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Produccion 1 Terminacion de pozos

En la produccion de petroleo terminacion de pozo es el proceso de alistar el pozo par produccion. Este principalmente envuelve preparar el fondo de pozo a especificaciones requeridas, bajar la tuberia de produccion y las herramientas asociadas(down hole tools) asi como la perforacion y estimulacion si es requerida. Algunas veces el proceso de corrida (running in) y cementacion de cañeria es incluido.

Terminacion inferior (Lower completion)

Esto se refiere a la parte del pozo frente a la zon de produccion o inyeccion. El diseñador de pozo (well designer) tiene muchas herramientas y opciones disponibles para diseñar la terminacion inferior deacuerdo con las condiciones de reservorio. Tipicamente, la terminacion inferior es asentada frente a la zona productiva usando un sistema de colgador de liner( liner hanger system) que une la terminacon inferior al arreglo de cañeria de produccion. A continuacion se lista los tipos de terminacion.

Teminacion en agujero abierto (Barefoot completion)

Este tipo de terminacion es el mas basico, pero puedeser una buena opcion para formaciones duras , perforaciones multilaterales y bajo balance(multi-laterals and underbalance drilling). Esta envuelve dejar el resrvorio productivo sin tubulares. Esta remueve efectivamente el contrl de flujo d fluidos de la formacion; no es recomendable para formaciones debiles donde se podria equerir control de arena, ni para formaciones que requieran aislamiento selectivo de intervalos de petroleo, gas y agua. Sin embargo, avances en intervenciones como ser coiled tubing hacen que los pozos con terminaciones en agujero abierto puedan ser exitosamente producidos.

Agujero Abierto (Open Hole)

La cañera de produccion es asentada por encima de la zona de interes antes de perforar la zona. La zona esta abierta al pozo. En este caso poco gasto es generado con interpretaciones de registro de perforacion ( perforations log interpretation) no criticas. El ozo puede ser facilmente profundizado y facilmente inplementado con screen and liner. Sin embargo, la produccion excesiva de gas y agua es dificil de controlar, y puede requerir frecuente limpieza. Tambien los intervalos no pueden ser estimulados selectivamente.

Terminacion en agujeo abierto (Open hole completion)

Esta desigancion se refiere a un rango de terminaciones donde ningun casing o liner es cementado frente a la zona de produccion. En formaciones competentes la zona podria estar enteramente descubierta, pero usualmente algunos metodos de control de arena y control de flujo son incorporados.

Terminaciones en agujero abierto ofrecen muchas configuraciones de vez en cuando rimientos puestas en practica para

Terminaciones en agujero abierto ofrecen muchas configuraciones de vez en cuando rimientos puestas en practica para lidiar con especificos desafios del reservorio. Muchos descubrimientos han promovido el uso de terminaciones en agujero abierto y las mismas se estan volviendo populares en pozos horizontales, donde instalaciones cementadas son mas caras y tecnicamente mas dificiles de inplementar. Las opciones mas comunes de este tipo de terminacion son:

Pre-holed liner

Tambien llamada pre-drilled liner. El liner es preparado con multiples pequeños agujeros perforados, luego asentados frente a la zona de produccion para proveer estabilidad al pozo y un conducto de intervencion. El Pre-holed liner es de vez en cuando combinad con packers, como ser swelling elastomers, mechanical packers o external casing packers, para proveer segregacion y aislamiento de la zona. No es muy comun ver una combinacion de pre-holed liner, solid liner and swelling elastomer packers para proveer un aislamiento inicial de zonas indeseadas de gas y de agua. Multiples camizas deslizantes pueden ser usadas en conjunto con openhole packers para dar flexibilidad considerable en zona de control de flujo para la vida del pozo.

Este tipo de terminacion esta tambien siendo adoptda en algunos pozos de inyeccion de agua, aunque estas requieren una mayor participacion de los openhole packers, debido a los considerables cambios de presion y de temperatura que ocurren en inyectores de agua.

Openhole completions (in comparison with cemented pipe) requiere mejor entendimiento del daño de formacion, limpieza de pozo y control de perdida de fluido. Una diferencia fundamental es que la perforacin penetra las primeras 6-18 pugadas (15-45 cm) de formacion alrededor del pozo, mientras las terminaciones de pozo en agujero abierto requieren que los fluidos de reservorio fluyan a raves de la zona filtrada invadida alreddor del pozo y levante el filtro de la torta de lodo (mud filter cake).

Muchas terminaciones en agujero abierto incorporaran valvulas para perdida de fluido en el tope del liner para proveer control de pozo mientras la trminacion superior es corrida.

Hay un numero de opciones para OPC por ejemplo, electronica puede ser usada para que las valvulas del liner se abran o cierren por si mismas. Esto puede ser usado en OPC para mejorar la limpeza by bringing the well onto production from the toe-end for 100 days, then self-opening the heel-end. Inflow control devices and intelligent completions are also installed as openhole completions.

Pre-holed liner puede proveer algun control basico de produccion de fluidos solidos, donde el pozo puede fallar debido a escombros pero esto no es tipicamente considerado como una terminacion con control de arena.

Muchas terminaciones en agujero abierto incorporaran valvulas para perdida de fluido en el tope del liner

Slotted liner

Slotted liners puede serseleccionado como una alternativa al pre-holed liner, algunas veces como una preferencia personal o de practica establecida en un campo. Tambien puede ser seleccionado

para proveer un control de costo bajo de produccion de solidos y arena. El slotted liner is maquinado con ranuras multiples longitudinales, por ejemplo 2 mm x 50mm, extendido en frente de

la longitud y cirunferencia de cada junta. Recientes avances en corte con laser significado que

las

ranuras pueden ser hechas a un menor costo y con un ancho de ranuras menor y en algunos casos

slotted liner es ahora usado para la misma funcion que un sand control screens.

Muchas terminaciones en agujero abierto incorporaran valvulas para perdida de fluido en el tope del liner

Control de arena en agujero abierto (Openhole sand control)

Este es seleccionado donde es requerido que el liner contenga mecanicamente el movimiento de arena de formacion. Hay muchas variantes en control de arena en agujero abierto, las 3 elecciones populares son: stand-alone screens, openhole gravel packs (conocidas tambien como external gravel packs, where a sized sand 'gravel' is placed as an annulus around the sand control screen) y expandable screens. Screen designs are mainly wire-wrap or premium; wire-wrap screens use spiral-welded corrosion-resistant wire wrapped around a drilled basepipe to provide a consistent small helical gap (such as 0.012-inch (0.30 mm), termed 12 gauge). Premium screens use a woven metal cloth wrapped around a basepipe. Expandable screens are run to depth before being mechanically swaged to a larger diameter. Idealmente, expandable screens will be swaged until they contact the wellbore wall.

Horizontal open hole completions

Esta es la mas comun terminacion en agujero abierto usada hoy en dia. Esta es basicamente la misma descrita en terminacion en agujero abierto vertical pero en un pozo horizontal, esto alarga significativamente el contacto con el reservorio, incrementando los porcentajes de produccion o inyeccion del pozo. Control de arena en un pozo horizontal es completamente diferente a un pozo vertical.No se puede confiar solo en la gravedad para el desplazamiento de grava. Muchas compañias usan un alpha and beta wave design para cubrir la longitud total del pozo horizontal con grava. Se sabe que los pozos muy largos (alrededor de 6000ft) son exitosamente empaquetados con grava en muchas ocasiones, incluyendo reservorios de agua profunda en Brasil.

Terminaciones con liner (Liner Completions)

En este caso, la cañeria es asentada por encima de la zona primaria. An un-cemented screen and liner assembly is installed across the pay section. Esta tecnica minimiza el daño a la formacion y da la posibilidad de controlar la arena. Tambien hace la limpieza facil. El costo de la perforacion es bajo tambien. Sin embargo, la restitucion de presion de gas y agua es dificil de controlar y no es posible la estimulacion selectiva, el pozo no puede ser facilmente profundizado y tiempo adicional en plataforma puede ser necesitado.

Liner Perforado (Perforated Liner)

La cañeria es asentada por encima de la zona de produccion, la zona es perforada y la cañeria del liner es cementada. El liner es entonces perforado para produccion. Se incurre en un gasto por el tiempo adicional que se toma en perforar la cañeria, tabien la interpretacion de egistro es critica y puede ser dificil obtener cementaciones de buena calidad.

Perforated Casing

La cañeria de produccion es cementada a traves de la zona y la seccion de interes es selectivamente perforada. El gas y el agua son facilmente controlados como la arena. La formacion puede ser estimulada selectivamente y el pozo puede ser profundizado. Esta seleccion es adaptable a otras configuraciones de terminacion y registros estan disponibles para asistir en las decisiones de cañeria. Esto sin embargo puede causar daño a zonas y necesita una buena interpretacion. El costo de perforacion puede ser muy alto.

Terminacion en agujero entubado (Cased hole completion)

This involves running casing or a liner down through the production zone, and cementing it in place. Connection between the well bore and the formation is made by perforating. Because

perforation intervals can be precisely positioned, this type of completion affords good control of fluid flow, although it relies on the quality of the cement to prevent fluid flow behind the liner. As such it is the most common form of completion ...

Conventional completions

Casing flow: means that the producing fluid flow has only one path to the surface through

the casing. Casing and tubing flow: means that the there is tubing within the casing that allows fluid to

reach the surface. This tubing can be used as a kill string for chemical injection. The tubing may have a “no-go” nipple at the end as a means of pressure testing. Pumping flow: the tubing and pump are run to a depth beneath the working fluid. The pump

and rod string are installed concentrically within the tubing. A tubing anchor prevents tubing movement while pumping. Tubing flow: a tubing string and a production packer are installed. The packer means that all

the flow goes through the tubing. Within the tubing you can mount a combination of tools that will help to control fluid flow through the tubing. Gas lift well: gas is fed into valves installed in mandrels in the tubing strip. The hydrostatic

head is lowered and the fluid is gas lifted to the surface. Single-well alternate completions: in this instance there is a well with two zones. In order to

produce from both the zones are isolated with packers. Blast joints may be used on the tubing within the region of the perforations. These are thick walled subs that can withstand the fluid abrasion from the producing zone. This arrangement can also work if you have to produce from a higher zone given the depletion of a lower zone. The tubing may also have flow control mechanism. Single-well concentric kill string: within the well a small diameter concentric kill string is

used to circulate kill fluids when needed. Single-well 2-tubing completion: in this instance 2 tubing strings are inserted down 1 well. They are connected at the lower end by a circulating head. Chemicals can be circulated down one tube and production can continue up the other.

Completion components

The upper completion refers to all components from the bottom of the production tubing upwards. Proper design of this "completion string" is essential to ensure the well can flow properly given the reservoir conditions and to permit any operations as are deemed necessary for enhancing production and safety.

Wellhead

Main article: Wellhead

This is the pressure containing equipment at the surface of the well where casing strings are suspended and the blowout preventer or Christmas tree is connected.

Christmas Tree

This is the main assembly of valves that controls flow from the well to the process plant (or the other way round for injection wells) and allows access for chemical squeezes[clarification needed (definition)] and well interventions.

Tubing hanger

Main article: Tubing hanger

This is the component, which sits on top of the wellhead and serves as the main support for the production tubing.

Production tubing

Main article: Production tubing

Production tubing is the main conduit for transporting hydrocarbons from the reservoir to surface (or injection material the other way). It runs from the tubing hanger at the top of the wellhead down to a point generally just above the top of the production zone.

Downhole safety valve (DHSV)

Main article: Downhole safety valve

This component is intended as a last-resort method of protecting the surface from the uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons. It is a cylindrical valve with either a ball or flapper closing mechanism. It is installed in the production tubing and is held in the open position by a high-pressure hydraulic line from surface contained in a 6.35 mm (1/4") control line that is attached to the DHSV's hydraulic chamber and terminated at surface to an hydraulic actuator. The high pressure is needed to overcome the production pressure in the tubing upstream of the choke on the tree. The valve will operate if the umbilical HP line is cut or the wellhead/tree is destroyed.

This valve allows fluids to pass up or be pumped down the production tubing. When closed the DHSV forms a barrier in the direction of hydrocarbon flow, but fluids can still be pumped down for well kill operations. It is placed as far below the surface as is deemed safe from any possible surface disturbance including cratering caused by the wipeout of the platform. Where hydrates are likely to form (most production is at risk of this), the depth of the SCSSV (surface-controlled, sub-surface safety valve) below the seabed may be as much as 1 km: this will allow for the geothermal temperature to be high enough to prevent hydrates from blocking the valve.

Annular safety valve

On wells with gas lift capability, many operators consider it prudent to install a valve, which will isolate the A annulus for the same reasons a DHSV may be needed to isolate the production tubing in order to prevent the inventory of natural gas downhole from becoming a hazard as it became on Piper Alpha.

Side pocket mandrel

This is a welded/machined product which contains a "side pocket" alongside the main tubular conduit. The side pocket, typically 1" or 1½" diameter is designed to contain gas lift valve, which allows hydrocarbon gas from the A annulus to be injected into the flow stream.

Electrical submersible pump

Main article: Submersible pump

This device is used for artificial lift to help provide energy to drive hydrocarbons to surface if reservoir pressure is insufficient.

Artificial Lift - Baker Hughes Last accessed 20-Jun-2011

Landing nipple

A completion component fabricated as a short section of heavy wall tubular with a machined internal surface that provides a seal area and a locking profile. Landing nipples are included in most completions at predetermined intervals to enable the installation of flow-control devices, such as plugs and chokes. Three basic types of landing nipple are commonly used: no-go nipples, selective- landing nipples and ported or safety-valve nipples.

Sliding sleeve

Main article: Sliding sleeve

The sliding sleeve is hydraulically or mechanically actuated to allow communication between the tubing and the 'A' annulus. They are often used in multiple reservoir wells to regulate flow to and from the zones.

Production packer

Main article: Production packer

The packer isolates the annulus between the tubing and the inner casing and the foot of the well. This is to stop reservoir fluids from flowing up the full length of the casing and damaging it. It is generally placed close to the foot of the tubing, shortly above the production zone.

Downhole gauges

This is an electronic or fiberoptic sensor to provide continuous monitoring of downhole pressure and temperature. Gauges either use a 1/4" control line clamped onto the outside of the tubing string to provide an electrical or fiberoptic communication to surface, or transmit measured data to surface by acoustic signal in the tubing wall.

Perforated joint

This is a length of tubing with holes punched into it. If used, it will normally be positioned below the packer and will offer an alternative entry path for reservoir fluids into the tubing in case the shoe becomes blocked, for example, by a stuck perforation gun.

Formation isolation valve

This component, placed towards the foot of the completion string, is used to provide two way isolation from the formation for completion operations without the need for kill weight fluids. Their use is sporadic as they do not enjoy the best reputation for reliability when it comes to opening them at the end of the completion process.

Centralizer

In highly deviated wells, this components may be included towards the foot of the completion. It consists of a large collar, which keeps the completion string centralised within the hole.

Wireline entry guide

This component is often installed at the end of the tubing, or "the shoe". It is intended to make pulling out wireline tools easier by offering a guiding surface for the toolstring to re-enter the tubing without getting caught on the side of the shoe.

Schlumberger WEG (pdf) Last accessed: 15-Jun-2011

Perforating and stimulating

In cased hole completions (the majority of wells), once the completion string is in place, the final stage is to make a connection between the wellbore and the formation. This is done by running perforation guns to blast holes in the casing or liner to make a connection. Modern perforations are made using shaped explosive charges, similar to the armor-penetrating charge used on antitank rockets (bazookas).

Sometimes once the well is fully completed, further stimulation is necessary to achieve the planned productivity. There are a number of stimulation techniques.

Acidizing

This involves the injection of chemicals to eat away at any skin damage, "cleaning up" the formation, thereby improving the flow of reservoir fluids. Acid can also be used to clean the wellbore of some scales that form from mineral laden produced water.

Fracturing

This means creating and extending fractures from the perforation tunnels deeper into the formation, increasing the surface area for formation fluids to flow into the well, as well as extending past any possible damage near the wellbore. This may be done by injecting fluids at high pressure (hydraulic fracturing), injecting fluids laced with round granular material (proppant fracturing), or using explosives to generate a high pressure and high speed gas flow (TNT or PETN up to 1,900,000 psi (13,000,000 kPa) ) and (propellant stimulation up to 4,000 psi (28,000 kPa) ).

Acidising and fracturing (combined method)

This involves use of explosives and injection of chemicals to increase acid-rock contact.

Nitrogen circulation

Sometimes, productivity may be hampered due to the residue of completion fluids, heavy brines, in the wellbore. This is particularly a problem in gas wells. In these cases, coiled tubing may be used to pump nitrogen at high pressure into the bottom of the borehole to circulate out the brine.