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TXT HSPF Model System Abstract Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM) National Exposure Research Laboratory - Ecosystems Research Division Office of Research and Development (ORD) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) 960 College Station Road Athens, Georgia 30605-2700 706/355-8400

----------------------------------------------------------------------------Summary Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) is a comprehensive package for simulation of watershed hydrology and water quality for both conventional and toxic organic pollutants (1,2). This model can simulate the hydrologic, and associated water quality, processes on pervious and impervious land surfaces and in streams and well-mixed impoundments. HSPF incorporates the watershed-scale ARM and NPS models into a basin-scale analysis framework that includes fate and transport in one-dimensional stream channels. It is the only comprehensive model of watershed hydrology and water quality that allows the integrated simulation of land and soil contaminant runoff processes with in-stream hydraulic and sediment-chemical interactions. The manual discusses the structure of the system, and presents a detailed discussion of the algorithms used to simulate various water quantity and quality processes. It also contains all of the information necessary to develop input files for applying the program, including descriptions of program options, parameter definitions, and detailed input formatting data. The result of this simulation is a time history of the runoff flow rate, sediment load, and nutrient and pesticide concentrations, along with a time history of water quantity and quality at any point in a watershed. HSPF simulates three sediment types (sand, silt, and clay) in addition to a single organic chemical and transformation products of that chemical. The transfer and reaction processes included are hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, biodegradation, volatilization, and sorption. Sorption is modeled as a first-order kinetic process in which the user must specify a desorption rate and an equilibrium partition coefficient for each of the three solids types. Resuspension and settling of silts and clays (cohesive solids) are defined in terms of shear stress at the sediment water interface. The capacity of the system to transport sand at a particular flow is calculated and resuspension or settling is defined by the difference between the sand in suspension and the transport capacity. Calibration of the model requires data for each of the three solids types. Benthic exchange is modeled as sorption/desorption and deposition/scour with surficial benthic sediments. Underlying sediment and pore water are not modeled. Documentation The original version of this report was submitted in fulfillment of Grant No.

R804971-01 by Hydrocomp, Inc., under the sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. That work was completed in January 1980. Extensive revisions, modifications, and corrections to the original report and the HSPF code were performed by Anderson-Nichols and Co. under Contract No. 68-03-2895, also sponsored by the U.S. EPA. That work was completed in January 1981. Versions 7 and 8 of HSPF and the corresponding documents were prepared by Linsley, Kraeger Associates, Ltd. and Anderson-Nichols under Contract No. 68-01-6207, the HSPF maintenance and user support activities directed by the U.S. EPA laboratory in Athens, GA. The HSPF User's Manual for Versions 10 and 11 were prepared by AQUA TERRA Consultants of Mountain View, CA, incorporating code modifications corrections, and documentation of algorithm enhancements sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. EPA Chesapeake Bay Program, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. EPA Athens Environmental Research Laboratory. The version 11 manual and code were prepared under sponsorship of the U.S. Geological Survey under Contract No. 14-08-0001-23472. The HSPF User's Manual is available as a WordPerfect (version 5.1) document in (binary, non-ASCII) files HSPF_V11.001, HSPF_V11.002, HSPF_V11.003, HSPF_V11.004, HSPF_V11.005, HSPF_V11.006, and HSPF_V11.007 in the DOCUMENT sub-directory. Refer to file READ.ME in the README sub-directory for further information on the storage format and printing requirements of the user's manual files. Data Requirements Data needs for HSPF can be extensive. HSPF is a continuous simulation program and requires continuous data to drive the simulations. At a minimum, continuous rainfall records are required to drive the runoff model and additional records of evapotranspiration, temperature, and solar intensity are desirable. A large number of model parameters can be specified although default values are provided where reasonable values are available. HSPF is a general-purpose program and special attention has been paid to cases where input parameters are omitted. In addition, option flags allow bypassing of whole sections of the program where data are not available. Output HSPF produces a time history of the runoff flow rate, sediment load, and nutrient and pesticide concentrations, along with a time history of water quantity and quality at any point in a watershed. Simulation results can be processed through a frequency and duration analysis routine that produces output compatible with conventional toxicological measures (e.g., 96-hour LC50). Assumptions and Limitations HSPF assumes that the "Stanford Watershed Model" hydrologic model is appropriate for the area being modeled. Further, the instream model assumes the receiving water body is well-mixed with width and depth and is thus limited to well-mixed rivers and reservoirs. Application of this methodology generally requires a team effort because of its comprehensive nature. Application History HSPF and the earlier models from which it was developed have been extensively applied in a wide variety of hydrologic and water quality studies (3,4), including pesticide runoff model testing (5), aquatic fate and transport

model testing (6,7), and analyses of agricultural best management practices (8,9). An application of HSPF in a screening methodology for pesticide review is described by Donigian et al. (10). In addition, HSPF has been validated with both field data and model experiments, and has been reviewed by independent experts (11-20). The Stream Transport and Agricultural Runoff for Exposure Assessment Methodology (STREAM) applies the HSPF program to various test watersheds for five major crops in four agricultural regions in the United States, defines a "representative" watershed based on regional conditions and an extrapolation of the calibration for the test watershed, and performs a sensitivity analysis on key pesticide parameters to generate cumulative frequency distributions of pesticide loads and concentrations in each regions. The resulting methodology requires the user to evaluate only the crops and regions of interest, the pesticide application rate, and three pesticide parameters -- the partition coefficient, the soil/sediment decay rate, and the solution decay rate. The EPA Chesapeake Bay Program has been using the HSPF model as the framework for modeling total watershed contributions of flow, sediment, and nutrients (and associated constituents such as water temperature, DO, BOD, etc.) to the tidal region of the Chesapeake Bay (21,22). The watershed modeling represents pollutant contributions from an area of more than 68,000 sq. mi., and provides the input to drive a fully dynamic three-dimensional, hydrodynamic/water quality model of the Bay. The watershed drainage area is divided into land segments and stream channel segments. The land areas modeled include forest, agricultural cropland (conventional and conservation tillage systems), pasture, urban (pervious and impervious areas), and uncontrolled animal waste contributions. The stream channel simulation includes flow routing and oxygen and nutrient biochemical modeling (through phytoplankton) in order to account for instream processes affecting nutrient delivery to the Bay. Currently, buildup/washoff type algorithms are being used for urban impervious areas, potency factors for all pervious areas, and constant (or seasonally variable) concentrations for all subsurface contributions and animal waste components. Enhancements are underway to utilize the detailed process (i.e. Agrichemical modules) simulation for cropland areas to better represent the impacts of agricultural BMPs and to include nitrogen cycling in forested systems to evaluate the impacts of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on Chesapeake Bay. The watershed modeling is being used to evaluate nutrient management alternatives for attaining a 40% reduction in nutrient loads delivered to the Bay, as defined in a joint agreement among the governors of the member states. References 1. Bicknell, B.R., J. C. Imhoff, J. L. Kittle, A. S. Donigian, and R.C. Johanson. 1993. Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF): Users Manual for Release 10. EPA-600/R-93/174, U.S. EPA, Athens, GA, 30605. 2. Donigian, A. S., J. C. Imhoff , B. R. Bicknell, and J. L. Kittle. 1984. Application Guide for the Hydrologic Simulation Program - FORTRAN. EPA 600/3-84-066, U.S. EPA, Athens, GA, 30605. 3. Barnwell, T. O., and R. Johanson. 1981. HSPF: A Comprehensive Package for Simulation of Watershed Hydrology and Water Quality. In: Nonpoint Pollution Control: Tools and Techniques for the Future. Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin, Rockville, MD.

4. Barnwell, T. O., and J. L. Kittle. 1984. Hydrologic Simulation Program - FORTRAN: Development, Maintenance and Applications. In: Proceedings Third International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage. Chalmers Institute of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden. 5. Lorber, M. N., and L. A. Mulkey. 1982. An Evaluation of Three Pesticide Runoff Loading Models. J. Environ. Qual., 11:519-529. 6. Mulkey, L. A., R. B. Ambrose, and T. O. Barnwell. 1986. Aquatic Fate and Transport Modeling Techniques for Predicting Environmental Exposure to Organic Pesticides and Other Toxicants -- A Comparative Study. In: Urban Runoff Pollution. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. 7. Schnoor, J. L., C. Sato, D. McKetchnie, and D. Sahoo. 1987. Processes, Coefficients, and Models for Simulating Toxic Organics and Heavy Metals in Surface Waters. EPA/600/3-87/015, U.S. EPA, Athens, GA, 30605. 8. Donigian, A. S., J. C. Imhoff, and B. R. Bicknell. 1983. Modeling Water Quality and the Effects of Best Management Practices in Four Mile Creek, Iowa. EPA/600/3-81-044, U.S. EPA, Athens, GA, 30605. 9. Bicknell, B. R., A. S. Donigian and T. O. Barnwell. 1984. Modeling Water Quality and the Effects of Best Management Practices in the Iowa River Basin. J. Water Sci. Technol., 17:1141-1153. 10. Donigian, A. S., D. W. Meier and P. P. Jowise. 1986. Stream Transport and Agricultural Runoff for Exposure Assessment: A Methodology. EPA/600/3-86-011, U.S. EPA, Athens, GA, 30605. 11. Moore, L.W., H. Matheny, T. Tyree, D. Sabatini and S.J. Klaine. 1988. Agricultural Runoff Modeling in a Small West Tennessee Watershed. J. Water Poll. Control Federation., 60:242-249. 12. Chew, Y.C., L.W. Moore, and R.H. Smith. 1991. Hydrologic Simulation of Tennessee's North Reelfoot Creek Watershed. J. Water Poll. Control Federation., 63:10-16. 13. Hicks, C.N., W.C. Huber, and J.P. Heaney. 1985. Simulation of Possible Effects of Deep Pumping on Surface Hydrology Using HSPF. In: T.O. Barnwell, Jr. (ed.) Proceedings of Stormwater and Water Quality Model User Group Meeting. EPA-600/9-85/016, U.S. EPA, Athens, GA, 30605. 14. Motta, D.J. and M.S. Cheng. 1987. The Henson Creek Watershed Study. In: H.C. Torno (ed.) Proceedings of Stormwater and Water Quality Users Group Meeting. Charles Howard and Assoc., Victoria, BC, Canada. 15. Nichols, J.C. and M.P. Timpe. 1985. Use of HSPF to simulate Dynamics of Phosphorus in Floodplain Wetlands over a Wide Range of Hydrologic Regimes. In: T.O. Barnwell, Jr. (ed.) Proceedings of Stormwater and Water Quality Model Users Group Meeting. EPA-600/9-85/016, U.S. EPA, Athens, GA, 30605 16. Schueler, T.R. 1983. Seneca Creek Watershed Management Study, Final Report, Volumes I and II. Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, Washington, DC. 17. Song, J.A., G.F. Rawl, W.R. Howard. 1983. Lake Manatee Watershed Water Resources Evaluation using Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF). In: P. Beron and T. Barnwell (eds.) Colloque sur la Modelisation des Eaux Pluviales. GREMU 83/03 Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

18. Sullivan, M.P. and T.R. Schueler. 1982. The Piscataway Creek Watershed Model: A Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Management Tool. In: Paul E. Wisner (ed.) Proceedings Stormwater and Water Quality Management Modeling and SWMM Users Group Meeting. Univ. of Ottawa, Dept. Civil Engr., Ottawa, Ont., Canada. 19. Weatherbe, D.G. and Z. Novak. 1985. Development of Water Management Strategy for the Humber River. In: E.M. James and W. James (eds.) Proceedings Conference on Stormwater and Water Quality Management Modeling. Computational Hydraulics Group, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., Canada. 20. Udhiri, S., M-S Cheng, and R.L. Powell. 1985. The Impact of Snow Addition on Watershed Analysis Using HSPF. In: T.O. Barnwell, Jr. (ed.) Proceedings of Stormwater and Water Quality Model Users Group Meeting. EPA-600/9-85/016, U.S. EPA, Athens, GA, 30605. 21. Donigian, A.S., B.R. Bicknell and J.L. Kittle. 1986. Conversion of the Chesapeake Bay Basin Model to HSPF Operation. Prepared by AQUA TERRA Consultants for Computer Sciences Corporation, Annapolis, MD, and U.S.EPA Chesapeake Bay Program, Annapolis, MD. 22. Donigian, A.S., B.R. Bicknell, L.C. Linker, J. Hannawald, C. Chang, and R. Reynolds. 1990. Chesapeake Bay Program Watershed Model Application to Calculate Bay Nutrient Loadings: Preliminary Phase I Findings and Recommendations. Prepared by AQUA TERRA Consultants for U.S. EPA Chesapeake Bay Program, Annapolis, MD. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------