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Chapter 1 : Electronic Instruments (Part 1) | ELECTRONICS MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION

ELECTRONICS MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION


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Home Topics Chapter 1 : Electronic Instruments (Part 1) Chapter 1 : Part 2 Chapter 2 : Instruments For Generation of Waveforms Chapter 3 : Instrument Transformers Chapter 4 : Tranducers (Part 1) Chapter 4 : Part 2 Chapter 5 : Data Aquisition System and Recorders Chapter 6 : Display Devices (Including Digital Instruments) Chapter 7 : Telemetry

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Chapter 1 : Electronic Instruments (Part 1)

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Electronic voltmeter, VTVM Transistor voltmeter, Electronic Multimeter, CROs: study of various stages in brief, measurement of voltage, current phase and frequency, special purpose oscilloscopes, measurement of resistance, inductance, capacitance, using Kelvins Maxwells and Schering bridges. Effective resistance at high frequency, Q meter, LCR meter. 2. INSTRUMENTATION FOR GENERATION AND ANALYSIS OF WAVEFORMS Signal generator, function generator, wave analyzer, harmonic distortion - analyzer, spectrum analyzer. I TRUMENT TRANSFORMER Current and potential transformers, constructional features, ratio and phase angle error. 4 TRANSDUCERS Principles of operation, qualitative treatment of strain gauge, LD1 thermoquple, piezoelecte79rital and-photo eIectric transducers. 5. DATA ACQUISTION SYSTEMSAND RECORDERS Necessity of recorders, recording requirements,

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graphic recorders, strip chart recorders, magnetic tape recorders, digital tape recorders. 6. DISPLAY DE VICES Electronic indicating instruments, seven segment display, fourteen segmental display, Nixie tube. 7. TELEMETRY Introduction, method of data transmission, types of telemetry systems and applications. Q. 1. Write a short history of units and measurements. Ans. The concept of measurement is introduced since olden days. History goes, that once upon a time, a King decided that in his kingdom, the length would be measured. with the length of his Foot, The unit of length was thus equal to the length of foot of the ruler i.e. King (Fig. 1).

Later on, for day to day use at different places wooden pieces were made, to be used as foot ruler. Needless to say that length of each piece was equal to the length of one foot of the king. With time, one foot was supposed to be equal to 12 inches (Fig. 2).

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It is believed that in Egypt, Cubit was introduced as unit of length. The unit was used during construction of pyramids and every worker was given a stick measuring one cubit. All the workers were ordered to get the stick compared with the Royal Cabit possessed by the King on every full moon day, failing which, he was punished to hang till death. The researchers have found that the unit of length called Angulam mentioned in Katilyas treatise, Arthshastra dated 300 BC was used without a break by Indian builders for 3900 years, till the British imposed their units in 18th century. The ancient Angulam has been found to be equal to 1.763 modern centimetres. Researchers have also found that Angulam and its multiples Vitasti (equal to 12 Angulam) and Dhanus (equal to 9 vitasties), have been used as unit of measurement right from the Harappan period till the pre modern era. Dhanus have been used for designing Iron Pillar and Qutub minar built in Delhi, 1600 Yrs ago. The total height of the iron piller has been measured exactly as 4 Dhanus. The study has established that design and architecture of Taj Mahal (Agra) is also based on these old units and there is nothing foreign in its design. The grids used in the Taj has sides of 60 x 90 Vitasti. In fact, the unit of Angulam (= 1.763 cm) matches very well with the dimensions of historical monuments establishes continuity of Indias engineering traditions though the ages for as long as 3900 years.
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It is believed that, the Angulam tradition remained unbroken for to long, because the workers from Harappan days handed over this to next generations. Q. 2. Define measurement. Ans. It is an act or the result of a quantitative comparison between a given quantity and a quantity of same kind selected as a unit. Q. 3. Define measuring instrument. Ans. It is a device used for comparing the unknown quantity with the unit or standard. Q. 4. What are analog instrument? Ans. The analog measuring instrument has a calibrated scale and pointer. The pointer deflects on the scale and gives value of the quantity (Fig. 3).

Q. 5. What are digital instruments? Ans. These have neither a scale nor a pointer. They have an electronic circuit within. The reading is obtained directly in digits on a monitor (Fig. 4).

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Q. 6. Define resolution of an instrument. Ans. The least interval between two adjacent discrete details, which can be distinguished one from other is called Resolution of the instrument. Q. 7. Define sensitivity of an instrument. Ans. Sensitivity : The ratio of change in the output to the change in the input, which causes after the steady state has reached, is known as sensitivity of an mstrument Q. 8. What is difference between resolution and sensitivity of an instrument? Ans. Almost the two terms are same with little difference. Resolution is the smallest change in the input signal (quantity under measurement), which can be detected by the instrument The sensitivity is the ratio of output signal (or response of the instrument) to a change of input signal (or the quantity under measurement.) Q. 9. Define accuracy and precision related to measuring instruments. Ans. Accuracy : This is the closeness, with which an instrument reads the true value. Precision : This means when a quantity is measured repeatedly ; the instrument should give the same value i.e. precision is the measure of reproducibility of the- measurements. Q. 10. What is the principle of an electronic voltmeter ? What are its types? Ans. In all electronic voltammeters, the principle involved is that of a permanent
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magnet moving coil (PMMC) instrument; popularly known as a D Arsonval instrument. An indication in the voltmeter is obtained by means of amplification through one or more stages and this is proportional to the input voltage. The electronic voltmeters are of the following types 1. Which use vacuum tubes, popularly known as Vacuum Tube Voltmeter (VTVM). 2. Which use solid state devices (i.e. bipolar transistors, FET etc.) popularly known as solid state or Transistorised Voltmeter (TVM) ; or solid state multimeter. They are also sometimes referred as Electronic Multimeter. Q. 11. Enlist advantages of electronic voltmeter over ordinary voltmeters. Ans. 1. The electronic voltmeter draws very low power from the test circuit as it has very high input impedance. This feature is useful for voltage measurement in very high impedance circuit, such as in communication circuits of the order of microvolts. 2. The electronic voltmeters have a wide frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 MHz or even higher. 3. The Transistorized voltmeters (TVM) can measure very high voltages upto thousand of volts. 4. Owing to amplifying properties, electronic voltmeters possess very high sensitivity as a result, their input impedance is increased. It reduces loading effect, while carrying measurements. 5. These can give flexibility and a fast response. Q. 12. What is solid state voltmeter? Ans. It uses bi-junction transistors or field effect transistors. It is called Transistorised Voltmeter (TVM). Q. 13. Enlist TVMs (Transistorised Voltmeters).
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Ans. (a) TVM with cascaded transistors. (b) TVM with FET (Field effect transistor) (c) Balanced bridge transistor voltmeter. (d) Chopper amplifier voltmeter. Q. 14. What is a differential voltmeter/potentiometer voltmeter? Ans. In this, unknown voltage is compared with known voltage. It is therefore also called as Potentiometer voltmeter. Q. 15. What is a RMS reading voltmeter? Ans. It has a permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC) meter, which is calibrated to read the root mean square (rms) value of the input voltage. Q. 16. What is sampling voltmeter? Ans. This voltmeter uses sampling technique to measure voltages at frequencies as high as 1 Gigahertz (1 GHz = IO Hz) Q. 17. What are the two sampling techniques used in sampling voltmeter? Ans. (a) Coherent sampling. (b) Inherent sampling. Q. 18. What are the factors which are to be kept in mind while selection of electronic voltmeters ? Ans. (a) Input impedance (b) Voltage range (c) Decibel (d) Sensitivity (e) Battery operation.
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Q. 19. What is the advantage of an A.C. voltmeter? Ans. It uses negative feedback, hence greatly reduces the response time.

Q. 20. What the disadvantage of AC voltmeter? Ans. By negative feedback, sensitivity of the voltmeter is reduced. Q. 21. What are advantages of TVM over VTVM? Ans. Few advantages of transistorized voltmeter (TVM) over vactium tubes voltmeter (VTVM) are given below 1. The TVM does not need any Worm up time but a VTVM needs warm-up time due to presence of a heating element. 2. The TVM is light in weight and can easily by transported. 3. The TVM can be operated on batteries and can be used anywhere, but the VTVM needs a power supply. 4. The TVM can measure a current directly, whereas a VTVM cannot. 5. The TVM consumes very less power as compared to the VTVM. Q. 22. Give types of electronic voltmeters. Ans. These may be 1. l)C voltmeters 2. AC voltmeters. Q. 23. Draw block diagram of electronic voltmeter.

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Ans. The Fig. 5 shows the block diagram.

Q. 24. What are types of DC voltmeters? Ans. The DC voltmeter can be of two types 1. Directly coupled amplifier DC voltmeter. 2. Chopper type DC voltmeter. Q. 25. What is a multimeter? Give types and uses. Ans. (a) A multimeter is the basic instrument of an engineer. The instrument can measure currents (amperes), voltage (volts) and resistance (ohms) and is therefore also called an AVO (amperes-volts-ohms) meter. Thus it can measure more than one quality hence the name multimeter (multi means many). These are two major types 1. Analog MM 2. Digital MM. (c) The multimeter helps in trouble shooting of radio/T.V. and other electronic systems, as it can locate an open circuit, short circuit or earth fault. Needless to mention that a multimeter can also be used to check continuity of a circuit. At that time, it is used as an ohmmeter and the equipment under checking is disconnected from the supply mains. The multimeter should not be connected across an energized circuit. Q. 26. What do you means by sensitivity of a MM 7 Explain. Ans.
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The resistance offered by a multimeter per volt of full scale deflection is called its sensitivity. If the fs.d. current of a multimeter is I,,,, the meter sensitivity would be

It is clear that the sensitivity indicates internal resistance (impedance) of a meter. If a meter has high sensitivity, it has high internal resistance and when connected in a circuit it will draw negligible current and measurement will be accurate. On the other hand, a low sensitivity meter (i.e. low internal resistance) will draw a larger current and due to loading effect it will not give accurate measurements. During measurements the internal impedance of the meter comes in parallel with the load. This is called loading effect. Note that internal resistance of the meter is not same in all ranges. Higher the range selected, greater is its internal resistance. Theoretically, a meter should have infinite internal resistance for giving accurate reading. We can say that higher the sensitivity (Q/V), the lesser is the loading effect. The maximum sensitivity available is 20 kQ/V. Q. 27. A multimeter has a f.s.d. current of 2 mA. Determine its sensitivity. Ans. Here 1,,, = 2 mA = 2 c i- A Meter sensitivity, I/I,,, = 1/(2 x 10-s) 500 Q per volt. Q. 28. What are merits of a MM. Ans. 1. It is of small size and is a portable instrument.
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2. It is a single instrument which can perform number of functions. 3. Due to loading effect, its measurements are not very accurate. Q. 29. Write down MM operating instructions. Ans. The proper use of MM improves its efficiency and accuracy. The following guide lines should be kept in mind: 1. To prevent overloading and possible damage, when checking voltage or current, start with the highest range and move down successively. 2. For accuracy and minimum loading, choose a voltmeter range such that voltmeter resistance (ohm per volt x full scale voltage) is at least 100 times the resistance of the circuit under test. 3. As for as possible, make all resistance reading in the uncrowded portion of the meter scale. 4. Verify the circuit polarity before making a test, particularly when measuring direct voltage and currents. 5. When checking resistance in the circuit, see that power to the circuit is switched ff, otherwise the voltage across the resistance may damage the meter. 6. Renew the MM batteries time to time to ensure accuracy of resistance measurement. 7. Recalibrate the instrument frequently. 8. Protect the instrument against dust, dirt, moisture, heat etc.. Q. 30. What are the applications of CRT? Ans. A cathode ray tube (CRT) is widely used for the study of waveform of voltage and current, and for the analysis of electrical signals. Q. 31. What is Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CR0)?
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Ans. The CR0 is an electronic device with a CRT as its heart and other associated circuits consisting of a power supply unit, a saw-tooth wave generator, horizontal and vertical amplifier. It is used to display waveforms and other applications. Q. 32. How is a CR0 superior to ordinary measuring instruments? Ans. The C.R.0 is an equipment that give graphical representation of alternating quantities under examination. In addition it can measure voltage, frequency and phase. Q. 33. What are the merits of C.R.O.? Ans. The C.R.0. gives very accurate measurements, as it is free from the errors introduced by moving parts. It is also free from damping mechanism and other inertia containing parts. Q. 34. Is there any difference between a CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) and C.R.0. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope).? State if any. Ans. The CRT is a part of CR0. Q. 35. Enlist the basic constructional features of C.R.T. Ans. It consists of 1. An evacuated or vacuum glass-tube. 2. A cathode for emitting electrons. 3. Anodes 4. Fluorescent screen. Q. 36. What is deflection sensitivity ? Ans. This is the deflection of the spot on the screen of
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a CR0 per unit deflection voltage. Q. 37. Enlist accessories used with CR0? Ans. (a) Calibrators (b) Electronic switch (c) Camera (d) Probes. Q. 38. What is a CR0 probe? Ans. It connects the circuit with CR0 without changing loading of the circuit. Q. 39. What are various focussing techniques? Ans. Two most commonly employed focussing techniques are: 1. Electrostatic focussing 2. Electromagnetic focussing. Q. 40. Give two examples where electrostatic focussing is used ? Ans. In general purpose C.R,0. and in Television camera tubes. Q. 41. How do you achieve X-shift and Y-shift. Ans. There are two commonly employed techniques for obtaining X-shift and Y-shift. They are 1. Electrostatic deflection 2. Electromagnetic deflection. Q. 42. Why do we use horizontal and vertical deflection amplifiers ? Ans. Vertical deflection amplifiers increase the amplitude of the signal so that its waveform can be
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studied very precisely. If the waveform does not fill the trace (from left to right), the horizontal deflection amplifier can be used to achieve this. Q. 43. What is a Time-Base-Signal ? Ans. A time-base-signal is one, that has a linear variation with time. Q. 44. Where do we apply a time basic signal in C.R.0? Ans. It is applied to the X-plates. Q. 45. What is the purpose of using a time basic signal in C.R.0? Ans. It makes the spot move frQm left to right & back and so on. Q. 46. How does Sync. control help in obtaining a stationary pattern? Ans. The stationary pattern is obtained only when time period of the time base signal applied is equal to time occupied by whole number of cycles of the applied input. The sync. control varies the frequency of the time base signal till the above stated condition are achieved. Q. 47. Write short notes on ECG (Electro cardio graph). Ans. The function of an electro cardio graph usually is to draw an amplitude Vs tin gap of the waveform on a ial gray j:dper. Th.; .trucardio graphs are generated by the cells of the heart.

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Q. 48. Give two examples of special oscilloscopes? Ans. 1. Storage oscilloscopes. 2 oscilloscopes. Q. 49. Enlist applications of CR0. Ans. 1. Measurement of voltages and currents. 2. Measurement of phase. 3. Measurement of frequency. 4. Comparison of two frequencies. 5. CR0 is a versatile instrument which can be used for display, measurement, waveform analysis and other phenomenon in electrical and electronic circuits. Q. 50. Enlist special scopes. Ans. (a) Sampling scope (b) Multiple beam scope (c) Double beam scope (d) Multiple trace scope (e) Impulse waveform scope (f) Scanning scope (g) Storage type scope. Q. 51. What is Deflection factor ? Ans. This is reverse of deflection sensitivity. Q. 52. What is a double-beam C.R.0? Ans. A double beam C.R.0. has got electron beams that are controlled independently. The constructional features are almost same as in the case of a singlebeam CR0.

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Q. 53. What do mean by fluorescence? Ans. it is the property by which fluorescent materials emit light when electrons are bombarded on them. Q. 54. What are the commonly used fluorescent materials? Ans. They are 1. zinc sulphate + Manganese 2. Zinc sulphate + Silver 3. Zinc sulphide + Copper. Q. 55. What is afterglow? Ans. When electrons are bombarded on a particular spot of a fluorescent material, it emits light. If the light doesnt die out immediately on removal of electron beam, the phenomenon is termed as afterglow. Q. 56. What is an oscilloscope probe ? What for it is used? Ans. Oscilloscope probe is basically a shielded cable used to connect the signal to be displayed from the source to the vertical input of the oscilloscope. A shielded cable is used to prevent the pick-up of interfering signals or hum due to hand capacitance. Q. 57. With reference to oscilloscope, what are (a) Alternate display mode (b) Chopped display mode? Ans. The above mentioned modes are used whenever it is desired to display two signals simultaneously with a single beam. The ALTERNATE mode is useful for higher frequency signals, Cl-TOPPED mode is preferred for low frequency signals.
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Q. 58. Where are storage oscilloscopes? Ans. Storage oscilloscopes are used to view transient or one shot events. They are also used to get a useful display in case of very low frequency signals. Q. 59. What is a SAMPLING OSCILLOSCOPE? Ans. Conventional oscilloscopes are limited in bandwidth to several hundred MHz. Sampling oscilloscopes have bandwidths upto typically 10 GHz. This permits the sampling oscilloscope to view signals of extremely high frequencies. Q. 60. How do you achieve focussing? Ans. Focussing is achieved by various sets of plates forming a sort of electronic lens. In general, there are three sets of plates : Voltages at anodes 1 and 2 are kept fixed while it is variable on the third anode. By varying the voltage on the third anode, the spot may be focussed. Q. 61. What is the principle of operation of a digital voltmeter. Ans. A digital voltmeter comprises of a clock generator, a circuit that converts the voltage to he measured into a pulse and a digital frequency counter. Q. 62. What are the advantages of digital meters over analog types? Ans. Numerical reading reduces human reading errors, eliminates parallax error, increases reading speed and provides outputs in digital form suitable for further processing or recording. Q. 63. What are the typical operating and
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performance characteristics of digital voltmeters ? Ans. 1. Absolute accuracy as high 0.005 percent of the reading. 2. Resolution : The V can be read on the 1 V input range. Q. 64. Name the different types of digital voltmeter (DVMs). Ans. Digital voltmeters can be classified as 1. Ramp-type DVM 2. Integrating DVM 3. Continuous balance DVM. 4. Successive approximation DVM. Q. 65. What is the use of Electronic Counter? Ans. it can measure Time interval, Time period, Frequency Ratio of two frequencies etc. Q. 66. What is a logic probe? Ans. A logic probe can test a logic circuit for High and Low states. Q. 67. What are the components used for display in digital instruments? Ans. (a) Light emmitting diodes (b) Liquid crystal displays. Q. 68. What are display devices used in digital instruments? Ans.(a) Nixte tube (h) Lucit sheet
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(c) Grid illuminated dots (SI) l3eam switching tube. Q. 69. What is a digital instrument? Ans. A digital instrument indicates the measured value in the form of decimal digits. Q. 70. What is the important equipment in digital instruments? Ans. The important equipment are Analog to Digital converter at the input and Digital to Analog converter at the output. Q. 71. What are the advantages of digital instruments over analog instruments? Ans. The digital instruments are (a) more accurate (b) error free (c) have more resolution (d) these draw negligible power. Q. 72. What is resolution of a digital instrument? Ans. This is the number of digits used in the digital instrument, if no. of digits = U, the resolution is = 1/10. Q. 73. Define sensitivity of a digital meter. Ans. Sensitivity S = R x V R = Resolution in decimal V = Lowest full scale value of the meter. Q. 74. Define sensitivity, range and error in instruments.
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Ans. 1. Sensitivity: This is the ratio of output signal to the change of input signal (or the quantity under measurement). 2. Range: The region between the limits, within which a quantity is measured, received, transmitted or expressed by stating the lower and upper limits is called Range. Such as 0-50 Amp., 50 to 500 volt etc. 3. Error : The difference between the measured value and the true value of an unknown quantity is called the error. Q. 75. Define accuracy, precision and resolution. Ans. 1. Accuracy : This is the closeness, with which the instrument reading approaches the true value of the variable under measurement. 2. Precision : This is the measure of the reproducibility of the measurements, i.e. Precision is a measure of the degree to which successive measurements differ from each other. 3. Resolution : The resolution of an instrument is the smallest change in the quantity under measurement, which can be detected by the instrument. Q. 76. Differentiate between Ammeter and Voltmeter. Ans. Table 1. Ammeter It is used to measure current It has low resistance It is connected in series in the circuit Voltmeter It is used to measure voltage It has high resistance It is connected in parallel in circuit

It carries full load current It carries a current


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proportional to the circuit voltage. Q 77. How the resistances are classified ? Ans. Resistances are classified into the following groups 1. Low Resistance: Resistance below I ohm. 2. Medium Resistance: Resistance between 1 ohm and 100 k ohm. 3. High Resistance: Resistance above 100 kQ. Q 78 What are the methods of measuring resistance? Ans. Following are the different methods of measuring resistance: 1. Low Resistance: 1. Ammeter-Voltmeter method 2. Potentiometer 3. Kelvins Double bridge 4. Ohm Meter. 1. Ammeter-voltmeter method 2. Substitution method. 3. Wheatstone bridge. 1. Price guard wire method 2. Meggar. Q. 79. Which is the most accurate and commonly used method for measurement of medium resistances? Ans. Wheatstone bridge. Q. 80. What is bridge sensitivity? Ans. It is the minimum change or alteration required under balance conditions to give full deflection in galvanometer. Smaller the change required, greater is the sensitivity.
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Q. 81. On what factors does sensitivity of Wheatstone bridge depend? Ans. It depends upon the sensitivity of detector used. More sensitive is the detector, more is the bridge sensitivity. Q. 82. What is the use of Bridges? Ans. The bridges are used for measurement of resistance, inductance, capacitance etc. This is done by balancing the bridge. Q. 83. What is a detector ? Name the devices which can be used as detectors. Ans. Detector is an instrument used in a.c. bridge to obtain null deflection under balanced condition. The common detectors used in a.c. bridges are 1. Head phones 2. Vibration galvanometer 3. Tuneable amplifier. Q. 84. What are the desirable characteristics of a detector? Ans. 1. Detector should be sensitive. 2. Detector should not damage due to over loading. 3. Detector should have short response time.

Q. 85. What are the sources of errors in Bridge measurements? Ans. Following are the sources of errors in Bridge measurements 2. Medium Resistance 3. High Resistance.: 1. Errors due to stray magnetic field.
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2. Lkage errors. 3. Eddy current errors. 4. Residual errors. 5. Frequency and waveform errors. Q. 86. What is the most commonly used type of method for measurement of inductances and capacitances? Ans. AC bridges. Q. 87. What is the difference between an DC bridge and AC bridge? Ans. The DC bridge employs real impedances (resistance) in its armsand the source of current is DC. In AC bridges, the bridge arms have resistances, capacitances, inductances etc. The supply used is AC.

Q. 88. Name the detector used in AC and DC bridges. Ans. The detector used in AC bridges is either a vibration galvanometer or head phone whereas in DC bridges, a galvanometer (D Arsonaval Type) can be used. Q. 89. What is the principle of operation of an AC bridge? Ans. It operates on principles of Wheatstone bridge. There is one additional factor: Since AC has both magnitude and phase, it is essential to have balance in magnitude as well as in phase to obtain null reading in the detector. Q. 90. Name the different methods for inductance measurement.
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Ans. Following are the methods for measuring inductance: 1. Three voltmeter method. 2. Three ammeter method. 3. Voltmeter and ammeter method. 4. Maxwells Bridge. 5. Anderson Bridge. 6. Owins Bridge. 7. Hays Bridge. Q. 91. Name the different methods of capacitance measurement. Ans. Capacitance can be measured by the following methods: 1. Do Sautys Bridge 2. Schering Bridge 3. Wien Bridge. Q. 92. Explain the limitations of Maxwells Bridge. Ans. 1. The Maxwell bridge is limited to the measurement of medium-Q coils (1 <Q < 10) 2. The Maxwell bridge is also unsuited for the measurement of coils with a very low value. Q. 93. What is RLC Bridge? Ans. This single bridge is a combination of Wheatstone Bridge, Maxwell Bridge and De Sauty Bridge. The RLC bridge can measure resistance, inductance and capacitance. Q. 94. What is RLC meter? Ans. This single instrument can measure resistance,
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inductance and capacitance. Q. 95. What is Q-factor? Ans. Q-factor stands for quality factor. It is equal to wL/ R for a coil. Higher the Q-factor, more accurate the performance of a coil. Q. 96. What is a Q-meter? Ans. The Q-meter is an equipment used to measure the Q-factor of coils and resonant circuits. Q. 97. What is the principle of operation of a Qmeter? Ans. If applied voltage is maintained at a constant and known level, a voltmeter connected across the capacitor can be calibrated directly in terms of the circuit Q. Note : More short answer questions are given at the end of the Chapter Q. 98. What is impedence of a circuit? Ans. The total opposition offered by a circuit is called impedence. It is Eombined effect of resistance, inductance capacitance. It is represented by Z. The impedence is given by

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XL = Inductive reactance of the circuit = wL, where L is the value of inductance X = Capacitive reactance of the circuit = , where C is the capacitance Q. 99. What are impedence Bridges? Ans. These are bridges used to measure impedence (resistance, inductance, capacitance of a circuit). Q. 100. Give value of Q factor for coil and capacitor. Ans. By Q-factor we mean quality factor of a coil or a capacitor. A coil or capacitor contains certain amount of resistance which is not desirable as it causes power loss. The ratio of inductive reactance of a coil (or capacitive reactance of a capacitor) to the resistance contained is called its Q-factor.

A high value of Q is always desirable as it shows less power loss. Recall that in capacitor the power loss is called as Dielectric loss. Q. 101. What is a Q-meter write in one line? Ans. This is an instrument which measures Q-factor. Q. 102. Write a list of 44sources and detectors for bridges. Ans. (a) For measurement at low frequencies (50 Hz),
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power line may act as source of supply for the bridges. For higher frequencies, electronic oscillators should be used An oscillator gives constant frequency (50 Hz 120 KHz) and power (7W), frequency can be adjusted. (b) The detectors used for bridges are (i) Head Phones : These may be used for frequencies 250 Hz to 5 kHz. They are most reliable for this frequency range. At balance condition, head phone is completely silent. (ii) Vibration Galvanometers: These may be used from 5 Hz to 200 Hz frequencies. For low frequencies they are more reliable than head phones. Sometime micrometer or CR0 is also used for this frequency range. (iii) Transistor Tuned Amplifiers : These may be used for narrow band of frequencies of 10 Hz to 100 kHz. (iv) Telephone Receiver : This is the simplest detector used in bridges. (v) Galvanometer : For d.c. bridges a simple galvanometer is used, which shows zero (null) deflection in balance condition.

Q. 103. Which device is widely used as detector in Bridges? Or Write a note on vibration galvanometer? Ans. It was found, that sensitivity of the detector used in a.c. bridges can be increased by employing principle of resonance. For this, frequency of the moving system of the galvanometer is mechanically tuned, so that its natural frequency is same as that of the if electromagnetic force causing the deflection.
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Chapter 1 : Electronic Instruments (Part 1) | ELECTRONICS MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION

The vibration galvanometer is used as detector in a.c. bridges below 300 Hz. In construction, it is almost similar to any moving coil galvanometer. The moving coil consists of a single turn of bronze or of platinum silver. This coil passes over a small pulley and is pulled tight by a spring. The coil is stretched between two bridge pieces. The moving system carries a mirror on which a light beam is thrown. The moving system (i.e. coil) vibrates, when an a.c. flows through it, and beam of light reflected from mirror throws a band of light which reduces to a spot on the scale when the bridge is balanced. The damping torque is very small and can be increased by shunting the instrument. Tuning is done by varying the distance between the bridge pieces. This changes the length of the moving coil, which is free to vibrate and this varies the natural frequency of the moving system. The fine tuning is done by changing the tension of the spring. Q. 104. Describe components of A.C. impedance Bridges.
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Chapter 1 : Electronic Instruments (Part 1) | ELECTRONICS MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION

Ans. The basic components of impedance bridges are: 1. Four arms containing impedances including the one unknown impedance. 2. The, detectors commonly used in a.c. bridges are: (a) Head phones/telephonesThey are used for frequencies from 250 Hz upto 5 kHz. (b) Vibration galvanometerThey are used for low frequencies below 200 Hz. 3. The supply sources commonly used in a.c. bridges are: (a) A.C. supply mains employing a step down transformer (h) A motor driven alternator (c) An audio/radio frequency oscillator. Q. 105. Enlist the various applications of Impedance Bridges. Ans. The following are the applications of Impedance Bridges: 2. Measurement of resistances, inductances and capacitances, 2. Measurement of loss angle, loss factor, dielectric loss in capacitors, 3. Measurement of impedances, 4. Measurement of audio frequencies, 5. In communication systems, 6. For phase shifting (phase shift oscillators). 7. For providing feedback in oscillator (Wein Bridge oscillator). 8. Filtering out undesirable signals. Q. 106. What is loading effect in instruments? Ans. When an instrument is used for measurement, its impedence comes into the circuit under test, this changes the real value of the quantity under measurement. This is called Loading Effect. This takes
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Chapter 1 : Electronic Instruments (Part 1) | ELECTRONICS MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION

place in all stages of measurement. Q. 107. Write specifications of Electronic Voltmeter. Ans. Table 2. Specifications of Electronic Voltmeter AC/DC voltage range Input Impedance Accuracy Resistance range DC current range 0 to 500 V 10 M for DC 1.5 M for AC 1.3% for DC 1.5% for AC Up to 1000 M From zero to 200 mA.

Q. 108. What are probes in C.R.O? Ans. C.R.O. Probes: The CR0 probes are the means that connect a test circuit to the C.R.0., without altering loading or disturbing the circuit. These are of the following types 1 Direct Probe : It is the simplest probe and uses a shielded co-axial cable. It i used for low frequency circuit. 2. Isolation Probe : This probe is made by placing a carbon resistor in series with the test load. The probe removes the undesired effects of the direct probe. 3. Current Probe : This probe can be clamped around a wire carrying current without any physical contact to the probe, allowing the C.R.0. to be used upto 50 MHz. Q. 109. Name the instruments used for testing electronic devices. Ans. The instruments used for testing electronic devices are: 1. CR0
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Chapter 1 : Electronic Instruments (Part 1) | ELECTRONICS MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION

2. Multimeter 3. Signal Generator 4. V.T.V.M. 5. Function Generator 6. Power supply 7. LCR meter 8. Distortion meter 9. Frequency counter 10. Q-meter. Q. 110. Write about different torques required for indicating instruments. Ans. For operations of indicating instruments, three torques are required. (i) Deflecting torqueThis deflects the moving system from its rest position. (ii) Controlling torqueIt controls the movements of the moving system. The pointer stops when deflecting and controlling torques are equal. (iii) Damping torqueThis torque does not allow unnecessary oscillations of the pointer before coming to rest. Q. 111. Enlist, various types of ac voltmeters. Ans. Types of AC voltmeters. We have the following types of voltmeters: 1. Average reading voltmeter. 2. Peak reading voltmeter. 3. True rms reading voltmeter. 4. Sampling voltmeter. Q. 112. Write about RF probe. Ans. RF Probe : The type of measurement made by RF milli-voitmeter depends upon the type of probe used. Voltage measurements are made with a probe
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Chapter 1 : Electronic Instruments (Part 1) | ELECTRONICS MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION

shown in (Fig. 8). The measurement is made with a relatively high impedance.

Q. 113. Explain a Balanced Bridge V.T.V.M. (Electronic Voltmeter). Ans. (a) It is also called a vacuum tube multimeter. It is multimeter using vacuum tubes and can measure voltage, current and resistance, but popularly it is used to measure voltage (D.C.). The V.T.V.M. has internal impedance in megaohms (as it uses vacuum triodes) and does not load the circuit under measurement, but it needs a supply voltage for its operation. Moreover, it is costlier and also takes warm up time to start. (b) Construction (Fig. 9) The V.T.V.M. is basically a moving coil meter, plus two vacuum triodes (exactly identical) and an external power supply. The moving coil voltmeter (V) is connected across the anodes. The voltage to be measured is fed to the grid of either of the triodes. A variable resistance r is used for zero adjustment.

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(c) Operation: When the instrument is switched on to the supply, it start warming up i.e., the cathodes heat up to the temperature at which they start emitting electrons and then the instrument starts operation. This is an important precaution while using a V.T.V.M. that it should be switched ON well in advance. When no voltage is applied at the grid, both the triodes act as diodes and as both are similar, anode current is same and potential difference between A and B is zero. Therefore, no current flows through meter and the meter reads zero. Ideally, at this position the meter should read ZERO, however, as the diodes cannot be exactly similar (Two things of even the same kind in this universe cannot be exactly similar.), and due to some difference in the characteristics of the two triodes some current may flow through the meter. If this happens, the pointer of V.T.V.M. may be brought to Zero by Zero Adjuster. Now the voltage to be measured is connected at the grid of either of the triodes (say T1) across CD. Now the grid of T1 will be more negative, thus the plate current of T1 will change and also the potential at point A.
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Thus a potential difference is established between A and B, a current flows thought the meter, which gives direct value of the input voltage.

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