Toward a Sephardic Haplogroup Profile in the New World

Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman Department of Marketing School of Business Rutgers University New Brunswick, NJ 08903 hirschma@rbs.rutgers.edu Donald Panther-Yates DNA Consulting 1274 Calle de Comercio Santa Fe, NM 87507 dpy@dnaconsultants.com

INTRODUCTION

Sephardic Jews are defined as those living on the Iberian Peninsula prior to 1492, when the Edict of Expulsion was signed by their Most Catholic Majesties of a united Spain, King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile and Leon. Estimates of the number of Jews who went into voluntary or involuntary exile range from 100,000 to 300,000, depending on the source used,1 but this does not really account for the larger segment of the population that had earlier converted, at least outwardly, to Catholicism. In 1391, in response to violent anti-Jewish riots across Spain, an estimated 200,000 took this expediency.2 Perhaps the majority of these continued to practice Judaism in secret, becoming Crypto-Jews. An equal number is believed to have converted superficially in 1492, after the introduction of the Inquisition, and were henceforth known as New Christians, Conversos or Marranos. Factoring in population growth, this would bring the total number of former Jews living in Spain and Portugal to around 500,000 by the early 1500s. Unlike the 1492 edict, which allowed nonconverting Jews to go into exile abroad, subsequent laws and regulations forbad conversos to leave the country, for it was feared they might go to other Catholic countries where they would return to the open practice of Judaism. They were also barred from emigrating to the New World. The Sephardim who left Spain, either as Jews or Crypto-Jews, spread throughout the Mediterranean, venturing as far as the Balkans and Ottoman Empire in the East, and Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, North Africa, the Balearic Islands, Azores, Madeira, Canaries, France, Belgium, Germany, Alsace, Low Countries, and Britain in the West. Some fled as far as India, Indonesia, Ceylon and China.3 In all these places, the Sephardim generally prospered, becoming plantation owners, merchants, international traders and bankers, as well as craftsmen, shop owners, and

peddlers.4 Wherever they settled, they also tended to practice endogamy (in-group marriage), striving to preserve both their genetic heritage and their religious traditions.5 What were the origins of the Sephardic Jews? Where and when did they form into a coherent community? Most historians believe that a small contingent of Hebrews from ancient Judea made its way to the Iberian Peninsula by the time of the rise of Rome, while others hold the nucleus of Sepharad may have arrived as early as the building of the Second Temple in the sixth century BCE.6 Wexler7 has proposed that the majority of Sephardic Jews were of North African Berber origin and converted to Judaism sometime before the 711 CE invasion of the Iberian Peninsula by the Muslims. Hirschman and Yates have sought to demonstrate that the majority of Sephardic Jews came into existence with a large-scale conversion event in southern France circa 750-900 CE. The latter proselytizing movement, they propose, was centered on the establishment of a prominent Talmudic academy in Narbonne.8 Supporting this latter-day conversion of Frankish, Burgundian and Languedoc populations to Judaism is the research of Gerber showing that many Sephardic Jews believed themselves to be descendants of King David of Israel. 9 This belief was evidently fostered by the Babylonian Jews who founded the Narbonne academy. As Gerber states, ―The Sephardim believed themselves to be descendants of Judean royalty, tracing their lineage back to King David.‖10 According to these researchers, it was the Master of the Narbonne yeshiva, Machir ben Habibai, ostensibly of Davidic descent himself, also known as Theodoric, count of Septimania, who introduced this tradition when he arrived in 771 CE.11 Thus when these western Europeans converted to Judaism, they saw themselves as adoptive heirs of the ―House of David.‖ In a few

If historical Jews have gone through bottlenecks and disintegration.generations this mythic lineage became remembered as a hereditary claim founded on blood and genealogy. during which conversion to Judaism was . especially Astarte/Ashtoreth. high priests of the Temple. the consort of the most powerful Canaanite god. it is just a matter of when they converted. Baal. they have also experienced periods of triumphal expansion and efflorescence. Contemporary Judaic scholars acknowledge that the monotheistic. we are perhaps better advised to approach Judaism as a multi-ethnic religion that has survived the cataclysms of history by constantly reinventing and reconstituting itself. unbroken link to the first rabbis. or patriarchs. It is also worth pointing out that not even the most concerted genealogical studies have been able to establish a direct.12 It was the rule rather than the exception among various groups of early Jews to backslide into the worship of pagan deities. A Brief Genetic History of the Jews In a sense. We also attempt to come to some general conclusions about the original genetic profile of Sephardic Jews and to address the question of whether the majority came from Palestine. endogamous Hebrews of the Bible are largely mythic constructions used to create cosmological coherence and a nationalistic concept of ―peoplehood‖ across a very diverse landscape of tribes and ethnic groups in the ancient Middle East. and was passed forward as truth.13 Instead of using a model of predestined continuity built around a core of founding fathers and mothers. all Jews are converts or descendants of converts. The purpose of this paper is to examine the population structure of colonies of Sephardic Jews in the New World by using the data from a number of recent country-specific DNA projects. North Africa or Western Europe.

17 Such ethnic theories have been embraced by Palestinian Arab leaders as much as they have been ferociously denied by Israeli statesmen and academicians. who have been much more extensively studied than the Sephardim. .14 Furthermore. the majority of the Jewish population in Eastern Europe had its genetic roots in Central Asia. But let us take a dispassionate look at the following population frequency tables. Jews consisted of several varied social classes. This was also the explosive thesis of Arthur Koestler. reading and writing in Koiné Greek rather than Hebrew. aristocratic and commoner lineages. was another. The Roman world was one such golden age. in Ashkenazic Jews: A Slavo-Turkic People in Search of a Jewish Identity. royal. we propose. and wavering degrees of commitment to monotheism and the Mosaic law. speaking. and medieval Spain.widespread. and even adopting Greek customs such as social bathing and visiting pagan temples.15 Ashkenazic Jewish Ancestry Let us first consider the genetic ancestry of the Ashkenazi Jews. taking on Greek names. Wexler. who proposed that the convert Khazars who ruled between the Caucasus and the Volga contributed the principal component to Ashkenaz.16 argues that while a few founder lines of the modern Ashkenazic branch of Judaism were from the Middle East. many had become Hellenized long before the Diaspora. Even at the time of the Roman-instigated dispersal from Palestine.

5 10. 50 Poles.4 30.18 Ashkenazi Jews Mutation/ Hg M35 E3b M78 ―Balkan‖ E3b1 M81 ―Berber‖ E3b2 E – Total M201 G P15 G2 G – Total P19 I 12f2 – J*.1 5.6 0.7 7.3 2.‘s 2004 comparison of Ashkenazi Jews with ―European non-Jewish populations.‖ consisting of 64 French.2 0.4 1.1 2.0 6. J1 M172 – J2 J – Total M9 K P36 Q M17 – R1a1 P25 – R1b Frequency % 16.7 0.7 4. 2004). The study highlights four presumably .3 26. 56 Hungarians.Table 1.7 2.0 5. 54 Romanians and 59 Russians.9 19.6 2.0 38.0 2.0 Number 71 12 4 87 33 9 42 18 84 84 168 9 23 33 44 Non-Jewish Europeans Frequency 1.7 Number 4 18 -22 1 9 10 67 4 18 22 2 1 91 96 Table 1 is based on the data in Behar et al. 34 Germans and 31 Austrians. Haplogroup Frequencies for Ashkenazi and European Non-Jewish Populations (source: Behar et al.0 9.1 0.2 7.0 7.1 19.9 20.3 0.1 6.0 19.

we need the Behar R1a cite here). and wherever it is found it can be assumed to be indicative. Mediterranean. J2=19%. we can view the distribution of Haplotype E within several European. strictly speaking. of Sephardic ancestry. Here we see that Ashkenazi Jews have a total E (presumably all E3b. . not Ashkenazic (for example. In Table 2. E=19. none is subclade 81 (―Berber‖) which reaches its highest levels among the Berbers of North Africa. R1a1. But a comparison of Ashkenazi haplogroup E (to single out one common Ashkenazi haplogroup) with a different set of populations gives us a substantially altered perspective. has been found characteristic of Ashkenazi Jews (Don. the absence of Berber lineages would appear to be diagnostic of Ashkenazi Jews. of which 11. Thus. Such non-overlapping and mutually exclusive haplogroups can help us distinguish between the two Jewish populations. taken from the study by Semino et al (2004). the four instances in Behar‘s data set). while practically non-existent in Sephardic populations.7% is subclade 123 and 5.2% is subclade 78 (―Balkan‖).2%.7% and G=9. none E3a) of 18.7% and argues that the Ashkenazic population is more Middle Eastern than the surrounding ‗host‘ populations. By the same token another haplogroup.Central Asian and Middle Eastern lineages reflected in the present-day Ashkenazi male population: J* and J1=19%. North African and Middle Eastern populations (subSaharan populations and certain others are omitted in our summary).

Table 2.9 3. % M35 M123 M78 “Balkan” M81 “Berber” Arab Morocco (49) Arab Morocco (44) Berber Morocco Berber North Central Morocco Berber Southern Morocco Saharawish (North Africa) Algerian Tunisian Mali Burkina Faso Sudan Ethiopia Oromo Ethiopia Amhara Iraqi Lebanese Ashkenazi Jewish Sephardi Jewish 37 75.9 11.5 11.1 2.6 29.9 7.5 5.9 5.4 5.1 65.0 14 18.0 0.5 11.2 19.2 7.5 17.7 21 65.0 8 19.1 2.0 75.6 32 55.2 12.5 32.9 1.3 42.9 5.355 68.1 5.7 65.5 24 82.4 10.8 4.9 6.0 .4 3.1 105 99.2 10.5 2.6 12.7 10.2 12 30.3 35 87.4 5.1 27.5 53.7 55 85.3 2. Population Frequencies of Haplogroup E and Selected E3b Subclades (source: Semino et al.8 1. 2004).8 20 9.5 35.3 15.1 12 30.9 55 87.19 Four Major Subclades Population No.6 52.1 3.5 32 72.0 62 79.5 22 45.2 37 84.0 2.9 22.

8 18.6 1.8 11 25.2 1.5 4.9 15 27.0 5.2 2.Turkish Istanbul Turkish Konya Northern Greek (Macedonia) Greek Albanian Croatian Hungarian Ukrainian Polish Italian North Central Italian Calabria 1 Italian Calabria 2 Italian Apulia Italian Sicily Italian Sardinia Dutch French Bearnais French Basque Spanish Basque Catalan Andalusian (76) Andalusian (37) 6 13.7 2.0 7.7 5.0 10.5 3.7 1.5 16 23.0 0.6 4.1 6.4 16.3 3.3 1.0 2.0 3.0 17 14.5 2.3 7 0 1 0 1 2 7 5.5 12 20.9 2.6 12.1 9.2 2.9 1.4 4 10.7 2.5 7.0 5 5 8 4 8.5 13.7 0.7 2.4 8.9 11.7 .0 3.6 21.4 8.2 1.1 7.1 3.7 12.0 2.5 12 13.8 1.8 9.3 20 23.7 1.3 5.3 5.7 3.7 6 10.3 5.9 1.7 18 22.5 0.4 25.0 2.

and Middle Eastern.5%. We believe this may indicate that Ashkenazi Jews who carry the E-123 subclade converted to Judaism in or around Calabria.2% within the Calabrian sample.5%. 12. where Latin was the main language. as opposed to other regions of Roman Italy. 21. 18. 12.5%. Historians note that Jews settled in all these cities from the earliest times. which reaches 11. Greek. North African. 12. Calabria and the adjoining province of Apulia were Greek-speaking.2% for E-123 and E-78 (―Balkan. Bari and Brindisi. Sephardic Jews. 11. Ethiopia Oromo. Lebanese.8%. the latter two were the main points of embarkation across the narrow straits of the Adriatic to Greece.‖ E3b1). 15. E-123.From the Semino study we also learn that the E haplogroup distribution closest to that observed in Ashkenazic Jews is found in the Calabria. but is 13. 35. Italian Calabria (sample 1). 25%. southern Morocco Berbers.6%. Turkish Konya. perhaps in response to proselytizing efforts there by a community of post-Diaspora Judeans. Sudanese. it is Southern Italy that emerges as the most likely source for Ashkenazi E in general.9% compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish 11. The ―toe‖ and ―heel‖ of the Italian boot were favorite sites to plant colonies for both the Greeks and the Canaanite Phoenicians who preceded them. In fact. samples.9%. Italian Sicily 11.2% and 5.7% in Ashkenazi Jews. with 13. 16. 22. the chief Italian seaport for trade with the Eastern Mediterranean. respectively.3%. Italy sample (n=68). 12. and Albanian. 42.5%. Indeed.4%. Ethiopia Amhara. Italian Sardinia.9%. 17. Conversely. Northern Greek. if we consider all forms of E in Europe (excluding Africa).6%. Tunisians. is virtually absent from the East African.7%.9%. several non-Jewish populations have higher levels of E78 (―Balkan‖) than Ashkenazi Jews: Morocco Arabs (sample 1). Importantly. Jewish communities were so prominent under the Romans that many . Major cities were Pozzuoli.9%.7% and 5.

.4 and 11. while in Albania it is 19. Italians from Calabria are 22. 22.7. Turkish Konya (31.8% may be grouped with the Tunisians (34.8% and 20.8 and 38.4.5. When combined J haplogroups are considered. Population Frequencies of J2 and J/J1 in Selected Populations (source: Semino et al. Tunisians 30.0%) and Algerians (35. and in Greece the figure for J2 is 20.6. Algerians 35.2% and Calabrian samples. Georgians (33. The Lebanese are 25% and 10%.1. with Ashkenazi Jews having 23. while North Central Italy has 26.8 and 20. the Ashkenazi Jews at 37. the Konya Turks are at 27. Palestinian Arabs (55. Table 3.0%) of North Africa.4 and 28.2% J-M172 (J2).7. and Bedouins 62. ―Out of Bari goeth forth the law. and the word of God from Taranto [another Calabrian city]. several other non-Jewish populations carry similar or higher percentages. However. For J2. respectively. Georgians at 26. Judaic academies flourished in southern Italy from antiquity into Byzantine and Arab times. the Iraqi percentages are 22. shows Ashkenazi Jews with a total of 23.4%). Muslim Kurds are 28. For instance. Palestinian Arabs are 16.0%.3%). there also are several populations substantially higher than the Ashkenazic Jews: North African Saharan 17. Table 3.laws singled them out.1.9. and as already mentioned.0.3. and Apulia Italians (31.‖ 20 The centrality of Apulia and Calabria to Ashkenazi origins is echoed by the presence of a virtually identical matching profile for J-M172.6%).0. Balkarians at 25. 2004). and in the Middle Ages there was even a proverb. In Central Asia.6% J-M267 ( J/J1).8%). They rank below the Muslim Kurds (40%).2%) and Bedouins (65. Italians from Apulia are at 29. also taken from the Semino study. For J-M267 (J/J1). and 14. Ethiopians 33.2.6.6.2.0.

2 65.0 4.4 Arab Morocco (49) Arab Morocco (44) Berber Morocco (64) Berber Morocco (103) Saharan (North Africa) Algerian Tunisian Ethiopia Oromo Ethiopia Amhara Iraqi Lebanese Muslim Kurd Palestinian Arab Bedouin Ashkenazi Jewish Sephardi Jewish Turkish Istanbul Turkish Konya Georgian Balkarian (so.0 34.9 6.3 25. J M172 M267 J2 10.8 30.6 38.1 22.5 24.Population No.2 2.6 33.0 11.7 17.3 J/J1 10.3 2.3 2. Caucasus) Northern Greek (Macedonia) 20 7 4 11 5 7 25 3 17 79 15 38 79 21 31 17 18 41 15 4 8 20.6 37.1 1.8 33.0 12.8 40.1 4.6 37.6 11.3 .5 3.8 27.6 6.5 1.2 28.7 25.9 26.4 16.1 23.5 40.0 59.4 25.9 7.2 10.2 13.1 2.4 62.5 50.2 3.7 31.6 17. % Tot.2 35.4 15.3 28.5 14.8 3.8 34.8 17.0 14.0 28.9 5.3 10.2 35.

1 7.8 26.8 20.8 7. but this was long before the birth of Judaism .6 8.1 16. The first is that levels of haplogroups E and J are elevated in present day Italy. Central Asia.9 9.8 12.1 2. A second explanation could be the spread of J2 from the Middle East into the circumMediterranean region about 10.7 9.0 7.3 7.9 11.5 15.5 0.6 3. Greece and the Balkans.8 2.7 2.4 23.Greek Italian North Central Italian Calabria 1 Italian Calabria 2 Italian Apulia Italian Sicily Italian Sardinia Dutch French Bearnais Spanish Basque French Basque Catalan Andalusian (93) Pakistani Central Asia 21 14 14 9 27 10 18 0 2 0 6 1 8 21 40 22.0 31.000 years ago.9 24.0 29.6 7.2 What conclusions can we draw from these data? There are three possible ways to interpret them. because these were the sites of earlier.6 3.6 20.7 13.7 0. therefore the portion of the population now carrying J and E were formerly Jews whose descendants converted to Christianity.6 26.9 1. pre-Diaspora Jewish settlements and.0 13.2 1.9 22.6 23.7 20.9 21.

Similarly E had preceded J into the Italian and Greek peninsulas after leaving its ancestral home in northeast Africa. Georgia. Balkaria.. This does not appear plausible except by invoking deep history. and a considerably intermarried Palestinian Jewish minority. Asia. and by borrowing heavily upon Biblical Hebrew terminology to denote their religious practices . . . Albania. and Africa less than a millennium ago to establish a Jewish identity by imitating genuine Old Palestinian Jewish practices (as recorded in the Bible and talmudic literature). As Wexler writes: At best. where Slavs. and that Greek was the native language of the latter. Thus.500 BCE). . Kurdistan and several North African and East African populations as well. I can reveal attempts by a scattered so-called ―Jewish‖ population in parts of Europe. Turkey.(1. Greece. from Asia Minor to Spain and France (including both Ashkenazim and Sephardim). He proposes that the establishment of specifically Ashkenazi Jewry occurred in three stages: 1) the Balkans. 21 Wexler concludes that the Jewish communities established in the early Middle Ages. when the Turkic rulers of Khazaria converted. which predates Judaism altogether. and 3) the post-Carolingian period down to the twelfth . were composed overwhelmingly of local convert populations with only a small minority of ethnic Palestinian Jews. 2) the eighth century. if we accept the Behar study‘s proposal that Ashkenazi Jews‘ present-day haplogroup profile confers on them a ―Middle Eastern‖ ancestry.e. bringing with them some Eastern Slavs and Iranians among their subjects. We agree with Wexler that Ashkenazi Jews are unlikely to be descended in significant numbers from Palestinian Jewish ethnic stock (i. J1). not Hebrew. we would also have to award that title to much of Italy. Turkic Avars and Jews of various origins came together in the sixth century. Ashkenazic Jews very likely descended from a population mix whose primary components were Slavo-Turkic proselytes.

Berber and Arabic natives. He argues that a handful of descendants of Palestinian Jews in North Africa and on the Iberian Peninsula initiated intermarriage with much larger numbers of Romance. in North Africa in the 7th and early 8th centuries pursuant to the Arab settlement of North Africa. He proposes that this process took place during three different time periods: (a) First. Wexler in ―The Non-Jewish Origins of the Sephardic Jews‖ (1996) maintains that modern-day Sephardic Jews have their origins primarily in proselytes from North Africa of Berber ethnicity who merged with later converts in Iberia. whereas the North African E3b contribution to the Sephardic community seems to be larger. This would seem to be smaller than he conjectures. which provided numerous German. . for the percentage of J2 among Arabs and other Middle Eastern populations is very low. Sorbian and additional Slavic proselytes.6% of Ashkenazi who are J1s represent the vestige of original Palestinian Hebrew ancestry.22 Where we differ is in the proportion of German and Sorbian ancestry in Wexler‘s assessment. there is very little of it to be found in present day Middle Eastern populations. Ashkenazic J2 likely derives from the same source. The Sephardic Genetic Heritage Turning now to the Sephardic population as a whole. By contrast J1 (M267) is as high as 62. As argued above.century in Slavic East Germany. Thus it is very likely that the 14. the E3b subclade E-123 in the Ashkenazi population seems to come from south Italian proselytes.7% among Bedouins.

Mexico and New Mexico – all of which are proposed by historians as sites of Sephardic Anusim settlement(need cites here—try Saudades). while in the last two it was the ―Judaized‖ descendants of Arab. Cuba. These include DNA samples collected in the Canary Islands. in the Iberian Peninsula between 711 and 1492 (the respective dates of the Muslim invasion and the expulsion of the Jews from the Kingdom of Spain by the Christian monarchs). Let us proceed. Berber and Iberian converts who were the formative forces. the Azores. to the various country studies that we believe bear out these propositions. An advantage to the data bases we will be using is that they include the surnames of the donors. (c) Finally. He argues that non-Jews played the dominant role in the first period. Puerto Rico. but we do suggest that the genetic makeup of the proselytes who formed Sephardic Jewry differs in several respects from Wexler‘s characterization.(b) Then. again in North Africa after 1391 (where Iberian Jews began to settle in large numbers as a result of the nation-wide pogroms against the Jews in the Iberian Peninsula). We propose that current DNA studies show that the bulk of male Sephardic Jews came from European backgrounds.23 We do not disagree with this timeline. permitting a connection to the names of documented Sephardim in the post-Inquisition Diaspora. while North African converts (E3b and K) occupy a more minor role in Sephardic ancestry. The Canary Islands . then. especially haplogroups R1b and I.

king of Mauretania.‖ Despite having been invaded by Arabs under the command of Ben-Farroukh around 1000 CE and visited in 1291 by two Genoese galleys. fair-skinned people whose history and culture are largely unknown. Many of the Guanches fell in resisting the Spaniards. but that they saw ruins of great buildings. states that when visited by the Carthaginians under Hanno [in the seventh or sixth century BCE] the archipelago was found by them to be uninhabited. many were sold as slaves. According to de la Peña. it would seem that this extreme westerly migration of Berbers took place between the time of which Pliny wrote and the conquest of northern Africa by the Arabs [eighth century CE]. the Guanches seem to have preserved their original stock unmixed to the time of the Spanish conquest. ‗Guan‘ being ―person. Pliny the Elder.24 From studies of their skeletal remains. Italian and Spanish sailors arriving under Angiolina del Tegghis de Corbizz. and many conformed to the Roman Catholic faith and married Spaniards. This would suggest that the Guanches were not the first inhabitants. a Florentine. deriving his knowledge from the accounts of Juba. Guanches resembled the Cro-Magnons of Europe. According to the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica.25 . No real doubt is now entertained that they were an offshoot of the great race of Berbers which from the dawn of history has occupied northern Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic. the name is a corrupted form of ‗Guanchinet‘ in the local language.The Canary Islands originally were settled by the Guanches. a fair-haired. and from the absence of any trace of Mahommedanism among the peoples found in the archipelago by the Spaniards. This occurred soon after the 1341 landfall of a large group of Portuguese.

It is believed now that Berbers made their way to the islands about 2000 BCE. The king of Castile granted Bethencourt the right to settle the Canaries. they neglected their means of navigation and lost contact with the North African mainland. Settling there.27 Though the last of native Guanche resistance was not overcome until after the time of Columbus. similar to the island of Leghorn in Italy. the admiral had important connections in the Canaries. and southwestern Scotland. pigs and sheep. and peas and raising goats. but they lacked metallurgy and were fragmented into numerous rival chieftanships. the Guanches were cultivating wheat. The possibility deserves to be raised that the Canaries started out as a Crypto-Jewish refuge. When the Portuguese arrived. where he had an affair with the lady of Gomera. Gadifer de la Salle and Maciot de Bethencourt among them.26 The primary settlement of the islands took place in the early 1400s under Juan de Bethencourt. beans. The North Equatorial Current and winds going along with it swept past the islands on a clockwise course that carried ships to the Antilles in the Caribbean in a little more than a month. the community had strong ties to Marannos and other Crypto-Jews in southern France and England. The bishop designated to provide spiritual guidance to the venture was Alberto de las Cassas. In fact. the Canaries served as a highly important way station for east-west trade channels across the Atlantic. also bearing a Sephardic patronym. From its inception. with the result that colonists were drawn from France and Spain – Juan de Rouille. Dona Ines de Peraza. This was the same route Columbus took in 1492 and on all subsequent voyages. Lying less than a hundred miles off the coast of Africa on the same latitude as the kingdom of Mali south of Morocco. especially in Plymouth and Bristol. by the 1500s the new Canarians were numerous enough to provide settlers for . Juan de Plessis. as most of these names are Sephardic.

slavery. and G haplotypes – are of Jewish descent. Hernandez. probably from East Africa. followed by G/G2 (8. Another is that there were pre-Columbian Native Americans who crossed the Atlantic Ocean in the direction of Europe and Africa. The Canaries served as the proving ground for most of the institutions later introduced to the Americas – the plantation economy. if they were not among the original settlers? One possibility is that they came back from the Americas with Spanish husbands. The two primary haplogroups are R1b (55. Over 4. surnamed Yan and San. Durant.8%) and I (8.000 Canarians ventured to Louisiana in 1778. They also settled in Venezuela. Cuba.8%). Nicaragua and Paraguay.29 As for the other female lineage results. as well as one U6b which is centered today in northern Portugal with suspected Berber affinities. Several of these Canarian descendants now claim Sephardic ancestry.9%) and E3b (17. Rodriguez and Torres suggests that these families – although carrying R1b. an emphasis on cash crops such as sugar cane. as about 10% of the ancient Phoenician port of Cadiz is K2. E3b. 30 . though the haplogroup can also be Central Asian. several families settled in Hispaniola. When were these Native American females brought to the island. while the three C donors are probably Native American. and two O3 East Asian males. The presence of Sephardic surnames such as Benetez. Puerto Rico and Saint Augustine.9%). There is also a small amount of K2 (2. L3 represents a Sub-Saharan African ancestress. Guatemala. Diaz. likely relatively recent additions. I. which may be Phoenician.28 After prospering in the Canaries. This conclusion is strengthened by the presence of three Semitic (mitochondrial J) female haplotypes.Spain‘s colonies in the New World. Nunez. Gersone.6%). The Y chromosome scores from the Canary Islands project at Family Tree DNA (n=34) display a set of haplotypes consistent with a Moorish-Iberian heritage. military conquest and the extermination of native peoples under the guise of conversion to Catholicism. Perez.

7%.9 .6 8.0 17. I = 9.9 8.J1 = 4. This is consistent with the overall profile provided by the much smaller FTDNA study sample.2%. J2 = 9. and may be interpreted as providing additional support for a Jewish presence on the island.1%.8%. Table 4. and R1a = 2.8 2.8 0. through the presence of the robust J2 proportion. E3b1 = 3.8%. E3b = 11.A much larger study (n = 652) of Canary Islands Y chromosome haplotypes by Flores et al (2003) provided a Y haplogroup distribution as follows: R1b = 47%. Number 19 3 0 6 3 1 2 Percent 55.9 5.5%.8%. K = 3. Canary Island Y Chromosome Haplogroups (source: Canary Island Sephardic DNA Project) Haplogroup R1b I J E3b G/G2 K2 03 n=34 Table 5. J. Canary Island Mitochondrial Haplogroups (source: Canary Islands Sephardic DNA Project).

Dorado 1 Mendoza 1 Nunez 1 Estevez Chaho – S. Rodriguez. Sanchez 3 Mestril. Canary Islands Surnames Surname Aquino Arbelo Bellot Haplogroup C J.Table 6. J1 H U6b L3 Chao R1b Haplogroup R1b I R1b Bello – S. Franco. SJ Notes (D‘Aquino) Number Names 3 Crespo. SJ .

BM MJ S. BM. G. G. (Dias) S. BM. G (de la Pena. Rocco. Roa – S. G (Gomes) S. R. S. H. L. I R1b R1b. E3b K2 R1b R1b R1b R1b O3 R1b R1b R1b O3 S. L. BW. Roach (Heb.Delgado Diaz Durant Gershoni Gomez Hernandez Lopez Lujan Martinez Morales Nunez Pena Perez Ramirez Ramos Rodriguez Roque Rosales San Santana Socarraz Torres Yan E3b. R. L. Penha) S. H. R. BW. R1b R1b R1b E3b G E3b. CN etc. BW. A. T MJ S. L etc. BM. BW etc. BM. L. G S. CN. CN. S. L. S. L S. S. CN. CN. T etc. H.). . L S. L. G CN. CN etc. S. I. R. T Gershom – Hebrew name S. L. BM. H. R. BW. CN. G. Roca. H S. L. S. BM. R1b R1b E3b E3b G2 R1b. L. BM. T.

The Jews of New Spain MJ=Messianic Jews Sephardic Surname Reference List R=Dan Rothenburg.. They are an ideal return harbor and restocking point for North Atlantic trade vessels. by Lionel Levy The Azores The Azores31 lie northwest of the Canary and Madeira32 islands where the easterly North Atlantic Current turns around and becomes the Canaries Current. Liebman. B. Finding Our Fathers S=Sephardim. the Azores were uninhabited when the Portuguese arrived in the 1400s – perhaps owing to the inhospitable. Unlike the Canaries. Secrecy and Deceit H=Hyamson. Les Noms des Juifs de. .Key A=Aragon. History of the Jews in. The Jews of Jamaica CN=Jewish Canadian Surnames G=Gitlitz.com SJ=Sangre Judia T=Tunisie. by Mario Javier Saban L=S. David.B.S. The Sephardim of England JC=Judios Conversos. Albert M. by Regne BM-Bevis Marks. London BW=Barnett and Wright..

In the 1700s the economy turned to the production of citrus. Most of the inhabitants made their living as farmers. However with a sample size of only 15. . all but one of the surnames included in the DNA Project are considered Sephardic. but sadly in 1890 these groves were destroyed by parasites. Several Huguenot businessmen based in La Rochelle had interests in the Azores. known Marrano Jews who helped settle French Canada. In the following centuries. Philip Palgrave and Christopher Williams. Hermigo Nolette and Antoine Sieuvre. During the 1600s the British factors with whom the Azores traded included John Ellis. settlers from other European countries arrived. The Azores were home to several ecclesiastical seminaries and were ruled by the hereditary counts of Villa Franca. Danish. In 1640 the British traders were represented by Matthew Godwin. Dutch. They were colonized first in 1439 by people mainly from the Spanish(?) provinces of Algarve and Alentejo. gentlemen said to be ―very Portuguese in manner.‖ 33 There were also French traders in 1690: Christophe and Jean Bressan and Bernard Fartoat (Phartouat).volcanic nature of their creation. Hamburg and Spanish consul. One Abram Vogullar served as the Swedish. As shown in Table 6. including the LaBat family. The Azores also had a lucrative clothdying trade with Britain during the 1600s. the haplogroup profile must be viewed with caution. who were descended from Rui Gonçales de Camara (died 1522). Louis de la Ronde. especially oranges. Richard Langford. most notably from Northern France and Flanders. William Ray (Reyes) and Henry Walker. Thomas Precost. and the Azores have been documented as having a large Converso population. with Portuguese wives. fishermen and merchants. and in 1669 we find the names of John and William Chamberlin together with John Stone.

L.3 26. R etc. S. JC. BM. L (de Sosa) S. BW S. BW. Azores Male Haplogroups (Azores DNA Project:FTDNA ) Haplogroup R1b I G C3 Q n=15 Table 8. L etc.6 6. F. BM. Azores Surnames Surname Borges Bethencourt Pereira Pires de Melle de Sousa Fernandes Olivera Magellan Jacome Rosa Silveira da Rosa Jakum – S S. MJ BM S. L S. S. R. R. BM. BW. L etc.6 6.Table 7. S. G Number 8 4 1 1 1 Percent 53. BM. H. Notes (see Table 6) S. L. G de Mella – S.6 . BM.6 6. R etc. H.

due to epidemics and abuse by the incoming Europeans. L etc. is H. C3 and Q are American Indian types (though C is found sparsely in such places as Sardinia. S. finding three different indigenous peoples dwelling there: Tainos. Estimates of the indigenous population at that time range from 50. also called Joseph‘s Disease. A larger study (n = 185). Ciboneys and Guanajatabeyes. L.000 to 300. BM.6%. H. we have 3 Hs and 2 Ks. we see again that R1b is the primary male haplogroup.1%. E3b was 13% and J1. and Q can also be Ashkenazi or Scandinavian.Periera da Rosa Machado Braz de Costa Loureiro de Freitas Tavares See above S.000. but without surnames. Bethencourt. Over the next seven decades most of the indigenes became extinct. a name made famous by the Sephardic historian Cardozo Bethencourt. Note also that the Machados lent their name to Machado‘s Disease. by Monteil et al (Annals of Human Genetics 2005) produced a somewhat different genetic profile: R1b was 55. Cuba Columbus arrived in Cuba34 on his first voyage in 1492. BW In Azores DNA. a genetic disorder traced to Portugal that is similar to Parkinson‘s Disease and afflicts some Jews.J2 was 8. R1b still remains the predominant haplogroup and the presence of both J and E3b in substantial proportions strengthens the argument that there was a Sephardic-Moorish presence on the islands. . Among mitochondrial haplogroups (n=5). G (de Costa) MJ S. However. R.

the economy of the island had shifted to tobacco.3%. and the ‗peninsulares‘ left.7%.The first Spanish settlement was established in 1511 by Diego Valazquez.000. consisting of 7. the R1b component of the male population is even higher than in the Canary Islands and Azores – 72. of whom 600 were Spanish. with sugarcane plantations and cattle ranches also remaining prominent. which show that while 40% of the female haplotypes were Indigenous and an additional 20% . Juan de Prado. Among the major sugar planters at the time were Francisco de Arronga. By 1791 (by which time Florida was again in Spanish hands). Here. Q.000 by 1774. who served subsequently as governor until 1524. one of the major cities of New Spain. the number of slaves had reached 84. a slave rebellion on St. Subsequently.1% of the sample.Q3 was 4. E3b and I/I1b were both 9. 800 were African slaves and the remainder indigenous people. which opened the island to trade with North America and England. That same year. A large-scale population disruption occurred in 1762 when British forces attacked and occupied Havana. while G and J2 were each present at 2. most of the Spanish administrators. Dominique (Haiti) caused many French sugar planters to flee to Cuba. The island‘s governor . most of them used to cultivate sugarcane. In our view these figures provide additional support for the proposal that the primary Sephardic Jewish haplogroup is R1b. Cuba was ceded back to Spain in exchange for Florida. Cuban Y chromosome haplogroup results are taken from the Cuban DNA Project (n = 44) at Family Tree DNA. By the early 1700s. the slave population of Cuba increased dramatically. This interpretation of the data is supported by the mitochondrial DNA results (n = 30). After eleven months of British rule. growing to 44.5%. Conde de Casa Montalvo and José Richardo O-Farrill. The primary economic activity was shipbuilding and cattle ranching.000 persons in 1544. Cuba‘s early population was highly mixed.

Elizondo. I1b Q. V and W. a Jewish-dominated craft). Romero. again.5 . Garcia.were sub-Saharan African. The low incidence of H. Table 9. to be paired with Jewish or Muslim men. Perez. Surnames included in the Cuban DNA Project echo those of the two previous studies examined in this paper. Q3 Number 32 4 4 2 Percent 72. H11.1 9. John the). Reyes (Royal). An additional 21% of the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were H. Batista (Baptist. Martin. Carballo. Conea. which otherwise constitutes the largest haplogroup in Europe. is another indication that we are dealing with an ethnically specific subpopulation. Sardinas (from Sardinia). Moreira (Moor). Sanchez (perhaps originally the same as Cohen. H3. Among those known to be associated with Converso or Morisco families are: Cruz (Cross). Maria. U5b. Nearly all of these can be found on at least one of the standard Sephardic name-lists such as those of Sephardim. Betancourt. a proportion that would be unlikely if the male spouses were not Jewish (or Muslim). Farinas. Almora (―the Moor‖). papermaker).7 9. depending on the branch). Ortega. Male Haplogroups in Cuba (source: Cuban DNA Project). U4. 11% were clearly Semitic (J). Carillo. Valdez and Villareal (Royal House). Banos (Jewish and Moorish. Galvez. ―priest.com and Saudades. Duarte.1 4. Ferro (iron. Gusman. Salvador (Savior). Haplogroup R1b E3b I. Morena (silk. responsible for over 40% of the population. holy man‖). several of these being North African or Mediterranean haplotypes likely. Diaz.

Cruz Perez Albuerne Archuela Bayares Bruno Caballero Cadalso Ferrales Ferro Fundora Galas .3 U4 U5b V W 10 1 1 1 1 1 3 6 1 1 1 1 N = 28 36% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 11% 21% 3% 3% 3% 3% Table 10.3 2. Cuba Project Surnames.3 2.3 MtDNA A B C H H11 H3 J L1.G J2 O2 N = 44 1 1 1 2.

Arteaga Banos Betancourt Pena Reyes Almora Areces Avila Banio Blanco Pena y de Borbon Lima Alvarez Argete Bacallao Batista Borrego Torre Socarraz Alvarez-Perez Anastoa Lopez Lugo Caraballo Caraballosa Carballo Carballosa Caullo Caneras Correa Crepo de la Llata del Pino y Tous del Pozo Desdia Deulopeu Diaz Duarte Echazabal Echemendia Elizondo Esquivel Estopinao Farinas Morillo Mihica Galvez Garcia Garcia de Oranos Gasque Gavira Gonzalez (Etor) Govantes Guerra Guerrero Gusman Hernandez Herrera Ibanez Izquierdo Lauzenique Lazo de la Vega Leiva/Leyva Liz Llanes Ballerilla Fernandez Pupo Ramirez .

or earlier. By 1000 CE. The island was settled by indigenous peoples of the Archaic culture of the West Indies in the first century CE.Maruga Marcello Marin Martin Masias Montano Monzon Moreira Morena Morgado Salas Sanchez Sardinas Tellez Valdez Vejarano Villaria Nido Olazabal Oramas Ortega Perdomo Perez (Martinez) Peroy Portuondo Prieto Pruna Salvador Sanchez-Pereira Suarez Temprano Valera Velasco Reyes Ricardo de Aldana Riviera Rodriguez Romero Rotxes Rubio Ruiz Saa Saavedia San Jorge Sancibrian Tascoa Uria(s) Vasquez Villareal Puerto Rico Puerto Rico35 lies in the Caribbean Sea adjacent to Cuba. Around 120 CE. the Tainos had established . a second group of natives representing the Arawak culture reached the island. perhaps from South America. Jamaica and Hispaniola.

Many of these Indians escaped into the hills and their descendants remain today. Mosquera. it was the native men and their male lineages who bore the brunt of this.‖36 By the late 1500s Canary Islanders and additional Portuguese settlers had also arrived. . Pardo de Osorio. In 1683. Puerto Rico was subjected to repeated depredations by French. Europeans came to Puerto Rico in 1493 with the second voyage of Columbus. Antonio Mosquero and Juan de Haro. Antonio Calderon. so the Puerto Rican indigenous haplotype pattern is especially diverse. English and Portuguese privateers. as several of the original Castilian families had moved to colonies on the mainland of the Americas or died from epidemics that periodically swept the island. These surnames further suggest that the island was a Sephardic (and Moorish) community. Pedro Suarez. Spanish officials on the island during the late 1500s included the following: Menendez de Valdes. as well as advanced agricultural practices. Portuguese and Flemish. Pedro Tello de Guzman. 200 more Canarian families emigrated to Puerto Rico. One further point is that Puerto Rico was a favorite place for the Spanish to send native slaves captured in the Carolinas.themselves on Puerto Rico. Natives were forced into servitude or hunted down and killed. Due to its central Caribbean location. with some ―Italians. DNA samples collected on the island clearly show that Taino ancestry survives through the female line. but male lines are virtually extinct. and in 1508 Juan Ponce de Léon founded the first permanent settlement. The Tainos had a well-developed language and civilization. followed by another 300 in 1691. Settlers on Puerto Rico were mainly drawn from Castile. A fort was built by the Spanish settlers from 1530 to 1540 to defend the island. As in other colonies. for example is clearly Islamic. resulting in a devastating collapse of the local population and culture. These arrivals shifted the overall population of the island toward a Canarian ancestry profile.

n=64 females). and several sets of males are evidently cousins. coupled with R1b and I. there appears to be at least one ―founder effect‖ (the male responsible for five matching E3b‘s.3%). Since 61% of the female lines were indigenous. The surnames in the Puerto Rico sample are also strongly suggestive of ConversoMorisco backgrounds: Bautista. Perhaps the diversity results from the relatively high number of participants (n = 67 males. Dias. characterized by the scores 13 24-13-9-13-14-11-12-10-14). Borges. Lopez. The most common haplotype is R1b (49.0%) and E3b (12. next J/J2 (12. Moreover. de Gracia.The Puerto Rico DNA Project (also at Family Tree DNA) is enlightening. Medina (Arabic). omitting the 16 instances of male African DNA). This interpretation is supported by the mitochondrial data. Correa. . Semitic and Eastern Mediterranean haplotypes is found. Marrero. suggests to us that this was largely a Sephardic and Moorish population. Cruz. while 20% were African. Leon.4%). Second comes I (13. Cordova. showing a relatively high degree of endogamy. Miranda. Muniz. Castello. Jimenez. Mendez. Maysonet (French Maisonett). Garcia. Espinosa. Betancourt. Forbes). North African and Eastern Mediterranean is notable. Febus (Pharabus. de Jesus de la Reyes. Candelaria. Carrero. Castellano. a preponderance of North African. composed of both early and later converts to Judaism (or Islam). Ferrer. something which would be unlikely had the male population not had Jewish and Muslim roots.0%). Especially noteworthy is the high frequency of U haplotypes in this sample. Colon. Guzman. Flores. for the remaining 19% to be concentrated in the categories of Semitic. Casillas. Bernal. The relatively high level of Semitic/North African lineages. because it displays a diverse set of haplotypes. Benitez. Excluding the indigenous and sub-Saharan African ancestry.

Padilla. Table 11.9 76.6 Percent Number 33 8 4 9 3 5 3 2 Percent 49. Reyes.5 3. Oliveras. Santiago. Rossy.0 .0 13. Puerto Rico Y Chromosome Haplogroups (source: Puerto Rico DNA Project). Vega.9 6. Robes. Puerto Rico Mitochondrial Haplogroups (source: Puerto Rico DNA Project). Haplogroup R1b E3b K I G/G2 J2 J R1a n=67 Table 12. Nieves. Olmeda.Navarro. Pardo.4 4. Perez. Yanez and Zayas. Romero. Haplogroup A C D H H1 H1b H3 HV Number 32 15 2 2 1 1 2 1 10. Santos.5 7. Ortega.5 4.3 11.

1 Table 13.4 3. Adorno Agosto Aguiar Albadalyo Alicia Alvadalijo Alvarado Alvarez Ambel Ambert Aponte Aranda Arbelo Arce Archilla Arellano Beltran Benitez Bermudez Bernal Betancourt Bonilla Borges Borrero Brau Bravo Bragante Brito Burgos Burset Camacho Camunas Chevires Clas Cofresi Colberg Collazo Colon Colon de Bonilla Colon de Torres Cordero Cordova Brigantti Castello Correa Cortes Crespo Cruz .J J1a U U5 U5b n=64 1 1 1 2 3 9. Puerto Rico Surnames (source: Puerto Rico DNA Project).

Arroyo Arvela Avila Aviles Ayala Ayes Badalejo Balasquisle Ballistie de la Luz de la Torre de la Pena de la Reyes de la Rios de los Santos Diclet del Castillo de Rio del Rosario de Toro del Valle de la Rosa Delgado Candelaria Camino Caraballo Cardona Carrero Cartagena Casillas Castaner Castillieno Gerena Gil Gines Gomez Gonzalez Grana Guilarte Guillen Guzman Hernandez Hidalgo Hinojosa Huertas Irizany Cruzado Cuesta Cuevas Davila de Castro de Gracia de Jesus de la Cruz Batista/Bautista Maysonet Medina Mejias Mendez Mendoza Menendez Mirabal Miranda Moctezuma Montalvo Montarez Montes Montesinos Moyi (Irsi) .

Diaz Dominguez Esko Espinosa Febus Feliciano Fernandez Ferrer Flores Fontan Fontanes Garcia Nieves Ocasio Ojeda Olivares Oliver Oliveras Olmeda (O) Oquendo Orozco Ortega Ortiz Jimenez Lauriano Lebron Leon Longrais Lopez Lugo Maldonado Marrero Martin Martinez Matos Quinones Quirindoago Ramirez Ramos Ramos Colon Rangel Reyes Robles Roig Rolon Romero Mulero Muniz Munoz Muriel Narvaez Natal Navarro Navedo Negrin Negron Neris Nevarez Senano Sierra Solis Solla Soto Sotomayor Tirado Toledo Torres Ubarri Valentin .

37 whose ancient name is Anahuac.Otero Pabon Pacheco Padilla Padro Pantoja (J) Pardo Pedrosa Pena Peralta Peraza Perez Pinero Pinzon Ponce Sepulveda Rosa Rosado Rosario Rossy Ruiz Rus Saavedia Salazar Saliedo Saldana Salgado Sanchez Santana Santiago Santos Vallejo Vazquez Vega Velasco Valazquez Valez Vera Viera Villafane von Kupfershein Yanez Yrizany Zavala Zayas Puentes Mexico It is customary to speak of Mexico. Zapotec. as the home of indigenous empires. and with good reason. were only the last of a long succession of civilizations. Chichimeca. Maya. beginning with the Olmec and continuing through the Izapa. Toltec. Teotihuacan. The Aztec. All of these peoples lived a settled existence in urban . Huaxtec and Purepecha. Mixtec. or Mexica (who lent their name to the modern country that emerged).

palaces and apartment houses with broad avenues and water and sewage systems larger than any in Europe. they saw a metropolis of temples. especially the Portuguese nation‖ – testimony enough that Mexico and the surrounding countries were havens for Crypto-Jews. Due to plagues and epidemics. there emerged a distinctive new mestizo (mixed) population born of Spanish fathers and Mexican mothers. gardens.5%). and when the conquistador Hernan Cortes and his small force of Spaniards first gazed on the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (the future Mexico City) in 1521.7%) and O (0. Also found were K2 (1. Thousands of African slaves were imported to work in the mines. E3b at 11.4%. followed by I at 12. as well as warfare. The Mexican Genealogy and DNA Project at Family Tree DNA has a large sample size (n=129) and yielded results that mirror the haplogroup profile seen in the other studies.3%. ranches and encomiendas (private trust lands).5%. In 1571.‘ With Mexico City as its capital. During the 300-year colonial period that followed.centers. New Spain stretched from the Rio Arriba and Rio Abajo of present-day New Mexico (upper and lower provinces) to Costa Rica. Spain‘s South American possessions were termed New Granada. R1b was predominant (55.4%. and included all the Spanish Caribbean islands and Florida as well. Its purpose was ―to free the land which has become contaminated by Jews and heretics.6% J2 at 9.G2 was present in Mexico at 5. G. King Philip II instituted an Inquisition tribunal for all of New Spain.8%). and J1 at 1. R1a1 (0. Reduplication of both the rank order and relative percentages of the major haplogroups . the native population concentrated in the Valley of Mexico was reduced from eight million to less than half that number in a few short years. and it was seated in Mexico City. Once again. and the migratory Indian tribes not living in cities or towns were relegated to the margins of society and denigrated as ‗Indios.7%).

found that Indigenous haplogroup A accounted for about a third of the lineages (33. V and U. U (1). Herrera. Rodriguez. that is. All of the Mexican study participants carried Hispanic surnames. respectively). respectively). Sanchez. Leon. Loera. An earlier study by Andrew Merriwether of Mexican-Americans living in Colorado found that 85% of the female haplogroups were Native and only 15% European – not unlike Cuba and Puerto Rico. Diaz. Ascensio. Moreno. with European H. J ( 2). J. Mexico Y Chromosome Haplogroups (source: Mexican Genealogy and DNA Project). .6%). Correa. A 2000 study (n=223) of the ―cosmopolitan peoples‖ of north-central Mexico. Romero. Table 14. Villareal. Gallegos. Soto. Mastinez. Palacios. Campos. K. Garcia.lent support to the proposition that such a profile reflected an ancestral Sephardic Jewish population. Elyondo. There has been no mitochondrial DNA collected in the Mexico project to date. Significantly. Olivas. Salas. so it is difficult to ascertain the corresponding female haplogroups in the population.5% and 23. Tarin. Mares. on the other. Yanez.2%).5%. and V (2). and African L. Ybarra. Flores. Rivera. Chacon. Miranda. while B and C were each about one-fourth (26. Arriola. dividing the remaining ten percent (5. on the one hand. Arebalo. and D trailed the others at 5. Pena. K (2). Cervantes. the European haplogroups are the same as we have seen in the other samples studied: H ( 5). Vidal. Juarez.38 Native haplogroups amounted to nearly ninety percent of the sample (89. Ramirez.3%. Trevino.4% and 4. most of which are Sephardic and which we have seen in the other studies discussed: Acosta. Leal. Nunez.8%. Ojinaga and Chihuahua.

Aburto Acosta Aquihaga Aquinaga Alderete Aranzazu Arebalo Armijo J2a1 R1b Q E3b R1b E3b I1c R1b Loera Lopez Lopez Lozano Mares Martinez Martinez Medrano Q3 J2 R1b R1b R1b R1b G2 J2 .5 0.4 9.7 1.7 0.5 0. Mexico Surnames with Haplogroup Assignments (source: Mexico Genealogy and DNA Project).3 1.Haplogroup R1b E3b I1b/I1c G/G2 J2 J1 J R1a1 K2 O n=129 Number 72 15 16 7 12 2 1 1 2 1 Percent 55.4 5.6 12.8 11.7 Table 15.

Arredondo Arrida Arriola Ascensio Avila Bejarano Botello Burquez Campos Canales Canales Cano Cano Carral Cervantes Chacon Chapa Correa Diaz Elizondo Escalante Felguerez Felix E3b E3b R1b Q3 E3b2 Q3 Q O3 R1b G R1b G2 R1b R1a1 R1b E3b2 R1b I1c Q3 Q R1b K2 I1c Miranda Montes Moreno Moreno Moreno Navarro Nunez Ochoa Ochoa Olivas Olivas Ortiz Pacheco Palacios Pena Pinedo Puetes Quiroz Ramirez Ramirez Ramos Rivera Rocha I1b Q Q3 J2 R1b R1b R1b R1b E3b R1b E3b J2 R1b Q3 I1b2 R1b R1b E3b Q3 R1b R1b R1b Q3 .

Felix Fernandez Fernandez Flores Flores Galarza Gallegos Garcia Garcia Garcia Garcia Garza Garza Gomez Gomez Gonzalez Gonzalez Gonzalez Gonzalez Guajardo Guajardo Guerra Hernandez J2 R1b G2 E3b R1b I1c R1b I1b2 I1c J1 K2 R1b I1c J2 R1b1 J2 I1b2 E3b E3b2 J2f1 J2 R1b E3b Rodarte Rodriquez Romero Rosales Ruiz Salas Salinas Salinas Sanchez Serda Serros Solis Sotelo Soto Suarez Tarin Tarin-Segura Terrazas Trevino Trevino Madden Hernandez Gallardo Q3 R1b J2 R1b R1b1 R1b I1c R1b R1b R1b R1b1 R1b R1b G2 Q R1b1 G2 R1b R1b J2 E3b2 Q3 R1b .

and once more after the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. a large territory embracing most of the present-day area of Tampico. her husband. then in Mexico City. first in Tampico. Bernardo Lopez de Mendizaval was governor of New Mexico from 1659 to 1661 before being removed and sent back to Mexico City to answer . Nuevo Léon. King Philip II gave the right to colonize this vast area to a New Christian. reorganized in 1610. Doña Francisca. were Carvajal‘s sister. California. Arizona. including Carvajal‘s namesake and successor. and their numerous children. and New Mexico. Among the earliest settlers.Herrera Hinojosa Holguin Huante Jimenez Leal Leal Leon R1b I1b2 R1b E3a O R1b G2 R1b Valdez Venegas Vidal Villareal Villareal Villareal Yanez Ybarra R1b I1c R1b E3b R1b R1b R1b R1b New Mexico The story of Jews in New Mexico begins with the establishment of the New Kingdom of Léon. His ten-year governorship ended when the Mexican Inquisition learned that many of Carvajal‘s colonizers were Crypto -Jews. Don Luis de Carvajal. Some of the Mexico City Converso community managed to move to New Mexico as soon as settlement there was organized in 1598. Texas. young Luis. Don Francisco Rodriguez de Matos (purportedly a rabbi). Chihuahua. Most of the Carvajal and Rodriguez family were persecuted by the Inquisition. and many were burned at the stake in auto-da-fés.

6 in Mexico to 9. A direct mtDNA comparison between the two is not possible. Sanchez and Vigil.8% in Mexico). Trujillo.40 In fact. Chavez. Francisco Gomez Robledo was also summoned before the Inquisition. among the 18.39 Many.5% and the J/J1 to 4. Lucero. Lopez. . just as it does for the Ashkenazi community. Duran. since it is believed that more openly Jewish Conversos migrated northward from Mexico to distance themselves from the Inquisition. In New Mexico.41 Presumably. but these are not significantly different from the distributions found in Mexico. all multiply intermarried. The R1b proportion remains virtually unchanged at 55.4 to 3. Jimenez.2. there were present a J and a J1b1. each with their own coats of arms and royal grants. which we have proposed represents the original Palestinian Hebrew component of the Sephardic population.9 in New Mexico.6% (versus 55. Notable is the continued low presence of J/J1 in the sample. Garcia. One of his soldiers. Cruz.42 The DNA evidence for such a supposition is equivocal.charges of Judaizing. because of the absence of mtDNA samples for Mexico. I1b. as well as two Ks and 3 Us. the J2 percentage rises to 13. however. E3b declines from 11. However.5% of New Mexico female haplogroup results that were non-Native. Luna.4 in Mexico to 7. which we interpret as indicative of a Jewish-Moorish presence in the community. it is said that there are only about twelve original New Mexican families. effectively counterbalancing the increase in J/J2 as far as Semitic/Mediterranean ancestry is concerned. if not the majority.8%. Martinez. the New Mexico DNA project may contain a higher percentage of Jewish ancestry than that of Mexico. I1b) decline from 12. I haplogroups (I. of the select families studied in Chavez‘ book were originally Crypto-Jewish.5 in New Mexico and G/G2 from 5. including the names Baca.

J1b1 K Number 29 29 20 1 7 1 2 2 18. New Mexico Y Chromosome Haplogroups (source: New Mexico DNA Project).4 Percent . Haplogroup A B C X H HV J.8 18.3 Table 17.5 4.2 13.5 7.6 9. Haplogroup R1b E3b I G2 J2 J/J1 Total J Native Hgs n=142 Number 70 12 10 4 17 7 24 16 Percent 55.3 11.9 3.5 81.Table 16. New Mexico Mitochondrial Haplogroups (source:New Mexico DNA Project).

Abeyta Aquilar Anaya Apodaca Aragon Archibeque Archuleta Armijo Arrey Ayala Baca Baca Barreras Bejarano Brito Bustamante Campos R1b Q R1b R1b R1b R1b E3b R1b J2 R1b R1b I R1b Q3 R1b R1b R1b Marquez Martin Serrano Martinez Martinez Martinez Mirabal Mandragon Montano Montoya Morga Murchison Olivas Olivas Ortega Ortiz Ortiz Ortiz R1b R1b R1b J2 J1 R1b J2 J R1b R1b R1b E3b R1b R1b J2 R1b E3b . New Mexico Surnames with Haplogroup Assignments (source: New Mexico DNA Project). U6 n=97 (without African) 1 3 3 Table 18.M R U5.

Carrasco Casaus Castillo Cervantes Chavez Chavez Cisneros Coca Coca Contreras Cordoba Curtis Deaguero Delgado Dominguez Duran Esquibel Flores Flores Gallegos Galvan Gaona Garcia de Jurado

R1b I R1b R1b I R1b R1b R1b J2 Q J2 R1b J2 R1b R1b R1b R1b Q3 R1b I R1b I J

Otero Pacheco Padilla Pena Peralta Perea Pittel Quintana Quiros Rael de Aguilar Ramirez Read Rincon Rivera Rivera Rodriguez Rodriguez Romero Robledo Romero Romero Romero Romero Romero

R1b R1b R1b I1b I J2 R1b R1b E3b R1b E3b R1b R1b R1b J R1b I R1b R1b G2 J2 Q3 Q

Garcia de Noriega Garcia Gavitt Gonzalez Bernal Gonazlez Griego Gutierrez Gutierrez Guzman Hernandez Guajardo Guajardo Guerra Hernandez Herrera Herrera Hidalgo Hill Jardine Kirker La Badie Lara Leal

R1b Q E3b J2 Q G2 I J2 Q R1b J2f1 J2 R1b E3b R1b C3 R1b R1b R1b R1b I1b R1b R1b

Ronguillo Saiz Salazar Sanchez de Inigo Sancez Sandoval Santistevan Santistevan Sedillo Sena Serna Serna Silva Tafoya Tenorio Torres Torres Trujillo Valdez Valdez Valencia Varela Velasquez

O3 R1b J J Q3 R1b I Q3 J2 J G2 Q R1b K2 J R1b I1b J2 R1b E3b R1b R1b Q

Lopez Lucera de Godoy Lucero Lujan Luna Madrid Madrid Maldonado Maldonado Manchego Marcilla Mares

I R1b Q E3b R1b J2 E3b R1b E3b R1b E3b R1b

Vergara Vigil Villescas

R1b R1b G2

Sephardim – New Mexico There is a second Sephardim-New Mexico Project (N = 64), having an unknown amount of overlap with the first. In this sample, the R1b percentage holds steady at 56.1, while J,J1 is 7.6% and J2 is 10.6% for a total J representation of 18.2%. Interestingly, the I proportion is higher at 15.2%. E3b is 4.5%, and G2 is also 4.5%. There is one R1a donor in the sample for 1.5% representation; this donor may have originated in an Ashkenazi community. It should be noted that the Luna DNA sample from the New Mexico Sephardim Project has haplotype R1b-AMH. The de Luna family can be traced to a French nobleman named Bon de Lunel from a town in the kingdom of Septimania near Narbonne.43 Bon (―Good‖) received his name from the fact that his pedigree, like all Nasim, was believed to go directly back to King

Kalman (German).5 10. Bonet.5 7. Any Jewish male who was distinguished in this fashion took care never to alter his ―good name. Haplogroup A Number 14 Percent .David..g. but believed themselves to be of Davidic descent (see e. Good (English) and Buen (Spanish). Haplogroup R1b E3b I G2 J/J1 R1a J2 n=62 (excludes native) Number 37 3 6 3 5 1 7 Percent 56. New Mexico Sephardim Y Chromosome Haplogroups (source: Sephardim – New Mexico Project). Gerber 2002). actual rulers of Narbonne in the tenth century). Kalonymus (from the Greek.2 4.6 Table 20. this Luna‘s R1b haplotype is consistent with proposals that the convert Jews of Septimania were of European origin. Table 19.5 15.‖ Thus. Other forms of the surname were Shem Tov (Hebrew). New Mexico Sephardim Mitochondrial Haplogroups (source: Sephardim – New Mexico Project).1 4. Bennetton (Italian).6 1. Hirschman and Yates 2007.

Martinez E3b Abousleman . Surnames Sephardim – New Mexico. Gonzales. R1b Lopez Martinez (2) Chavez Garcia Werkheiser Maicas Lucero Santistevan Perrez Herrera Mirabal Baca Rodriguez (2) Sanchez Gonzales Cavazos R1a Sanchez Delgado Saiz Matthews Maestas Jaramillo Vigil Esquibel Aragon Abeyta Morales Garza Gilbert Rose Malee Padilla Montoya G2 Chavez Romero Sanchez I Salazar Casaus Chavez Montoya (2) Garcia Torres J. J1.Trujillo. J2 Sanchez.0 12. Migueli.0 3. 21. Hernandez.1 81. Chavez.B C D H HV H5a R T3 n=33 5 7 1 2 1 1 1 1 3. Nieto.8 Fig.

5 for the Anousim.3). the surnames in this sample reflect a Francophile homeland – for instance.1) and G is 5. since southern France was one of the places of refuge sought out by those expelled under the Spanish Inquisition. of which J. As shown in Table 22. E3b. Bonmere. e.4%. 5.3% for Cuba.0 (versus 72. regional projects. all of which was J2. living publicly as Catholics.8% for the Anousim versus 9. Sephardic ancestry among this group may be a given.J1 = 7. both Jews and Moors migrated to France in great numbers during the 1500s and 1600s. Roth 1932. There . Another difference is in I haplogroups: 1.7%. while the Cuba sample has relatively more I. The Canadian-Anousim Project collected data from French Canadians who believed themselves to be of Sephardic descent.S.1% (there was no J1).g. though much less than in the other samples. whereas J2 is 17.g. 11. According to several scholars. Where the two countries differ is in the percentage of J/J2: 12.4%. The sample in this project is small (n=34) and therefore the statistics may not be completely stable. Both of these are at Family Tree DNA. Blanca. Flora/Flores and the like.The first is the Anousim Project (n = 55) which invites persons who believe they are the descendants of Sephardic crypto-Jews to submit their Y-chromosome DNA scores. La Mont. Gerber 2002). Bellemare.. Montana.1% and J2 = 5. the haplogroup profile in the Anousim Project most closely resembles the Cuban DNA Project.4 (versus 2. versus 2. La Fleur – but may have originally been Hispanic. Hence. LeBlanc. Not surprisingly. E3b is 5.1% for Cuba.4 (versus 9.The Anousim and Canadian-Anousim Project There are two additional projects to which we should attend before closing with a pair of U. and G/G2. the R1b proportion is still the highest (28. but privately reembracing Judaism or Islam (e. In it.3 for Cuba). the Anousim sample has relatively more J..6%). The R1b percentage is 75.

1 14.3 .3 5.4 14.6 5. Martin. Anousim Project Male Haplogroups (source: FTDNA) Haplogroup R1b E3b I G J/ J2 n=5544 Number 49 3 2 3 7 Percent 72.was also one K (2. obviously Ashkenazic.6 11.9%). (one donor surnamed Wisener. It will be of interest to see if these percentages are altered when the sample is increased.3%). Included in the Canadian Anusim Project was a large set of R1a scores (14. which are usually indicative of Ashkenzic ancestry.3 5.4 3. was excluded from our analysis).7 Table 23. Hotlen.7 17. Table 22. The surnames in the R1a group included Pelland. Canadian Anusim Project (source: FTDNA) Haplogroup R1b E3b I G/G2 J2 R1a n=34 Number 10 4 5 2 6 5 Percent 28.9%) and one Q3(2. Levinge and LaRochelle.4 12.

Thus it will be of interest to see if they do or do not match known Sephardic Anusim populations.Table 24. ( a note of caution: the Cumberland Gap DNA Project may have some dual paternal/maternal donors whose Y or MtDNA is not from the region. Charpentier Bilodeau Trottier Wisener LaRochelle Marion LaFleur Vigil. and K = 3.g. I = 13. Kennedy 1997. Chollete. E3b = 3. G/G2 = 6.72. Forcier.3.8.5.9.5. which we interpret as indicating Sephardic ancestry.7.5%) matched Ashkenazi . The E3b participants had Ashkenazi Jewish matches. J = 4.6.97. The Melungeon Y-chromosome data (n=29) resembled the Cuban pattern: R1b = 65. I = 16. Plante Bernard Moores Bourgeois Lafond Martin Pelland. Canadian Anusim Surnames LeBlanc LaMont Michaud Dugas Case Lovers Dube Payeur Vaudrin Vizenor Gauvrit Bellemare Eblinaer Levinge. The much larger Cumberland Gap Y chromosome data (n=359) echoed these results. and G = 2. Boucher. Both were collected in Central Appalachia in the United States. which were probably augmented by the addition of Roma (Gypsy) and Ottoman Turkish colonists in the following century (see e. Hirschman 2005). except for a decline in the E3b percentage. This region is believed to have harbored large communities of Crypto-Jews and Crypto-Muslims dating at least from the 1500s. Allaire.4. Several of the R1b subjects had matches in South and Central America and the Caribbean. The R1a donor (2.. Dockes Melungeon and Cumberland Gap DNA Projects We now turn to two final sets of data – the Melungeon and Cumberland Gap DNA Projects. E3b = 10. as follows: R1b = 63. Thus our conclusions should be regarded as tentative).

These data suggest the tentative hypothesis that the Y-chromosome component of the Melungeon and Cumberland Gap populations may represent a combined Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jewish ancestry . Latvia Cherokee Cherokee (!) Azores. Poland. Armenia. Goldman. Russia.9 8. Georgian Most common Ashkenazic form of H. Ashkenazi Ashkenazi. Bulgaria.3 10. Zander) Africa. Armenia.. Ethiopia. Iran. Hungary (Castillo. Poland. mtDNA and Y Chromosome Percentages for Cumberland Gap (source: FTDNA) H I J K T 32. Weinmann. Druze. Gates) Ashkenazi. Turkey Italy. Cyprus. Ashkenazi. Lebanon. Canary Is. Moreno) Azores. Croatia. Afro-Caribbean match Spain. Poland. Turkey Spain. Nicaragua Cherokee Ashkenazi. Spain (LaFleur.Levites. Armenia. Czech. Armenia. Italy. India. Russia.5 . Lebanon Ashkenazi. Poland.0 16. Spain. Latvia. Sephardi. Syria. Armenia. Ashkenazi. Portugal. Table 25. Belarus. Ukraine Cherokee Table 26. Africa.1 13. Latvia Poland. Melungeon mtDNA Types and Matches (source: Melungeon DNA Project) ID Kennedy Caldwell Bruce Wilson Hill Van Horn Krapf Wilkins McKee Vaughan Beyers Cooper Botterson Mayo McGaughey Adkins Baggett Powers Mayes Davis Gordon Higdon Brown Moore Carter Allison Kenney Yates n=26 Hg K2 H3 U5a1b C J H C H H H HV J1b1 K H/H5a H H H/HV J2 H M1 H T2 H W H/H5 K U2e* Notes on Matches Turkish. Barbados Macedonia.8 4. Croatia.3 R1b I E3b J G 64. Greek. Italy. Ecuador. Sephardi. Spain Hungary M172+. many Spanish North Africa Albania. Poland Ashkenazi. Arab.7 2.0 3. Ashkenazi. Cyprus. Arab Ashkenazi.6 3. Greece. Syria. Barbados. Turkey. Serbia (Yadon.

18. Ashkenazi. Africa (Canary Islands) Rare. Sam Houston. Levy I or K. incl. Klein. Marrero. Schaefer. Zimmerman I1b (SNP tested). Sub-Saharan African E3a. Cuba. Isle of Man. Rare. Chile close to Atlantic Modal Haplotype I1a. Macedonia E3b. rare. Israel G. 23/25 match with Azores AMH 25/25 match with many Houstons. Ashkenazi Jewish E3b1. Rare. Massey. Raphaelly. Deutch. Gelley. Sellers Puerto Rico. no matches. Cantor.6 V 2. Ashkenazi Jewish Africa. Morocco. Lumbee G/G2. Rezente. Kranz. 12/12 with Africa. Chile. Balkan I1b. Sub-Saharan African . Ortiz. etc. matches other Campbells R1a R1b I1a I1a.5 X n=193 2. Melungeon Y-Chromosome Results (source: Melungeon DNA Project) ID Kennedy Caldwell Moore Ramey Wolf Blevins Leslie Chaffin Locklear Perry Wampler Morrison Skeen Hale Wallen Christy Saylor Boone Houston Campbell Cowan Cowan Baggett Newberry Forbes Stewart Givens Ney Knowles Tankersley Chaffin Caudill Moore Talley Bunch Collins Goins Notes on Matches Rodriguez E3b1. Ven. Goodheart. Longhunter family Nagle.6 W 0. Parish. Canary Islands AMH Rare. Wilde I E3a. Sub-Saharan African E3a.5 R1a U 2. Hammar. 24 marker match with Cuban. Shapiro. extremely rare I1a. other Caudills. 23/25 match with Canter in South America) Hernandez. rare.5 Table 27. matches only other Hales Exact match in Azores 24/24. Munoz. Talley.

9 3. while J and variants . Arabs. haplogroup H and its variants constituted 32% of the sample. Houston. three participants were J. Nicaragua. persons from Poland. another was U2* with no matches except in the New World. Within this much larger data set. Recap of Melungeon Y-STR Types (source: Melungeon DNA Project) Haplogroup R1b E3b I G/G2 K Number 19 3 4 2 1 Percent 65.4 n=29 The Melungeon mtDNA figures (n=26) lend support to this ethnic hypothesis. Morocco. Barbados. Armenia. Italy. The Cumberland Gap mtDNA data were even more striking (n=193). Payne. Hale.3 13. Three persons had K/K2 mitochondrial haplotypes. India and Iran – not a typical cross-section for an ostensibly British settlement. Russia and Hungary). the Azores. and one was W (with matches in Poland. Greeks. one was M (with matches in North Africa).Powers Yates Close to Wallen. center in Northern Portugal Table 28. There were 13 H haplogroup individuals (50%) with matches in several cases to Ashkenazi Jews. one was U with matches in Spain. one was T2 (with matches in the Azores. Poland and Latvia.7 6. Ozmet AMH+1. Poland and Serbia). Portugal.5 10.

6%.0 3.5 0. I1c.0 7.6 12.0 0.composed 13.9% of the sample. There was very little Native American admixture found in the Cumberland Gap female population. V.3%.1) 9.0 13.0 4.0) 0.0 0.0 55. with U*. containing substantial nonEuropean DNA. W and X.6 8.1 2.0) 0.0 0. Also reported were trace levels of U6.3 12.5) 7.0 Mexico New Mexico 55. T was 10.3 0.9 (15.4 12. J2 G.0 72.0 (0. I. Unlike the Cumberland Gap Project.7 0.7 9.1 9.8 0. U5a was 11.0 0. Perhaps the most striking statistic is the relatively modest amount of haplogroup H.0 30.6 (56.0 Azores* Cuba Puerto Rico 49. U3 and U4 making up another 5. but here only 32%. **New Mexico DNA Project (Sephardim-New Mexico Project).0 0.9 5.4 1.0 *Very small sample.0 (0.2 (4. U2. and K was 8. This indicates that the gene pool of Appalachia is unusual compared to most sections of the USA.5 0.7 (1.2) 18. I1b J. Summary of Sephardic Y-Haplotype Distribution.5) 61. J1.9%.3 (18. N=13.5 5. Table 29.5) 0. usually as high as 50% in Western European populations. in our view these differences point to a divergence between the Appalachian population and the Melungeon subpopulation with more indigenous ancestry being found in the latter.8 2.2) 3. Haplogroup Canary Islands R1b E3b I.5 6.7 0.9 0.8 0. G2 K2 O3 R1a1 55.5 (4. .0 8.3%.4 11.8 11.9 17.3 2. the Melungeon sample did contain a significant number of Native American lineages.

i. then.5. remarkably close to the 55% R1b and 14% I found across the Canary. and the (small sample) Canadian Anusim Project had R1b of 28. where R1b = 68%.G2 in Northern Spain (8%) and K2 in Cadiz (10%). The collective J haplogroups averaged 7. the Sephardim New Mexico. E3b = 10%.3% and I 3.6) and Melungeon (R1b = 65.DISCUSSION Table 31 summarizes the Y chromosome haplogroup findings for several of the studies we have discussed in the present analysis.5% across the New World Sephardic studies. Azores. and haplogroup G had a mean of 5. These patterns were borne out in those DNA samples specifically intended to assess Marrano/Converso/Anusim heritage. Recall that the New Mexico Sephardim had an R1b proportion of 56. we should compare these to the overall haplogroup distribution found in modern Spain. with overall averages of 10 % and 14 %..3% and I was 11%. We also found strong and consistent support for the presence of the E3b and I haplogroups among communities of New World Sephardim.2%. I = 13%. These statistics are also relatively consistent with the figures obtained for the Cumberland Gap (R1b = 63. Across these studies some substantial consistencies were found in the Sephardic New World haplogroup profile. respectively.3%.J2 = 3% and there are pockets of G. Anousim and Canadian Anusim Projects. .1% and I of 15. R1b averaged 52. J1. Mexico and New Mexico samples. Finally. There were also ‗trace‘ levels of K and R1a1 in some of the samples. First.6% . the Anousim Project figures were R1b 72. I = 16. across all the studies the R1b haplogroup was found to be predominant. Cuba. Puerto Rico.97.7) DNA Projects.6% and I of 14. with an average representation of over 55%. Across these three specifically Sephardic samples.4%.e. I = 13.

It is important to recognize. and that. From our earlier analysis of the available DNA data on Ashkenazi populations. we believe that it is likely that both of these major Jewish groups were initiated by Hebrew males carrying the J1 haplotype who migrated out of the Middle East from 500 BCE onward and spread to various parts of the Greek and Roman Empires. India and Africa from antiquity onwards. we believe that the data indicate that some New World Sephardic communities were established through extensive intermarriage with indigenous women. for example Puerto Rico and New Mexico. Asia. while others were founded by women who were likely already Jewish or Muslim and whose ancestors originated in the Middle East or Mediterranean. One‘s earliest Jewish ancestors need not have come from the Middle Eastern lands of Canaan. in general. Judah or Israel . Spain and Portugal. These Semitic-haplogroup-bearing males seem to have served as ‗seeds‘ who established the Jewish faith and practices in several distant lands and attracted the non-Semitic-haplotype-bearing males whose descendants now compose the majority of both Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jewry. for example Cuba and the Cumberland Gap. From a mitochondial DNA perspective. we believe that it may be tentatively concluded that the majority of Sephardim present in New World communities were the descendants of converts drawn from the southwestern Atlantic and western Mediterranean regions of what are present day France. just as was the case in Jewish colonies in Europe.Given this pattern. Indeed what the present DNA data show is the enduring vitality and perseverance of Judaism as a way of life and religious tradition – in all its myriad manifestations. the haplogroup pattern of the male New World Sephardim closely resembles that of modern Spain. that both these types of New World Sephardic community supported a Jewish/CryptoJewish culture. however.

Gerber (1992). The Thirteenth Tribe: The Khazar Empire and Its Heritage (New York: Random House.shealtiel. New York. 1993). ―Guanches. New York: W.‖ articles in JewishEncyclopedia. Kyle McCarter. 23 Wexler. 1991). For most modern-day Jews. Albany. The Free Press. who points out that whereas a great many families claim descent legitimately from Rashi. (1992) The Jews of Spain. available online at http://www. (2000). He responds to the article ―Can We Prove Descent from King David?‖ by David Einsiedler. and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area. becoming Jewish was a choice made within the last 1000 to 1500 years – a choice in which all of us should rejoice. 1999). 15 L. Judaism and Hellenism in Antiquity (Seattle: 1998). 6. (1996). ―Origin.‖ American Journal of Human Genetics 74 (2004):1023-34. 17 Arthur Koestler. State University of New York Press. 1 Benbassa.. 7. T. (2000). Cecil (1937) The Spanish Inquisition. 20 ―Apulia‖ and ―Bari. 2 Benbassa and Rodrique. P. Norton.com. Jane S.W. Levine. 22 Ibid. and Donald N. I. Berkely. Shaye Cohen. Hellenistic Culture and Society (Los Angeles: University of California Press. unless otherwise noted. (1992) 10 Gerber. Diffusion. (2000) 4 Benbassa and Rodrique (2000). 16 Paul Wexler. Note that virtually all these ―Davidic pedigrees‖ begin around 900-1100. for instance..org/Rabbinic/journal/descent.in order to have played a significant role in the continuation of Judaism over the past 5000 or so years. the most famous Talmudic scholar.‖ . Paul.v. Roth .. Gerber (1992) 5 Benbassa and Rodrique. 21 Wexler. about 2000 years after King David‘s time. others have gone farther and claimed descent through Rashi to King David. (2000) Sephardi Jewry. The Canary Islands through History (Madrid: Madrid University Press. Ancient Israel: A Short History from Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple (Biblical Archaeology Society. When Scotland Was Jewish (New York: McFarland. 9 Gerber. 12 Thus. The Non-Jewish Origins of the Sephardic Jews.jewishgen.. forthcoming 2007).‖ Human Genetics 114 (2004):354-65. Uncertainties. 19 Ornella Semino et al. Ashkenazic Jews: A Slavo-Turkic People in Search of a Jewish Identity (Slavica Publishing. in an article titled ―Can We Claim Descent from David?‖ at www. The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries.htm. 18 Doron M. Varieties. Roth (1937) 6 Gerber( 1992) 7 Wexler. chapter 5. Gerber. Behar et al. 1978). including certainly the bulk of Sepharad. Roth (1937) 3 Benbassa and Rodrique. Yates. 24 Most of this history is drawn from Salvador Lopez Herrera. ―Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host NonJewish European Populations. 25 S. 12-13. Guanchis or Guanchos. 8 Hirschman Elizabeth C. Esther and Aron Rodrigue. (1992) 11 Hirschman and Yates.html. 14 J. University of California Press .org/david. Moshe Shealtiel-Gracian discusses Shealtiel Family Davidic Descent. no proof or real documentation has been offered for any unbroken Davidic descent. See Rabbinic Special Interest Group Online Journal. 1976). 13 For instance. Both scholars conclude that whereas King David may well have thousands of descendants among us today.

N1b. Norton. these historical notes come from T. 2000). Origins of New Mexico Families in the Spanish Colonial Period 1598-1820 (Santa Fe: Historical Society of New Mexico. however. New Christians began to pour into the colony. It was here that the planting of sugarcane was first perfected. they were an important steppingstone to the Americas. H.wikipedia. 21%.‖ from RUFINA@NETACTIVE. after various attacks by the local bishop and rectors of the Jesuit college at Funchal. W. 87-88. ―mtDNA Affinities of the Peoples of North-Central Mexico. 32 We are not aware of any DNA project for the Madeiras. available at www. 1992). 34 Notes on Cuba‘s history are based on Clifford L. 2003).‖ in Carrion. . Atlantic Islands: Madeira. 2-9. Hordes.org/wiki/History_of_Mexico. 2001).: ISAC Press. According to Mordecai Arbell.org/surnames/surnames. 44 ―Sephardic Population Figures through History. the new settlers were primarily petty criminals. but these islands were also havens for Sephardic Jews.com/html/lore. 32. 1954). 106. 33 Duncan. Caro Costas. No figures were provided for Sephardic female DNA. 37 This overview of Mexican history is based on a Wikipedia article available at en. 28 Taylor. To the End of the Earth. Pioneer Jews. 760-900 ( New York: Columbia University Press. Bentley Duncan. ―The Organization of an Institutional and Social Life. along with sugar refining. 2002). Paul H. James N.‖ American Journal of Human Genetics 66 (2000):989-98. 30-32.ZA. The Madeiras lay closest to Portugal and were first settled in 1419. Staten. 1983).htm. 29 According to the 2004 Behar study. see Arthur Zuckerman.hgrc-nm. A New Life in the Far West (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean (Jerusalem: Gefen. 41 See the Great New Mexico Pedigree Database Project at http://www. By the end of the 16th century. 1972).html. 7%. Ashkenazi mtDNA is distributed as follows: K. 29-30. The History of Cuba (New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 33%. 31 Unless otherwise specified. The famous rabbi Menashe Ben Israel was probably born in Madeira. and J1. Green. the Azores and the Cape Verdes in the Seventeenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago). 43 On Narbonne. 2005). the Man (Columbus. 40 Angelico Chavez. 35 Sketch drawn from Arturo Morales Carrion. Jews began emigrating to Amsterdam and Brazil. A Jewish Princedom in Feudal France. American Colonies: The Settling of North America (New York: Penguin Books. Puerto Rico: A Political and Cultural History (New York: W. Derr and Alec Knight. At first.CO. 36 Aida R.sephardim.26 27 Alan Taylor. but under Manuel I. A History of the Crypto-Jews of New Mexico (New York: Columbia University Press. 10%. Columbus. 42 Stanley M. When the Jews who pioneered these processes moved on to Brazil at the invitation of the Portuguese governor Duarte Coelho Pereira sugar refining expertise went with them. Ga. 38 Lance D. Chapman. 39 Harriet and Fred Rochlin.

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