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**Passive containment cooling by natural air convection and thermal radiation after severe accidents
**

X. Cheng *, F.J. Erbacher, H.J. Neitzel

Institute of Nuclear and Energy Technology, Research Center Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D -76021 Karlsruhe, Germany Received 31 December 1999; received in revised form 7 July 2000; accepted 7 July 2000

Abstract One essential feature of composite containment is its potential to remove decay heat by natural air convection coupled with thermal radiation. Experimental and numerical investigations have been carried out to determine the coolability of such a passive cooling system and to study the contribution of thermal radiation to decay heat removal. A data base has been provided for validating advanced multi-dimensional computer codes and for developing physical models. It has been found that the passive containment cooling by natural air convection coupled with thermal radiation is a promising concept. Both the experimental data and the numerical results show that for intermediate and high wall emissivities, respectively, thermal radiation signiﬁcantly enhances the entire heat transfer, even at low temperatures of the containment wall. The FLUTAN code combined with the new radiation model developed has been proven to be an accurate and efﬁcient numerical tool for investigating ﬂow and heat transfer behaviour in the system considered. © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Passive containment cooling by natural air convection and thermal radiation has been proposed in the past for several innovative reactor concepts, e.g. AP-600 (Hennies et al., 1989; Kennedy et al., 1994). A review of the experimental and analytical studies carried out shows the need for further experimental and theoretical research work concerning natural air convection and thermal radiation (Cheng and Mu ¨ ller, 1998). It became evident

* Corresponding author. Tel.: + 49-7247-824897; fax: + 497247-824837. E -mail address: xu.cheng@iket.fzk.de (X. Cheng).

that due to the complexity of the thermal-hydraulic processes involved in passive systems with their inherent small driving forces by temperature and pressure differences, experiments have to be carried out for each speciﬁc design. Validated computer codes must be developed to support the expected operational performance. The composite containment proposed by the Research Center Karlsruhe and the Technical University Karlsruhe is to cope with beyond-design basis accidents (Hennies et al., 1989; Eibl, 1994). It pursues the goal to restrict the consequences of severe core meltdown accidents to the reactor plant without any noticeable release of radioactivity impairing the public. Fig. 1 illus-

0029-5493/00/$ - see front matter © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S0029-5493(00)00366-6

In addition numerical calculations were made using the 3-D code FLUTAN (Shah et al. 1985.5 MPa. The increase in the temperature of the steel shell results in natural convection of air in the individual chimneys formed by the support ribs in the annular gap. the heated height is 8. 1994). 1992) carried out show that the composite containment concept with its passive containment cooling by natural air convection and thermal radiation is a very promising alternative for the next generation water-cooled reactors.220 X. Experimental apparatus The test program PASCO has been carried out at the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Technology (IKET) of the Research Center Karlsruhe (FZK). Two Fig. 2 simulates one cooling channel in the annular gap of the composite containment proposed. The ribs are placed on the circumference with approx. radiative heat transfer takes place between the steel shell. It consists of an inner steel shell of about 60 m diameter and 38 mm wall thickness and an outer reinforced concrete shell of approx. 1996). The maximum channel cross-section is 0.. The other three walls are thermally insulated from the ambient surrounding. The annulus of approx. To investigate the basic phenomena involved in natural convection coupled with thermal radiation. By changing the channel depth and the heated height. The test section consists of a vertical rectangular channel of which one wall is electrically heated. New containment concept — Composite containment. The steam produced condenses on the inner surface of the externally cooled containment shell. 2. 80 cm radial gap width is bridged by longitudinal support ribs ﬁxed in the concrete shell. With this concept the two individual containment shells of the present design remain essentially unchanged and the capability of withstanding higher loads is achieved by the composite structure which can cope with a maximum static pressure of 1. additional experimental and theoretical research work needs to be done for the given conditions: large channel geometry and strong interaction between convective and radiative heat transfer. the separate-effects test program PASCO (acronym for PASsive COntainment cooling) has been carried out. By reﬂux of the condensate to the core catcher a passive selfcirculating steam/water ﬂow is established.5 × 1. However. the effect of channel geometry on heat transfer will be studied. Decay heat is thus removed by natural air convection coupled with thermal radiation to the ambient atmosphere in a passive way. Moreover. . 1. Gro ¨ tzbach and Cheng. Such a containment concept has been investigated with respect to its feasibility (Eibl. One essential of this new containment concept is its potential to remove the decay heat by natural air convection coupled with thermal radiation in a passive way. 1992. The general aim of this separate-effects test program is to investigate passive containment cooling by natural air convection coupled with thermal radiation. The PASCO project was terminated by the end of 1999. In a core meltdown accident the decay heat is converted into steam by direct contact of the melt with the water. All preliminary evaluations (Erbacher and Neitzel. 50 cm spacing and transfer the load of the expanding and deﬂecting steel containment to the reinforced concrete wall (composite containment) in a potential hydrogen detonation. Scholtyssek et al. 2 m wall thickness. the support ribs and the concrete shell. The PASCO test facility shown in Fig.0 m. The main results achieved are summarized below.0 m with four individually heatable zones. Cheng et al.. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 202 (2000) 219–229 trates schematically the composite containment proposed.

Calibrations were carried out to determine the heat loss from the heated wall to the ambient surroundings at differTable 1 Test matrix Heated wall temperature. Th = 150°C.4.0. Air temperature (a) and air velocity (b) along the middle line (X = 0.25–1. the air humidity and the total heating power are recorded.9 4. PASCO test facility. Fig. Cross-wise traversing probes at the inlet. Table 1 summarizes the test parameters used. L (m) 100–175 0. L = 0. the pressure at the channel inlet. experimental data are generated for the development of physical models and for the validation of multi-dimensional computer codes. 0. 8. Moreover. . 0. so that the inﬂuence of thermal radiation on total heat transfer can be investigated. 3. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 202 (2000) 219–229 Table 2 Measurement accuracy Temperature (°C) Air velocity (%) Pressure (%) Heating power (%) 221 90. Traversing probes for recording the air temperature and the air velocity are installed at ﬁve different elevations.4.0 Fig.5 m. 2. m = 0.75 92. in the mid-plane and at the outlet measure the temperature.X. The measurement accuracy of different parameters are summarized in Table 2.25 m).5 91. With this comprehensive instrumentation. The test facility is equipped among others with approx.0 0.0 ent values of the heated wall temperature. Th (°C) Wall emissivity (m ) Heated height.9. different values (0.9) for wall emissivity are used. During the experiment the heating power transferred from the heated wall is then obtained by subtracting the heat loss from the total heating power introduced to the heated wall.and velocity distributions over each individual channel cross-section. 170 thermocouples to measure the distribution of wall temperatures. Cheng et al.0 90. The temperature of the ambient air is measured at four different elevations. H (m) Channel depth.

At high wall emissivity of 0. the ﬂow condition remains nearly unchanged. . whereas it decreases in the central region.222 X. the air velocity near the walls increases. this affected region spreads over the entire cross-section. Fig. Th = 150°C. × : Th = 150°C. By decreasing the wall emissivity from 0. so that the air velocity increases. These results emphasize the strong inﬂuence of thermal radiation on total heat transfer. 4 shows the air velocity at the outlet crosssection along the mid-line (X = 0. m = 0. Near the inlet cross-section (Z = 0 m).0 m. m = 0. Fig.5 m. : Th = 150°C.25 m) versus the distance from the back wall (Y ) at different axial levels.4 leads to a reduction in the temperature of the unheated walls by more than 10°C.9. Experimental results Fig. L = 1.9 down to 0. Air velocity at the outlet cross-section and X = 0. the temperature on the back wall reduces. This indicates that the passive containment cooling system with air natural convection and thermal radiation is a very promising concept.9.4.8 m) for three tests with different values for the channel depth and wall emissivity. L = 1.8 m. 3 shows the air temperature and the air velocity along the mid-line (X = 0. M040: L = 0. Temperature proﬁle on the side wall and the back wall at Z = 3.5 kW is removed at a heated wall temperature of 150°C. m = 0. m = 0. Fig.0 m. This leads to a reduction in the air velocity near the back wall.9. The temperature on the side wall decreases with increasing distance from the heated wall. In the region near the heated wall. M019: L = 1. Decreasing the wall emissivity from 0. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 202 (2000) 219–229 Fig. 5. Near the outlet cross-section. 6 shows the measured heating power versus the heated wall temperature at different values of the channel depth and wall emissivity. m = 0. so that the air temperature in the central region is clearly higher than the inlet air temperature. 4.4.4. the air temperature distribution is uniform (about 20°C) over the entire channel depth. Th = 150°C. m = 0. The air velocity has a uniform distribution in the central region in the lower part of the channel.9 down to 0. Th = 150°C. : Th = 150°C.0 m.25 m) versus the distance from the back wall (Y ) at different values of the channel depth L and the wall emissivity. Reducing the channel depth enhances the radiative heat exchange between the heated wall and the back wall.9 down to 0. M068: L = 1.5 m. a total heat power of about 6. whereas the heat power depends strongly on the temperature of the heated wall and on the wall emissivity. the total heating power decreases by more than 30%. L = 0. 3. It is found that the channel depth affects only slightly the heating power. By reducing the channel depth the temperature on the back wall increases due to a larger view factor between the heated wall and the back wall. By reducing the wall emissivity from 0.0 m. At higher axial levels. 5 illustrates the measured temperatures on the side wall and on the back wall at the middle elevation (Z = 3.4.25 m. the effect of thermal radiation and consequently. At higher axial levels the temperature near the walls increases and the region affected by the higher wall temperature increases. Increasing the heated wall tem- Fig. Due to thermal radiation the temperature on all the unheated walls is much higher than the average air temperature at the same elevation (about 25°C). Cheng et al.9.9.

b.i mi mi mj J=1 4. view factor can only be solved numerically. 7. where . 1995): Net-radiation method for enclosures with grey and diffuse surfaces.i E Ej = i − % j. For ﬂow channels in a Cartesian coordinate system where boundary walls are either parallel or perpendicular to each other. at low emissivity the direct solution method is more efﬁcient than the iterative method. L = 1. Fig. perature from 100 to 175°C leads to an increase in the heating power by about 150%. For the turbulence modeling the standard k – m model is used with logarithmic wall functions for velocity. e.0 m. a analytical solution has been derived in the present work for computing the view factor between any two surface elements.0 m. 4. f. e. j mj (1) N is the total number of surface elements. : m = 0.and temperature distribution near the wall. 1998).g. Analytical methods for view factor computation. Cheng et al. The direct solution is exact and usually needs larger computing expenditure. Gro ¨ tzbach and Cheng. View factor Generally. + % (1 − mj )j. c. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 202 (2000) 219–229 223 Fig. 7 shows two different cases. More details on the code and the physical models used can be found in Shah et al. 4. For intermediate or high emissivity only a few iterations are needed and a high accuracy is achieved. 1996) which is a 3-D ﬁnite-difference code for multi-component systems in Cartesian or in cylindrical coordinates. In the present study the FLUTAN code is used (Shah et al. Numerical simulation of such a system requires a computer code of high capability. Radiation model The interaction between the convective and the radiative heat transfer is expressed by the thermal boundary condition at the unheated wall. 6. e. To specify the dimensions of any two surface elements and their relative positions. a thermal radiation model has been developed with the following main features (Cheng et al.9. Numerical simulations In addition to the experimental work.. d. indicated as a. Cheng et al.1. (1995) and Gro ¨ tzbach and Cheng (1996).X. 1985. the PASCO ﬂow channel. An iterative solution. The ﬂow in the PASCO test channel is 3-D turbulent natural convection with a strong interaction between convective and radiative heat transfer. the net radiative heat ﬂux is equal to the convective heat ﬂux.4. seven geometric parameters are needed. numerical simulation has been carried out to investigate the ﬂow and heat transfer behaviour. L = 1. the Gauß–Seidel iteration. and g in Fig. The radiative heat transfer between diffuse and grey wall surfaces without participating ﬂuids can usually be computed by the net-radiation method for enclosures (Cheng and Mu ¨ ller.2. × : m = 0.9.g. Macro-element methods for reducing numerical expenditure. Eq. The net radiative heat power of the surface element Qi is computed by the following equation: N N QR. To calculate the radiative heat ﬂux.5 m. (1) can be solved either directly or iteratively. L = 0. Measured heating power versus the heated wall temperature at different conditions. guarantees the convergence. (1985). Nevertheless. : m = 0..i J=1 QR.

a large storage capacity and a huge computing time are needed.224 X. Therefore. (2) and (3) are summarized in Tables 3 and 4. to reduce storage need and computing time and to improve numerical efﬁciency. If the radiation Eq. Zi and Si in Eqs. . The effective temperature of a macro-element is determined by the following equation: Table 4 Parameters in Eq. 7b). the view factor can be calculated by: 12·y ·Ai a2 4 4 4.3. Yi. The basic idea of the macro-element method is to combine a few surface elements (micro-elements) with identical wall emissivity to form one macro -element. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 202 (2000) 219–229 Table 3 Parameters in Eq. (2) Xi Yi (g+e )/a g /a (c−g−e )/a (c−g )/a Zi +1 +1 i=2 i=3 i=4 (b−f )/a (b−f−d )/a f /a −1 +1 −1 −1 +1 −1 Si The view factor for two parallel surface elements (Fig. (3) Xi i=1 i=2 i=3 i=4 ( f+d )/a (a−f )/a (a−f−d )/a f /a Yi [g 2+(e+b )2]/a 2 [e 2+(g+c )2]/a 2 [g 2+e 2]/a 2 [(g+c )2+(e+b )2]/a 2 Zi +1 +1 +1 +1 −1 −1 −1 −1 Si Fig. Cheng et al. the so-called macro-element method is introduced. Geometrical parameters of two surface elements in a Cartesian coordinate system. 7a) is derived as follows: 12·y ·A1 a2 4 4 1 Xj = % Zi % Sj · ·Xj · 1 + Y 2 i ·arctan 2 i=1 j=1 1 + Y 2 i + % Zi % Sj · i=1 4 j=1 4 4 4 ! 1 2 − % Zi % Sj · ·ln(1 + X 2 j +Yi ) 4 i=1 j=1 ! ! 1 Yi ·Y · 1 + X 2 j ·arctan 2 i 1 + X 2 j " " " (2) i=1 ( f+d )/a For two perpendicular surface elements (Fig. Macro -element method = % Zi % Sj · i=1 4 j=1 4 ! 1 2 ·(X − Yj )·ln(X 2 i + Yj ) 8 i 1 Xi · Yj ·Xi arctan (3) 2 i=1 j=1 Yj The parameters Xi. (1) has to be solved for all the surface elements. + % Zi % Sj · ! " " For computing ﬂow conditions accurately. The ﬁne discretization results in a large number of surface elements. 7. the three-dimensional computational domain has to be divided into sufﬁciently small sub-zones.

respectively. the air velocity increases again by approaching the unheated walls. whereas its effect on numerical accuracy is negligibly small.0 m.I is the net radiative heat ﬂux of the macro-element. Th = 150°C. the air velocity reaches its maximum value. Fig. Cheng et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 202 (2000) 219–229 225 Fig.0 m. the computing time needed for solving the radiation Eq. The temperature distribution is well reproduced by the FLUTAN code. (1) can be signiﬁcantly reduced. T4 I= 1 % A ·T 4 AI i I i i n (4) Here the subscripts ‘I ’ and ‘i ’ stand for macroand micro-elements.X. m = 0. The minimum value of the air velocity appears in the central region. m = 0. An excellent 4.9. H = 8.0 m. In the region near the heated wall.9. e.25 m): L = 1. H = 8. respectively. 9. 10 illustrates the measured and the calculated temperature on the side wall and on the back wall at the middle elevation. Temperature distribution on the back wall and on the side wall: Th = 150°C. Results and discussion Fig. 9 compares the calculated with the measured distribution of the air temperature and the air velocity along the mid-line (X = 0. 8. Measured and calculated distribution of the air temperature and the air velocity at the channel outlet cross-section along the mid-line (X = 0. Th = 150°C. Fig. 10.0 m.i = qR. With the macro-element method developed.0 m. It decreases rapidly by increasing the distance from the heated wall. Measured and calculated proﬁle of the air velocity at the channel outlet cross-section. L = 1. This discrepancy emphasizes the need for improving turbulence modeling in the FLUTAN code for the given conditions.25 m) at the channel outlet as a function of the distance from the heated wall Y. Due to thermal radiation. m = 0. Fig.4. L = 1. The curves are the calculated results and the symbols are the experimental data. The net radiative heat ﬂux of a micro-element is computed by qR.g. Fig. . whereas the FLUTAN code overpredicts the air velocity in the near wall region and underpredicts it in the central region.9. by a factor of 100.I + ei − eI (5) where qR. 8 shows an example of the calculated proﬁle of the air velocity at the test channel outlet. and ei and eI are the emitting heat ﬂux of the micro-element and of the macro-element.

Th = 150°C. L = 1. Comparison of the measured with the calculated heating power. . agreement between the experimental data and the numerical results has been found. Calculated convective and radiative heat ﬂux at the heated wall. Nevertheless. 11 compares the measured heat power with the calculated results for different test conditions. Fig. wall emissivity 0. This is due to the radiation heat transfer to the surroundings. The strong effect of thermal radiation on the total heat transfer is also demonstrated by the FLUTAN code. Cheng et al.9. Fig. 11. m = 0.0 m. After this region the convective heat ﬂux remains nearly constant.9 and air inlet temperature 20°C.0 m. It is clearly seen that in the entrance region the convective heat ﬂux is high. H = 8. even at low values of the heated wall temperature. this entrance effect is restricted to the ﬁrst 2 m height. Further analysis shows that the average heat ﬂux at each individual heated plate can also be well reproduced by the FLUTAN code. 12. 13 shows the radiative heat power and the convective heat power at different values of the heated wall temperature.0 m. It can be seen that more heat is transferred from the Fig. The radiative heat ﬂux is maximum at the inlet and the outlet regions. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 202 (2000) 219–229 heated wall by radiation than that transferred directly by convection. Fig. the radiative heat ﬂux is still higher than the convective heat ﬂux. A systematic analysis of the effect of thermal radiation on the total heat transfer can be found in Cheng and Mu ¨ ller (1998). On average. Fig. 12 presents the calculated convective and the radiative heat ﬂux at the heated wall. The calculation is made for the conditions: channel depth 1.226 X. It is seen that for all test conditions the deviation between the measured and the calculated heat power is less than 10%.

Fig. The average heat ﬂux at the steel containment shell is about 0.0 m and 50 m. therefore. Removed decay heat in one cooling channel. m = 0. 13.9.0 m. The pressure drop characteristics of the ﬁlter is expressed by (Ruedinger and Ensinger. The cross-section and the height of each channel are 0.9. the consequences of severe accidents must be limited to the near vicinity of the plant. it is found that for the conditions considered. 14 and 15 show the calculated air velocity and the transferred heat power versus the pressure drop coefﬁcient of the air ﬁlter for the following conditions: temperature of the steel shell containment is 150°C and the wall emissivity is 0. 15) can be removed in each individual cooling channel. m = 0. Tin = 20°C.g. 14. e. At the operating conditions. It decreases rapidly with increasing the pressure drop coefﬁcient of the ﬁlter. . L = 1. Cheng et al. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 202 (2000) 219–229 227 Fig. rectangular channels which are thermal-hydraulically disconnected from each other. 5.5 × 1. 6. m = 0. To meet this new safety goal. It can be seen that without the air ﬁlter. the intersecting point of both lines in Fig. Heat power transferred from the heated wall by radiation and by convection. 1983): DP = 370u + 21u 2 (6) and the air velocity is about 0. Calculated air velocity in the containment cooling channel. Furthermore.2 MW can.9. the heat power transferred by thermal radiation is about 50% higher than that transferred by convection (Fig.e. H = 50 m. respectively. Estimation for reactor containment The results presented above show that the FLUTAN code has been well validated for the conditions of the passive containment cooling system considered. 15. One essential of the composite The pressure drop coefﬁcient of the ﬁlter is deﬁned as: p= 2DP 740 42 = + zu 2 zu z (7) Figs. the use of new innovative features. is required in advanced water-cooled reactors to ensure containment integrity.X. An air ﬁlter is located at the outlet of each cooling channel. 14. Th = 150°C.5 m s − 1. A decay heat of about 23 kW (Fig. 15).9 kW m − 2. the pressure drop coefﬁcient of the ﬁlter is about 1300 Fig.0 m s − 1 is obtained. an air velocity of about 4. A total decay heat of about 7. i. Th = 150°C. For the containment calculation made in the present study it is assumed that the ﬂow channels in the containment gap are vertical. be removed by this passive cooling system.9. H = 50 m. Conclusions For future nuclear power plants. passive decay heat removal.

Research Center Karlsruhe. m2 emitting heat power. 1992. Cheng. April 17 – 21. Kusadasi. Int. °C heated wall temperature.. September 21 – 24. m s−1 wall emissivity. Pa net radiative heat power.. Eibl. Eibl. 1994. Air Humidity and Elevated Differential Pressures. Salt Lake City. 41 (12). H.. 1983. In the framework of the PASCO programme.. 1681 – 1692. Cheng. Ruedinger. Ensinger. .. V.. The so-called macro-elements method has been developed to improve numerical efﬁciency. Pittsburgh. Turbulent natural convection coupled with thermal radiation in large vertical channels with asymmetric heating. The following speciﬁc main conclusions can be drawn: Passive containment cooling by natural air convection and thermal radiation offers a promising safety feature for future pressurized water reactors. Kennedy. F. Cheng et al. Appendix A. / Nuclear Engineering and Design 202 (2000) 219–229 containment is its potential to remove the decay heat by turbulent natural convection of air coupled with thermal radiation. August 28 – 31. X. Improved containment concept for future pressurized water reactors.J. X. °C velocity. in: International Workshop on Safety of Nuclear Installations of the Next Generation and Beyond. in: NURETH-5. 168 – 171.J. Neitzel. 1994.. Thermal radiation in a passive containment cooling system by natural air convection. G.D. The FLUTAN code combined with the radiation model developed has been proven to be an accurate and efﬁcient numerical tool to investigate the ﬂow and heat transfer behaviour in a passive containment cooling system. pp. experimental and numerical investigations have been carried out to determine the coolability limit and to study the ﬂow and heat transfer behaviour in such a passive cooling system. Heat Mass Transf... m pressure drop. even at low temperatures of the containment wall. in: International Symposium on Radiative Heat Transfer. August. Neitzel. Advanced PWR passive containment cooling system testing. in: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology ‘96. 1989. in: International Topical Meeting on Advanced Reactors Safety. Erbacher. Development progress of the FLUTAN code for modelling heat transfer in LWR-systems (in German). W m−2 temperature. KfK 5366. PA. 1995. – pressure drop coefﬁcient. et al. J. FI4S-CT96-0042) co-ﬁnanced by the European Commission under the Euratom speciﬁc Nuclear Fission Safety programme 1994 – 1998. W net radiative heat ﬂux.. A broad and detailed data base has been generated for the validation of computer codes and for the development of physical models. A radiation model with high numerical efﬁciency has been developed. U. Turkey. W m−2 channel height. 1998.J.. Passive containment cooling by natural air convection for next generation light water reactors.. August 14 – 18. IL. U. H. Hennies. A thorough bibliographic survey underlines the deﬁciency in experimental as well as in theoretical studies on turbulent natural convection heat transfer coupled with thermal radiation in a 3-d vertical channel with asymmetrical heating. J. M. UT. m channel depth. H. Nomenclature A E e H L DP Qr qr T Th u m p surface area. 1996. Gro ¨ tzbach. At intermediate and high wall emissivities thermal radiation contributes signiﬁcantly to the total heat transfer by natural air convection. W emitting heat ﬂux. Zur bautechnischen Machbarkeit eines alternativen Containments fu ¨ r Druck-wasserreaktoren — Stufe 3.228 X. Mannheim.. Mu ¨ ller. KfK 3350. Analytical equations have been derived for calculating the view factor between any two surface elements. J. F. G..H... – References Cheng. Erbacher. Kessler. Chicago. Investigation into the Behaviour of HEPA-Filters at High Temperature.. X.J. Acknowledgements This work was executed under the multi-partners research contract DABASCO (contract No.

NUREG/CR-4348.. Vol. 229 Shah. 1992. 2. Erbacher. COMMIX-1B: A three-dimensional transient single-phase computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of single and multicomponent systems. 1 and Vol. V. Japan.J. October 25– 29. W. Decay heat removal after a PWR core meltdown accident. 1985. ... / Nuclear Engineering and Design 202 (2000) 219–229 Scholtyssek...X. .L. H. Alsmeyer. Cheng et al. et al. in: International Conference on Design and Safety of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants (ANP 92). Tokyo. F.

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