez-Orozco & Suárez-Orozco, 2001) with south Asian families in Great Britain (Crozier & Davies, 2007), and with refugees and immigrants from around the world in Canada (e.g., Deslandes, et al., 2012). At the recent European Research Network about Parents in Education (ERNAPE) conference in Milano, Italy, research with African and Eastern European immigrants in Italy (Giovannini & Vezzali, 2011; Mantovani & Bove, 2011) and Roma parents in England and Cyprus (Crozier & Syemou, 2011) was presented. In spite of the large number of studies with Latino immigrant parents in the U. S., there is little research on the school involvement of the growing number of Asian immigrant parents in the U.S. and Canada. The lack of research regarding Asian parents‘ school involvement as well as out-of-school parental involvement in educational activities, especially that of growing number of Korean immigrant/trans-migrant parents in the U.S., led us to explore the following research questions in this qualitative ethnographic case study: 1) In what ways are Korean parents, including immigrants/trans-migrants in the U.S., involved in their children‘s schooling?, 2) In what ways are Korean parents in the U.S. involved in their children‘s out -of-school learning (i.e. informal/supplementary educational activities)?, and 3) What are the educational aspirations and experiences of Korean parents in the U.S. in their in- and out-of-school involvement? In this ethnographic case study, we investigated Korean immigrant and trans-migrant mothers -living in the Southern U.S.-regarding their educational aspirations and parental involvement with in- and out-ofschool activities. The data were collected from in-depth interviews with four participants. The findings indicated that different degrees of parental involvement were influenced by participants‘ internalized beliefs about education and external factors related to their social contexts, including socio-economic status (SES) or documented, undocumented and temporary immigrant status. Although cultural values and internalized beliefs about education were important to the Korean mothers and influenced their involvement in their children‘s education, these beliefs or values were not fixed but were reconciled by the social environments that the participating mothers encountered, such as their immigrant status as immigrant or trans-migrant. Implications for educators working with other Asian immigrant and transmigrant populations and for future research regarding parental involvement with Korean and other Asian immigrants are discussed.
References: Carreon, G., Drake, C., & Barton, A. (2005). The importance of presence: Immigrant parents‘ school engagement experiences. American Educational Research Journal, 42(3), 465-498. Crozier, G., & Davies, J. (2007). Hard to reach parents or hard to reach schools? A discussion of home –school relations, with particular reference to Bangladeshi and Pakistani parents. British Educational Research Journal, 33(3), 295-313. Crozier, G., & Symeou, L. (2011) Involving Roma Parents In The Primary School: A Comparative Analysis Of The Process Of Change In England And Cyprus. Paper presented at the biannual meeting of the European Research Network about Parents in Education, Milano, Italy. Giovannini, D. & Vezzali, L. (2011) Teachers‘ Attitudes and Acculturation Orientations toward Immigrant Children: The Role of Contact with Immigrant Parents. Paper presented at the biannual meeting of the European Research Network about Parents in Education, Milano, Italy. Mantovani, S., & Bove, C. (2011) Immigrant Parents‘ And Teachers‘ Beliefs And Expectations About Their Roles And Relationships In Italian Preschools. Paper presented at the biannual meeting of the European Research Network about Parents in Education, Milano, Italy.

Deslandes, R., Trudeau, F., Rivard, M.-C., & Lemoyne, J. (2012). Role of family, school, peers and community in the adaptation process of young immigrants. International Journal about Parents in Education, 6(1), 1-14. Suárez-Orozco, C., & Suárez-Orozco, M. M. (2001). Children of immigration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

The Role Of Teacher – Parent Relationship In Immigrant Children Social Integration: The SHAFT Project A
Ylenia Passiatore, LUMSA and Sapienza University of Roma, Italy Sabine Pirchio, Sapienza University of Roma, Italy Caterina Fiorelli, LUMSA University of Roma, Italy Traute Taeschner, Sapienza University of Roma, Italy

In the last ten years the number of immigrant children attending Italian schools is increased and has become very representative in kindergarten and primary school. The school irregularity of the immigrant children is reinforced by the lack of knowledge of the language and of social integration. The difficulty in social integration among immigrant children is influenced by multiple individual and social factors, as the teacher–parent relationship (Arnold e al., 2008). Home and school contexts are in reciprocal influence and children‘s development and integration at school is related to the characteristics of each context and to their interaction (Panzeri, 2001). We formulate the hypothesis that parents‘ and teachers‘ educational style and personality and their reciprocal relationship play an important role in parent – and teacher–child relationship and in children‘s social behaviour in the classroom modifying the social climate of the class. If a positive contact among children of different cultures is permitted and favoured by the social climate in the classroom, social integration will be enhanced (Allport, 1954). Thus, it is important to consider these factors to plan appropriate and effective interventions in the school to enhance social integration among children. The SCHAFT (School and Family together for the integration of immigrant children) Lifelong Learning Programme project including five European countries aims to improve social integration among children at school, working not only with children but also including interventions on parents and teachers considering the role played by different factors: parents‘ and teachers‘ attitudes toward immigration, educational and personality styles and child‘s temperament and attitudes towards immigrant children. A programme of teacher training on specific issues and coaching of teachers-parents activities and the presence of a tutor in classroom activities are foreseen. Considering the two main life contexts where the children grow up and the specifics variables that influence their development may help to plan more appropriate and effective interventions obtaining positive results.

Home-School Links And ICTS: An Italian Study
Michelle Pieri, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy Loredana Addimando, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy

A

As underlined by Epstein and Salinas (2004), school is not composed of a dyad, teachers and students, but is, or rather should be, a learning community, composed of teachers, students, parents and community members working together to revitalize and enrich the educational institution and increase the learning opportunities and welfare of students. Many studies have shown that the creation of a climate of collaboration and the building of strong and stable links between parents, students and the school are the key to improving not only academic performance but also the general welfare of students (Boal, 2004; Epstein, 1991). Various studies (Bever, 1994; Trotman, 2001) show that not only the students perform

and behave better at school when parents are involved, but also the behavior of teachers is positively influenced by parental involvement. For some years the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), which have become an integral part of our daily lives, are now also in the home-school relationship. Thanks to ICTs, for example, the school can provide parents the ability to control absences, write excuses online, view documents and notes sent by the school and check the feedback online. Even in Italy all schools have an email address provided by the Ministry of Education and the internet access. Many schools have created their own websites and have activated forms of computer-mediated communication (such as online forums) to communicate with parents. Many software companies have already decided to also use the ubiquitous mobile phones for useful applications to sell to schools as an adjunct to the electronic register or to the badge that students have to pull across in the card reader upon entering and exiting school. If at the international level there are several studies concerning ICTs and the home-school link (see, for example, the researches conducted by the BECTA in the UK), there are still very few studies on this topic in Italy. This work aims to understand, first, if the ICTs are concretely being used in the daily practice by schools to promote home-school links, and if they are used, in particular, we want to understand what technologies are being used, how and for what purpose these specific technologies are being used, and, finally, what the advantages and the disadvantages are that the school sees connected to the use of ICTs in the home-school link. The ongoing study involves all primary and secondary public schools of Emilia Romagna, a region of northern Italy with 4,432,418 inhabitants. We are emailing an online questionnaire about ICTs in the home-school relationship to all principals of public schools in Emilia Romagna. This paper will focus on the results of this work.
References: Bever, V. (1994). Increasing academic productivity in non-productive at-risk elementary resource students. Unpublished manuscript, Saint Xavier University, Chicago, IL. Boal, C. A., (2004). A three-way partnership with families. Principal, 83(3), 26-28. Epstein, J. (1991). Effects on student achievement of teachers‘ practices of parent involvement. Advances in Reading I Language Research, 5, 261-276. Epstein, J. L., & Salinas, K. C. (2004). Partnering with families and communities. Educational Leadership, 61(8), 12-18. Epstein, J. L., & Salinas, K. C. (2004). Partnering with families and communities. Educational Leadership, 61(8), 12-18. Trotman, M. F. (2001). Involving the African American parent: Recommendations to increase the level of parent involvement within African American families. The Journal of Negro Education, 70(4), 275-285.

Parental Involvement In The Education Of Children With Disabilities: Policy And Practice A (E?)
Myria Pieridou, University of Cyprus Helen Phtiaka, University of Cyprus

Following recent legislative changes in education policy, which have formalized parental involvement in the education of children with disabilities, Cyprus sanctioned the participation of parents in their children‘s diagnosis, evaluation and re-evaluation. Even though the decision is consistent with the theoretical framework of inclusive education, differences are noted between the rhetorical proclamations of the 1999 Law in Cyprus, and stated and enacted policies (Ball, 1994). Although the legislation ratifies parental involvement, it poses obstacles towards its effective implementation (Phtiaka, 2007); a common phenomenon in inclusive policies that inscribe exclusive provisions (Allan, 2010). The prevalence of the medical model (Phtiaka, 2007), the multiple interpretations of the legislation (Ball, 1994) and the unequal

power relations between professionals and parents, result in the positioning of parents at the bottom of the hierarchy in their meetings (Ware, 1994). In this paper, parental involvement is examined with particular focus on the 1999 educational policy and practice in Cyprus. Research methodology involved critical analysis of the legislation in force, nonparticipant observation and semi-structured interviews. The observation took place in six meetings of a multidisciplinary committee during the re-evaluation process of children already classified as having ‗special needs‘, while interviews were subsequently conducted with the head-teacher, special and mainstream teachers, and parents. Research findings indicate differences between the rhetoric and implementation of the legislation in force, and provide critical insights in relation to exclusive practices regarding parental involvement. They also reveal differing views amongst participants concerning parental participation in the education of children with disabilities and the complex nature of their relationship. The goal of this study is to understand families‘ quest in the educational process of children with disabilities, contextualized by notions of equality, participation, and mutual responsibility. In this way, research can hope to empower participants. References:
Allan, J. (2010) Rethinking Inclusive Education, the Philosophers of Difference in Practice , Springer Ball, S. (1994) Education reform: A critical and post-structural approach, Buckingham/Philadelphia: Open University Press Phtiaka, H. (2007) Educating the Other: a journey in Cyprus time and space, Barton, L. & Armstrong, F. (Eds) (2007) Policy, Experience and Change; Cross-Cultural reflections on Inclusive Education, London: Springer Books Ware, L. (1994), Contextual Barriers to Collaboration, Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 5(4) 339-357

Dealing With Methodological Barriers: Case Study In A Mainstream Primary School C
Myria Pieridou, University of Cyprus Helen Phtiaka, University of Cyprus

Issues regarding the theoretical background of the researcher, the conduct of research and the usefulness and value of results are extremely important regarding research activities with people with disabilities, and have been widely discussed during the past few decades (Allan, 2010). Research based on the medical model of disability is now rejected, as it enhances the marginalization of people with disabilities. Instead, research activity based on the social model of disability addresses the social oppression they experience and has a dual purpose; to improve the lives of the individual participants and to achieve positive social change (Barton, 2005). As a result, research addresses political issues, and requires the enhancement of inclusive practices and the removal of ideological and practical barriers to participation for people with disabilities (Ainscow, 2005). Therefore, it cannot be characterized as neutral. The goal of this study is to present concerns, questions and reflections on the use of qualitative methodology in research which examines the educational and social integration of children with disabilities in mainstream primary schools in Cyprus. The study promotes concepts of inclusion and equal opportunities in educational environments, by adopting the theoretical framework of human rights (Barton, 2005). It is also recognized that the researcher assumes the role of an advocate for the rights of children with disabilities (Oliver, 1992). The research was conducted using analysis of archival material and critical analysis of the legislation in force, non-participant observation of seven children with disabilities for three months, and semi-structured interviews with special and mainstream teachers, and

the children‘s parents. The results deal with the ideological orientation of the research and its complex, time-consuming and demanding nature, while they also reveal the obstacles in gaining and maintaining access in the school environment. Research findings indicate the difficulties in the establishment of trust relationships between the researcher and the participants. Finally, the inner struggle of the researcher to maintain balance during the interviews and observation is emphasized.
References: Ainscow, M., (2005) Developing Inclusive Education Systems: What are the levers for change?, Journal of Educational Change, 6, 109–124 Allan, J. (2010), Rethinking Inclusive Education, the Philosophers of Difference in Practice , Springer Barton, L. (2005), Emancipatory research and disabled people: some observations and questions, Educational Review, 57:3, 317-327 Oliver, M. (1992) Changing the social relations of research production, Disability, Handicap & Society, 7:2, 101– 114

The Role Of The Relationship Between Parents And Educators For Child Behaviour And Wellbeing D
Sabine Pirchio, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy Chiara Tritrini, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy Ylenia Passiatore, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy Traute Taeschner, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

Parents‘ involvement with their children‘s schooling has become a major educational issue in the last thirty years. Literature shows that family/school partnership leads to improved school outcomes (Marcon, 1999; Arnold et al., 2008), fewer behavioural problems (El Nokali, 2010) and better social skills (Powell et al., 2010). Increasing the cooperation and building good relations is important especially in the early years, as development is influenced by the meso-system constituted by the child‘s two most proximal life contexts, family and school (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). However, few studies examine the role of familyschool partnership in infancy and early childhood. The current study aims to investigate the variables related with the quality of parent-teacher relation and the link between this relation and child‘s behaviour and wellbeing. The research involved 193 families of children aged between 12 and 42 months, attending 11 day-care centres in Rome and province areas, and 51 educators. Data was collected in two times of the year. Parents completed a questionnaire to assess their children‘s temperament (QUIT, Axia, 2002) and psychological wellbeing (CBCL, Frigerio et al., 2006), their own attitudes toward the day-care services (adapted from Scopelliti et al., 2009), and the quality of parents/educators relationships (QREG). Educators filled in a questionnaire for evaluating job satisfaction, children‘s behaviour and quality of parent-educator relation (QREG). Results show that the frequency of parent-educator contacts, the parents‘ perceived support, the educational value attributed by parents to the day-care experience and the quality of the day-care entry are positively associated with the quality of parents-educators relationships. In day-care centres with a private status we observed better relationships between parent and educators. The parent-teacher involvement assessed by parents is positively associated with the child‘s psychological wellbeing, social orientation, emotionality and learning; parent-teacher involvement assessed by teachers is associated with child‘s day-care adjustment. Longitudinal analyses show an improvement in the child‘s behaviour along the school year, but we did not find any change in the quality of parents-educators partnership. Implications for future research and intervention in home-school relationship are discussed.

Parent-School Cooperations As A Gender Sensitive Practice
Nada Polovina, Institute for Educational Research, Belgrade, Serbia

B

In the article we explore the theses that the parent-school cooperation is a predominantly domain of female engagement. Our considerations are based on the analysis of gender related data and results accumulated during two national survey studies (Women and men in the Republic of Serbia, 2011; Time use in the Republic of Serbia, 2010/2011) and five research focused on the different aspects of parentschool cooperation (realized from 2006-2010). Our approach to the issue of gender is in contextual terms – the focal point of our attention is the organization of everyday life, as well as relations and interactive processes The results of the analysed studies show that: (1) women make up 68% of the workforce in the educational sector of Serbia with the huge possibility that it will remain so in the future (84% of the students are female in the educational sector); (2) regardless of their level of education, women in Serbia spend on average 5 hours daily doing unpaid/domestic work, 3 hours looking after the children as basic activities (7 hours when we take into consideration parallel activities when the child is present). In five analyzed research women are dominant participants – out of 519 of the teacher participants in three studies 77% were women teachers; out of 87 parent participants in three studies 81% were mothers. The results of the analyzed research indicate that: (a) mothers attend parent-teacher meetings seven to ten times during the school year, while fathers come one to three times (estimated by teachers and students); (b) cooperation with parents for teachers and cooperation with teachers for parents is not on their list of important everyday tasks; (c) according to teachers, one important problem with regard to cooperation with parents was impossibility of time alignment between parents and teachers. In the final part of the article, the implications of the presented results regarding the implementation of a practice of cooperation between families/parents and schools/teachers are considered.
Keywords: gender, time use, parent-school cooperation, public and private domain

A ―Curriculum Of Parents‖ In Graduate Education: Rethinking And Remaking Practice
Debbie Pusher, University of Saskatchenwan, Canada

B

In 2010, I developed and offered two graduate courses for practicing early childhood educators at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. I designed Re/Presenting Families in Schools to enhance teachers‘ understanding of discourses and representations of families and the influence of these representations on their curriculum-making in schools. I further designed it to challenge educators to rethink and remake their curricular practices in light of their new found understanding. I designed Engaging Parents in Teaching and Learning to enhance the teachers‘ understanding of what parent engagement is – and is not, conditions which invite engagement, the complexities and multiplicity inherent within it, and possibilities within their own curriculum-making for working alongside parents in respectful, caring, and committed ways. I have stayed alongside the teachers since the conclusion of their courses over two years ago, visiting them in their classrooms and schools, meeting with them as a whole group, in small groups, and individually. Together we have engaged in an inquiry into the teachers‘ journeys to work with families in new ways. We have reflected upon the plans the teachers made in the graduate courses to rethink elements of their curriculum and practice, examined what was un/realized in implementation, and determined lessons critical to repositioning parents in integral ways in their children‘s schooling.

I consider these purposeful, sustained course experiences to be elements of a ―curriculum of parents.‖ I invite teachers to understand this curriculum of parents as a curriculum of life (Portelli & Vibert, 2001); a life lived in relationship with others. I invite them to re-imagine the work of a teacher as centered around a co-construction of curriculum with parents, children, and other family members. Such a co-construction acknowledges that children are cared for and educated at home and cared for and educated at school. It invites teachers to consider their work as intertwined with that of other caregivers and educators who hold a place in the lives of children. The most critical lesson arising from our inquiry into the impact of the ―curriculum of parents‖ relates to the importance of first influencing teachers‘ deeply-held beliefs and assumptions about families, parents, and children before any real change to teachers‘ practices can occur. The teachers expressed statements such as, ―The biggest change was in my heart,‖ ―I build a different kind of relationship with parents now,‖ ―I have a new sense of what it means to stand alongside parents as a co-educator.‖ In this paper, I will foreground the experiences of the curriculum of parents we found to be significant in changing teachers‘ worldview of parents and the shift that can be seen in the rethought an d remade practices which arose from their experiences.

Reforming Storied Assumptions Of Parents And Poverty
Debbie Pusher, University of Saskatchenwan, Canada Darlene Ciuffetelli Parker, Brock University, Canada

B

In an undergraduate teacher education course, Teaching and Learning in Community Education, teacher candidates engaged in a 20 hour community education project which they each designed with school leaders in their particular school site. The data for this paper comes from a research project with multiple teacher participants, enrolled in this course over a number of years. For the purpose of this paper, we focus our attention on one teacher‘s stories of experience, drawn from recorded and transcribed conversations. We explore what is possible and revealed in Cat‘s stories of working alongside parents living in poverty to deepen understanding of discourses and representations of parents and families. Cat chose to facilitate a women‘s empowerment book club with mothers at the school in which she was situated. Cat‘s stories are unpacked in order to burrow into the complexities of teaching in a school community affected by poverty. In Canada, poverty is at an all time high. The gap between low income and high income earners has increased. What is realized is that the human face of this rising inequality is the prevalence of families living in poverty. To understand how to positively inform and reform teachers‘ understandings of parents and poverty, we are situating this research in Dewey‘s (1938) conception of experience as education and in Clandinin and Connelly‘s (2000) narrative inquiry framework. In this paper, we explore three key threads that emerged from Cat‘s stories: revealing engrained beliefs and assumptions about parents and poverty; deconstructing the notion of parent as ―other,‖ in particular for parents who are marginalized; and reforming notions of authentic relationships with parents. It was apparent that Cat‘s experience with the women in the book club had a profound impact on her. Bruner (2002) wrote, ―[W]e constantly construct and reconstruct ourselves to meet the needs of the situations we encounter… (p. 64). We see such a reconstruction of self when Cat spoke of breaking down barriers that perpetuate engrained and long-held beliefs and assumptions. No longer a ―we‖ and ―they,‖ or an ―it‖ and ―the other,‖ (Madrid, 2001), Cat assumed a teacher life narrative which differed from the frequently prevalent teacher narrative in which parents whose class, race, culture or language diverge from the white middle class norm are judged with hostility and through a deficit lens (Noguera, 2011). As Bruner (2004) suggested in regard to living an examined life, ―If we learn how people put their narratives together...considering as well how they might have proceeded, we might then have contributed

something new to that great ideal‖ (p. 709). Cat‘s stories help us to understand how teacher life narratives can be informed and reformed to promote social and educational inclusion, equity, and justice through rich teacher education experiences.

Parenting Adolescents Through Trust Building – A Sure Tool In Indian Context

D
N. Raj Mohan, BODHI – Organizational & People Development, India

Goals of my practice & reference are based upon: Parenting is a very important and significant responsibility of all who wants a happy family. In India, today, parenting is becoming a huge challenge due to the dominant young population and their changing behaviours due to global influence. The orthodox approach of ‗elders are right‘ is questioned and ‗ridiculed‘ by adolescent children. Unlike older days today‘s parents are under constant dilemma of ‗to be or not to be‘ in relating and disciplining children. ―Are they in the right or wrong path?‖ baffles them often. They are unsure whether to intervene or let the child learn from their mistakes. On the other hand, adolescence, a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood when children are ‗neither here nor there‘ poses a challenge unto themselves & others. Societal & psychological pressures push adolescents to seek independence, to disconnect most parental ties and at the same time adjust to the much wider pattern of stimulation provided by the larger society, of which they belong to, thereby creating further rupture in their relatedness in their family. Hence, today, parents need stronger grounding and understanding about the psychological and behavioral issues of children and how to deal with them as most of the time they themselves have contributed to children‘s anguish & despair. In this context as a behavioral expert & trainer I focus my goals through my positive parenting workshops, seminars and T.V. programs. They are: • Facilitating parents to reflect and renew their attitude, skill and knowledge on parenting and not to undermine their current practices • To offer more of perspectives rather than solutions. My experiences and learning by working with parents and adolescents have defined the following two major issues in building TRUST among parents and children. • The twin protuberances of ignorance and arrogance of parents have scuttled their efforts in fulfilling their responsibilities. • The belief of children that parents and children live in a different world and the failure of parents in understanding this truth Methodology: ‗Relationships may be ordained by birth but relatedness is not. Relationships are roles but relatedness is the effectiveness of role‘. This quality in relatedness can only be achieved by building TRUST among children. Parents need to be become aware of this and to be trained to practice the model ―TRUST BUILDING MODEL‖ This model has four dimensions consisting of two factors each. Each dimension is sequential in Building Trust. However, each factor is appropriate and relevant in standalone also. Competence: Choose the Right parenting style There is always a perceived difference between ‗intent‘ and ‗content‘. Children do not listen to what parents say; they listen to what parents do. Hence, appropriate parenting style gains significance. Among various styles, the author suggests ‗participative parenting‘ style is the most preferred one. Make children accountable

If you start building trust with children, parents are going to spend less time in checking, supervising & monitoring them. It means their work load & stress level diminishes. They can do more creative work rather than indulging in ‗maintenance‘ job. To make children accountable amounts to parental delegation & empowerment. Lack of ownership and poor role clarity pave way for non accountability. Along with this percept freedom and responsibility to go hand in hand. Openness: Give Feedback and Receive Feedback If parents want to build trust with children they have to be open with them. While it is pivotal to share their performance in education it is also equally important to share personal feedback. The deepest need of human nature is the craving to be appreciated. Children need to know first that you notice what they do, and later that you are prepared to tell them the truth about their behavior –appropriate or inappropriate (Avoid good or bad comments). But giving feedback is an art and it needs preparation, process, and delivery - feedback whether it is related to education, society and family. It is evidently proved that effective feedback will yield behavior changes in the person who receives and also who gives. However, most of us are very comfortable in giving feedback rather than receiving feedback. Behavioural improvement / enhancement can take place effectively when there is a scope for two ways communication channel. Relatedness: Address their concerns Identifying concerns is an essential part of Trust. It is also an essential component of Parental leadership. One will be able to lead others if the later are willing to listen & follow. The children will accept parents when they believe that they share their concerns. Major concerns will vanish when parents understand children‘s psychological location and treat them with fairness. Act with Integrity Acting with integrity encompasses mainly: • Aligning one‘s behavior with one‘s values • Acting to the highest ethical standards • Making agreeable promises and honouring them • Making others to feel you are reliable • Treating everyone equal Empower: Lead decisively This principle deals with ‘making decisions the right way’ in a manner that engenders Trust. It highlights distributive justice & procedural justice- an approach to decision making. The culture of passing the buck has to be stopped. The role of parents needs to be redefined. For example mothers conveniently shift the burden of correcting children to the fathers. Collaborate The ultimate aim of this module is to make children autonomous by proactive participation among parents (both spouses) and children. This model has two phases: Enablement and empowerment. Children need to be empowered to take decisions in small issues relating to self and slowly for home needs. Results Achieved • Helped families with improved relationship with children • Major corporate(s) use my model for their employees‘ children • Based on this successful practice popular T.Vs currently run programs anchored / facilitated by me as a regular feature. • Popular magazines & news papers invite my support and use me as a key spokesperson in their effort in addressing issues related to parents and adolescent children.

A Danish View On The Development Of Relations Between Home And School, Between Parents, Children And Teachers - Put Into International Perspectives And Historical Rationales A/D
Birte Ravn, Aarhus University, Copenhagen, Denmark

Based on many years‘ experiences in research, development work and personal challenges this paper opens for a discussion of aspects of changing political interests and practical/local circumstances. Starting point will be the latest ethnographic study of the relationship between children , parents and teachers at different school levels in Denmark with primary focus on the young ones themselves and their parents. (―Home-school cooperation as a cultural given‖ - 2012, Dannesboe, Kryger, Palludan, Ravn. Aarhus University) ―The cultural given‖ is what in everyday life and public talk is called home-school cooperation. In the study this turned out to be • just a part of the many ways in which this relationship is created and recreated • silent about the effects on children and their families to enter relations with the school • only a relationship between the adults These results reflect experiences back in time and across countries but in different ways dependent on the various local and national social and cultural traditions and ideologies. In the UK and US focus has been on the academic gains of involving parents while in the Nordic countries the entire personal development of the child has been in focus as part of the democratic development and therefore parents have had a more intimate role in the partnership with school and teachers. Comparisons with the past will be described with a critical view on the Danish political and educational conditions and international comparable tendencies.
Keywords are communication, power relations, rationales

Building Community, and Fostering Equity for Student-Parents in Higher Education in the United States. A
Anne S. Robertson, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, U.S.A. H. Neville, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, U.S.A. A. Weiner, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, U.S.A. J. Weiner, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, U.S.A. P. Morey, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, U.S.A..

―As a student–parent and veteran, it is very challenging to adapt to campus life. It would be nice to see similar support resources for parents as there are for veterans.‖ Comment from student–parent participant, survey 2012 This paper expands on the phenomena of student-parents and their families within the higher education culture in the U.S. with particular focus on the results of a study conducted at one university. It explores three primary questions regarding the characteristics, desired services, and experiences of student-parents. It then provides equity and social justice implications for sustaining enhanced benefits for student-parents, their children, and their spouses or partners. A mixed methods research project was conducted in response to a recommendation from the 2011 Summit that convened at the housing commons of a major U.S. public university. The purpose of the

Summit was to dialogue about the characteristics and associated needs of students who are parenting (―student–parents‖) while attempting to complete a degree in higher education. The Summit raised awareness of the growing number of exceptionally-qualified student–parents in the academy, and the challenges they face raising their children, and balancing family-life and education while attempting to complete their programs. Of particular concern were student-parents raising children without a spouse or partner, and student-parents coming to higher education as a conduit out of poverty. These student-parents face significant obstacles in completing their academic programs and may be more adversely impacted by welfare reform policies and debt if they do not matriculate successfully. Representatives from a cross-section of colleges, units, and programs within the university attended the Summit and explored the issues faced, and impact on student-parents and their children. A working group was created to expand on recommendations. Although the academic literature on student-parents and their families is limited a review highlighted several waves of student-parents entering higher education beginning with WWII veterans which have helped positively impact academic culture. Furthermore there were no data on exactly how many student–parents attend the university. The issue does not arise during the application for admission process but may surface if a student asks for assistance with family housing, or identifies dependents as part of the financial aid application. It was found that this is a common problem across university settings in the U.S. Given this gap the Summit participants identified a priority-one recommendation to provide a better picture of the nature of student–parents and their families with particular focus on one public, Midwestern university.

Critical Lessons From Implementation Of Practices
Liz Rouse, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia

B

The Australian National Early Years Learning Framework has acknowledged the importance of engaging with parents as collaborative partners in the care and education of their young children. This framework, which guides the practice of all early childhood educators across Australia, acknowledges that parents are the child‘s first and most influential teacher. It goes on to state that educators and parents should work together in partnerships which are based on trust, where families and educators value each other‘s knowledge of the child and in which there is shared decision making. The more localized State based Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework presents family centred practice as the model for engaging in these partnerships. Family centred practice is based on an underlying philosophy that families are pivotal in the lives of their children and should be empowered to engage in decision making for their children. This paper will report on a recent doctoral study which examined the practice of six educators working in an early childhood care and education setting in Melbourne (Australia). The study identified that while the educators engaged in and formed positive relationships with parents of children in the service, there was little evidence of shared decision making being enacted between the educators and the parents. The study found that while there was a sharing of information between educators and parents, the decision making around children‘s care and learning was largely undertaken by the educators. This was particularly prevalent in decisions that focused on educator‘s expectations of children‘s development such as toileting. The study further identified that the parents viewed the educators as more knowledgeable experts when it came to decision making about their own children, even when they felt the decisions were not necessarily in the best interests of the child. This study has raised for early childhood educators the need to really reflect on and examine their practice as it relates engaging parents as shared decision makers. For family centred practice to be enacted the practice behaviour needs to be not only based on respectful positive relationships but on empowering parents as active participants in determining the decisions that affect the learning and

development of their children. It is the latter behaviour that appears to be absent in the practice of the educators.

The Restorer Model Of Family Orientation: Building Bridges
Piedad Sahuquillo Mateo, University of Valencia, Spain Paz Cánovas Leonhardt, University of Valencia, Spain Ester Ciscar Cuñat, University of Valencia, Spain Concepción Martínez Vázquez, University of Valencia, Spain

From the guidance offices, it is needed to favour the family guidance as a directed process starting on the specific needs of the family. It is needed to carry out a restoring action of the capacity of the family with the development of more efficient competences, based on the family potentialities, just like the protective factors which involve it, getting this way the neutralization of the impact of risk factors and stressful aspects the family members are exposed to, placing them from a dysfunctional state to another with more family functionality. Fruit of the investigation carried out with families and professionals who work with them from the specialized services of family and childhood attention, we suggest a restorer model of family Orientation (Cánovas, Ciscar, Martínez, Sahuquillo, 2009) that may be considered an integrated model that collects contributions from different scientific fields. From the Restorer Model‘s prospective, the Family Orientation should bring together the following characteristics: • Orientation may be understood then, as a process, it is to say, as a group of ordered activities or tasks than are done with a concrete focus. The purpose, in case of Orientation, is to act as a guide, an accompaniment of the family in its search of solutions before those difficulties that block or paralyze its capacity of operation and organization, adjusting the orientative action to the changing needs. • On the other hand, Orientation is understood as a facilitating activity in which there exist one or more persons on who the guidance or accompaniment action will be accomplished, to find the most adequate ways to satisfy the rising needs we have just commented. From our point of view, we refer to the support as a facilitating and guided action focused on facilitate the search of a better knowledge of the family and social reality in which people get along. In this sense, we understand that the concept support must reach a more professionalized and specialized nature than the term help. To guide a family is something more than giving help, it means co-participate, favour, propel the needed means to get a finish line: a better family functionality. • Orientation is understood also as a persons‘ capacity enhancer. Orientation should have as a starting point the own capacities people have. Rebuild the family situation taking as fundamental elements the strong points of the family members must constitute one of the first objectives of the Orientation. To guide is not to decide on the family but to exercise a reinforcement and facilitator function of their own resources and capacities inherent to each member and of their strength as social self-directed nucleus. • Last, it should have and comprehensive nature, in all the aspects of people‘s lives and during all their vital cycle. That is to say, form the Orientation it is possible to board any aspect that commits in the family and causes a transformation that complicates its evolution. Furthermore, that boarding doesn‘t circumscribe to specific stages to the family history but hold in the Orientation any difficulties, independently of the time of family moment in which it appears.

A Qualitative Exploration Of Barriers To Parental Involvement In School Activities Among Economically Disadvantaged, African American Families .

A
Teresa E. Sanders, University of Phoenix, U.S.A.

Economically disadvantaged, African American students demonstrate a poorer academic performance than all other racial demographics (Abdul-Adil & Farmer, 2006; United States Department of Education, 2004). Parental involvement in education is an effective way to raise student achievement (Brown & Beckett, 2007), however; economically disadvantaged, African American parents are least involved in their children‘s schooling than other demographics (Cotton & Wikelund, 2001). This qualitative, phenomenological study examined the general problem of persistently poor academic performance of economically disadvantaged, African American students and the specific problem of significant lack of parental involvement in education among economically disadvantaged, African American parents. The research consisted of an exploration of the experiences of 20 economically disadvantaged, African American parents related to their own education background and their involvement in their children‘s education. Through reflective, face-to-face interviews, a stratified sample of participants provided insight related to their experiences that influence their willingness or ability to participate in their children‘s schooling. Results revealed most participants had a positive perception of their children‘s school faculty and wanted to be involved, but their socioeconomic circumstances hindered their ability to participate in their children‘s schooling. An unexpected discovery was half of the study participants had difficulty understanding one or more of the study questions, though none of the participants acknowledged that difficulty. The discoveries made in this study could help leaders in education understand the life circumstances and communication issues that may be hindering active parental involvement among this at-risk demographic, and help leaders develop effective parent involvement programs that considers the needs of the population it serves.
References Abdul-Adil, J., & Farmer, A. D. (2006). Inner-city African American parental involvement in elementary schools: Getting beyond urban legends of apathy. School Psychology Quarterly, 21(1), 1-12. doi:10.1521/scpq.2006.21.1.1 Brown, L., & Beckett, K. (2007). Parental involvement in an alternative school for students at risk of education failure. Education and Urban Society, 39(4), 498-523. doi:10.1177/0013124507301579 Cotton, K., & Weiklund, K. (1989). Parent involvement in education. Retrieved from School Improvement Series website: http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/3/cu6.html

Class Directors And Parents: Principles And Practices In Confrontation
Teresa Sarmento, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal F. Martins, University of Minho, Braga, Portuga C. Gomes, University of Minho, Braga, Portuga F. Antunes, University of Minho, Braga, Portuga

A

The relevance of the relation between schools and families to foster educational success, and as a principle of the implementation of democratic practices, enhancing the promotion of equality, is, nowadays, more accepted, even though the building of that collaboration falls short of all speeches and intentions.

The direction of a class constitutes a space where this relation can be solidified, and the role of mediator of the CD is a facet of the triple function that characterizes that component of teaching. In this article, empirically based on a qualitative study, made up of interviews to CDs, we seek to analyze the latter´s representations on the participation of parents/Gs in the educational practices in schools. From their narratives, we propose an interpretation and a discussion that seek to discuss the relational complexity between the CDs and the Parents, which has as its origin the heterogeneity of their cultures, namely the sociological cleavage in the participation of families, and, also, what kind and levels of participation, in the sessions of the direction of class, are offered to or revindicated by parents.

From Utopia To Reality, A Pathway To Discover: The Participation Of Representatives Of Parents/Guardians In The Council Of The Class
Teresa Sarmento, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal Paula Bento, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal

A?

Nowadays, we intend school to be a border-less space, open to the educational community, where the the roles of the different educational actor can be complementary, through the participation and opinion sharing among all actors in the educational process. The legislative evolution has shown to be receptive to this concept of school, reinforcing the presence of the representatives of the students' guardians (RepGs) in the council of the class (CC), in order that, with the presence of these actors, their desired participation and joint articulation can be achieved. This research seeks to answer the following questions: is there a real participation of the RepGs in the CC? At what level does it occur? How does it happen? This study, of a qualitative character, has been conducted on the basis of a case study. The analysis falls on the representations of the most important actors in this process ― teachers; directors of the class, RepGs and students ― as revealed in the interviews conducted with them. The diverse narratives of teachers and of DC show the existence of a paradox, at some moments, even though the statements converge on the need of a face-to-face and participative role in the CC. Some of them favour this position, recognizing that the contribute of these actors in the CC is a gain to everybody's work; others are against, sledging that their participation has not yet had repercussions on the group/class, considering that the figure of the RepGs is dispensable in the school body; still others, manifest indifference to their presence in the CC. However, all of them recognize the existence of benefits, accept the participation of families so that there can be an articulation of attitudes between the two perspectives, and consider important their acting to the balance of the educational action. The students, who are the main actors and beneficiaries of the presence and of the articulation of the RepGs in the CC, revealed a unanimous position in their opinions, invoking that families/Guardians ought to attend all meetings, so they get a perspective on the class, both on academic terms, and on behaviours. The RepGs, on the other hand, also identify themselves with the CC, showing the certainty that their contribution will be beneficial to the teachers, because the latter will get to know the students better; they recognize, as well, that, in this fashion, the Gs get a more real perspective on how the class is evolving, that the students benefit from the approved steps and from the articulation suggested with the families/Gs. Nonetheless, they did not lose the opportunity to mention that their presence on this school body is restricted to a few minutes, which often makes them to feel ―frustration‖. If their presence in this body continues to happen in such a way, the Gs can be tempted to adopt an attitude of absenteeism in the CC, and lead to their withdrawal towards the school. In counterpoint, one notices that the little time of the presence of the RepGs in the CC is employed, by them, according to their concerns regarding the approach to issues relative to their children, and they do not act on the collective dimension of the group/class. On the other hand, there is a distancing on the part

of the parents/Gs towards the school, in such a way that the RepGs say that they are not contacted by the Gs and that they do not know them.

Educational Legislation And Parental Motivation To Becoming Involved In Education. A Comparison Between Israel And Quebec (Canada)
Bruria Schaedel, Western Galilee College & University of Haifa, Israel Rollande Deslandes, Université of Québec in Trois-Rivières, Canada Yovav Eshet, Western Galilee College, Israel

The increasing evidence regarding School-Family collaboration, as a means to improve school effectiveness, student perseverance and academic achievement, encouraged many countries around the globe to endorse legislation and policies to augment greater school-family levels of participation of the parents. While researchers were mainly interested in the sources of influence on parental involvement, they also examined the characteristics of families and children; as well as the perceptions and expectations of parents and teachers. Yet, the impact of the macro educational environment, such as the effect of government policies and educational legislation issued to increase parental involvement were not correlated in terms of their promoting parental involvement. This study underlines the evolution of government policies and legislation in Québec and Israel to promote parents' partnerships in the light of the high rates of immigrants in the schools and the increasing gap between low and high SES families. Furthermore, based on Hoover-Dempsey et al studies (1997, 2005), we examine the inner motives of the parents' influence in terms of psychological variables, such as self-efficacy, role construction and teachers' perceptions of the parents' involvement. One study, recently conducted in Israel, included 387 parents representing various elementary schools such as those in urban, rural and kibbutzim in the Galilee. Another study, using the same measures was conducted in Quebec (Canada) with 1227 parents of elementary school. Data in both studies was collected using self-administered questionnaires. Two sets of regression analyses were performed separately for parental involvement at home and in the school. This study will present the similarities and differences between the key findings highlighted in the two educational systems. Furthermore, we will analyze the extent to which the state legislative policies motivate parental partnership in the schools. In the discussion we will incorporate examples of current programs; in addition, research and intervention avenues will be proposed.

The school As A Complex Object: Methodological Strategies And Knowledge Production
João Sebastião, University Institute of Lisboa, Portugal Joana Campos, University Institute of Lisboa / Polytechnic Institute of Lisboa, Portugal Sara Merlini, University Institute of Lisboa, Portugal Mafalda Chambino, University Institute of Lisboa, Portugal

Based on the accumulated experience by the team of the Observatory of School Safety in school violence research, this paper tries to contribute to the discussion around the use of methodological strategies that seek to address the complexity and multidimensionality of educational phenomena. The growing understanding of the prevalence of violence in time and space (extension, distribution and contextual insertion), contributes to its interpretation in the context of dynamic school – community analysis; including the establishment of partnership relations between state institutions and other social entities to its regulation and prevention, with particular interest for this type of investigation. The research

strategy was developed combining macro level analysis, with national data collection of violence in the Portuguese education system; the meso level, with research in school organizations and other local educational agencies; micro-level observation and inquiry with of the educational community actors (managers, safety representatives, teachers and students). Accordingly, the realization of this work was supported by combinatorial strategies between extensive and intensive approaches, producing an analytical triangulation that allowed the articulation of interpretations at different levels. The team combined various techniques of collecting and processing information as content analysis, document analysis, statistical analysis and network analysis; also having been used information gathered from diverse sources as the Ministry of Education, Security Forces, local social network, schools and local associations. It is based on the reflection on the research experience gained arising from the implementation of complex methodological strategies, that the potential and analytical difficulties will analyzed, in particular the relationship between conceptual resources, levels of analysis and cross-utilization of qualitative and quantitative information, as well as validation processes of knowledge. * CIES-IUL ** CIES-IUL/ESELX

How Can Family-School Partnerships Actually Become Daily Reality For Each Child, Nationwide As A Recognised Mainstream Educational Approach?
Elise Sijthoff, The Wishes Network, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

In our study we have tried to get an overview of the different indicators in Holland, which after our experience all influence the process of building up and maintaining family home partnerships on a local and national level. We will present examples of the realized program-tools developed in Holland, based on the theory of from Lev Vygotski ( Russia, 1896- 1934) and we will report on the struggles, solutions and challenges of our working process. In this process we defined 4 different stakeholder groups. 1. Practical end user stakeholders as they are at home and at school level. The child him or herself, the intimate care takers in or around the home and the professional care takers in and around the classroom. 2. Research and development stakeholders in - and external settings of the home and school, working in a continuous process producing and evaluating practical materials which actually have to support and realize effective partnerships on better educational results for children in an inclusive and safe environment. 3. Supportive, facilitating or competitive stakeholders of local governmental policy makers and organizations in the field of education, social inclusion, active citizenship, health- and well being and active parentship 4. The National policy Stakeholders, more or less connected to international defined policy on: Life Long learning (EU) Social Inclusion and active Citizenship (UN, Worldbank) Healthy Schools (WHO) and Active Parentship (EPA)

Organising ‗Moving Moments‘ For Schools, Parents And Children: Some Critical Lessons From A Case Study In The Netherlands B
Elise Sijthoff, Merel Meijers, David Kranenburg, Frederik Smit and Shanti George , The Wishes Network, The Netherlands

Experiences of mobilizing families, communities and schools (in the best interests off children) resonate with everyday challenges from which useful lessons can be learned. This paper provides a case study from the Netherlands of the differing perspectives of various stakeholders involved in preparing and using a family activities calendar that was intended to bring teachers and families together in order to provide effective support for school children. The publisher who designed the calendar, the head teacher who attempted to introduce it into one school, the teacher who worked intensively with parents using the calendar and the coordinator of a center that facilitates parents‘ role within communities, all reflect on their varying experiences with the family activities calendar and their perceptions of parent teacher relationships, as captured through anthropological narratives based on qualitative research. When woven together to create the case study presented here, these narratives illuminate the real life challenges with which schools and parents have to contend, and the pragmatic responses to these challenges that become necessary for successful collaboration between families, schools and communities. The case study will vividly bring to life the following themes from the ERNAPE conference guidelines: • Family-school relationships/partnerships for social and educational inclusion, equity and justice; • Critical lessons from implementation of practices; • Training families, schools and communities for productive learning partnerships; • The challenging role of families, schools and communities as exceptional children‘s educators; and • Cultural and social diversities: how to deal with them? The experiences described in the paper constitute one case study in the professional experiences of the WISHES network. WISHES stands for Working Internationally on Social Development and Health in European Schools and Families.

Home-School Relations And ICT: On the Uses Of the Magalhães Laptop By Children A
Pedro Silva, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal Conceição Coelho, José Saraiva Group of Schools, Leiria, Portugal Joana Viana, University of Lisboa, Portugal

In this paper we will address the results from a sociological research on the uses and effects, school and social, of the Magalhães computer in an administrative group of schools in Leiria, Portugal. We will focus on its use by children in different contexts (home, school and other places of sociability). One of the challenges facing the information society refers to inequalities and power relations that underlie it. Generally, what seems to be concerned is the gap between two opposing groups: those with and those without access to information and communication technology (ICT). Research in recent years has been showing the outlines of these cleavages in other countries (Cruz, 2008) and Portugal (Rodrigues e Mata, 2003; Cardoso et al., 2005; Almeida, 2008; EU Kids on-line, 2011) and pointing to an increasingly complex and multifaceted reality. The unequal relationship between schools and families, depending on social class, gender and ethnicity (Lareau, 1989; David, 1993; Vincent, 1996; Silva, 2003), also draws attention to the possible perverse effects of public policies in this area. To understand that the

school-family interaction is a relationship among cultures and, therefore, a power relation (Silva, 2003), stresses the importance of ICT as playing a mediation role between the "two worlds" (Silva et al, 2010). These and other questions begin to be considered by several experts (Pieri, 2005; Wiedemann, 2003, Martinez-Gonzalez et al., 2003, 2005; Diogo & Silva, 2010; Silva et al., 2010). This research aims to find answers to multiple questions, including: who uses the Magalhães computer? What are its uses? In what contexts? What are the modes of regulation of its uses? By whom? What are the effects, school and social, of its uses by the various social actors and their interactions? In particular, in the school-family relationship and in the classroom? Having in mind the problem and the questions, the research took a longitudinal nature (2009-2011), crossing a quantitative methodology with a qualitative one. Thus, with regard to the extensive nature of the research, we applied questionnaires to all the elementary teachers (four times) and to half of the elementary students and their families (twice). In what concerns the intensive component of the research, we made an ethnography of a class. We also relied upon documents produced by children. The data point to the fact: a) of a massive adhesion to the Magalhães computer (around 93%); b) of a regular use of this laptop by children, firstly in the home, secondly in the classroom, and thirdly in other contexts; c) that the Magalhães tends to become a real personal computer for the child; d) that the Magalhães becomes, in part, a family computer, namely in the low SES families, where the Magalhães was the first computer to enter home; e) that the Magalhães allows to respect the pace of learning, which becomes particularly significant in the context of the classroom.
References: Almeida, A. N. [Coord.] (2008). Crianças e Internet: Usos e Representações, a Família e a Escola . In http://www.crinternet.ics.ul.pt/icscriancas/content/documents/relat_cr_int.pdf. Cardoso, G.; Costa, A. F.; Conceição, C. P.; Gomes, M. C. (2005) A Sociedade em Rede em Portugal, Porto: Campo das Letras. David, M. (1993). Parents, Gender and Education Reform. Cambridge: Polity Press. Diogo, A. & Silva, P. (2010) ―Escola, Família e Desi gualdades: Articulações e Caminhos na Sociologia da Educação em Portugal‖ in P. Abrantes (Org.) Tendências e Controvérsias em Sociologia da Educação . Lisboa, Mundos Sociais, 51-80. EU Kids Online – Research Report 2011: Executive Summary in Portuguese. In http://www.fcsh.unl.pt/eukidsonline/ Lareau, A. (1989). Home Advantage - Social Class and Parental Intervention in Elementary Education . New York: The Falmer Press. Martinez-Gonzalez, R-A.; Herrero, H. P.; Esteo, J. L. J.; León, C. C. (2003). New Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at Home and at School. Parents and teachers Views. In School, Family and Community Partnership in a world of Differences and Changes. Gdansk University. Martinez-Gonzalez, R-A.; Pérez-Herrero, M. H. & Rodríguez-Ruiz, B. (2005). Family and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs): New challenges for Family Education and Parents-teachers Partnerships. In Family-School-Community Partnerships – Merging into Social Development. Oviedo: Grupo SM. Pieri, M. (2005) Virtual Communities as bridges between parents and school: The case of an Italian secondary school. In Family-School-Community Partnerships – Merging into Social Development, Oviedo: Grupo SM. Rodrigues, M. L. & Mata, J. (2003). A utilização de computador e da Internet pela população portuguesa. Sociologia, Problemas e Práticas, 43, 161–178. Silva, P. (2003). Escola-Família, Uma Relação Armadilhada. Porto: Edições Afrontamento. Silva, P.; Coelho, C; Fernandes, C. & Viana, J. (2010). ―Mediação Sociopedagógica na Escola: Conceitos e Contextos‖, in Américo Nunes Peres e Ricardo Vieira (Coords.) Educação, Justiça e Solidariedade na Construção da Paz, Chaves/Leiria: APAP/CIID-IPL, 75-99. Vincent, C. (1996) Parents and Teachers - Power and Participation, London: Falmer Press. Wiedemann, F. (2003) Digital Cooperation Between School and Home: Limits and Possibilities. In School, Family and Community Partnership in a world of Differences and Changes, Gdansk University. Keywords: School-Family Relationships; Children; ICT; Education.

Cultural Capital in Research: Issues of Operationalisation, Measurement and Methodological Pitfalls
Monika Sirkovská, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia

In the 20th Century, sociologist Pierre Bourdieu was dealt with the relationship between the cultural activities of the family and school success of children, based on the concept of cultural capital which formulated himself. Cultural capital is generally understood as a set of organized social representations, knowledge and preferences, which are acquired on the basis of cultural quality of the family environment. The family is the pivotal institution of socialization and also the place where the lifestyle, tastes, values, norms and ambitions are constituted and intergenerationally transmitted. Interpretation of cultural capital also involves the ways of how the children are able to meet the demands of the school culture. The paper starts with a discussion of the definition and delineation of the term the „cultural capital―. Article continues by briefly examining the previous studies and researchs in this area and focusing on the difficulty associated with defining and measuring cultural capital. These studies have been for a long time primarily the domain of sociologists. Although the use of quantitative methods in sociological research often is not able to capture adequately full extent of the social dynamics that they draw attention to, also the use of qualitative methods brings some limitations and pitfalls. In this paper, author introduces her long-term research of families and elementary schools in Czech Republic. Specifically, it examines the application of the concept in anthropological research seeking to provide explanations for parental involvement into the educational processes relating to the secondary school choice making. The particular attention is focused on the methodological problems encountered during the research of cultural capital. Author will deal with the application of selected research methods like participative observation, in-depth interviews and questionnaires. This paper aims to contribute to the debate of how and if ever is possible to capture all relevant aspects entering into the process of accumulation cultural capital through selected research methods.

Keywords: family, school, cultural capital, education

Dealing With Street Culture In Schools: Are Families, Schools And Communities Able To Work Together To Improve The Quality Of The Daily Interactions And Communication? G
Frederik Smit, Radboud University, The Netherlands Geert Driessen, Radboud University, The Netherlands

During the last decade, the quality of Dutch primary and secondary education has been decreasing compared to other countries. The Netherlands is no longer part of the international top ten. Shanghai leads the rankings, while in Europe Finland is the frontrunner. Especially with regard to the level of reading, mathematics and science, the Netherlands is lagging behind. At the request of NTR, the independent Dutch public broadcast service specialized in information, education and culture, the research institute ITS of the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands and OIG, the education innovation group, conducted an investigation into the quality of Dutch education for the TV show ´The Evening of Education´. The research question of NTR was: What are the views of teachers, parents and pupils on the quality of education?

References: Smit, F., Driessen, G., Sluiter, R. & Brus, M. (2008). Ouders en innovatief onderwijs. Ouderbetrokkenheid en participatie op scholen met vormen van „nieuw leren. Nijmegen: ITS, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Smit, F., Driessen, G., Sluiter, R. & Brus, M. (2007). Ouders, scholen en diversiteit. Ouderbetrokkenheid en participatie op scholen met veel en weinig achterstandsleerlingen . Nijmegen: ITS, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Smit, F, Wester, M, Craenen, O. & Schut, K. (2011). De visie van leraren, ouders en leerlingen op de kwaliteit van het onderwijs, ITS, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en OIG.

Critical Lessons From Practices For Improving The Quality Of Communication Between Parents And Schools B
Frederik Smit, Radboud University, The Netherlands Geert Driessen, Radboud University, The Netherlands

At the request of Better Performing, the collaboration programme of school boards and the municipality of Rotterdam, research institute ITS of the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands conducted a study into the functioning of the parental involvement policies in primary and secondary schools in Rotterdam. In Rotterdam, a city with 600,000 inhabitants and some 180 nationalities, two-thirds of the youth grows up in immigrant families. In many homes of these second and third-generation immigrants Dutch is not the language normally spoken among parents and children. One in three children grows up in a family with low educated parents. These youngsters rarely go to higher forms of education and many of them acquire only a basic qualification for the labour market. The socioethnic composition of the city‘s population thus poses a particular challenge for policymakers and school staff. One of the objectives of the Better Performing programme is that every school in Rotterdam should demonstrate progress in parental support of their children‘s learning process. Parent s should exhibit more effective teaching supportive behaviour at home and more parents should be actively involved in the school career and job choices of their children. Basic ingredients of the Rotterdam approach are partnership and two-way communication, with an emphasis on intake interviews and discussion of the role of parents in choosing a school and school career.
References: Smit, F. & Driessen, G. (2005). Parent-school-community relations in a changing society: Bottlenecks, pitfalls and solutions. In R.-A. Martínez-Gonzáles, Ma. del Henar Pérez-Herrero & B. Rodríguez-Ruiz (Eds.), Familyschool-community partnerships merging into social development (pp. 171-190). Oviedo: Grubao SM. Smit, F., & Driessen, G. (2006). Ouders en scholen als partners in een multiculturele en multireligieuze samenleving. In C. Hermans (Ed.), Partnerschap als waardegemeenschap (pp. 103-122). Budel: Uitgeverij Damon. Smit, F., Wester, M., & Kuijk, J. van (2012). Beter presteren in Rotterdam. School en ouders samen. ITS, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Smit, F., Driessen, G., Sleegers, P., & Teelken, C. (2008). Scrutinizing the balance: Parental care versus educational responsibilities in a changing society. Early Child Development and Care, 178, (1), 65-80.

Parent Involvement In Primary Schools: The Practice Of Teachers, Beliefs And Cultural Aspects Of The Schools A/F
Martin Straumann, University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland

Jan Egger, University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland Jürgen Lehmann, University of Applied Sciences, Northwestern Switzerland

In a project of qualitative social research, financed by the Swiss national Science Foundation with the program ―DORE – do research‖ for Universities of Applied Sciences UAS, we analyse the interviews of 30 teachers and principals in Swiss primary schools. We have the commitment of nine primary schools in two cantons of Northwestern Switzerland to do research in the schools and at the end of the research process to start a school development process in these schools with all teachers in order to have a better quality in some dimensions of parent involvement in the particular school. We analyse the practise and the beliefs of the teachers and the principals of these schools and we look at the standards of parent involvement, parent participation and the cultural aspects of how teachers are supported when they need information or help in case of difficulties. We look at a variety of different schools in towns, suburban communities or in rural communities with different socioeconomic status (SES) of the population in order to have a nearly complete set of practices of teachers. Some schools have a high proportion of parents (about 60 percent of the children) speaking foreign languages coming from a variety of different nations. We find different types of beliefs and attitudes that are in some cases founded or not founded in the culture of the schools. The types that represent the practise of teachers are not completely explainable by the school context or the socioeconomic status of the parents. We found individual biographical factors and factors that are located in the school culture and the management style of the principal of the school. The analysis of the interviews is used for workshops in these schools to start a school development that is based in the findings of the research project. We present some excerpts of interviews and we enjoy discussing some of our findings in a workshop.

Under Conditions: Family Involvement In Higher Education Through The Eyes Of Greek-Cypriot Students A
Loizos Symeou1, Department of Education Sciences, European University, Cyprus Eleni Theodorou, Department of Education Sciences, European University, Cyprus Iasonas Lamprianou, Department of Education Sciences, European University, Cyprus

Most research in the field of family involvement has focused on lower levels of education, mainly in primary and to a lesser degree in secondary education. However, given the migration of family involvement in increasingly higher levels of education (see Lynk Wartman & Savage, 2008; Symeou & Theodorou, 2012), it becomes important to investigate the cultural constructions and meanings associated with the phenomenon of family involvement in higher education, particularly given higher education‘s increasing cost and significance in an individual‘s life opportunities . This paper presents part of the pilot findings of a larger mixed methods research, which investigates whether (and if so, the extent to which and how) the involvement of families in undergraduate students‘ university education influences students‘ academic experiences in Cyprus. For the purposes of the study, ‗family involvement‘ is meant to signify any type of involvement from member(s) of a student‘s family in any matter associated with the student‘s university studies and which is undertaken to support them. The term ‗family‘ refers to one‘s partner, guardian, or adult(s) with whom one is biologically related. The pilot study data which this paper will discuss centre on the perspective of the students on the issue of family involvement and have been collected both through quantitative and qualitative methods in 2012. Specifically, a questionnaire investigating the phenomenon was completed by a convenience sample of 101 undergraduate students attending a state university and 186 undergraduate students attending a private university (constitution of student sample: 76% women; average age 20.5 years old). Furthermore,

individual interviews with twelve purposefully selected undergraduate students of all years of study attending a private university in Cyprus were conducted. The data analysis demonstrates the existence of the phenomenon of family involvement in higher education in Cyprus, while highlights important differences and similarities between the form it takes and how the involvement of the family is realised and performed in public and private universities. More specifically, it appears that the phenomenon involves a wide variety of aspects in students‘ studies, beyond the family‘s financial contribution as perhaps more commonly expected, which includes decisions regarding field of study and living arrangements during the period of one‘s studies, provision of nonfinancial support with studies, counseling regarding the work force entry, handling of written and other communication between the family and the university, organizing university visits, etc. Moreover, family involvement does not seem to be a one-time thing; rather it is characterized by temporal continuity and transpires in different forms in different phases of the students‘ university life. In addition, students seem also to draw on different family members for different aspects of their studies, thus indicating the expansion of the phenomenon to the broader family and not only parents/guardians. In comparing how the involvement of the family is realised and performed in state and private universities, among the most important differences this pilot study has revealed is that this involvement seems to be more frequent and more intense among families whose children attend private rather than state universities. At the same time, although students in both state and private universities indicate that they discuss with their families topics relevant to their studies, the majority of participants seem to be negative towards family involvement in their studies. According to the students, in principle, family involvement is a phenomenon which undermines the cultural value of autonomy through cultural practices which do not support them as adults who can take their lives into their own hands. Nonetheless, it remains to be seen if such differences and similarities between students attending private and state institutions still exist in the case of a representative student sample from both institutions to be collected as part of the broader study. The qualitative data concurs with the quantitative regarding students‘ disapproval of family involvement and has also provided a window into more nuanced understandings of the phenomenon as participants made a distinction between family involvement and family briefing. With regard to the former, students appeared not to perceive it as a particularly common phenomenon whereas they considered the latter to be quite frequent and expected, as it related to matters of accountability and responsibility to their family due to their covering the expenses for the students‘ studies. To be sure, the interpretation provided needs to be seen as part of the broader cultural scenery and the local cultural norms defining child-parent relationship more specifically. The analysis depicts the relationships between universities and families and sheds light on the meanings negotiated among the actors affected more directly by the phenomenon of family involvement, namely the students. This research contributes to a growing body of work investigating parental involvement prior to and during the experience of higher education (e.g. Brooks, 2004; David, Ball, Davies, & Reay, 2003) which may offer a fruitful avenue in describing, understanding, and seeking common ground between higher institutions and students‘ families for the purposes of providing effective academic support (Crozier, Reay, & Clayton, 2008) as well as negotiating and defining each part‘s role, responsibilities and rights in this relationship.

Home-School-Relationships In The Context Of Language Diversity: An Exploratory Study On The Relationship Between Adolescents‘ Home Language Environments And Their Educational Outcomes C/F
Marina Trebbels, University of Hamburg, Germany

In most Western countries, adolescents with a migration background are characterized by both significantly lower attainment rates in terms of years of education as well as by systematically lower levels of educational performance in standardized achievement tests. Approaches to explain these gaps most often refer to differences in economic, social and cultural capital (e.g. Bourdieu 1983; Boudon 1974) as well as to a lack of academic language skills of immigrant-background students, which is commonly attributed to the usage of languages other than the language of instruction in the family (e.g. Esser 2006; Klieme et al. 2010). While large-scale student assessments indicate that multilingual language practices in the familial context are significantly related to lower levels of academic performance, this hypothesis has remained controversial. Several studies suggest that proficiency in the majority language does not have to come at the loss of the heritage language, and that the latter may have serious consequences such as the isolation from one‘s cultural community and disruptions in parent-child relationships. As both the family and the cultural community constitute important sources of social and cultural capital, which constitute major determinants of adolescents‘ educational goals, aspirations and levels of achievement, these aspects are in turn be strongly related to students‘ educational integration (e.g. Oh & Fuligni 2010; Tseng & Fuligni 2000; Portes & Hao 2002; Phinney et al. 2001). Based on data collected from 350 9th and 10th graders in Germany in 2011, we provide a detailed analysis of school-related activities carried out in native and migrant families with different language practices by explicitly considering information on student and parent language usage in different schoolrelated domains. Further, we investigate how these patterns are related to parents‘ and students‘ educational aspirations and expectations. Firstly, our data suggests that the congruence between student aspirations and expectations and parental aspirations – which have consistently been shown to be particularly high in the migrant population (e.g. Becker 2010) – is higher in the case of multilingual home environments. Secondly, we suggest that simple dummy variables which reflect the language used most often by immigrant-background students in the familial context – as commonly used in large-scale assessments (e.g. Klieme et al. 2010) – do not accurately capture the complex structure of students‘ home language environments. The results obtained from our study will be used (a) to discuss the appropriateness of measures commonly used to proxy familial language practices by contrasting marginal effects of language practices on student aspirations and expectations when using different proxies, and (b) to draw implications for the improvement of home-school-relationships in the migration context.
References: Becker, B. (2010): Bildungsaspirationen von Migranten: Determinanten und Umsetzung in Bildungsergebnisse , Working Paper No. 137. Mannheim: Mannheimer Zentrum für Europäische Sozialforschung. Boudon, R. (1974): Education, Opportunity, and Social Inequality: Changing Prospects in Western Society . New York: Wiley & Sons. Bourdieu, P. (1983): „Ökonomisches Kapital, Kulturelles Kapital, Soziales Kapital―, In: KRECKL, Reinhard (Ed.): Soziale Ungleichheiten. Göttingen: Schwartz. 183-198. Esser, H. (2006): Sprache und Integration: Die sozialen Bedingungen und Folgen des Spracherwerbs von Migranten. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag. Klieme, E. et al. (Eds.) (2010): PISA 2009: Bilanz nach einem Jahrzehnt. Münster/New York/Munich/Berlin: Waxmann. OH, J.S. and Fuligni, A.J. (2010): ―The Role of Heritage Language Development in the Ethnic Identity and Family Relationships of Adolescents from Immigrant Backgrounds. Social Development, 19 (1). 202-220.

Phinney, J. S. et al. (2001): ―The Role of Language, Parents, and Peers in Ethnic Identity among Adolescents in Immigrant Families.‖ Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30 (2). 135-153. Portes, A. and Hao, L. (2002): ―The Price of Uniformity: Language, Family and Personality Adjustment in the Immigrant Second Generation.‖ Ethnic and Racial Studies, 25. 889-912. Tseng, V. and Fuligni, A. J. (2000): ‖Parent-Adolescent Language Use and Relationships among Immigrant Families with East Asian, Filipino, and Latin American Backgrounds.‖ Journal of Marriage and Family, 62 (2). 465-476.

Effective And Productive Family School Relationships
Maria N. Trejo, Calderon and Associates, Consultant, Sacramento, U.S.A.

D

Students whose parents participate and assist with their education often have higher promotion rates, lower absenteeism rates, better grades, higher school and community involvement, are more likely to be performing at grade level and meeting grade-level standards. Beginning with preschool, children whose parents help them with their early literacy and social development are better prepared for kindergarten. They seem more confident, acquire larger vocabularies, learn more letters are exposed to more concepts, and develop more social skills. Given all the benefits suggested in the research, why do schools and communities so often have great challenges in attracting parents to their activities? Sustaining parents‘ participation? Identifying the most powerful ways to involve parents and forming long-lasting partnerships? The presentation will include research findings to address these questions and other key issues. It will include examples of effective areas and practices that maximize the role of parents, are correlated to student success, and have been identified by parents and community to be most worthy of time and effort. There will be discussions regarding the differences in partnerships for various educational grade levels. Effective activities in pre-K, K-6, middle grades, high school, and college will be suggested. Great diversities of cultural groups, languages spoken, educational backgrounds, and economic opportunities contribute to the inequities found in schools with the treatment of students, the academic gains of students, and the involvement of parents and communities. Opportunities for discussions and input will be provided during the sessions regarding the issues of equity, inclusion and justice. Much has been written about the important role of teacher expectations on the academic achievement of students. But little has been said about the important ways that teacher expectations manifest themselves in the role of parents, the importance of their participation, or the activities and opportunities provided to parents to participate in their school and communities. The sessions will also address these themes and the research reported about them.

The Meta-Cultural Competency Of Teachers Working With Students From Underprivileged Areas B
Nicole Tremblay, University of Québec in Chicoutimi, Québec , Canada Catherine Dumoulin, University of Québec in Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada Mathieu Gagnon, University of Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada Philippe Côté, University of Québec in Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada

According to the Core Professional Competencies for teaching profession of Quebec, a teacher ―acts as a professional inheritor, critic and interpreter of knowledge or culture when teaching students‖ (Ministry of Education, 2001). This teacher competency that emphasizes the student‘s personal and family culture is a prerequisite leading the student towards a secondary culture, which is the culture of the

school. Bourdieu and Passeron (1970) studied the important gap between the cultural understanding of underprivileged students and the school‘s culture being taught by the teacher throughout pedagogical materials and activities. Zakhartchouk (1999) suggests that training programs should develop teachers‘ skill as cultural mediators. Indeed, cultural mediation by teachers is essential in allowing students to attach everyday objects to the themes, texts and products of the scientific and cultural heritage (Ministry of Education, 2001). In order to recognize cultural potential and limitations, a teacher must yet develop a sensibility towards his own origin and cultural development (Ministry of Education, 2001). The teacher‘s act of critical thinking concerning his own cultural development, designated as the meta-cultural competency, promotes an open-mind not only towards different cultural knowledge that can be found among his students, but also towards multiple elements influencing those differences. A teacher should also identify the perceptions and attitudes associated with underprivileged realities in order to avoid pedagogical obstacles (Beaupré, 2012). This study was performed with 36 student-teachers under the supervision of 36 associated teachers working in 8 primary schools situated in 8 rural municipalities in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Québec (Canada). Student-teachers implemented a project related to their practicum area and participated in a semi-controlled interview. Moreover, associated-teachers participated in two semi-controlled interviews. All three interviews were recorded and transcribed. A content analysis was done according to the methodological procedures (L‘Écuyer, 1990). Finally, all unexpected emerging categories in the interview canvas were taken into account (Van Der Maren, 1996). Results showed that teachers are able to elaborate a socioeconomical portrait of families describing families‘ social, cultural and economic characteristics. This knowledge should hence be transferred into pedagogical practices. However, teachers and their student-teachers do not sufficiently transfer their knowledge and understanding of underprivileged families and areas to their practices as cultural mediators. Another research is now dedicated to identifying the needs and elements allowing professors to refine teacher training programs.
Keywords: meta-cultural competency, primary school, underprivileged areas, teacher training References Beaupré, S. (2012). L‘enseignement de l‘éthique et de la culture religieuse : pour une objectivation de la pratique. [Teaching of Ethics and Religious Culture : for an Objectification of the Practice] in N. Bouchard et M. Gagnon, L‟éthique et la culture religieuse en question, réflexions critiques et prospectives (85-101). [Ethic and Religious Culture in Question, Critical Reflexions and Prospectives] Québec : Presses de l‘Université du Québec. Bourdieu, P. et Passeron, J.-C. (1970). La Reproduction. Éléments pour une théorie du système d‟enseignement. [Reproduction. Elements for an Educational System Theory.] Paris : éd. De Minuit L‘Écuyer, R. (1990). Méthodologie de l‟analyse développementale de contenu. [Content Analysis Methodology] Ste-Foy : Presses de l‘Université du Québec. Ministry of Education (2001). La formation à l‟enseignement. Les orientations. Les compétences professionnelles. [Teacher Training. Orientations. Core Professional Competencies.], Gouvernement du Québec, 253 p. Van Der Maren, J.-M. (1996). Méthodes de recherche pour l‟éducation. [Research Methods for Education.] 2e édition. Bruxelles : éd. De Boeck Université. Zakhartchouk, J.-M. (1999). L‟enseignant, un passeur culturel. [The Teacher : A Cultural Mediator] Paris : ESF.

School Violence And Gender Differences

G

Mª José Velasco Gómez, National University for Long Distance Eduction, (UNED), Spain Beatriz Álvarez González, National University for Long Distance Education, (UNED), Spain

This paper presents the first results of a research focused on violence within the school context. Particularly, it deals with the differences in gender of adolescent aggressors from 1st and 2ndyear of Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO)1, regarding specifically the type of violence used and the influence that cultural biases have on tolerance of the violent behavior in relation to the gender of the aggressor. According to the functional approach there exist two types of violence: direct violence (reactive type) and the indirect one or instrumental type. Research about school violence shows that boys report more violent behaviors than girls, regardless of the type of violence. Boys tend to the type reactive violence, while girls imply in instrumental violence. Also there is a cultural bias from which indirect and relational violence is mainly associated with girls, and at the same time, boys are associated to the use of direct violence, the same one that is not approved in girls. This research has been carried out on 771 students, 361 girls and 410 boys, all of them from the 1st and 2nd level of ESO, from five public Secondary Schools from the Community of Madrid. This is an exploratory study where the methodology applied has been mainly quantitative analysis, carried out on the data obtained after the application of the "Survey on Reactive and Instrumental Violence, and its relationship to Adolescents' Self-control". The results confirm the existence of gender differences in both the level of violence developed and the type of aggression. These results also reveal different levels of tolerance towards 1 ESO: Compulsory Secondary Education (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria) 2 violence, on the part of the adolescent's adult context, and according to the gender of the aggressor. The achieved results should lead us to reflect on the need to overcome stereotypes and cultural biases regarding school violence, with the purpose of increasing the effectiveness of the implemented measures for prevention and answer to school violence, as well as to get an improvement in the daily classroom climate

Parental Involvement In Learning At Rural Multigrade Schools: The School, Community And Family Partnership Programme (SCAF). D
Nico Venter, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa

The purpose of this current study is to determine the characteristics of a practical, effective contextual based and sustainable school, community and family partnership program that increase parental involvement in learning at rural multigrade schools in South-Africa. Quality education through effective teaching and learning is the ultimate goal for every school. Reaching the overarching goal of quality education is extremely difficult in rural multigrade schools due to a number of reasons/challenges, including lack of parental and community involvement. Boonzaaier (2008: 385) agrees that the lack of parental involvement is a challenge and states that the role of parents in rural multigrade schools is underestimated. Principals and teachers expect parents to be involved in their children‘s education at home and at the school. However, a large number of rural multigrade parents find it difficult to become involved, because they are illiterate, experience socio-economic problems and work long hours.

According to Mmotlane, Winnaar & waKivilu (2009: 1), age, marital status, gender and living conditions have a strong impact on parental involvement in children's education. Despite difficult living conditions, every parent wants the best possible education for their children. Amoateng, Richter, Makiwane & Rama (2004) found that parents from low income families show just as much interest in the success of their children as their high income counterparts and have a right to be involved in their children's education. Therefore, schools and teachers in economically distressed communities have to make a special effort to build positive partnerships with their learners‘ families. According to Van Wyk and Lemmer (2009: 168), most parents, regardless of their background, need information and invitations from schools on ways they could be productively involved in their children‘s education. The parents of rural, multigrade learners have the potential to become more involved in their children's education, but a school, family and community partnership programme (SCAF) should take these mentioned challenges and circumstances into consideration, in order to be effective. This article reports on the design, implementation and results of a SCAF programme at a rural multigrade school in the Western Cape. The research sample comprised the principal, teachers and parents of a randomly sampled rural multigrade school in the Western Cape. The results indicated that rural multigrade parents became more involved through the implementation of practical and contextual strategies.
Key words: Rural; Multigrade schools; Parental involvement; School, Community and Family Partnership Program. References: Amoateng, A.Y., Richter, L.M., Makiwane, M. & Rama, S. (2004). Describing the structure and needs of families in South Africa: Towards the development of a national policy framework for families. A report commissioned by the Department of Social Development. Pretoria: Child Youth and Family Development, Human Sciences Research Council. Boonzaaier, P. (2008). Multigrade rural schools intervention in the West Coast Winelands EMDC: A case study. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Wellington. Mmotlane, R., Winnaar, L. & waKivilu. (2009). Personal characteristics that predict South Africans‘ participation in activities of their children‘s schools. South African Journal of Education. 29, 527 -540. Van Wyk, N. & Lemmer, E. (2009). Organizing parent involvement in SA schools. Kaapstad: Juta.

A Frontstage Ticket Or A Backstage Pass? Interviewing Preschool Teachers About Home And Preschool Collaboration C
Tuula Vuorinen, Mälardalens University, Sweden

The aim of this presentation is to describe and discuss methodological and ethical issues when conducting research about home and preschool collaboration. Using an inductive research approach when gathering and analyzing qualitative data did not only generate interesting findings about the research subject but also raised questions about the interaction between the parts participating in the interviews. Results were based on semi-structured interviews with 30 female preschool teachers. The interaction during the interviews shows two different dramaturgic scenes when both `backstage´ and frontstage´ interviews were conducted. The different dramaturgic settings will be discussed in relation to the concerns of ethics, trustworthiness and authenticity of the research results.
Keywords: trustworthiness, authenticity, methodology, social interaction

Do Teachers Have Sufficient Competence In Parental cooperation?
Elsa Westergård, University of Stavenger, Norway

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In Norway, previous research reveals that 10 % of the parents (N= 1569) reported being disillusioned with their children‘s school (Westergård & Galloway, 2004). Factors mediating teachers‘ recognition of parental disillusionment seem to be spread on several factors in different levels in school (Westergård, 2007); factors related to leaders position in school, colleagues‘ attitudes towards parents and some class room variables. The aim of this paper is to start a process shedding light over factors contributing to a better understanding of competence needed when cooperating with parents. In order to find out more about the actual interactions between parents and teachers, thus, we conducted a small scale study interviewing teachers and parents about their perceived competence regarding collaboration with parents. Symbolic interactionism is useful perspective in understanding interactions between parents and teachers (Mead, 1934; Epstein, 2001). Through these interactions we learn how others learn and anticipate our goals and behavior to fulfill the expectations and to receive their recognition. Sixteen pairs of parents and teachers in primary school – age who had met to discuss problems agreed to take part in separate interviews. The interviews were based in semistructured interview guides. The NVIVO program was used to assist data analyses (Bazely and Richards, 2000). This is a qualitative computer software enabling the researcher to access and analyze the data without losing its richness. It provides an opportunity to identify categories of responses and subgroups within each category. The study reveals so far a need for competence building activities on various levels in school. Firstly, the school leader has an important role her, building necessary competence on school level such as routines and school standards for collaboration with parents. Secondly, we find colleagues collective competence in collaborating with parents being of importance. Finally, we found that teachers individual competence in collaborating with parents as important factors regarding parental collaboration.
Keywords: Teachers competence, professional development.

Beliefs And Values About Child Rearing Goals In Surinamese Parents And Teachers F
Kees van der Wolf, Anton de Kom Universiteit van Suriname Edwin Marshall, Anton de Kom Universiteit van Suriname

Since it is acknowledged that both parents and teachers are responsible for educating children, it would seem that it would be in the child's best interest for us all to be working towards the same goals. The lack of understanding of the underlying beliefs about the parents' goals for child-rearing and education may lead to an unarticulated clash with educators' values and beliefs. In such cases, parents and educators are each pulling in different directions without necessarily being aware of what is happening. The child, of course, is in the middle, receiving one set of messages at home and another set at school. Surfacing these unarticulated different belief systems is in the best interests of the children--but it is not easy. Especially not in Suriname, as it is a country with a multicultural diverse population. The most salient feature of Suriname‘s identity is its ethnic, linguistic, religious, and cultural di versity. Like many former colonies, its population has been shaped by slavery and indentured labor along with immigration from its surrounding neighbors. Its geographic position as a frontier region between Latin America and the Caribbean has further contributed to its unique political and cultural character. Modernday Suriname is comprised of at least ten ethnic groups.

The major ethnic groups in Suriname are Hindustani (Hindoestanen), Javanese, Creoles (descendants of slaves), and Maroons (descendents of escaped slaves). Specifically, Hindus are the largest ethnic group at 27 percent of the population. They are descendants of 19th-century contract workers from the Northern Indian states of Bihar and Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Surinamese Creoles make up 18 percent. They are mixed descendants of West African slaves and Europeans (mostly Dutch). The Javanese make up 15 percent. They are descendants of contract workers from the former Dutch East Indian island of Java. Surinamese Maroons make up 15 percent. They are descendants of escaped West African slaves. We conceptualized a research project with the ultimate goal of helping teachers understand family values, beliefs, and practices in order to create a learning environment at school that acknowledges and builds upon these. Simultaneously, the project aims to facilitate parents' understanding of the school's values and beliefs. We used q-methodology to rank 36 statements regarding child-rearing goals (N= 295). Making use of factor analysis (principle factor analysis) we distinguish 5 factors: functioning and achieving in the society, sociability, conformism, autonomy and well-being. We find significant differences between parental and teachers orientations. We discuss the cultural frameworks within which Surinamese parents and teachers function.

The Social Relationship Of Research In A Study About The Agency Of Children In School-Family Interface C
Armanda Zenhas, University of Porto and Leça da Palmeira Middle School, Porto, Portugal Cristina Rocha, University of Porto, Portugal Pedro Silva, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal

The content of this paper is situated within a broader investigation of ethnographic nature taking place in Portugal. It concerns the child's experience in school-family interface throughout the 5th grade, in which an ecological transition (Bronfenbrenner, 1987) occurs, due to an educational stage transition (Abrantes, 2009). Its purpose is to examine the social relationship of research (Silva, 2003) established between the researcher and the children of a 5th grade class, their parents and teachers, from the moment the students move into the new school. Having the background of the children's agency (Giddens, 2000; Corsaro, 2011) within the framework of school-family relationships (Perrenoud, 1995) the data for this study were collected with the children, in weekly participatory activities (with voluntary attendance) and through conversational interviews, as well as with teachers and parents, through interviews, observation of weekly lessons with the class director and of parents meetings. The data collected were subjected to qualitative analysis. This research reveals children as competent social actors who act intentionally and strategically (Sirota, 1998; Almeida, 2009) on the school-family relationship structure. This strategic action is further reflected in the way children appropriate the data collection activities promoted with them. Moreover it is also present in the strategic uses that they confer to the social relationship established with them (Ferreira, 2004).
Keywords: The child as a social actor, School-family relationships, Ethnography, Research methodology, Social relationship of research References: Abrantes, P. (2009). Perder-se e encontrar-se à entrada da escola Transições e desigualdades na educação básica. Sociologia, problemas e práticas (60), 33-52.

Almeida, A. N. d. (2009). Para uma sociologia da infância. Lisboa: Instituto de Ciências Sociais, Universidade de Lisboa. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1987). La ecología del desarrollo humano. Barcelona: Paidós. Corsaro, W. A. (2011). Sociologia da infância (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: Artmed. Ferreira, M. (2004). "A gente gosta é de brincar com os outros meninos": Relações sociais entre crianças num Jardim de Infância. Porto: Afrontamento. Giddens, A. (2000). Dualidade da estrutura: Agência e estrutura. Oeiras: Celta. Perrenoud, P. (1995). O ofício do aluno e o sentido do trabalho escolar. Porto: Porto Editora. Silva, P. (2003). Etnografia e educação: Reflexões a propósito de uma pesquisa sociológica. Porto: Profedições. Sirota, R. (1998). L'émergence d'une sociologie de l'enfance: évolution de l‘objet, évolution du regard. Éducation et sociétés (2), 9-33.

SYMPOSIUM
Area of Interest A/C

Research From Diverse Countries On Fathers‘ Involvement In Their Children‘s Education
CHAIR Diana B. Hiatt--Michael, Pepperdine University, USA

PARTICIPANTS
Diana B. Hiatt--Michael, Pepperdine University, USA Martha Allexsaht--Snider and Elif Karsli, University of Georgia, USA Raquel--Amaya Martínez--González, Oviedo University, Spain;

Beatriz Rodríguez--Ruiz, Oviedo University, Spain; Mª José Rodrigo--López, University of La Laguna, Spain Rollande Deslandes, University of Quebec in Trois--Rivieres, Canada

OVERVIEW
To date, studies on family involvement reveal that mothers are the predominantly active members of the family-school connection. This symposium captures cross-cultural and cross-national perspectives regarding father involvement in the family-school-community partnership. The session features research on father engagement in different countries across four continents with diverse cultures—Africa, Turkey, United States of America (USA), Spain, and Canada. The presentation rests on the assumption that the level of involvement of fathers in their child‘s education relates to the development of the social capital of a country. However, the contexts of the cultures within each country affect how fathers behave. All the cultures in this presentation have been faced with ongoing changes due to twentieth century social changes. These changes include pressure for gender equity, increasing pressure for women to be employed outside the home, and the increase in the number of single parent families as well as diverse family arrangements. A review of the literature notes that the number of studies on father engagement is small, especially after the early childhood years. Also, programs that promote father engagement in their child‘s education beyond the early years have received little national attention. The first presentation focuses on the continent of Africa in which most nations are embroiled in political clashes, economic changes, and health issues. Research on fatherhood and family involvement in schooling is limited. The second and third papers underscore the importance of father engagement and the pressures on fathers that divert them from daily father engagement with their child‘s education. In addition, the third paper examines father engagement in the early childhood years across two diverse cultures. The final paper reveals that the greatest national attention on fathers appears to be in Canada.

PRESENTATIONS
The first presentation addresses the current situation across the countries of Africa, noting themes that cut across countries and emerging exemplary practices in the stable countries of Ghana and South Africa. This paper primarily rests upon in depth interviews with twelve educators from diverse African countries as well as a thorough review of related literature on families and their children‘s schooling across Africa. This paper strives to present the challenges faced by African males and their involvement in their children‘s education. The second presentation compares father involvement of young children in the United States and Turkey. The researchers gathered data in both countries on a number of variables related to father engagement in their child‘s lives on each culture. Research on father involvement in early education in the U. S. has been supported since 1960s by Head Start and other early education grants. Turkey joined the European Union Integration in 2005, and emphasis on early education has been increasing. The findings from this study support the pressure of cultural norms on the kind and degree of fathers‘ engagement in education, especially at the school site. The third presentation offers a national perspective on fathers‘ perceptions of their involvement in their children‘s education in Spain. In this paper, fathers‘ collaboration with compulsory secondary education schools in Spain was explored taking into account both, their own perspective as fathers and that of the teachers. The aim was to catch a closer insight on the kind of activities fathers are more willing or available to attend at school, as well as on the barriers they might encounter to do so. As research findings have suggested, attention must also be directed to teachers who as educators should develop and implement programs to encourage fathers‘ involvement. This study sought answers from teachers as well as fathers regarding the challenges they might encounter working with one another. The findings from this study provide educators with some useful strategies to encourage fathers‘ involvement in schools and in their children‘s education.

The final presentation from Canada attempts to share typical and exemplary practices from a diverse country to explain in one presentation or one study. Current research of Canadian fathers portray a trend toward more engagement of fathers in their children‘s lives but that this level of engagement is not equal to that of mothers. To promote father engagement, Canada has supported research on father involvement in their child‘s lives including in education. The presentation examines comparison of paternal and maternal engagement in education, comparison of father engagement in two-parent home and singleparent homes, and current programs supporting father engagement.

ROUNDTABLE

Rethinking International Journal About Parents In Education
Stefano Castelli, University of Milano-Biccoca, Milano, Italy

A meeting (round table) proposed by Stefano Castelli The International Journal about Parents in Education was started in 2007, with the aim of promoting awareness and understanding of issues affecting school-parents relationships and parental involvement in educational contexts. The idea was to create an instrument to foster debate around ERNAPE's themes in the format and style of professional scientific journals, with particular attention to the possibility of giving to young researchers, or to researchers from emerging countries, an outlet where present their research. In these years, the Journal has gained growing reputation. It has been indexed in EBSCO databases and, according to "Publish or Perish", its h-index is now 6, and g-index is 7. Not too bad for a "minimal" organization. However, if we want to promote a further growth, it is now time to rethink the format of the journal, and its organization. The proposed meeting is meant to discuss some strategic options (for instance, the possibility of introducing a subscription fee, or of charging Publishing Fees to authors; the idea of producing thematic issues devoted to specific topics, etc.). In the same meeting, these strategic options will be implemented through practical organizational decisions.

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