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# CHAPTER 1 (INTRODUCTION

)

1.1 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

Centrifugal pumps are turbomachines used for transporting liquids by raising a specified volume flow to a specified pressure level, which uses the dynamic principle of accelerating fluid, through centrifugal activity, and converting the kinetic energy into pressure.

**1.2 WORKING AND ELEMENTS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
**

A centrifugal pump essentially composed of a casing, a bearing housing, the pump shaft and an impeller. The liquid to be pumped flows through the suction nozzle to the impeller. The overhung impeller mounted on the shaft is driven via a coupling by a motor. The impeller transfers the energy necessary to transport the fluid and accelerates it in the circumferential direction. This causes the static pressure to increase in accordance with kinetics, because the fluid flow follows a curved path. The fluid exiting the impeller is decelerated in the volute and the following diffuser in order to utilize the greatest possible part of the kinetic energy at the impeller outlet for increasing the static pressure. The diffuser forms the discharge nozzle.

**Fig 1.1 Centrifugal pump
**

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A shaft seal, e.g. a stuffing box or a mechanical seal, prevents the liquid from escaping into the environment or the bearing housing. Impeller and casing are separated by a narrow annular seal through which some leakage flows back from the impeller outlet to the inlet. A second annular seal on the rear shroud serves the purpose of counterbalancing the axial forces acting on the impeller front and rear shrouds. The leakage through this seal flows back into the suction chamber through axial thrust balance hole which are drilled in hole. The impeller can be described by the hub, the rear shroud, the blades transferring energy to the fluid and the front shroud. In some applications the front shroud is omitted. In this case the impeller is termed “semi-open”. The leading face of the blade of the rotating impeller experiences the highest pressure for a given radius. It is called pressure surface or pressure side. The opposite blade surface with the lower pressure accordingly is the suction surface or suction side. When looking into the impeller eye we see the suction surface. Therefore, it is sometimes called the “visible blade face” or the “lower blade face”, whilst the pressure surface, not visible from the impeller eye, is called the “upper blade face”.

Fig 1.2 Meridonial and plan view of impeller

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1.3 Types of centrifugal pump Centrifugal Pumps are classified into three general categories: • Radial flow – a centrifugal pump in which the pressure is developed wholly by

centrifugal force. • Semi-axial – a centrifugal pimp in which the pressure is developed by centrifugal

force partly by the lift of the vanes of the impeller on the liquid. • Axial flow – a centrifugal pump in which the pressure is developed by the propelling

or lifting action of the vanes of the impeller on the liquid.

Fig. 1.3 Types of impeller

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1.4 Performance characteristics

Due to need of variable operational requirements, practically all pumps temporarily operate away from the design point which is defined by q* ≡ Q/Qopt = 1. Overload corresponds to q* > 1, while operation at q* < 1 is called “partload”. The pump characteristics describe the behavior of head, power consumption and efficiency as functions of the flow rate. The characteristics are measured on the test stand by throttling the discharge valve in order to obtain different flow rates corresponding to the valve openings. At a given speed, unique values of head and power are established at every specific flow rate. The resulting curve H = f (Q) is called “head-capacity curve” or “Q-H-curve”. 1.4.1. Theoretical characteristics The expression of theoretical head developed by centrifugal pump can be written from Euler’s equation in this way:

Where D = outer diameter of impeller N = Rotational speed A = the flow area at the periphery of the impeller β2 = outlet blade angle of the impeller From the above equation it can be seen that for a given impeller only H t heo and Q are the variable, so we can write above equation in this way H th eo = K 1 - K 2 Q Therefore head and discharge bears a linear relationship, so H-Q curve is a straight line and at zero flow K 1 is the head developed by the impeller. This is shown in figure 1.4

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Fig 1. Fig 1.4.4 Theoretical head discharge characteristics 1.5 Actual head discharge characteristics M.losses So for actual characteristics it is required to know about the losses.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 5 . Hence Hactual = Htheoretical .2. Actual characteristics The actual characteristic is obtained by deducting losses from theoretical head.

In contrast. When operating a pump it is recommended that the pump be sized to run as close to the BEP as the application allows. the characteristic is said to be “unstable”.The shape of these performance curves over the range from shut-off (or zero flow Q = 0) to the maximum possible flow rate is important for the operational behaviour of the pump in the plant. if the Q-H-curve has a range with ∂H/∂Q > 0. M.6 Pump performance curve Best efficiency point: It is defined as a point on H-Q curve for the flow capacity at which efficiency is maximum. Fig 1. ∂H/∂Q < 0.e. i. This is termed a “stable characteristic”. The majority of applications require a Q-H-curve steadily falling with increasing flow rate. Unstable or flat Q-H-curves can cause problems in parallel operation or with a flat system characteristic.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 6 .

If the losses are known. The losses cause smaller head than the theoretical and higher power consumption. the result is a reduction in efficiency. loss free description of the impeller performance. Accordance with the actual performance curves depends on the models’ degree of detail and to what extent they describe the actual pump type. A study of losses in centrifugal pump may be undertaken one of the following reasons: 1. 2. Information about the nature and magnitude of losses may indicate the way to reduce these losses. Pump performance curves can be predicted by means of theoretical or empirical calculation models for each single type of loss. 2. In reality. because of a number of mechanical and hydraulic losses in impeller and pump casing. To know the actual characteristics from theoretical characteristics it is required to deduct the loss head from theoretical head.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 7 . it is possible to predetermine the head-capacity curve of a new pump by first assuming or establishing in some other manner the head-capacity curve of an idealized pump.CHAPTER 2 (LOSSES IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMP) INTRODUCTION As described in previous section Euler’s pump equation provides a simple.1 Types of losses in centrifugal pump: In centrifugal pump there are basically two types of losses hydraulic and mechanical which can be divided in number of sub groups which are listed as below: Disk friction losses Losses through annular seal Incidence loss Friction loss Mixing loss Recirculation loss Mechanical loss M. 4. the pump performance is lower than predicted by the Euler pump equation. 3.

TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 8 .1 Disk friction on impeller If the body rotates in a casing (as is the case in a pump) the velocity distribution between casing and rotating body depends on the distance between the impeller shroud and the casing wall as well as on the boundary layers which form on the stationary and rotating surfaces. A core flow with approximately cu = ½ω×r is obtained (in other words.r15/r25). u = ω×r can no longer be assumed).2. The friction power per side of the disk PRR = ω×M is obtained from the integral PRR = ω×∫dM (between inner radius r1 and outer radius r2) as PRR = (π/5)×ρ×cf×ω3×r2 5×(1 .1. The friction coefficient cf depends on the Reynolds number and the surface roughness. shear stresses corresponding to the local friction coefficient cf occur on its surface. 2. On a disk rotating in an extended stationary fluid (without the influence of a casing) the shear stress is τ = ½ρ×cf×u2 with u = ω×R.1 Disk friction losses When a circular disk or a cylinder rotates in a fluid. Fig. In the case of turbulent flow the power absorbed by a disk in a casing therefore amounts to roughly half of the power of a free disk rotating in a stationary fluid. The friction force on a surface element dA = 2π×r×dr is then dF = 2π×τ×r×dr and the torque exercised by friction becomes: dM = r×dF = π×ρ×cf×ω2×r4×dr. M.

Fig.The disk friction losses depend on the following parameters: Reynolds number Roughness of the rotating disk Roughness of the casing wall Axial side wall gap Shape of the casing and size of the impeller side wall gap Influencing the boundary layer Leakage flow Exchange of momentum 2.2 Leakage flows: a) multistage pump. one percent of leakage flow also means an efficiency loss of one percent.1.e. this axial flow can be treated according to the laws of channel flow if the hydraulic diameter dh = 2×s is used. Since the entire mechanical energy transferred by the impeller to the leakage flow (i. Due to the pressure difference across the seal. b) impeller with balance holes. an axial flow velocity cax is generated. the increase of the static head and the kinetic energy) is throttled in the seal and converted into heat. Any leakage reduces the pump efficiency. Through the rotation of the inner cylinder a circumferential flow is superimposed on the axial flow.2 Leakage loss through annular seals The annular seal consists of a case ring and a rotating inner cylinder. 2. With the rotor at rest. The clearance s between the rings is small compared to the radius of the rotating parts (s << r sp).TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 9 . To describe these flow conditions two Reynolds numbers are required: Re for the axial and Reu for the circumferential flow. c) double entry impeller M.

dsp*2). the pressure difference acting over the seal must be established.e. ) the pressure between the impeller outlet and the seal drops in accordance with the rotation of the fluid in the impeller sidewall gap . With radially inward directed leakages (Qs1 and Qs2 in Fig. This is typically.rsp2) = ½ρ×k2×u22×(1 . The static pressure Hp prevailing at the impeller outlet can be calculated from In most cases Hp can be estimated accurately enough with the help of the degree of reaction Hp = RG×H. This is described by the rotation factor k = β/ω (β is the angular velocity of the fluid). M.2. For determining the pressure difference over the seal at the impeller inlet we use equation: The greater the fluid rotation (i.1.1. 2. Since k increases with growing leakage a radially inward leakage depends on itself and partly limits itself.3 Incidence losses Incidence loss occurs when there is a difference between the flow angle and blade angle at the impeller or guide vane leading edges. the greater k) the greater is the pressure drop in the sidewall gap and the smaller is the pressure difference over the seal and the resulting leakage flow. For low and moderate specific speeds RG = 0.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 10 .75 is a good assumption.2.1 calculation procedure for leakage loss To start with. the case at part load or when prerotation exists. As per Eq The pressure reduction in the impeller sidewall gap can be calculated from Δp = ½ρ×β 2×(r22 .

The designer must therefore make sure that flow angles and blade angles match each other so the incidence loss can minimized.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 11 . see Figure. The recirculation zone causes a flow contraction after the blade leading edge. 2. The flow must once again decelerate after the contraction to fill the entire blade channel and mixing loss occurs. incidence losses also occur at the volute tongue.Fig. Fig.3 Incidence loss as function of flow A recirculation zone occurs on one side of the blade when there is difference between the flow angle and the blade angle.4 Velocity triangle at impeller inlet M. 2. At off-design flow. Rounding blade edges and volute casing tongue can reduce the incidence loss.

4 Friction loss Flow friction occurs where the fluid is in contact with the rotating impeller surfaces and the interior surfaces in the pump casing.5 Frictional head loss as a function of velocity 2. Non-uniform flow generates losses by turbulent dissipation through exchange of momentum between the streamlines. Such pressure losses are called “form” or “mixing” losses. Fig. the reverse process of converting kinetic energy into static pressure involves far greater losses.1. The magnitude of the friction loss depends on the roughness of the surface and the fluid velocity relative to the surface.1.2.2. Fig. 2. The flow friction causes a pressure loss which reduces the head. The reason for this is that in real flows the velocity distributions are mostly nonuniform and subject to further distortion upon deceleration.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 12 .5 Mixing Losses or Losses due to vortex dissipation While static pressure can be converted into kinetic energy without a major loss (accelerated flow).6 Mixing loss M.

1.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 13 . Recirculation zones can occur in inlet. it is important to minimise the size of the recirculation zones in the primary operating points. When designing hydraulic components. The result is a considerable mixing loss. These losses depend on the design of the pump. Generally mechanical losses found by documentation of the manufacturer of the pump. Fig.e. 2.1. The extent of the zones depends on geometry and operating point. Occasionally Pm includes auxiliary equipment driven by the pump shaft. the axial bearing and the shaft seals. on the selection of anti-friction versus journal bearings or stuffing boxes versus mechanical seals.7 Mechanical losses The mechanical losses P m are generated by the radial bearings. Figure shows an example of recirculation in the impeller. impeller. The recirculation zones reduce the effective cross-section area which the flow experiences. High velocity gradients Occurs in the flow between the main flow which has high velocity and the eddies which have a velocity close to zero. i. M.7 Recirculation loss in impeller 2. return channel or volute casing.6 Recirculation Losses Recirculation zones in the hydraulic components typically occur at part load when the flow is below the design flow.2.

The calculation of inlet incidence loss does not include any empirical loss coefficient.1 Theoretical Hydraulic Head: Theoretical Hydraulic Head is given by Hth ( ) [3-1] 3. (4) Diffusion loss and (5) Diffuser loss. when the separated flow mixes. Assumption taken in this calculation is a radial leading edge and an axial inlet velocity.1. and a sudden expansion loss.1. in this analysis. 3. He tried to give simple and fast procedure with minimum inputs requirements. solved by conformal transformation. Tuzson`s Method 2.2 Impeller Incidence Losses: Incidence Losses at the pump inlet are calculated by assuming a leading-edge separation.1.1 Tuzson Model [5]: Tuzson proposed model to calculate different types of losses in pumps. M. (2) skin friction losses.1 Different Models Used To Calculate Losses: The four different Models proposed by different authors are used to calculate the losses in the centrifugal pump.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 14 . Calculation of the extent of the separated region and the corresponding velocity increases follows a potential flow model. Church`s Model 4. (3) Volute head loss. Tuzson considers the following hydraulic losses for the calculating of losses (1) Incidence losses. Stepanoff`s Model 3. Gulich`s Model 3.CHAPTER 3 (LOSS MODELS) 3. 1.1. It is assumed that the loss is proportional to the square of the difference between the tangential component of the inlet velocity and the circumferential velocity.1.

4 Skin-Friction Losses: This loss in the impeller and diffuser or volute follows the standard pipe friction model. ( ) [3-3] 3.005.1. a hydraulic radius and average flow velocities are used.( ) [3-2] 3.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 15 . Since the flow passage cross-section is irregular.1.1. If the velocity approaching the volute throat is larger than the velocity at the throat. Hydraulic radius of the impeller passage Is given by: ( ( ( (( )( )( )) [3-3] ))) Impeller skin friction loss is given by: [( ( ⁄ ⁄ )⁄( )( )] ) { } [3-4] Volute skin friction loss is given by: M. The hydraulic radius of the impeller blade is obtained by dividing the passage cross sectional area by half of the circumference.3 Volute Head Loss: It results from a mismatch of the velocity leaving the impeller and the velocity in the volute throat. The velocity approaching the volute throat can be calculated by assuming that the velocity leaving the impeller decreases in proportion to the radius because of the conservation of angular momentum.1. The friction coefficient can be adjusted but has a default value of 0. the velocity head difference is lost.

In pumps the diffuser accounts for the greatest head loss. that half of the diffuser inlet head is lost. volute and diffuser.1.2 Gulich Model [11]: Gulich presents the model for the losses in the various component of the centrifugal pump.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 16 .1.( √ )( ) [3-5] Diffuser skin friction loss is given by: ( √ )( ) [3-6] 3.6 Diffuser Loss: To calculate the diffuser loss the program estimates the pressure recovery coefficient based on the area ratio and applies an adjustable loss coefficient.5 Diffusion Loss: This loss needs to be taken into account. it is useful to estimate the loss in individual components. [3-7] 3. Such calculations have an empirical character since the three-dimensional M.1. Hydraulic efficiency calculated from the power balance does not give any information about the contribution of the losses individual pump components. Some designers assume. as a rule of thumb. ( ) [3-8] 3. much influenced by the detailed design of the diffuser. estimating diffuser losses is particularly difficult.1.1. Therefore.4 of the velocity head difference is lost. like impeller. The program assumes that when the ratio of the relative velocity at the inlet to the outlet exceeds a value of 1. since separation invariably appears in the impeller at some point. To answer this question.

[3-12] { ( )} It is possible to estimate the shock losses at the impeller inlet. ( )( ) [3-11] Where. The dissipation co efficient ( Cd ) can be calculate from the friction co efficient by adding 0.2. Cf is the co efficient of friction.1 Loss Model for Impeller: The loss co efficient for the impeller can be given by: [3-9] This co relation includes the frictional and mixing losses and the shock loss co efficient. 3.velocity distributions in the impeller and diffusing elements.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) . which determine both friction and turbulence losses. The empirical factor can thus be interpreted as the effect of uneven velocity distributions and secondary flow. The co relation for the frictional and mixing loss co efficient is given by: ( ) [3-10] Where. The co relation for the shock loss is given by: ( ) [3-13] Page 17 M. Estimations of this type are only meaningful near the best efficiency point. cannot be described by simple models. Gulich gives the co relations for the co efficient of the various losses in the various component of the centrifugal pump.0015 and the value obtained in this way is further multiplied by an empirical factor containing the relative impeller outlet width. Cd is the dissipation co efficient.1.

3.2. 3.1 Pressure Recovery Co efficient Cp M.6.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 18 .1. This relationship should not be used for w1q/w1m < 0.2 Loss Model for Diffuser: Co efficient for the losses in the diffuser is given by: ( Where. which is the function of the area ratio and the ratio of the length of the blade and the radius. The value of the Cp can be found out from the graph. the co efficient the over flow channel or return channel and the Cp is the pressure recovery co efficient. Term describes the actual flow deceleration. ( ) .This equation describes the deceleration of the vector of the mean inflow velocity w 1m (from the velocity triangle) to the velocity w1q in the throat area A1q. ) { ( ) } [3-14] is the co-efficient for is the friction loss in the inlet region. Fig.

2. The effect of blade M. which is given by: ( )( )( ( ) )( ) [3-15] 3. Gulich had not considered the mixing losses due to an inflow with a non-uniform velocity profile. In the case of diffusers. The losses in the discharge nozzle can calculate by: ( ) [3-18] The pressure recovery co efficient Cp can calculate as above in the diffuser losses calculation. (3-20).The friction losses between the impeller outlet and the diffuser throat area can be estimated by calculating the energy dissipated through wall shear stresses on the blades and the sidewalls. The friction loss in the volute casing can calculate by: ∑( Where. the expansion from b2 to b3 is implicitly included in Eq.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 19 .3 Loss Model for Volute: In the calculation for the losses in the volute casing. The co relation for the hydraulic loss in the volute is: [3-16] The co relation given by Gulich to finding out the losses in the volute consist the friction loss. The shock loss in the impeller obtained is also occurs in the volute casing. ) [3-17] The diffuser or the pressure or discharge nozzle follows the actual volute. ∆A is wetted surface. loss in discharge nozzle and the shock loss.1.

for facing these types of the difficulty.1. It can be given by: ( )( ) [3-22] This formula can be use for assuming the several paths in the pump.3 Stepanoff Model [12]: Stepanoff proposed a model to calculate the hydraulic losses in the centrifugal pump. Therefore. and τ2 is the blade blockage. diffuser or discharge nozzle. Selection of the co efficient of the friction is also the difficult task. He considers mainly two losses so called skin friction loss and the eddy and separation loss.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 20 . The flow co efficient can calculate by: [3-20] The blade blockage can calculate by: { } [3-21] 3. volute. because of the difficulty in the determining the actual path length and the hydraulic radius its very complicated method to determine the frictional loss in pump. However. It can be apply to the pump by dividing the total passage of the pump in the several passage of every component like impeller channel. He discussed the general model without considering losses in the individual parts of the centrifugal pump.1 Friction and Diffusion Losses: The friction loss in the pump can be calculating with the use of one of the general formula. 3.1.3. The shock loss co efficient in the volute is given by: ( ) [3-19] Where ⱷ2 is the flow co efficient. it is a better idea to M. which are includes the shock loss and diffusion loss.blockage can be considered in a similar way as in volute.

Therefore. Which also covers all thing affect the diffusion loss. loss appears. When liquid enters at impeller entrance at high angle of attack. For this reason. 3. kfd is the co efficient for the friction and diffusion loss. that the both the losses are vary with the square of the velocity. At the BEP. also simplify the expression.3. the reason for it is that the sudden expansion or diffusion after separation. k1 is the constant for the frictional loss for a given pump. At the impeller discharge loss often caused by a high rate of shear due to a low average velocity in the volute and high velocity the impeller discharge. various investigators combine the all-frictional losses into a single formula by simplified it which can be given as: ( ) [3-23] Where. This constant covers all lengths. There is a shock loss at the cutwater of the M.use one simple and easy equation to calculate the losses. the average velocity of the volute is considerably lower than the impeller discharge. In the case of the diffusion loss.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 21 . It also includes any error caused by inability to find the better expression for several items contributing to the friction losses.2 Eddy and Separation Losses: Stepanoff considers eddy and separation loss as a shock loss. areas and area ratio. kdifn is the constant for the diffusion loss. It ca seen from the both the equation of the friction loss and the diffusion loss.1. He also considers the loss at the impeller discharge. The combine equation for the friction and diffusion loss can be given by: [3-25] Where. The diffusion loss in the impeller channel and discharge nozzle stated by: ( ) [3-24] Where. they can be combined into one equation. friction co efficient and other unknown factors affecting the frictional head loss.

In this formula. Means at that point there is no additional loss occurring.volute pump and the entrance of the diffusion vanes when a diffusion vane casing is used.4. 3. The Darcy equation is used to calculating the friction losses in the pump system. ks . In this way. at where the direction of flow agrees with the vane angles at both entrance and discharge. The formula for the calculation for the shock loss is given by: ( ) [3-26] Where. Since the shape of the impeller passage and the volute is not straight. This equation can be use for the passages between the impeller. f is an empirical co efficient depends upon the Reynolds number.[22]. the L/d ratio is the dimension less. It means that at the point above and below Qs. The term Qs is the shock less flow [3].1. 3.1 Friction Loss: For the friction losses in the centrifugal pump. if the passage is not circular or if it had an annular shape the hydraulic radius may be used in place of the diameter d in circulating the Reynolds number and in the Darcy equation. M. Moreover. volute and the discharge nozzle [3]. is the co efficient for the shock loss. Rh is the hydraulic radius of the passage. sudden change of the section in the pump. Church have accepts one most general formula to calculate the friction losses.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 22 . considering the series of the short path of the passages. Darcy equation can be present as: ( )( ) [3-28] Where. we can find the losses.1.4 Church Model [13]: Church considers that the losses occur in the pump system are due to the friction in passage and from the turbulence occur while passing through the obstruction. Darcy equation is given by: ( )( ) [3-27] Where. there will be a sudden change in the direction and magnitude of the velocity of the flow. so any consistent units may be used for L and d.

the flow is seriously disturbed with a resultant loss of head. This loss is the proportional to the square of the velocity.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 23 . Sudden change in the section and sharp turns should be avoided or minimized. these angles will not be correct and the turbulence losses will increase. These losses are also known as shock losses. Its co efficient is quite difficult to determine. A pump is designed for a given flow and speed at which it is expected to operate most of time.1. The formula given by the Stepanoff for the calculation of the shock loss is: ( ) [3-29] Where. The very well known loss formula for the calculation of the shock loss given by Stepanoff [0] can be used in the loss calculation in Church’s model. ks is the co efficient for the shock loss and Qs is the shock less flow.4.3. as much as possible. When operating at the other flow and speeds. M.2 Turbulence Loss: In the pump. At certain section in this machine. such as at the inlet and outlet edge of the vanes in both the impeller vanes etc. The angles of the impeller and diffuser vanes are designed for these conditions. the flow is always turbulent.

Three models of impellers were used with 2. To evaluate the disc friction experiments are conducted without the assembly of the disc and without filling the pump with water for various values of the rotational speed in order to obtain the mechanical power due to bearing. recirculation losses and other friction losses are calculated by varying volume flow rate.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 24 . and Khin Maung[2] predict the performance of the pump by using deals with the design and performance analysis of centrifugal pump. They designed the dimensions of the centrifugal pump and then the analysis of centrifugal pump is carried out. In centrifugal pumps. the delivery head depends on the flow rate. Q and H is determined for the various operating points. volute friction losses. 3 and 4 blades. slip. They show some loses of centrifugal pump with the values. Mya Mya Khaing. The results show that the disc friction loss depends strongly on the axial gap. on the surface roughness and on the width of the volute. disk friction losses and recirculation losses of centrifugal pump are also considered in performance analysis of centrifugal pump. which is called pump performance. The influence of the diffuser device will be investigated through the inset of three different volutes. Two of these models having 3 blades with additional short blades and the third model also having 3 blades but with an increment in blade thickness of outlet part (channel form).CHAPTER 4 (LITERATURE REVIEW) Ali nemdili. The purpose of the investigations reported here is to develop an improved empirical equation by examining discs with different geometrical parameters running in a real centrifugal pump volute casing of different width.and mechanical seal frictions. Shock losses. Centrifugal pumps are fluid-kinetic machines designed for power increase within a rotating impeller. Afterward Experiments are conducted with water. To get characteristic curve of a centrifugal pump. M. They analysed centrifugal pump by using a single-stage end suction centrifugal pump. values of theoretical head. Rababa[3] investigate the effects of blade number on flow field and characteristics of a centrifugal pump. shock losses. S. The rotational speed will be varied by means of an electronic hand-adjustable speed control integrated in the motor. on the Reynolds number. impeller friction losses. Khin Cho Thin. Khalid. By dimensional analysis he give an empirical relation for disc friction losses with high accuracy. is illustrated by curves. The low specific speed is chosen because the value of specific speed is 100. Dieter-Heinz Hellmann[1] deals with experimental investigations on fluid friction of rotational discs in real centrifugal pump casings. A design of centrifugal pump is carried out and analysed to get the best performance point.

The same volute is used for all three configuration. Then the experimental slip factors are compared with the calculated theoretical values. it should be noted that the length of the additional short blades by 1/3 or 2/3 of the main blade length. affect only the losses. Mohamad Memardezfouli and Ahmad Nourbakhsh[4] In their work. which is also include the mechanical losses of the bearings. The disk friction loss. Theoretical slip factors are calculated using several existing methods taking into consideration the main geometric parameters of the impeller. the real slip factor under any working conditions is calculated (from the experimental results) by introducing a distortion coefficient. Therefore. and increases pump pressure head H and efficiency η. A simple and fast calculation procedure with minimal input requirements are presented in the book. He shows that skin friction and diffuser losses increase with the square of the flow rate and predominate at high flow rates. He gives different formulas to for calculate the losses occur in the centrifugal pump. the slip phenomenon at the impeller outlet is studied experimentally for five industrial pumps at different flow rates and the slip factor is estimated for each of these cases. John Tuzson [5] proposed method to calculate the performance of the centrifugal pump. which increases with decreasing flow rate. not the head. and the inlet blade angles should be adjusted to achieve minimal losses at the design flow rate. The inner flow fields and characteristics of the centrifugal pump with different blade number and shape are simulated and. the loss coefficient can be adjusted when the head deviates from the experiment data at high flow rate. They investigate the influence of flow parameters on the slip factor and to obtain the effective value of slip factor for off-design conditions. the comparison between prediction values and experimental results indicates that the prediction results are satisfied. Volute loss depends on the impeller exit velocity.The geometrical profile of impeller blades was identical. The distortion factor validity range is not yet fixed due to the limited number of tested impellers and few detailed measurements of impeller outlet flow. The incidence losses are often fictitious. recirculation loss. After measuring experimental data. and η by (1%). Theoretical and experimental models were investigated to know about relationship between effective slip factor and flow rate in impellers and their relation to velocity distribution. affect only the efficiency. the optimal pump discharge shifts to the right.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 25 . M. From experimental results it is found that with increasing of blade number. For impeller with additional short blades between the main blades H increased by 1M (4%). had no effect on the characteristic curve Η −Q .

Cartesian mesh that covers periodically symmetric section of the impeller. such as cavitation.in this he also describes key considerations in determining the life cycle costs of pumping systems. seal or packing wear. mechanical seal replacement. By using appropriate piping system. This section also deals with maintenance of pumping system such as bearing replacement. wear ring clearances. Grapsas. the viscous Navier. The flow is calculated using a two dimensional approach in order to achieve a fast simulation and the agreement between the numerical results and the measurements is satisfactory. This idea is based on affinity laws that say pump impellers are considered to be similar if they satisfy geometric and kinematic M. for design optimization purposes in these pump types. The flow field through the impeller was also simulated by a 2-dimensional approach. IgorSutlović[8] experimentally investigates the effect on the efficiency of centrifugal pump by impeller trimming. we can improve system performance. For the numerical simulation. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) and the Hydraulic Institute (HI). poor material selection.S.Stokes equations are solved with the control volume approach and the k-ε turbulence model. Investigation of the behaviour of the above impeller for a wide flow rate range and for various rotational speeds was carried out and the obtained experimental results were validated with available measurements of the same impeller within spiral casing. and improper shaft loading. as well as. U. Hrvoje Kozmar a. internal recirculation. This section describes the key components of a pumping system and opportunities to improve.VasiliosA. The flow domain is discretized with a polar.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 26 . The numerical results are compared to the measurements. unstructured. heat exchanger. Advanced numerical techniques for adaptive grid refinement and for the partially blocked cells are also implemented at the irregular boundaries of the blades. prime movers. showing good agreement and encouraging the extension of the developed computation methodology for performance prediction and for design optimization of such impeller geometries. John s. This is quite encouraging result in order to apply the present numerical model to further flow analysis. MarioŠavar. papantonis[6] has done experimental and numerical investigation of a radial flow pump impeller with 2D curvature blade geometry. A numerical methodology for the calculation of the flow field in centrifugal pump impellers with 2D curvature is developed and validated against corresponding experimental data taken at a Laboratory test rig. valves. the system’s performance. Certain problems must be prevented. anagnostopoulos and Dimitrios e.[7] discussed about improving pump system performances.

The dynamic characteristics of the test pump have been analysed by a numerical model using the method of characteristics. Experimental work has been conducted on different slurry pump impeller and side-liner M. Greg C. Instantaneous rotational speed. The model is presented and the results are compared with the experimental data. P. The main reason for this could be growing the gap between the impeller . The model predicts well the trend of the dynamic head characteristics during transients. As amount trimmed increases i. as impeller diameter becomes smaller efficiency deteriorates significantly. the influence of disregarded similarity after impeller trimming is examined. In this paper. flow rate. Experiments have been conducted on a volute pump with different valve openings to study the dynamic behaviour of the pump during normal start up and stopping.e. The method can be extended to the analysis of purely unsteady cases. For the purpose of this experiment. 8 a series of efficiency lines is depicted and a good adherence can be noted for diameters 190 and 180 mm and even for 170 mm. Bodkin[10] predicts the wear rate on slurry pump inlet side-liners. the impeller was trimmed seven times successively diminishing the outlet diameter by a 10 mm step.similarity conditions. where the pump operation is no more quasi-steady. the model can be applied for analyses of purely unsteady cases where the pump dynamic characteristics show considerable departure from their steady-state characteristics. geometric and kinematic similarity conditions were not completely preserved. thanapandi and Rama prasad [9] theoretically and experimentally investigate on the transient characteristics of a centrifugal pump during starting and stopping periods.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 27 . As the model contains speed acceleration and unsteady discharge terms. Walker. and delivery and suction pressures of the pump are recorded and it is observed in all the tested cases that the change of pump behaviour during the transient period is quasi-steady. In Fig. Craig I. Similar experiments have also been conducted when the test pump was part of a hydraulic system to study the system effect on the transient characteristics. The experiment was accomplished on a low specific speed centrifugal pump. The dynamic characteristics of the pump have been analysed by a numerical model using the method of characteristics. when a small length of discharge pipe line is connected to discharge flange of the pump. The obtained results are presented in non-dimensional form in a ψ−φ diagram. It is observed in all the tested cases that the transient head characteristics closely follow the steady-state system head curve and the change of operating point during normal starting and stopping transients is quasi-steady. After the pump impeller has been trimmed. According to affinity law efficiency line should remain the same for the series of trimmed impellers.

For the tests here the wear rates have been determined from cumulative wear depth at the deepest point.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 28 . mm/kT. below 2000.e. in annular seal were given. volute with discharge nozzle and diffuser. A. disk friction loss and mechanical loss. impeller with the objective of comparing different impeller styles with the same side-liner as well as different side-liners with similar impeller styles. The rate was calculated as the average slope of a straight line through the data points excluding the origin. open impeller. Church [13] proposed a method to find different losses in centrifugal pump. Austine A.geometries to determine the effects of solid particle size. disk friction loss. Pump hydraulic shape was varied from the original test on the standard heavy duty STD. Stepanoff [12] suggests the method for finding out different losses occur in the centrifugal pump. which affect the head of the centrifugal pump. like the impeller. He also investigates the leakage loss. Gulich has also proposed some steps to reduce these losses and improve the efficiency of the pump. the formulae for the individual pump component given in this book. To ensure a reasonably fast wear rate. The entire range of specific speeds.(3) the wear rate was constant for varying solids concentration(4) the wear rate was constant for varying impeller tip speed. The author also has calculated the leakage loss for a number of double suction horizontally split pumps of different specific speeds and the in the results it will be observed that leakage loss decreases with increasing specific speed. He gives formula to find out the losses. This loss expressed as percentage of pumps of different specific speeds. Formulae are given to determine the co efficient for the hydraulic losses. He considers eddy and separation loss as shock loss. The disk friction loss was computed for a number of double suction pumps. For the hydraulic losses calculations. From the obtained graph they found (1) the wear rate for the HE design varies with the square of the particle size. slurry concentration and pump speed on wear. J. Johann Friedrich Gulich [11] proposes method for the losses occur in the centrifugal pump. The rapid rise of the disk friction loss at specific speeds. leakage loss is approximately equal to one half of the disk friction loss. against the cumulative tonnes pumped i. The side-liner material used has the Brinell Hardness Number of 110-ASTM E10-66. Stepanoff considers the friction loss and eddy and separation loss. Author gives formulas for finding out the loss of head due to turbulent or shock loss and M.(2) the wear rate for the STD and RE designs did not vary significantly with particle size. leakage in radial gap.

friction. It increases with the roughness of the surface of the impeller. diffuser or volute or casing passages.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 29 . The losses also increase with the wetted area of the passages. M. He show that the friction loss increases with the square of the flow. The turbulent loss is depending upon the angles of the impeller and diffuser vanes. Sudden change in the section or the sharp change turn should be avoided. The turbulent loss will increase if these angles are not correct. so they should be kept as small as possible. disk friction and leakage loss .

At discharge output pressure gets measured by pressure transducer and shown digitally in meter. At discharge high pressure water passes to tank through flow meter. speed of the motor from lower to higher (vice versa) can easily be done at no losses and over a wide M. From sump. VFD(Variable frequency drive) is the controllable unit for the motor-pump. The discharge of the pump is measured using a magnetic flow measurement.2 Overview of the test rig A compact open loop-test rig was used for testing the pumps in normal mode. which provide required flow and head for testing pump at fixed rotational speed. Schematic diagram of test-rig is shown in Figure 4. A pipe with a valve is provided in the suction pipe for priming the pump. The test rig consists a base frame which can accommodate the pump of radial flow type for testing.1 INTRODUCTION For getting actual performances of the given pump (KDS1030++) we have perform test on our fluid lab.1.CHAPTER 5 (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY) 5. water is passed to suction side of pump through foot valve and concentric reducer where suction pressure gets measured by vacuum transducer and shown digitally in meter. Using this.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 30 . We have also participated in developing of that test rig for forward mode. And flow meter gives flow digitally in meter.1 The motor of the pump is connected with variable frequency drive (VFD) to change the speed of the pump. Overview of the test rig Experimental procedure Pump specification Measurement of variables Results 5. A pressure gauge is provided on a delivery side and vacuum gauge on suction side. The delivery pipe is fitted with a regulating valve. The experimental part of our study includes following discussion. The centrifugal pump is driven by a constant speed torque reaction type alternative current motor which is driven by VFD(Variable frequency drive). The schematic of the setup employed for testing the centrifugal pump is given in the figure 5.

The above measurements may be noted for various flow rates.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 31 . Air is completely removed from the pump before it is run. 5. Fig. Rotational speed of the impeller is measured by inductive proximity sensor. vacuum transducer. Required pump speed is adjusted through the variable frequency drive. pump speed. power input and discharge may be noted. The drive motor of the pump is run by switching on the variable frequency drive.range of speeds. M.3 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE FOR TEST READINGS The delivery pipe of pump is closed before starting the pump to allow the build-up of pressure. The flow rate is gradually increased by opening the delivery valve.1 Test rig for normal mode 5. The readings of the pressure transducer. The pump with its drive motor is supported on a common platform. Pump is primed properly by filling water in the suction pipe and the casing of the pump.

5 VARIABLE MEASURMENT Pressure measurement Flow measurement Speed measurement M.415V Fig. The discharge in each case is measured using magnetic flow meter.4 PUMP SPECIFICATION Pump parameters Value given by manufacturer Type Head Flow IPKW RPM Efficiency Head range Flow range Pump suction dia.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 32 .2 Pump specification 5.5 to 151 lps 4 inch Geometrical parameters measured Outer diameter Eye diameter Hub diameter Eye width Width of exit Inlet blade angle Outlet blade angle No of blade Value 158 mm 94 mm 68 mm 45mm 20mm 19o 23o 6 Thickness of the 4.5 mm blade Pump dia.50HZ. Motor discharge 4 inch 3 phase .42 2900 64% 10 to 29 m 33. 5. 5. KDS 1030++ 25 m 22 lps 8.

1 PRESSURE MEASURMENT For pressure measurement. Fig.5. 5. Flow readings are shown digitally in indicator. The method of static pressure measurement is in accordance to the IEC prescribed standards with four diametrically opposite pressure-measuring tapping points. One gate valve has been also installed after the magnetic flow meter to vary flow.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 33 . The static pressure at suction side of the pump is measured by vacuum transducer and at the delivery side of the pump is measured by electronics pressure transducer. Bourdon’s pressure gauge and the electronic pressure transducer were employed.2 FLOW MEASUREMENT Flow through pipe at outlet of pump gets measured by magnetic flow meter.3 Pressure transducer and indicator 5. Pressure gauges have also been used for manual measurement of the suction and delivery pressure. based on electromagnetic principal of working.5.5. Figure of flow meter has been shown in Fig.4 M. 5.

5. When this happens. the sensor will activate indicating it has detected the metal target.4 Flow meter & indicator 5.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 34 .Fig. the eddy currents increase which in turn decrease the amplitude of the electromagnetic field. An inductive proximity sensor is a non-contact device that is used to detect a metal target. When power is applied to an inductive proximity sensor the sensor’s coil will generate an oscillating electromagnetic field out of the face of the sensor. eddy currents are generated on the surface of the metal target. In this setup.3 SPEED MEASUREMENT Rotational speed of the impeller was measured by using Inductive proximity sensor. M. bolt is mounted on a flange which is sensed by proximity switch which in turn is converted in digital signal and speed is displayed on speed indicator. Once the electromagnetic field’s amplitude is reduced to a certain level. 5. When the metal target gets close enough to the sensor’s face it begins to penetrate the electromagnetic field. As the metal target gets closer to the sensor face.

TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 35 .1300 and 1100 rpm.Fig. The corresponding reading for each speed has given in appendix.1500.efficiency and power input with respect to discharge. 5.6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION We have perform trial on KDS1030++ for normal mode at different constant speed 2900.5 Proximity sensor & indicator 5. and plot head developed .2200. Here the compound graphs for different speed for single variable with respect to discharge are shown. The obtain performance curves are approximately close matching with actual curves. M.

5.HEAD v/s FLOW OF KDS 1030++ PUMP 35 30 25 HEAD (m) 20 2900 rpm 2200 rpm 15 1500 rpm 1300 rpm 10 1100 rpm 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 FLOW (l/s) Fig.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 36 .6 Head vs discharge for different speed M.

POWER v/s FLOW OF KDS 1030++ PUMP 9 8 7 6 POWER (KW) 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 FLOW (l/s) 2900 rpm 2200 rpm 1500 rpm 1300 rpm 1100 rpm Fig.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 37 .8 Efficiency vs discharge for different speed M.5. 5.7 Power vs discharge for different speeds EFFICIENCY v/s FLOW OF KDS 1030++ PUMP 80 70 60 EFFICIENCY 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 FLOW (l/s) 2900 rpm 2200 rpm 1500 rpm 1300 rpm 1100 rpm Fig.

M.7 FUTURE WORK It has been planned to apply different loss models on the selected pumps of different specific speed and to verify the result of these loss models with the result from the experimental work.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 38 .5.

00502 12 5.37 0.46 0.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 39 .4 0.239 2.1267318 0.018 0.0222638 0.062934 4.234 2.2121535 51.44 0.00051 3 1.4996466 0.034 0.24 2.10922356 0.13 0.232 2.04493392 0.05 0.556534 0.027 0.3715574 4.00681 P suction (Kg/Cm2 ) -0.28 0.3087468 4.3743256 31.1 0.22 0.2509956 4.0025 7 3.204 -0.23 2.25 0.003 8 3.209 -0.00405 10 4.12 0.00601 14 6.209 2.39 0.212 -0.45 0.12 0.17516824 0.556534 4.501 0.5304315 53.32 0.965845 49.52 0.204 2.6192212 0.6789468 4.41 0.1267318 4. 5.4320234 4.12 0.7153775 39.468 -2.51 0.50988158 12.06 0.15214751 0.04 0.3636501 42.19422721 0.208 -0.372 -2.228 2.049 0.01 0.34 0.4816445 17.389 -2.516 RPM 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 Velocity at Suction (m/s) 0 0.526039 35.491 -2.3715574 0.225 2.8774065 22.21 -0.205 -0.11 0.453 -2.25301442 0.211 -0.4 0.238 2.236 2.3 0.06650395 0.24 2.43 0. (m3/s) (lps) 1 0 0 2 0.501 0.46 0.4996466 4.211 -0.45 0.09 0.211 -0.8757636 45.331 -2.46 0.3087468 0.36 -2.8399838 4.012 0.4320234 0.17 0.2509956 0.8399838 Velocity at Total Head Discharge (m) (m/s) 0 4.502 0.29 0.476 -2. Flow W NO.13 0.00451 11 5.807 0.6192212 4.9 Reading for 1100 rpm set M.217 2.07 0.44 0.11 0.062934 0.27845871 0 6.416 -2.11 0.09 0.207 -0.34 0.2691297 0.222 2.1311483 0.08 0.206 -0.04 0.APPENDIX – A FLO SR.8022234 4.22 0.502 0.213 -0.7418808 4.964867 Fig.502 -2.51 0.212 -0.23424985 0.6114937 53.39 0.6789468 0.399 -2.00103 4 1.0055 13 6.4 0.21512015 0.187568 4.445 -2.0065 15 6.213 P suction P Discharge P discharge Power In (m of (Kg/Cm2) (m of water) (KW) water) -2.8773235 27.17 Power Out Efficiency (KW) 0 0.426 -2.212 -0.38 0.187568 0.36 0.7418808 0.0035 9 4.24 2.08899279 0.342 -2.00203 6 2.00152 5 2.8022234 0.

77 0.215 -0.4398241 61.4970552 0.219 -0.38 2.25 0.798 RPM 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 1300 Velocity at Suction (m/s) 0 0.1247574 6.94 3.111217 1.240787 5.783 0.8641702 5.61 1.215 -0.4033048 4.205 -0.654 0.7972644 62.29358985 0.654 0.16 -2.74 3.216 -0.1 -2.18 -2.11 0.43 3.47 Power Out Efficiency (KW) 0 0.745953 5.9880171 56.003 7.14 -2.055 11.22 0.389 0.007003 0.111217 5.240787 1.990902 5.374 0.745953 5.12 -2.07 0.010055 0.78 0.1 0.39639571 0.34987856 0.78 0.0851279 55.2527232 0.0652612 56.44192382 0.745953 0.312 0.891415 52.382 0.00803 0.013 5.79 2.005 10.672 0.03 1.225 -2.708 0.009005 0.62 0.1535074 52.594 0.033 11.24 -2.990902 5.048 3.045 7.34 1.12255437 0.222 -0.762 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 FLOW (lps) Flow (m3/s) 0 1.218 -0.891415 44.218 -0.011372 P suction P suction (m P Discharge P discharge Power In (Kg/Cm2) of water) (Kg/Cm2) (m of water) (KW) -0.APPENDIX – B SR.003 8.59 3.29358985 0.403 0.19 -2.213 -0.005 9.382 0.36 0.03 0.990902 1.18054559 0.011033 0.23827352 0.738 0.3558413 40.6186042 5.010055 0.798 0.006045 0.279 0.79 2.16 -2.47173053 0.394 0.9 0.9068933 63.238 0.97 0.03 8.03 4.708 0.4970552 6.3614722 4.15 -2.111217 1.4033048 Velocity at Total Head Discharge (m) (m/s) 0 6.212 -0.004028 0.39708271 0.49867016 0 12.63 1.15 -2.43 3.006045 0.745953 0.343 0.12 3.10 Reading for 1300 rpm set M.468 0.78 0.6186042 5.82 3.224 -0.214 -0.6098637 63.6186042 0.24 -2.375 0.055 10.534 0.002048 0.9502562 32.028 5.89 3.91 0.005013 0.489995 Fig 5.00803 0.762 0.08 0.NO.045 6.22 -2.8641702 0.49615694 0.222 -0.007003 0.3741488 0.03 1.9068933 61.218 -0.01 3.21 -0.82 3.240787 5.222 4.18 -2.18 -2.005013 0.398 0.359 0.011 2.1133873 44.343 0.12 2.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 40 .50112217 0.49615694 0.279 0.001011 0.225 -0.22 -2.312 0.216 -0.47173053 0.003032 0.672 0.3614722 1.25 -2.1247574 0.06059843 0.009005 0.9483825 22.990902 0.9880948 59.401 0.6098637 62.111217 5.13 -2.8641702 5.34 1.6 3.03 9.97 0.013 6.8641702 0.98 3.224 -0.444 0.240787 1.3741488 6.032 4.558 0.05 -2.35047157 0.75 3.372 0 0.44271157 0.2527232 6.6186042 0.

8642936 0.7296978 5.1788595 56.285 0.1730404 1.224 -0.035 8.235 -0.408 0.065 10.3 -2.057 4.52 0.93 0.991519 1.4977956 7.4 1.360485 6.4200872 6.066138 20.506 10.03 1.024 7.95 5.7122589 36.66 5.221 -0.5665529 61.7537219 0.004034 0.23 -0.6173702 7.08 3.9 1.6046936 1.08 1.07 -2.007004 0.28 1.25 -2.2 5.25 1.99 -2. 5.010065 0.24 -0.583 0.0518616 7.35 5.13 1.701055 63.17 1.2476638 0.87 4.94 0.033 2.32 -2.73004794 0.04 -2.360485 1.3772338 7.535 0.203 -0.43 0.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 41 .3772338 0.225 -0.23601477 0.7296978 1.84 0.017 14.72191054 0.011025 0.8317207 Fig.7700845 66.2925657 62.07 4.541 0.41 5.447 0.28 -2.684 0.005 13.4992901 61.57 1.0467315 41.002007 0.71 0.6788881 0.59669276 0.1274722 7.09 1.73 5.008524 0.1664867 58.481417 1.28 4.11 1.7428391 0.79 0.211 -0.822 0.APPENDIX – C SR.09 -2.595 0.1274722 0.87 0.524 9.70202469 0.27 0.19 RPM 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 Velocity at Suction (m/s) 0 0.35 -2.75 1.16 -2.209 -0.978 1.204 -0.487 0.216 -0.62966191 0.53 1.2476638 7.1 1.643153 47.1730404 7.566 0.03 -2.2961936 6.003 6.7 Power Out Efficiency (KW) 0 0.15 -2.111834 1.NO.4 -2.52974824 0.014668 P suction P suction (m P Discharge P discharge Power In (Kg/Cm2) of water) (Kg/Cm2) (m of water) (KW) -0.4 1.215 -0.11 1.924 0.59 0.013004 0.00901 0.71100526 0.75 0.67629748 0 12.6046936 5.15494983 0.9 5.405935 64.24 -2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 FLOW (lps) Flow (m3/s) 0 1.012005 0.47 4.207 -0.3847827 0.004 8.2961936 1.58 0.74372867 0.65 4.004 14.010504 0.96 0.001033 0.08036048 0.428 0.507 0.3249195 66.111834 7.1322246 62.228 -0.242021 7.56 5.8 5.87 0.7433616 0.864 0.46035348 0.4200872 1.991519 7.48 2.006024 0.02 1.85 2.242021 1.2 -2.8100312 Velocity at Total Head Discharge (m) (m/s) 0 7.13 -2.465 0.58 1.6368415 65.6173702 0.18 1.01 9.003057 0.0518616 1.009506 0.008035 0.227 5.668 0 0.005003 0.83 1.007 3.556 0.014017 0.573 0.11 -2.11 Reading for 1500 rpm set M.78 5.9534873 54.18 -2.232 -0.218 -0.504 11.05 1.87 0.034 5.508 12.213 -0.4977956 0.243 -1.666 0.21 -2.31144376 0.011508 0.83 5.8642936 7.348 0.199 -0.578 0.025 11.7433616 7.481417 6.65407194 0.6599777 28.12 1.8600093 64.8100312 4.22 -0.

1006382 2.16301316 0.004034 0.45 -2.6019753 Fig.264 -0.243 -0.67 1.75 2.1109702 1.26813478 2.29 14.047 3.61 -2.55 9.8306135 0.267 -0.04 13.1518162 65.3641148 65.0110007 0.005016 0.24 -0.176 1.449 1.47 3.9348604 48.4 13.009003 0.238 -0.49 16.034 9.41 14.118 1.016056 0.76126721 18.017023 0.026 7.194 -0.055 0.386 1.032 4.06 16.326 1.007046 0.64 1.3741488 0.36 -2.441 1.18 10.85 16.3560815 52.58 1.3574864 1.964 14.441 1.13 3.26 12.003032 0.73 1.201 -0.036 Flow (m3/s) 0 0.034 5.224902 2.248 -0.7436084 0.046 8.69 16.1310459 32.41 14. 5.16054596 1.85 13.8694764 0.035 11.8480935 65.5305534 63.76 11.43 14.4501765 26.7633616 1.4977956 0.97 3.13 15.5 14.49 14.94 -2.01 -2.6189744 0.86 12.2525998 0.64 -2.19 14.227 1.49910298 0.2401888 59.012012 0.03 19.023 18.34 3.54 -2.238319 1.858404 1.227 -0.458 1.32 2.66681415 0.19835037 2.213 -0.2525998 0.31 14.7298212 1.8 15.35748638 1.001 14.9913956 1.33394819 0.431 1.5293661 64.1487005 62.6043234 1.1248808 0.62 16.52 2.014018 0.42 16.99608876 1.22 -0.88 14.71 -2.61 2.1983326 56.38 -2.9007224 2.245 -0.48 -2.31001289 0 9.4822808 1.4 -2.7298212 1.7436084 0.273 P suction P P discharge Power In (m of Discharge (m of (KW) water) (Kg/Cm2) water) -1.55 14.286 1.236 -0.27 -2.01506 0.257 -0.39 3.57 -2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 FLOW (lps) 0 1.6 3.5275195 38.33 -2.31539798 1.012 13.45 1.51 -2.86 13.271 -0.006026 0.0007 12.13 -2.78 16.1109702 1.APPENDIX – D SR.404 1.67 -2.419 1.9913956 1.34 16.63 16.9813104 2.4822808 1.015129 2.997388 64.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 42 .001012 0.362 1.58 14.012 2.6189744 0.3741488 0.858404 1.17 2.003 10.9813104 2.6043234 1.1248808 0.010035 0.58 14.0302124 62.2 -2.69 RPM 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 Velocity at Velocity at Total Head Power Out Suction Discharge Efficiency (m) (KW) (m/s) (m/s) 0 0.31288948 2.251 -0.81 1.261 -0.1006382 2.2771191 42.3811181 63.27 11.458 1.43 -2.4977956 0.25 16.12Reading for 2200 rpm set M.002047 0.55 3.008034 0.12188083 2.3490424 16.455 1.233 -0.056 17.85 16.62333084 1.018 15.01803 0.016 6.3490424 0 0.013001 0.91 2.8694764 0.82 2.37 0 0.019036 P suction (Kg/Cm2) -0.254 -0.26 12.429 1.224902 2.34535322 2.88 16.79 16.238319 1.NO.05 2.62 13.4 2.46786893 1.

9660424 3.518 9.556698 58.7767468 2.5557936 0.1876914 0.46 3.7 1.25 -0.6699722 1.76 -2.5 17 15.1 18.036 25.01 1.15 29.92 -2.31 5.003029 0.62 7.286 2.332417 3.95 -3.028506 P suction (Kg/Cm2) -0.0369638 2.84 -1.5971998 2.02 13.2979212 1.022502 0.61 3.3737786 0.8869085 68.723 2.02550584 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 FLOW (lps) 0 1.62 24.APPENDIX – E SR.4901784 1.0194729 21.9660424 3.09 5.08 29.31 -0.8551956 2.2 -2.519 27.88 7.408151 2.1 -3.292 -0.816487 49.23 27.1 27 26.45 7.22 27.45 20.019515 0.6085308 0 12.03457027 3.1876914 0.43390297 0.502 24.001521 0.85 1.74837 68.9277212 1.5176404 29.5 29.018019 0.034 16.22 -0.31 16.005 28.4255329 57.39 4.84 -2.54 -2.12 7.42 29.7942445 4.019 19.006047 0.332417 3.012076 0.113068 1.533 15.96 6.016507 0.90474788 5.013533 0.7 2.71 2.284 -0.36 26.43 6.015034 0.69 5.2 27.1793592 2.254 -0.41 29.02 10.3128265 42.5557936 0.515 21.266 -0. 5.047 22.251 -0.29 -3.504 6.29990034 1.507 18.61 -2.0111362 61.5 20.9209131 61.23 -0.2235446 2.7276127 66.192 -0.24 27.6699722 1.0369638 2.2235446 2.276 -0.03186194 4.5176404 0 0.88 7.8551956 2.722 2.4901784 1.66 2.047 7.02 21.6 26.029 4.7767468 2.6104861 37.48 0 0.737 2.5971998 2.724 2.34 23.7461998 0.004504 0.329 -0.4 2.74 7.7 23.113068 1.2086061 66.71 -2.08 29.97 4.502 1.115143 Fig.184 -0.518 12.51 -2.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 43 .08154115 5.55 29.6103429 3.45 -2.85066781 4.1619855 4.7037536 4.024036 0.05776328 5.3 -2.7461998 0.295 -0.010518 0.86 21.1490446 3.9 22.159 53.521 3.076 13.61 25.13 Reading for 2900 rpm set M.8180701 29.14 28.61 24.56 -2.71 -1.15 2.37 27.39 2.171 -0.1 18.007518 0.308 27.624139 68.93 RPM 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 2900 Velocity at Velocity at Total Head Power Out Suction Discharge Efficiency (m) (KW) (m/s) (m/s) 0 0.34 P suction P P discharge Power In (m of Discharge (m of (KW) water) (Kg/Cm2) water) -1.408151 2.66 -2.31 7.NO.47 2.602 2.368512 68.00902 0.9277212 1.65 6.506 Flow (m3/s) 0 0.021047 0.22 27.19 6.4305052 4.245 -0.02 25.08 3.68 5.3737786 0.5 29.45208642 3.86617738 1.74997157 2.9 26.025519 0.271 -0.256 -0.58 28.2979212 1.5 -2.69 2.027005 0.92 -2.2963571 64.1490446 3.72 2.561 2.3748462 65.261 -0.

ANAGNOSTOPOULOS AND DIMITRIOS E. 140 –146. 2007. Centrifugal Pump (Vol. No. 175 7. 2011 http://www. 2. Hrvoje Kozmar a.-H. (2000). Sei. Engineering and Technology . (1962). 46.elsevier. Athens.S. Desalination 249 (2009) 654–659 P. F. Mech.htm 4. Igor Sutlović b. European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol. Rababa . 1. J. H. S. New York: John Wiley & Sons. THANAPANDI and RAMA PRASAD Int. 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd 10. (2008).eurojournals. 12. pp. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. 235-240. PAPANTONIS. M. Mohamad Memardezfouli *. 77 89. JOHN S. GRAPSAS. Craig I. Walker). 13. (2004.22).243-251 © Euro Journals Publishing. Khin Cho Thin. Mario Šavar a. New York: Springer Stepanoff. Proceedings of the 5th IASME / WSEAS International Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics. Centrifugal Pump Design. Wear 242 _2000. october 21 . J. U. 37. Greg C.REFERENCES 1.1. Gülich. pp. Vol.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 44 .2 Khalid. Centrifugal Pumps. THE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP M. D.comrlocaterwear 11.Inc VASILIOS A. World Academy of Science. J. 2 nd Edition). Ahmad Nourbakhsh Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 33 (2009) 938–945 5. (1957). 9. Development of an Empirical Equation to Predict the Disk Friction Losses of a Centrifugal Pump. Grundfos research and technology. A. Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) and the Hydraulic Institute (HI) 8. A. www. H. Ali Nemdilli. New York: John Wiley and Sons 14.52 (2011). International Conference on Hydraulic Machinery and Hydrodynamics . No. August 25-27. Centrifugal Pump and Blowers. Design and Performance Analysis of Centrifugal. M.com/ejsr. TUZSON. Church. 6. Bodkin. Greece. 3. J. (2008).

nptel.W. Chesterton Company 16.ac. PUMP PRINCIPLES MANUAL. www.iitm.in M. A.TECH DISSERTATION (TURBOMACHINE) Page 45 .15.