You are on page 1of 112

2

Complete Olympic Lifting Program Manual 2013, Athletes Acceleration, Inc./FORCE Fitness PO Box 3178 North Attleboro, MA 02760 877.510.3278 All rights reserved Complete Olympic Lifting Program Manual is published by Athletes Acceleration, Inc. and FORCE Fitness. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, for any reason or by any means, whether re-drawn, enlarged or otherwise altered including mechanical, photocopy, digital storage & retrieval or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing from both the copyright owner and the publisher. The text, layout and designs presented in this book, as well as the book in its entirety, are protected by the copyright laws of the United States (17 U.S.C. 101 et seq.) and similar laws in other countries. Scanning, uploading and/or distribution of this book, or any designs or photographs contained herein, in whole or part (whether re-drawn, re- photographed or otherwise altered) via the Internet, CD, DVD, E-zine, photocopied hand-outs, or any other means (whether offered for free or for a fee) without the expressed written permission from both the copyright owner and the publisher is illegal and punishable by law. The copyright owner and publisher of this book appreciate your honesty and integrity and ask that you do not participate in or encourage piracy of copyrighted material. Be sure to purchase (or download) only authorized material. Manuscript layout by NiTROhype Creative www.nitrohype.com Cover design by Pixel Mobb All photos courtesy FORCE Fitness, Bloomington, IN PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

COMPLETE OLYMPIC LIFTING PROGRAM MANUAL

FORCE Fitness/Bloomington Athletic Revolution Bloomington, Indiana

WIL FLEMING, CSCS, USAW

TOBY BROOKS, PhD, ATC, CSCS (Editor)


Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Lubbock, Texas

www.CompleteOlympicLifting.com

TABLE of CONTENTS
Introduction...........................................7 Power Clean...........................................12 Jerk...................................................42 Snatch..................................................63 Loading the Olympic Lifts........................87 Sample Programs...................................92 About the Author..................................108

My attitude is that if you push me towards something that you think is a weakness, then I will turn that perceived weakness into a strength. -Michael Jordan

INTRO

1
7

Intro
have been completing, competing, and coaching the Olympic lifts for over half of my life. I am 30 and I started lifting seriously 15 years ago. The actual date was November 20th, 1997. I recall it vividly enough to know the exact date. Obviously it was an impactful time in my life. I can recall being a total newbie on the platform just as vividly as I can recall winning a national title in the sport and just as vividly as I can recall the first meet that I ever coached. I remember the athlete that I was before learning Olympic lifting: 5.2 second 40 yd dash, 155 lbs. 165 lb power clean max. I also remember the athlete I became after learning to Olympic lift: 4.5 second 40 yd dash, 215 lbs, 402 lb power clean max. The point is not to brag, but to relate to you that you do not have to spend half of your life in the weight room or on the platform to learn what I have learned. You can take athletes from no knowledge in the sport and the lifts to absolute beasts. The point is that I can relate to the place you or your athletes are in. My half lifetime of experience has been poured into this manual and the accompanying DVD, Complete Olympic Lifting. The Olympic lifts are some of the most explosive and dynamic demonstrations of power in any form of athletics. Contrary to popular opinion, athletes at nearly all levels can be taught the basics, the groundwork for dynamic athletic development, the Olympic lifts, and their derivatives. This manual and DVD represent a proven and efficient approach to do so. Olympic weightlifting, the sport, has been practiced since the first modern Olympic games in 1896. Weightlifting events (with some changes) have been contested at every Olympic Summer Games since 1920. Originally there were only five weight classes in competition; however, todays lifters compete in eight weight classes for men and seven for women.

The Olympic lifts are some of the most explosive and dynamic demonstrations of power in any form of athletics.

The standard competition lifts in todays competitive weightlifting include the clean and jerk and the snatch. Contemporary training includes the clean and its variations (clean pull, hang clean, power clean, etc), the snatch and its variations (hang snatch, muscle snatch, clean grip snatch, snatch pull), and the jerk and its variations (power jerk, split jerk) as well as progressions and regressions of starting positions and ending positions for each movement. The sport of competitive weightlifting has been around for over more than 100 years ,but it is only within the last half century that general athletes have included weightlifting in their training programming. Most sources suggest that collegiate strength coach and competitive Olympic lifter Alvin Roy of Louisiana State University first introduced Olympic weightlifting movements to the Tiger football team in the 1950s. The team went on to win the 1958 NCAA football national championship. Since that time, the popularity of Olympic lifting in the training of athletes has only grown. Today, thousands of high school, college, and professional teams use the Olympic lifts to help their athletes become faster and more explosive on the field and court.

Benefits of Olympic Lifts


Gain Power and Trigger Hypertrophic Changes
In terms of pure power output, very little that athletes can do in the weight room compares to the Olympic lifts. For example, the power output of a power clean is triple that of the bench press, squat, or deadlift. Prolonged anaerobic resistance training results in an increase in muscle fiber cross sectional area, ultimately leading to muscular hypertrophy. High resistance and highspeed movements such as the Olympic lifts rely primarily upon high-threshold motor units composed primarily of powerproducing type II muscle fibers. Improved activation of type II fibers improves power output and continued exposure leads to hypertrophic gains.

Improve Sports Performance

Increasing speed and strength are the fastest ways to get better on the field. By training with loads at high velocities, movements such as the clean, snatch, and the jerk are the best tools to simultaneously train both qualities. Many of the most important tasks in sports rely on well-timed sequential movements. The timing of the power clean mimics many of those movements and shares many qualities in common. This improved timing is a critical tool in improving sports performance.

Get Stronger

I have not encountered many people that are legitimately strong in the power clean that are not also strong squatters, deadlifters, and many times even bench pressers. The power clean is a great total body movement that develops type II muscle fibers throughout the muscular system. If an athlete has the strength to get in great positions for the power clean, they most often have the strength to move serious weight around in the rest of the weight room. The associated hypertrophy of type II muscle fibers leads to increases in maximal strength similar to and even greater than traditional power lifting techniques. Empirically, athletes who train with Olympic lifts produce greater maximal force output than even power lifters who train more frequently and with greater relative loads. The Olympic lifts are a very efficient way to get strong.

Teaching Order
The associated DVD is arranged into the following chapters: Assessment and Pre-Requisite Movements The Clean The Snatch The Jerk

10

All athletes should go through the steps outlined in the assessment and the pre-requisite movements. This video chapter will demonstrate which athletes are prepared for Olympic lifting and the movements necessary to move them onto the platform. Start here. Each chapter on a lift (clean, snatch, and jerk) contains a specific sequence to teach the individual lift. For athletes who are prepared to lift, following this order of progressions will prepare them well. The lifts themselves may also be prioritized by which should be taught first and which has the highest priority. The following represents the appropriate order in which the lifts should be taught. Hang Clean Power JerkPower CleanSplit JerkHang SnatchPower SnatchSquat CleanSquat Snatch This order goes by priority and the ease with which a movement may be taught to athletes.

Each chapter on a lift (clean, snatch and jerk) contains a specific sequence to teach the individual lift.

Program Manual Design


The rest of this manual is a breakdown of each of the three main lifts. The clean and snatch are broken down from the power clean and progressed through several variations, and the jerk is broken down from the split jerk and progressed through several variations. This manual should not be viewed as complete without the accompanying DVD. Enjoy!

11

POWER CLEAN

12

Power Clean

raining for power is undoubtedly one of the most important aspects of becoming a better athlete. Athletes who want to get faster, stronger, and bigger need to train to improve power. Fortunately, many programs include the power clean for just that purpose. Rather unfortunately, though, many athletes perform this movement incorrectly, get injured, or never become proficient at the lift and, as a result, fail to reap the benefits. I have taken everything that I know about the power clean and put it to paper (or cyberspace) for your enjoyment and education. This is a step-by-step guide to help you get better, stop missing lifts, and see all the benefits of one of my favorite lifts. Before I get to all the technical stuff, why should you power clean in the first place?

Unique Benefits of Power Cleaning


The Heaviest Olympic lift
One of the biggest benefits of the clean specifically is that it is the Olympic lift in which most people can usually find the most comfort quickly and, in turn, can use the greatest load quickly. The impact of greater loading cannot be understated on the development of type II muscle fibers. Motor unit recruitment occurs through necessity, and while the initial impact of moving things fast will be enough to recruit large type II fibers, adaptation will occur quickly. A greater load must be handled to continue recruiting, training, and taxing

One of the biggest benefits of the clean specifically is that it is the Olympic lift in which most people can usually find the most comfort quickly and, in turn, can use the greatest load quickly.

13

large type II fibers. The clean and related movements allow the athlete to load heavier and more quickly, allowing for continued fast twitch motor unit recruitment.

Speak a Universal Language

Athletes in programs across the globe typically have a very similar big three lifts. These most often consist of the clean, squat, and bench. Even if an athlete participates in an awesome program that has a big five or a big six, cleaning is likely a part of that system. Speaking this universal language is important for athletes to be successful at all levels.

How to Power Clean: The Start Position


Cover the Shoelaces Establishing the right distance between your body and the bar is essential to completing the power clean correctly.
Establishing the correct distance between the body and the bar is essential to completing the power clean correctly. An athlete positioned too close to the bar will need to move forward off the floor, thus creating a poor pulling position. If the athlete is too far away, the bar will need to move back and the athlete will once again be in the wrong position. Setting up with the bar covering the bow on the shoelaces as the athlete sees it from above establishes proper positioning to begin. By placing the bar in this midfoot range, the barbell is centered over a rigid support (the arch) rather than a less rigid area like the toes. For athletes who are taller, this guideline may need to be adjusted slightly forward. Similarly, shorter athletes may need to adjust slightly closer to the bar.

Flat Feet

14

While the athletic benefits of the clean and snatch have been addressed previously, the snatch and the clean should not be completed on the ball of the foot like many other athletic movements. Stability is the name of the game when it comes to the Olympic lifts, and in the case of setting up for the clean, stability comes from being in an optimal balance of weight toward the forefoot and the heel.

This optimal balance position is referred to as the tripod foot position. This means that the athlete should have the weight balanced between three points of contact on each foot. These three points of contact include: The joint at the base of the big toe (first metatarsophalangeal joint) The joint at the base of the little toe (fifth metatarsophalangeal joint) The heel (calcaneus). An optimal interplay between weight at each point in the tripod will keep the athlete balanced throughout the lift. Using this strategy will also allow for corrections to be made in balance throughout the lift. If the athlete is too far forward, then more weight should be distributed to the heels. If the toes come off the ground, then more weight should be distributed to the forefoot. This knowledge can allow the coach and/or athlete to readily see where an improvement can be made to the lift.

Jump Width Feet

The vertical jump is used as the indicator of lower body power during performance testing. The foot position most athletes naturally use when jumping is likely to be the same as should be employed to begin the power clean. With the feet around hip width apart, the athlete will be able to direct force into the ground in the most efficient way possible. Setting up too wide directs much of the force outward rather than toward the ground. An athlete with a hip mobility restriction may need to adjust the stance wider than jump width to achieve a safe position from the ground.

Figure 2.1: Proper foot width

15

Seriously Brace the Core

A strong core is necessary to maintain the torso position from the ground up through the first and second pull. The only way to ensure that this occurs is to pre-brace the core before the lift begins. Once oriented to the bar, the athlete should establish the brace position while standing. More advanced lifters may release the brace during the lift; however, it is important to establish this contraction before placing the hands on the bar.

RDL to the Knees

Finally, the athlete can begin moving toward the bar. From the standing position, the athlete has three choices to get the hands to the bar; however, only one is correct. The athlete could choose to flex the knees to take the hands lower to the ground, but ankle mobility is a limitation of this approach. The athlete could also choose to flex the spine to make the way to the bar, but this too is incorrect and can lead to serious lumbar spine injury. Lastly, the athlete can hip hinge toward the bar. To make the descent to the bar resting on the floor, the first movement is a RDL or hip hinge movement. This will trigger a hip loaded pattern that allows for a powerful hip extension later in the movement. The athlete should only hinge until the hands are at the level of the kneecaps and should also and remember that if the hips stop moving posteriorly during movement, the movement is no longer considered a hip hinge.

16

Figure 2.2: Hinge position

Squat to the Bar

To finish the descent to the bar, the athlete will need to cease moving the hips back in space. The athlete will now need to move toward the bar by squatting or moving the hips down in space. The athlete will be able to maintain the same relationship to the bar on the X axis but will gain the knee flexion necessary to start the bar off the ground. Depending on the athletes height, the knees may be slightly over the bar but should not glide forward more than a couple inches. Using the cue squat to the bar is a great way to relate this novel position to something that is familiar to most athletes.

Eyes Forward, Neck Straight

Once the hands meet the bar, a neutral spine posture must be assumed. Oftentimes, I see cervical hyperextension which will likely contribute to greater lumbar hyperextension. With greater lumbar hyperextension, the athlete will likely put more strain on the low back. There is much contention to the idea that a neutral neck be used. Many elite weightlifters use a head position that would be considered cervical hyperextension. This technique has even been described in a few published sources that have suggested such posture may help generate greater tension in the spinal erectors that may actually be of benefit the lifter. However, realistically we are not likely coaching elite weightlifters destined for Olympic greatness. In the interest of preventing unnecessary lumbar spine strain, positioning the neck in a neutral is the right call for most athletes.

Using the cue squat to the bar is a great way to relate this novel position to something that is familiar to most athletes.

Figure 2.3: Neck position on the bar

17

Lock the Lats Down, Keep the Core Tight

On the neutral spine idea, we have to think of ways to brace the core. Typical bracing will do well, but including the cue to lock down the lats can aid in the stiffening of the core and will also allow the athlete to keep the bar close to the body at the moment of lift-off. Keeping the bar close to the body will assist in maintaining a tight lifter-barbell system.

Knuckles Back, Arms Straight

In an effort to maintain a tight lifter-barbell system and keep the bar close to the body, a knuckles back cue will lead to a forward shoulder lean, pronation and extension at the wrists, and internal rotation at the shoulder. The arms will be straight while the bar is on the ground. For some athletes, it is easy to keep the arms straight by thinking of relaxation at the elbows, while for others it is important to cue elbow extension (lock out) when the bar is on the floor.

The Hook Grip


Rationale It is necessary to use the hook grip to pick up more significant loads.
There are two ways to grasp the bar in the power clean. The first is the simple grip in which the athlete grabs the bar with an overhand grip and thumbs wrapped around the bar. This grip will not be sufficient to lift heavier weights. It is necessary to use the hook grip to pick up more significant loads. The only reasons a simple grip should be employed is in the case of a thumb injury or some other lack of mobility in the thumb.

Performance

The hook grip is actually pretty simple to complete. The athlete grasps the bar overhand like normal and before wrapping the fingers closed, places the thumb inside the grip. Simple. There may be some discomfort in maintaining this grip for novice athletes, but this most often diminishes over time. (Note: The athlete should avoid trimming the thumbnails too short before using the hook grip, as such is typically painful).

18

Width

The width of the grip in the power clean should be shoulder width or slightly wider. While many athletes use certain lines on the bar to determine where to place the hands, not all athletes are able to use high-end bars for training. As a result, it is necessary to have a way to make sure athletes are able to grasp any bar with the correct grip. From a standing position, the athlete should be able to grip the bar in a position that allows for the thumbs to be fully extended and to be in contact with the hips/upper thigh. This width is sufficiently wide enough to achieve a strong racked position, allows for the possibility of a jerk later on, and is not dependent on markings or knurlings on the a bar.

How to Power Clean: The Start


Static Start
The static start looks just as the coach might expect it to look: motionless. Once the athlete has achieved the start position described above, he or she should remain motionless for up to several seconds and then begin the initial lift off. This method is great for beginners because there is no variation to the start position once it is initially achieved. The downside to using a static start position is a reduction in power from the floor. Additionally, many athletes find the start position to be relatively uncomfortable to maintain for long periods of time. There are actually several ways to complete a dynamic start, but each aims to develop acceleration of the torso before lifting the barbell from the ground. Rocking can be thought of as a less dynamic dynamic start. The athlete will begin with the pelvis higher than the bar and begin movement of the torso to the appropriate angle to begin the lift off. This movement is smooth and the torso will shift from a horizontal relationship with the platform to a more vertical relationship. Once in the vertical torso position, the athlete should begin a transition to the lift off position. Once that position is achieved, the lift off should begin.

Dynamic Start

Dynamic Start: Rocking Start

19

Figure 2.4: Hips very low

20

Figure 2.5: Hips low

Dynamic Start: Pumping Start

The pumping start can begin with one or two pumps but is the more dynamic dynamic start. The athlete will start with hips higher than the bar, quickly drop the hips to the appropriate start position, and execute the lift off. A second pump can occur by bringing the hips up one more time and then down again to the bar (down-up, down-up). The athlete should be careful in this very dynamic start to avoid shifting the weight forward to the toes.

Figure 2.6: Hips normal

Figure 2.7: Hips high

21

How to Power Clean: The Performance of the First Pull


Drive Through the Heels
At the moment of lift off, the athlete should think drive through the heels but maintain contact with the platform with the entire foot. The drive through the heels cue can be misleading if the athlete removes the weight from the toe during the lift off. Using drive through the heels is an effort to ensure that the athlete does not come off the toes while lifting off.

Knees Back, Translate the Torso

The initial lift off from the floor should be completed by extending through the knees. Driving the knees back but lifting the torso is the goal of movement. The torso should remain in the same relationship to the ground (approximately 30 degrees above horizontal) throughout the first pull. In this way, the athlete should attempt to translate the torso vertically through space. This will maintain the powerful RDL/hips loaded position above the knee. The knees should continue driving back until almost reaching extension as the bar begins to pass the knee.

Bar Sweeps Back

A big mistake I see many athletes make often is jerking the bar from the ground. The first pull should not be a violent movement.

Up to this point, we have spoken much about the position and movement of the body in the power clean. However, the bar does make a slight movement off the floor back toward the body to maintain the tight lifter-barbell system.

Slow Off the Floor

22

A big mistake I see many athletes make often is jerking the bar from the ground. The first pull should not be a violent movement. Instead, it should be smooth and may even appear slow. A goal of the first pull is to set up the second, more violent, pull. A fast first pull will likely inhibit the athletes ability to be efficient in the second pull.

At the Knees

Once the bar is at the knees, several things should be occurring. However, this is a difficult place to coach or cue the athlete because the system is already in motion. It is, however, a great place to break down video and make adjustments to later lifts. The feet should be flat so the athlete can transition correctly for the second pull. The hips should still be higher than the knees and very little hip extension should have occurred up to this point with the majority of movement stemming from knee extension. The torso should still be roughly 30 degrees above horizontal. Additionally, the arms should also remain straight at this point, as an athlete who has flexed the arms will have difficulty completing the second pull.

Figure 2.8: Bar at knees

23

How to Power Clean: The Performance of the Second Pull


Creating the Triangle
A really important concept that I like to teach my athletes is that once in the above knee position, they have created a power triangle. This triangle consists of the entire arm, the torso, and the angle of the hips. From this point on, the only goal and the only way to make a successful second pull is to flatten, or close the triangle. This is a vivid image that can help any athlete hit the correct positions.

Close the Triangle

Once above the knees, it is important that the athlete does not rush the bar just yet. Rushing the bar at this point will be apparent when the knees begin to migrate anteriorly (slide forward) under the bar immediately after the bar passes the knees. This movement does not close the triangle. The only way to close the triangle is to begin driving the hips forward into hip extension. The speed of the bar has started to increase at this point, but is not at its maximum just yet. The bar will be in a mid-thigh position by this point.

Knees Forward (Scoop/Double Knee Bend) The fact is, in a good power clean, knee flexion will occur to align the body in a position to create vertical movement.

Much is made about knee flexion during the second pull. In fact, numerous articles and opinion pieces have been written about the double knee bend. The fact is, in a good power clean, knee flexion will occur to align the body in a position to create vertical movement. Pure hip extension from the above knee position will create too much horizontal projection and the athlete will jump forward. To counteract this, it is necessary to perform the double knee bend (or scoop, or transition) for vertical projection. It is highly debatable as to whether this fact should be coached, or even mentioned to a novice lifter. This movement is a natural phenomenon that is easily seen in typical jumping mechanics.

Finish the Hips and Knees

24

Once the bar has reached a high thigh position and the torso has come to nearly vertical, the hips and knees will both be near full extension. At this point, the athlete should finish

driving the hips and knees into extension. Athletes will often drive up through the toes in this phase and will achieve full extension. This is the highest speed portion of the entire lift. It is worth mentioning one quick note on the finish for the pull. As I have lifted more and more and trained higher level athletes, it has become apparent that plantarflexion of the ankle (sometimes improperly referred to as ankle extension) is not a part of the pull. This is NOT something to be coached. At best, ankle plantarflexion is a result of a powerful second pull or a mechanism of pulling under the bar. At worst, ankle extension makes it difficult for the athlete to get back under the bar as it increases the distance that an athlete must travel to get the heels to the ground and the hips in the right position. When observing elite lifters, such athletes will often demonstrate what amounts to a flat-footed pull. This flat foot position is a trained efficiency. To coach this position encourages the athlete to complete as much of the lift as possible without extending to the toes. Heels, heels, heels, toes! is the common cue used in my gym to coach athletes in the right position and tempo.

Relaxed Arms, Elbows High

After the power spike of the second pull, the bar will have significant momentum and it is important to take advantage of it. Just as a boxer keeps the arms relaxed before throwing a punch, maintaining a relaxed arm is important for maximal speed later. The elbows should remain out and above the bar to guide the bar in a path that is tight to the body.

Figure 2.9: High pull

25

Punch the Elbows

The athletes arms have stayed relaxed to a great degree up to this point, but once the athlete hits the high pull position it is time to use the arms forcefully. The action of the arms at this phase is best described as punching the elbows up. The elbow punch will result in a receiving position that is high on the shoulders, meaning that the weight will not be resting on the wrists (generally a weak point) but instead will be in line with the center of gravity. An effort to flip the wrists will usually lead to a low catch on the chest and a need for the athlete to roll the bar up the chest.

Hips Back, Feet Flat

This step should occur simultaneously with the elbow punch. The athlete should aim to receive the bar in an athletic position just as if landing from a jump. A cue that is very useful is to instruct the athlete to think toe, heel, hip, meaning toes to the ground, heels follow, and hips go down and away from the bar. The athlete should widen the feet slightly from a hip width/jump width stance to a shoulder width/squat width stance while receiving the bar. The athlete should also have very little forward or backward travel when receiving the bar.

26

Figure 2.10: Receiving clean position

Figure 2.11: Receiving clean position

Power Clean Variations


Starting Position Variations: Hang Clean
The power clean from the hang position is a great teaching tool to use with athletes and can even be used as your primary way to train athletes with the clean. The clean from the hang position will help the athlete develop better ability to use the stretch shortening cycle. The hang clean can be done from the above knee position or a mid thigh position (other positions as well, but these are the primary ones to employ for athletes). In each of these positions, the athlete will just need to employ the same strategy of closing the triangle that they do as the bar passes their knees in the power clean.

Starting Position Variations: Clean from Blocks

The clean from the blocks is a great way to teach any athlete to learn core lifts. This position allows the athlete be placed in proper alignment for starting from any position (mid-thigh, above knee, below knee). This is a great teaching tool for beginners as well as a great way to learn different portions of the lift that may be challenging for some athletes (transition around knee)

27

Figure 2.12: Hang clean start

Figure 2.13: Hang clean finish

28

Figure 2.14: Clean from blocks start

Figure 2.15: Clean from blocks finish

29

Variations in Receiving Position


Split Clean
The split clean is a veritable blast from the past, as it was employed by many athletes as the primary way to complete the movement in competition for a number of years. For athletes, the split clean should be used as a way to provide variation to the program and to help the athlete become accustomed to absorbing force in a single leg stance. After full extension is reached, the athlete punches the lead knee up and drives the trailing foot back and into the platform. Ideally, the athlete will land with a vertical shin on the lead leg, similar to the 90-90 position employed in a split squat.

Figure 2.16: Split clean start

30

Figure 2.17: Split clean finish

Squat Clean

It takes a special athlete to be able to complete a full squat clean with good form. Many athletes will lack the mobility to attain the proper positions to receive the bar. The worlds most explosive athletes use this technique to complete the clean in competition, so the upside in terms of potential weight used is great. The full clean is an even greater total body exercise because of the need for great leg strength to come up from the full front squat position.

Figure 2.18: Squat clean start

Figure 2.19: Squat clean middle

31

Figure 2.20: Squat clean finish

Common Power Clean Flaws and Coaching Cues


The Bar Drifts Away at the Start
At the moment of lift off, the bar and lifter should be closely linked. A bar that drifts away early on the floor is likely an issue that can be addressed through modification of the start position. The athlete should be cued to keep the bar tight by locking down the lats and locking in the core. The coach should also ensure that the athlete does not have the bar too far over the toes at the start position and also ensure good drive through flat feet at lift off.

32

Figure 2.21: Bar away from body

The Bar Moves Around the Knees

The bar moving around the knees is a very common problem that can significantly inhibit the athletes ability to make a great second pull, with two likely causes: At the start position the athletes shins are too far forward and over the bar. This will cause the athlete to make a loop anterior to the knees before the second pull.

Figure 2.22: Shins forward

The athletes torso is too vertical when the bar is at knee level. When pulling from the ground to the knee, the goal is to keep the torso in a constant position relative to the ground (~30 degrees). When the torso becomes too vertical, the athlete is essentially pulling the bar back and the knees have likely become less extended, thereby requiring the bar to go around the knees before the second pull begins.

Figure 2.23: Vertical torso

33

The Athlete Racks the Bar with Elbows Down

This is a very common issue and can be caused by several things: The athlete is pulling with arms flexed. When pulling with the elbows flexed, the athletes ability to punch the elbows around the bar is decreased. The athlete is not completing the second pull. If the athlete does not complete the second pull, the chest will likely remain over the bar and this will not allow enough time to punch the elbows through, thereby causing the bar to be received with the elbows down. The athlete lacks latissimus mobility to receive the bar correctly. Any athlete who lacks the requisite mobility to receive the bar will not be physically able to rotate the elbows around to the correct receiving position. Including more latissimus mobility work and thoracic extension training in the warm-up period will be a good long-term fix for such a problem.

Jumping forward when receiving the bar is a classic sign that of incomplete extension of the hips during the second pull.

The Athlete Jumps Forward When Catching the Bar

Jumping forward when receiving the bar is a classic sign that of incomplete extension of the hips during the second pull. When the hips are not fully extended, the bar will begin to drift forward and the only way that the athlete can complete the lift is to jump forward to the bar. A second likely cause may involve the elbows being positioned behind the bar following completion of the second pull. When this occurs, the bar and lifter system is no longer tight. Instead, a gap is created between the bar and the body. Most often, the athlete instinctively tries to close the gap by jumping forward to the bar.

The Athlete Jumps Back When Catching the Bar

34

Lets first say that some coaches do teach a backward movement at the catch. While rationale may vary, it is likely that such individuals feel that this action promotes full hip extension. Traveling back to receive the bar is likely caused

by directing momentum backward rather than vertically in the completion of the second pull. Alternatively, the coach can cue the athlete to move the head vertically toward the ceiling rather than extending or throwing the head back while completing the pull.

The Athlete Jumps With the Feet Out When Catching the Bar

Ahhh, the starfish. I am not a fan. Athletes who jump the feet out are looking to get to the finish position the fastest way possible. This problem can lead to really awkward and dangerous receiving positions and must be eliminated quickly. The easiest way to do so is to create a visual stimulus that will reinforce correct technique. A Murray Cross (below) can be used to provide immediate feedback regarding appropriate foot placement during reception of the bar.

Figure 2.24: Murray Cross

35

Accessory Lifts to Fix a Faulty Power Clean


Clean Pull
The clean pull is a partial lift that involves a finish in complete hip and elbow extension without racking the bar. The clean pull can be performed from any start position (floor, hang, blocks) and is a great tool to develop positional power for the power clean. For increasing power as it pertains to the power clean only, the clean pull should be performed at 110% of the (X)RM where X is the number of reps the athlete is doing in that particular set. For example, if an athlete can clean 100 kg for three reps, clean pulls for the same athlete should be loaded at 110 kg for three reps. Similarly, if an athlete can clean 120 kg for five reps, clean pulls should be loaded at 132 kg for five reps. The starting position that is used in the clean pull should be determined by the weakest aspect of the athletes clean movement. For instance, if the pull off the floor is weakest, then pulls from the floor should be used. Alternatively, if most issues are related to the second pull, then clean pulls from a hang or block should be incorporated. A number of excellent investigations have been published recently to show that the clean pull (sometimes called a jump shrug) can actually produce higher levels of power output than the traditional Olympic lifts. As a result, these findings coupled with the lack of impact on the body (no receiving position) make the clean pull a great lift to use for in-season training.

Front Squat

36

Although the emphasis for this portion of the movement is on the power clean rather than the full clean, the front squat is an absolute must to improve power clean ability. At the moment of impact (the catch), the athlete encounters significant downward force. As a result, standing up under control without getting buried requires a strong front squat.

Figure 2.25: Clean pull start

Figure 2.26: Clean pull finish

Athletes who are seemingly able to pull the bar to heights that would allow for a good rack position but still miss the lift at the rack can benefit from front squats and even front squats against bands to enhance strength in the upper ranges of motion at the top of the range of motion.

37

Figure 2.27: Front squat start

Figure 2.28: Front squat finish

RDL

If the front squat helps the ability to receive a power clean, the RDL assists the athletes ability to make an efficient pull on the bar. Greater hamstring and glute strength is critical during the sticking point of the lift around the knee and before the second pull kicks off.

Clean Lift Off

38

For athletes who struggle off the floor but not many other places, the clean lift off is a great tool to use. Such athletes should set up in the start position at the floor level and begin to extend the knees until the bar is elevated to knee height.

Figure 2.29: RDL start

Figure 2.30: RDL finish

39

Figure 2.31: Clean lift off start

Figure 2.32: Clean lift off finish

The athlete should then pause for a moment before bringing the bar back to the ground under control. This movement will groove the pattern off the floor unlike most any other drill or skill.

Power Clean Gear and Accessories


Straps
When talking about straps, the athlete will find many mixed opinions about whether using them is a good thing or not. My general opinion is that when doing the movement from the floor, straps should be avoided, as development of great grip strength is an excellent ancillary benefit of the power clean and the athlete will be free to drop the weight prior to the next repetition. When completing the power clean movement

40

from the hang, however, the descent of the bar back to the start position makes grip too difficult for all but the strongest athletes to maintain. In such cases, straps are acceptable. If the athlete does choose to buy straps, in my opinion, the absolute best in the world are handmade by Rob Roeder (his website is old school but can be found at http://robroeder.bizland.com/ prod08.htm).

Weightlifting Belts

Using a weightlifting belt in the power clean is a mixed bag of benefits and drawbacks to me. I would never recommend a belt to someone who already has poor technique, because more often than not, belts seem to magically endow confidence to go heavier than the athlete is likely prepared to go. If the athlete has great technique and can pull with a neutral spine off the floor, a belt is unnecessary even at higher weights.

Footwear for Power Cleans: Running Shoes

Running shoes would be one of my least favorite choices for footwear during a power clean. These shoes typically have a fairly thick, soft, rubbery sole that can allow power to leach out during the pull. The high sole also leads to decreased stability while lifting and assuming a receiving position.

Footwear for Power Cleans: Minimalist Shoes

Minimalist shoes have definitely gained popularity recently and some are even being marketed as training shoes. The athlete should definitely take a close look before purchasing any shoe marketed as such because all brands and styles are certainly not created equal. While some are great and provide a solid base of support, others appear to be little more than well-marketed running shoes with the same pitfalls.

Footwear for Power Cleans: Weightlifting Shoes

There really is nothing better than a weightlifting shoe for performing the power clean. The solid wood sole and wider base helps keep the athlete balanced throughout the lift. There are several well-known brands on the market today (adidas, Nike, Reebok) as well as some lesser-known brands. I have purchased every single kind available (seriously, I have six pairs!) and almost always go with my adidas over all others.

41

THE JERK

42

The Jerk
he jerk (of clean and jerk fame) is one of the most underutilized lifts available in the Olympic lifting arsenal. At some point, nearly all overhead lifts seem to have become vilified by concerned therapists and physicians. Sadly, the jerk seems to have suffered a serious popularity blow as a result. Using the jerk is a must in any complete program, as the movement balances much of the work performed in the clean and snatch and is an explosive upper body movement.

Specific Benefits of the Jerk


Aside from the general advantages found in all Olympic lifts, the jerk has specific benefits that make it a unique Olympic lift. Gaining power and improving sports performance is just as likely to occur when an athlete performs a jerk as when performing a power clean, but there are several qualities of movement that are magnified in the jerk more so than any other Olympic lift.

Balance Explosive Qualities

While the power clean and snatch are hip-dominant movements, the jerk is considered a quad-dominant dominant movement. There is very little hip hinging during performance of the jerk, so any athlete who performs the jerk as a regular part of an explosive lifting program should gain power and explosive ability in quad-dominant dominant movements in order to balance the lower extremity anterior and posterior musculature.

While the power clean and snatch are hip-dominant movements, the jerk is considered a quad-dominant dominant movement.

43

Upper Body Strength

Even though much of the movement of the jerk is generated and created by the lower body, holding heavy weighs overhead requires significant strength and stability. By explosively moving the bar overhead, the athlete will need to stabilize and support rather than just push. At the same time, the movement still helps foster increased upper body strength.

Single Leg Strength

Landing in the split position requires great stability in the lead leg, similar to the striking of the foot to the ground while in sprinting. Single leg strength and stability is often the limiting factor for an athlete looking to get faster and stronger in the bilateral stance (as in the squat).

Jerk Technique
The Set Up: Bar Position
The bar position on the athletes body is one of the most important aspects of the jerk. The bar should rest high on the chest and across the front of the athletes upper shoulders. To keep the bar off of the neck, the scapulae should be protracted and elevated.

The Set Up: Feet

44

The grip position for the jerk can be just as wide as for the clean, but most athletes find it beneficial to utilize a grip slightly wider than a clean grip.

The width of the feet is highly individualized, but should be at or around hip width to shoulder width regardless of the athlete. The athlete should have the toes angled outward up to 30 degrees to facilitate the dip portion of the lift. The most important thing to remember is that the feet must remain flat while the bar is racked at the chest. The feet should remain flat through most of the movement.

The Set Up: Grip

The grip position for the jerk can be just as wide as for the clean, but most athletes find it beneficial to utilize a grip slightly wider than a clean grip. As the athlete dips, the bar will flex slightly and gravity will assist downward momentum. A wider grip will increase the base of support through the dip phase and allow for a faster recovery.

The actual arm position for the jerk can vary depending upon the athlete. Some athletes feel most comfortable with the upper arms parallel to the floor in much the same position as the clean catch. However, most athletes will need to adjust the grip so that the forearms and upper arms remain positioned beneath the bar. It should be noted that the weight of the bar will still be resting on the shoulders and chest rather than on the wrists.

The Set Up: Posture and Core

Posture should be tight and braced throughout the jerk. The athlete should remember that the lower body is the primary force generator and the core is functioning to stabilize and redirect force. The most typical error demonstrated by novice athletes is a flexed thoracic spine. Athletes should be cued to extend the thoracic spine to keep a neutral position.

The Execution: Dip

Once the athlete is set up in the proper position, the next step is to begin harnessing the power of the stretch shortening cycle to complete the lift. The athlete should dip with the knees out, meaning the hips must be externally rotated and the knees allowed to track out over the toes. The upper body should remain almost completely vertical to reduce forward movement of the bar. This position is in contrast to the hipdominant position of the clean and snatch and is what ultimately makes the jerk my preferred quad-dominant movement of choice. It is critically important that the athlete maintain flat feet throughout the dip portion of the jerk. Commonly, the athlete may shift the weight toward the toes. The depth of the dip before the drive phase should be roughly a quarter squat level, but to specify a certain distance is not appropriate. Most athletes will typically develop a feel for their own preferred or most appropriate depth, and movement through the wrong depth are often revealed when change of direction proves difficult. This minimal depth will allow for the greatest power during the drive and should be executed quickly. The bottom of the dip is the braking portion where downward momentum is stopped. Fundamentally, the goal of the dip should be to complete the movement quickly and on balance.

45

Elite lifters often use the dip and the subsequent oscillation of the bar during change of direction to assist in the execution of the lift. A great technical feel for the lift is necessary to do this, but a $1500 bar doesnt hurt either.

Figure 3.1: Dip start position

46

Figure 3.2: Dip finish

The Execution: Drive

Once the dip is completed to the quarter squat level, explosive extension of the knee and hip should immediately follow. The torso should remain vertical or even extended in the sagittal plane so that the bar follows a linear vertical path. Athletes who pause at the bottom of the dip before the drive phase compromise energy transfer through the dip. The drive phase should create space between the lifter and the barbell. The goal of this phase for the novice lifter is to create enough drive to move the bar to forehead level.

The Split

The split of the feet is ultimately the portion of the lift that gives most athletes difficulty. There are many successful approaches to the split, but each should ultimately finish in a similar position.

Selection of the Lead Foot

To select the lead foot, the coach can stand behind the athlete and provide a slight push. The foot with which the athlete steps forward to regain balance should serve as the lead foot in the split jerk. For most right-handed athletes, that is the left foot. Alternatively, for most left-handed athletes, that is the right foot. However, there are exceptions to this standard, as I am right-handed but prefer to execute the jerk with my right foot forward. In training athletes, it is important to alternate jerks with each foot forward. Only the competitive Olympic lifter should work primarily with one foot forward of the other.

The Goal

The ultimate goal of the split jerk is to expand the base of support in the sagittal plane in order to hold weight overhead. It really is that simple. It is for this reason that most athletes choose to do a split jerk over a squat jerk or power jerk. An expanded base of support provides more stability overhead.

The Position

There are a number of variations in positions for the split jerk; however, all variations still require the athlete to produce

47

a stabilizing force in the sagittal plane to prevent a fall. Despite the number of available variations, the ideal position for most athletes is the 90/90 split squat extended. To assume this position, the athlete begins in a half kneeling stance with both the lead and trail legs flexed at the knee to 90 degrees. This position allows the athlete to maintain flexion in the trail leg, but perhaps more importantly, hold an extremely stable vertical shin position with the lead leg. The toes of the lead foot should point forward while the trail foot should be plantarflexed or even slightly internally rotated. The width of the stance should be consistent with the width of the athletes hips or slightly wider.

Getting Into Position


There are two common techniques used to cue the athlete to assume the correct position. Essentially both methods accomplish the same end, but some athletes may prefer one strategy over another.

This method for teaching the jerk is Figure 3.3: Receiving excellent for some lifters, position as it encourages the athlete to think about driving the lead foot forward and keep both feet low to the ground. The drawback to this method is that some athletes translate this cue to mean that body weight should shift forward. Oftentimes this will result in catching the jerk with some amount of anterior knee glide in the lead leg.

Punching the Lead Foot Forward

Jump and Split

48

This is a method that I have been working with more recently. In this cue, the athlete is encouraged to focus on the aggressive drive phase until platform separation occurs. At separation, rather than being cued to drive the lead foot forward, the athlete is instructed to drive the lead

knee up. This method helps position the athlete into a more advantageous receiving position more often than not; however, it can sometimes lead to passivity in the drive portion of the jerk.

Recovery From the Split

Recovering from the split position can cause a number of problems for many athletes. Quite simply, the athlete should recover with the lead foot posterior toward the center first followed by the trail foot anterior toward center second. Moving the rear foot first usually causes an anterior weight shift that will increase the likelihood of a missed lift.

Learn How to Jerk


Overhead Press
Overhead pressing can be done with a variety of tools before beginning to jerk. Using dumbbells allows the athlete who lacks shoulder mobility to safely and effectively press overhead. Doing presses from the standing position is a great idea, but other variations are needed as well. To get some of the feel of the jerk, the athlete can perform presses from a half kneeling or split stance using one dumbbell at a time. This position will teach the athlete the balance and core strength necessary to stick significant load overhead. The last step in using an overhead press is to perform a barbell overhead press from a split stance. At this point, the athlete has likely developed strength for great overhead stability.

Overhead pressing can be done with a variety of tools before beginning to jerk. Using dumbbells allows the athlete who lacks shoulder mobility to safely and effectively press overhead.

Dip

The dip is the part of the movement in which the athlete will most likely suffer a form break, so it is critically important that this phase is adequately instructed and cued. The athlete should practice the dip with semi-challenging weights and execute the downward movement. The knees should not travel anterior and medial toward the great toes, but lateral towards the fifth toes. The depth of the dip is fairly individualized, as some athletes are more comfortable at slightly greater depths than others.

49

Push Press

The next step is to begin using the push press movement to help the athlete feel the change in direction required to execute a solid jerk. By now, the athlete should be comfortable with the dip movement and will need to work on the drive phase. The dip and drive portion of the lift will be exactly the same as if the athlete is going to perform a split jerk; however, rather than leaving the ground and flexing the knees again, the athlete should drive through the toes and press the bar

Figure 3.4: Push press start

50

Figure 3.5: Push press middle

Figure 3.6: Push press finish

out for the remainder of the lift. In essence, this is a dynamic and explosive start to a movement followed by a strength-type finish.

Behind the Neck Power Jerk

Once the athlete has become comfortable with the technique of the push press, he or she may progress to the behind the neck power jerk. The power jerk will mirror the push press in the dip and drive portion, but the athlete will receive the bar in an athletic position with the feet slightly wider than the drive position. The level of the squat will be greatly dependent on the athletes mobility and comfort level in the overhead position. One of the biggest difficulties with the power jerk position is that there is no adjustment in the sagittal plane to prevent toppling over. For this reason, we often teach this movement from behind the neck. In the behind the neck position, the bar can travel a straight path to overhead and remains over the base of support more easily.

51

Figure 3.7: Behind the neck power jerk start

Figure 3.8: Behind the neck power jerk finish

Footwork Drills

52

Footwork drills for the jerk are done to establish a pattern of receiving the bar in the correct position. The athlete should strive for motor mastery with the goal being to land in the split position. To begin, the athlete should set up in the bottom of a 90/90 split squat as the coach marks the position of the feet with chalk or tape. The goal of each rep is to land with the feet in the same position as the chalk marks.

With no weight, the athlete should set up in the dip and drive position. Once the athlete has completed the dip and drive, an explosive split to the marked position using either the jump and split or the foot punch strategy should follow.

Figure 3.9: Footwork start

Figure 3.10: Footwork finish

Half Jerks

Half jerks require just a barbell to complete and closely mimic the timing of the traditional jerk. The athlete will start in the full 90/90 position extended with the bar overhead. The athlete should then bring the lead foot back 8-12 inches toward the body and bring the bar to forehead level. From

53

this closer position, the athlete should then drive the lead foot up and forward and the bar overhead. The big key to this movement is that there is no movement of the hips in the sagittal plane. The hips should only rise and fall without moving forward and back.

Figure 3.11: Half jerk start

54

Figure 3.12: Half jerk finish

Behind the Neck Split Jerk

Finally we can begin to piece it all together. With the bar resting high on the back of the shoulders, it is time to venture into using the split jerk. The athlete should dip and drive aggressively, executing the lift with either a punch and split or a foot drive technique. Behind the neck split jerks are a great tool to use when doing jerks as a stand-alone movement.

Figure 3.13: Split jerk start

Figure 3.14: Split jerk finish

55

Jerk Variations
Power Jerk
The power jerk from the front-racked position is an excellent tool to use while training athletes. It is a great power producing movement and allows the athlete to maintain a familiar athletic base. This is an excellent training tool for general athletes.

Figure 3.15: Power jerk start

56

Figure 3.16: Power jerk finish

Several of the worlds best Olympic lifters have employed this technique in competition. Typically, those athletes are extremely strong overhead and are capable of moving the barbell much higher than typical athletes during the drive phase.

Squat Jerk

Very few lifters and even fewer athletes in training employ the squat jerk. This style requires great stability overhead, extreme mobility, and allows for very little technical variation. In truth, I am amazed by any lifter that is able to squat jerk any amount of weight!

Figure 3.17: Squat jerk start

Figure 3.18: Squat jerk finish

57

Common Jerk Errors


Bar Forward at Receiving Position
A lot of errors in the jerk occur when the athlete initiates the dip portion of the lift. Potential Cause: Dipping to the Toes Dipping to the toes or the heels coming off the ground will lead to a forward shift of the weight and a likely missed lift forward or a need to recover forward and under the bar.

Figure 3.19: Dipping on toes

To Correct This Mistake: Work on the dip portion of the lift and focus on maintaining a tripod foot position throughout the dip. The athlete should focus on keeping the heels down during the dip phase. In so doing, the athlete will create a more stable platform from which to push and will be more balanced when overhead. Potential Cause: Knees Forward When an athlete allows the knees to travel forward or collapse inward during the dip phase of the lift, a bar forward position overhead will result. When the knees travel forward, a corresponding shift of the hips forward (and center of mass) occurs, altering bar drive forward, as well.

58

Figure 3.20: Knees forward

Figure 3.21: Knees out

To Correct This Mistake: The athlete should practice the dip portion of the lift. While doing this, the focus should be on tracking the knees out over the fifth toes rather than over the great toes. This movement helps the athlete to maintain a more vertical torso position and results in the bar staying overhead rather than travelling forward. Potential Cause: Bar Slide The idea of bar slide is that during the drive portion of the lift, the bar begins to slide down the chest of the athlete. This is relatively common among athletes who are new to the jerk.

59

The bar sliding down the chest will put the bar forward of the athletes center of mass and the bar will accelerate at a slower rate than the rest of the body. Typically this error will lead to the bar being driven forward. To Correct This Mistake: The best way to correct a mistake like this is to work on keeping the bar high across the shoulders through the dip portion of the lift. If the athlete jerks with elbows up then this should not be a problem; however, if the athlete tends to bring the elbows under the bar in preparation for the movement, it most often means that he or she must work on maintaining constant tension on the bar. The athlete should be cued to elevate the scapulae and attempt to hit the right position every time. Think about the core positioning and the effectiveness of the bracing position that the athlete assumes when preparing for the dip. If the athlete is not strong enough to handle the position, then the weight is too heavy and additional core stability work might be necessary.

Problems With the Feet While Receiving the Bar When receiving the bar the athlete should aim to keep the feet the same width as the hips.
Potential Cause: Narrow base in receiving position. When receiving the bar the athlete should aim to keep the feet the same width as the hips. Some athletes tend to jerk to a narrower position than starting position. This leads to issues with overhead stability in the frontal and sagittal planes. Think of this in this way: the goal is to receive the bar on stable railroad tracks rather than on a balance beam. To Correct This Mistake: The athlete can attempt to jerk with a block between the legs. This block could be anything from a strip of tape to a broomstick, but the goal is to give immediate feedback as to the success of the lift. Using something like a broomstick should only be done when jerking light loads and after the athlete has demonstrated ability to perform the movement without ending up standing on the object. Potential Issue: Short/Long Feet The position of optimal stability overhead is a 90/90 split squat extended. While many competitors have demonstrated

60

Figure 3.22: Narrow base

the ability to put massive weight overhead with shorter or longer foot positions, our goal is to coach the athlete into the 90/90 position. When the athlete misses this position or shows inconsistency, it creates a number of problems that can be difficult to correct. To Correct This Mistake: Mark out the proper position for the athlete to hit at the conclusion of each jerk. This can be done with tape, markers, or paint. The goal of each jerk is then to provide visual evidence of the proper position and the athletes relationship with that correct position. A lot of repetition when learning and preparing to jerk is necessary to make this happen correctly.

Jerk Assistance Exercises


Halting Jerks Halting Jerks are an excellent training tool to use to create more confidence in the traditional jerk. Rather than take advantage of the stretch shortening cycle, the athlete will pause at the bottom of the dip position for two or three seconds and then drive up overhead. The idea behind this is that isometric strength can be helpful in overcoming the great amount of inertia in the bottom of the dip. While the practicality of this movement may be in question there, is much evidence that this helps athletes build comfort in the jerk.

61

Footwork Combos To really groove the footwork associated with the jerk, footwork combos are a great tool to use. Three to five repetitions should be done with no weight or very little weight in rapid succession with the goal being to land in the correct overhead position with each jerk. Immediately following the last light jerk, the athlete should attempt a jerk with a more challenging weight. Split Stance Pressing The Jerk is the most dynamic lift that we can perform in the weight room but one that also requires great strength and stability. To account for this need, we do plenty of split stance presses with the bar behind or in front of the neck. Look for a neutral posture and pelvis while overhead.

62

SNATCH

4
63

The Snatch
Unique Benefits of the Snatch
Grip Strength

T
The overhead position is certainly difficult, but the stability required to hold weight overhead can be carried over to the field for any athlete that finds it necessary to push on another object, ball, or person.

he wide grip to the snatch requires a much greater demand than does the clean. This demand creates greater grip strength that can carry over to sports and even other lifts.

Back Strength

Again, the wide position of the hands also puts a greater demand on the back (particularly the upper back) to maintain proper posture. The snatch is all about isometric thoracic spine extension. This is an area in which most athletes can use some serious help.

Intrinsic Shoulder Strength

The overhead position is certainly difficult, but the stability required to hold weight overhead can be carried over to the field for any athlete that finds it necessary to push on another object, ball, or person.

Snatch Technique
Set Up Tight to the Bar
Successful Olympic lifts are the result of a lifter and the barbell moving in one efficient system. The lifter-barbell system, as it is called, must share one center of mass. Ideally, this center of mass lies within the framework of the lifters body. Setting up close to the barbell helps ensure that this will occur regularly.

64

Setting up too far from the barbell will move the center of mass forward of the athletes toes and will lead to difficulty in achieving the lift later on. The proper distance away from the bar is different for athletes based on body dimensions but can be summed up closely for most athletes. As discussed previously, when standing over the bar, the athlete should see the shoelaces covered by the bar. This means that from the coachs perspective, the bar should be over the midfoot (a much more solid base than the toes) and will be far enough away from the body to get in the start position.

Flat Feet

While the athletic benefits of the clean and snatch have been extensively discussed previously in this resource, the snatch should also not be completed on the ball of the foot like many other athletic movements (athletic stance). Again utilizing the tripod foot position, the athlete should remain stable and balanced with the weight distributed between the forefoot and the heel.

Jump Width or Slightly Wider Than Jump Width

The short answer as to how wide the feet should be placed when performing the snatch is around jump width; however, the nature of the lift modification can certainly influence this standard. The toes should be pointed out slightly and the athletes feet should be directly below the hips. Foot placement directly below the hips assists in force application of the posterior chain straight into the ground, minimizing leakage of power in other directions. Utilizing these large posterior prime movers ensures maximal power output. In the power snatch and the full snatch, jump width may serve as a reasonable place to start, but trial and error may deem this to be less than optimal for some athletes. The wider grip of the snatch requires a lower starting posture in order to grip the bar. An athlete who lacks hip mobility will often achieve this lower position through compensation by exaggerating lumbar flexion. This can lead to additional spinal stress, fatigue, and risk of injury.

In the power snatch and the full snatch, jump width may serve as a reasonable place to start, but trial and error may deem this to be less than optimal for some athletes.

65

A simple correction is to work on hip mobility and raise the start position on blocks for a period of time. For some athletes it may be necessary to make a modification to the start position on a more permanent basis. For such athletes, a starting position slightly wider than jump width is preferred. In this position, the importance of hip mobility in the starting position is decreased and the athlete may assume a solid start position despite a slight energy leak to lateral forces.

Lock the Lats Down

It is critical for any coach to appreciate the importance of the tight lifter-barbell system.

66

As with previous lifts, the cue to lock the lats down when the hands are on the barbell should be used. Some other strategies include the visualization of pinching a roll of quarters in the armpits or to simply squeeze the arms toward the body. Locking the lats down will help pack the shoulders into a strong position, lend more stability to the back, and facilitate a tight lifter-barbell system. First, packing the shoulders down helps minimize unwanted upper trapezius involvement. Upper trap activity can lead to shoulder fatigue, discomfort, and pain. Overuse of the upper traps will lead to fatigue in the lifts early and can ultimately undermine the effectiveness of the lift due to an inability to forcefully shrug. Locking the lats also lends greater stability to the lower back. The origin of the lats is spread vertically down the lower back. When activating this muscle, it synergistically assists the lumbar extensors in keeping the lumbar spine stable in extension. It is critical for any coach to appreciate the importance of the tight lifter-barbell system. Failure to maintain this relationship is at the root of many problems that athletes have in completing the Olympic lifts. The lats being tight assists in the maintenance of a close relationship within the system and a better execution of the snatch or the clean. It is worth mentioning a final note on this point. The lats should remain tight until the second pull is initiated. Once the arms become involved, it is necessary to forget the idea of latissimus tightness and focus on the fast, relaxed movement of the elbows above the bar. The lats are powerful. If held tight throughout the lift, they will inhibit the motion of the arms up and under the bar. That being said, even in a hang snatch lock the lats in is one of the first cues we use.

Hip Hinge to Above the Knee

Regardless of whether one is starting in the hang snatch position or the floor start (like in the power or full snatch), a hinge is the first part of the movement that should occur. The athlete should start each movement by unlocking the knees then hinging until the hands are at knee level. If moving to a bar on the ground, the hands will be free at this point. If moving to a hang snatch, the bar will be in the athletes hands and tight to the body. Both the hang and power snatch require the exact same hip hinge position when the bar or the body is above the knee.

Squat to the Bar

To continue moving to the bar, the next step is to squat to the bar. The Olympic lifts are a combination of deep hip angles and deep knee angles when the bar is resting on the floor; however, when it is above the knee, the movement is primarily a hip hinge with slight knee movement. To combine the deep knee and hip angles, the athlete can begin by performing a RDL/hinging to knee level then squatting vertically to the bar. When in the RDL position at the knee level, the torso should be roughly 30 degrees above horizontal. Ideally, the athlete will again start at about 30 degrees above horizontal to begin the lift-off from the floor. Squatting involves the vertical displacement of the hips and will facilitate this angle to be maintained throughout the movement.

Figure 4.1: Hip hinge

Figure 4.2: Squat

67

If the hips are allowed to move and the torso positioning is not maintained, the athlete will find it difficult to pull from the ground and maintain a tight lifter-barbell system. To summarize, to get to the bar on the ground, the athlete should hinge to knee level and squat to the bar.

Neutral-ish Neck but Eyes Up

Cervical spine hyperextension can lead to corresponding lumbar hyperextension, which can in turn lead to lumbar compromise.

Finding the optimal spinal position in the Olympic lifts is extremely important. While spinal flexion should be avoided throughout the lift, a balance between spinal neutral and slight extension is necessary to move efficiently and strongly in the lifts. Most simply, the athlete should be cued to keep it neutral. Cervical spine hyperextension can lead to corresponding lumbar hyperextension, which can in turn lead to lumbar compromise. This should be avoided at all costs. One school of thought is that it is best to err on the side of safety and simply cue the athlete to keep the neck completely neutral. However, the optimal position is not entirely neutral but rather slight cervical and lumbar extension.Perhaps more specifically, this slight lumbar extension should only occur to the point that there is some activation of the spinal erectors to lend more stiffness in the lift and help to avoid spinal flexion. The athlete should be encouraged to keep the eyes on the horizon, looking forward throughout the lift. Further technique refinements might include keeping the chin in constant relationship with the trunk while avoiding gaze focused on the floor or the ceiling.

Knuckles Back and Down, Elbows Out

68

The role of the arms early in the snatch is simply to avoid disturbing the rest of the lift. If the arms are too active, the lift will be negatively impacted. On the other hand, inadequate arm action can also negatively impact the lift by allowing improper bar trajectory. For the snatch (and even the clean), the goal of the hands and arms is to keep the bar tight to the body to not let the trajectory arc away from the body. Accomplishing this task is rather simple. Prior to starting the lift, as the athletes

hands first grasp the bar, the athlete should place the wrists in neutral so that the knuckles are pointing directly toward the ground. Additionally, the shoulders should be internally rotated such that the elbows pointing laterally. From this position, the arms are properly positioned. The role of the arms from this point on is merely to stay out of the way before punching aggressively later in the lift.

Figure 4.3: Knuckles back elbows out start position

Snatch Grip
Width
As discussed with previous lifts, one of the biggest problems with most guidelines regarding snatch grip is the dependence on various markings and lines on a bar. These recommendations usually center around where the knurling ends and markings are on the bar. If always training on the same bar, this poses no issue. However, in cases in which one must train with a different bar or in a different gym, the athlete can have difficulty determining where to grip the bar.

69

To alleviate this problem, there is a simpler solution to always find a consistent grip width for the snatch. The athlete should stand tall with the arms extended and the bar gripped in the hands. The grip should be widened until the bar is resting across the crease in the hip. To ensure that the athletes grip width is appropriate, one hip should be flexed to 90 degrees. If the athlete cannot flex to 90 degrees, the grip width should be further widened. A wider grip facilitates squatting under the bar in the receiving position and requires less mobility in the thoracic spine than a narrow grip might require.

Figure 4.4: Flexed hip position for snatch grip

Differences in Tension Due To Width

70

Last thing on grip: Hook grip. Do it. NOW.

One consideration that must be made with the snatch is the difference in tension required when the bar is gripped with a wide grip as opposed to a narrow (clean) grip. The angle with which the hands are placed on the bar requires the athlete to grip the bar even tighter in order to hold it in place in the snatch. More of the gripping load is placed on the first two fingers and is not evenly distributed across all of the digits. Practically, this means that in higher rep sets of the snatch, straps will be necessary to hold onto the bar effectively. Last thing on grip: Hook grip. Do it. NOW.

Power Snatch Technique


Static Start
The static start begins with no motion at all. Once the athlete has achieved the start position described previously, this posture should be maintained up to several seconds before initiating initial lift off. This method is difficult for most beginners because of how extremely low the start position must be in the snatch. For most athletes it is best to get to the bar in the correct motion (hips back first then hips down) and feel the correct start position. Once that pattern is ingrained, it is acceptable to move quickly to the dynamic start.

Dynamic Start

There are actually several ways to complete a dynamic start but each of them aims to develop acceleration of the torso before lifting the barbell from the ground. Unlike previous lifts, for the snatch, the pumping start is the lone preferred dynamic start technique. Pumping Start The athlete should start with hips higher than the bar, quickly drop the hips to the appropriate start position, and execute the lift off. A second pump can occur by bringing the hips up one more time and then down again to the bar (downup, down-up). The athlete should be careful to avoid shifting the weight forward to the toes. The nature of this movement means that when the athlete pumps the hips up, some lumbar flexion may occur. This is acceptable. What is not acceptable is to allow the athlete to maintain lumbar flexion of any sort when the bar is lifted off the ground. The athlete must re-brace the core when initiating the dynamic start.

For most athletes it is best to get to the bar in the correct motion (hips back first then hips down) and feel the correct start position.

The First Pull


Drive Through the Heels At the moment of lift off the athlete should think drive through the heels but maintain contact with the platform with the entire foot. The cue to drive through the heels can

71

be misleading if the athlete unloads the toe during the lift off. Using drive through the heels is an effort to ensure that the athlete does not get pulled to their toes while lifting off. Knees Back, Translate the Torso The initial lift off from the floor should be accomplished through knee extension. The goal is to drive the knees back while lifting the torso. The torso should remain in the same relationship to the ground (30 degrees above horizontal) throughout the first pull. In this way, the torso should translate vertically through space. This will maintain the powerful RDL/hips loaded position above the knee. The knees should continue driving back until nearing terminal extension as the bar begins to pass the knee. At no time should the shins go beyond vertical. At maximum, the shins should be perpendicular to the platform. Bar Sweeps Back Up to this point, the focus of instruction has been on positioning and movement of the body in the power snatch. However, the bar should move slightly back toward the body to maintain the tight lifter-barbell system. The one exception to this is for athletes who have long legs. In such cases, the knees will be in front of the bar while the bar is at rest on the ground. As a result, it is nearly impossible to move the bar backward

72

Figure 4.5: Bar at rest

Figure 4.6: Bar moves back finish

into the body. The goal remains the same, but the athlete will most likely not be able to reproduce this typical backward trajectory of the bar. Slow Off the Floor As discussed previously, a big mistake many athletes make is to jerk the bar forcefully from the ground. The first pull should not be a violent movement. Instead, it should be a smooth and possibly even slow-appearing motion. A goal of the first pull is to set up the second, more violent, pull and a fast first pull will likely inhibit the athletes ability to be efficient in the second pull. Imagine a car moving past the athlete at 60 miles per hour. If the athlete were to stand to the side and try to shove this car to make it move faster, it would be difficult to deliver force to the back bumper long enough to make the car go any faster. On the other hand, imagine the same car moving past the athlete at 10 miles per hour. As this car rolls by, the athlete would have plenty of time to really put some serious force into the car and make it accelerate. A bar moving quickly as it passes the knees is like the first car. The athlete will have no ability to accelerate it to speed in the second pull.

73

At the Knees Once the bar is at the knees, several things should be occurring. This is a difficult portion of the lift to meaningfully coach the athlete because the system is in motion. However, this may be a great place to break down video and make adjustments to later lifts. The feet should be flat so the athlete can transition correctly for the second pull. The hips should still be higher than the knees. Very little hip extension has occurred up to this point with most movement stemming from knee extension. The torso should still be roughly 30 degrees above the horizontal. The arms should also remain straight at this point, as flexed elbows will make it highly difficult to effectively complete the second pull.

The Second Pull


Creating the Triangle As described previously, proper alignment should create a power triangle. This concept can help guide positioning in the lift moving forward.

Once above the knees, it is important to not rush the bar just yet.

Close the Triangle Once above the knees, it is important to not rush the bar just yet. Rushing the bar at this point becomes apparent when the knees migrate anteriorly under the bar immediately after the bar passes the knees. This movement does not close the triangle. The only way to close the triangle is to begin driving the hips forward into extension. The speed of the bar should increase at this point, but is not at its maximum just yet. The bar will be at or around mid-thigh. Knees Forward (Scoop/Double Knee Bend) Pure hip extension from the above knee position will create too much horizontal projection and the athlete will jump forward. To counteract this, it is necessary to perform the double knee bend (or scoop/transition) for vertical projection. It is highly debatable as to whether this fact should be coached or even mentioned to a novice lifter, as it is typically a natural component of movement that is easily seen in typical jumping mechanics.

74

Finish the Hips and Knees Once the bar has reached a high thigh position and the torso has come to nearly vertical, the hips and knees will both be near full extension. At this point, the athlete should finish driving the hips and knees to terminal extension. This is the highest speed portion of the entire lift. Relaxed Arms, Elbows High After the power spike of the second pull, the bar will have significant momentum and it is important to take advantage of it. Just as a boxer keeps the arms relaxed before throwing a punch, maintaining a relaxed arm is important for maximal speed later. The elbows should remain out and above the bar to guide the bar in a path that is tight to the body. Punch the Hands The arms should have remained relatively relaxed up to this point; however, once the athlete hits the high pull position, it is time to use the arms forcefully. The action of the arms at this phase is best described as punching the hands overhead. The resultant hand punch should facilitate a receiving position that is in line with the spine and over the ears.

Figure 4.7: Profile of snatch overhead

75

When the load is punched overhead, the athlete should actively press up using primarily the upper traps while trying to spread the bar apart. There is nothing passive about holding weights overhead and this is the most active and strong position possible.

When the load is punched overhead, the athlete should actively press up using primarily the upper traps while trying to spread the bar apart. There is nothing passive about holding weights overhead and this is the most active and strong position possible. Rather than worrying much about packed shoulders, the athlete should worry most about not letting the bar land on top of his or her head. Protect the dome. One common mistake is receiving the bar too far back or too far forward. Lifts received forward are typically missed, but it is lifts that are received too far back that are the real problem. When received behind the body, great stress placed on the shoulders. The athlete should be cued to punch up, not back. Hips Back, Feet Flat This step will occur simultaneously to punching the hands. The athlete should aim to receive the load in an athletic position as if landing from a jump. One cue that is very useful is to tell the athlete to think toe, heel, hip. This means toes to the ground, heels follow, and hips go down and away from the bar. The athlete should widen the stance slightly from hip width/jump width to shoulder width/squat width stance to receive the bar. The athlete should also have very little forward or backward travel when receiving the bar. To get a good handle on the width the athlete will display at the feet at landing, it may be helpful to have the athlete perform three consecutive vertical jumps, sticking the last jump. The resultant position of the landing is most likely reflective of the body posture, stance width, and knee positioning that should occur in a good power snatch finish.

Snatch Variations
Hang Snatch The power snatch from the hang position is a great teaching tool to use with athletes and can even be used as a primary way to train athletes with the snatch. The snatch from the hang position will help the athlete develop improved ability to use the stretch shortening cycle.

76

The hang snatch can be performed from the above knee position or a mid thigh position (other positions are possible, as well, but these are used most frequently). In each of these positions, the athlete will just need to employ the same strategy of closing the triangle as the bar passes the knees in the power snatch. The accompanying DVD includes examples of the hang snatch from above knee to teach most athletes. This has been a highly effective way to teach thousands of athletes how to Olympic lift properly in the FORCE Fitness facility.

Figure 4.8: Hang snatch start

Figure 4.9: Hang snatch finish

77

Snatch from Blocks The snatch from the blocks is a great way to teach athletes to learn the lift. This position allows the athlete the ability to be placed in proper alignment for starting from any position (mid-thigh, above knee, below knee, or mid-shin). This is a great teaching tool for beginners as well as a great way to learn different portions of the lift that are often most challenging (transition around knee, closing the triangle, final hip extension).

Figure 4.10: Snatch from blocks start

78

Figure 4.11: Snatch from blocks finish

Split Snatch The split snatch should be used as a means of providing variation to the training program and to help the athlete become familiar with absorbing force in a single leg stance. After full extension is reached, the athlete should punch the lead knee up and drive the trail foot back and into the ground. Ideally, the athlete will land with a vertical shin on the lead leg similar to the 90-90 position employed in split squats.

Figure 4.12: Split snatch start

Figure 4.13: Split snatch finish

79

An easy progression from power snatch to full snatch is to first combine the power snatch with an overhead squat as separate but linked movements.

Squat Snatch It takes a special athlete to be able to complete a clean full (squat) snatch. Many athletes lack the mobility to get in correct position to receive the bar. This is the last progression we will use when incorporating Olympic lifts into an athletes program. The worlds most explosive athletes use this technique to complete the snatch in competition, so the upside in terms of potential performance enhancement is great. The full snatch is an even greater total body exercise because of the need for great leg strength to come up from the full overhead squat position. An easy progression from power snatch to full snatch is to first combine the power snatch with an overhead squat as separate but linked movements. Next, in the power snatch to overhead squat, the athlete should receive the snatch in a half squat or higher position then ride the bar down into the bottom of an overhead squat. Lastly and most challenging is the full snatch in which the athlete aggressively pulls under the bar after completing the second pull. The best lifters in the world are not separated by their ability to pull the bar to higher heights and higher speeds. Instead, the true separation point is the speed with which the athlete can move under the bar. This is an important point to consider when coaching the full snatch and full clean.

Common Power Snatch Flaws and Coaching Cues


Many of the common mistakes of the snatch were also discussed in the chapter regarding the clean.

Swinging the Bar

80

Swinging the bar is a common mistake when snatching. This happens when too much space is created between the body of the lifter and the bar itself. The best bar path in the snatch is one that is tight to the body and efficient.

Figure 4.14: Squat snatch start

Figure 4.15: Squat snatch middle

Figure 4.16: Squat snatch finish

81

The second cause of bar swing is elbow drift behind the bar. When this happens it is nearly impossible for the athlete to keep the bar close.

There are a couple common causes of a bar swing. The first is when the athlete goes to the toes too early in the second pull. Secondly, elbow drift behind the bar at the completion of the second pull can also contribute to bar swing. When the athlete gets to the toes too early in the second pull, the knees and hips must be driven forward to complete the movement rather than the optimal technique of knee extension triggering upward hip movement. This forward movement typically manifests itself in forward bar swing. The second cause of bar swing is elbow drift behind the bar. When this happens it is nearly impossible for the athlete to keep the bar close. Reminding the athlete to keep the elbows above the bar in the snatch until the overhead punch can help minimize or alleviate this error.

Accessory Lifts to Fix Your Snatch


Snatch Pull The snatch pull is a partial lift that ends in complete hip extension and elbow extension without the need to catch the bar. The snatch pull can be performed from any of the start positions (floor, hang, blocks) and is a great tool to develop positional power for the snatch. Like the clean, for increasing power as it pertains to the power snatch only, the snatch pull should be done at 110% of the (X)RM where X is the number of reps the athlete is doing in that particular set. The snatch pull is a great lift to use for in-season training.

82

Figure 4.17: Snatch pull start

Figure 4.18: Snatch pull finish

Overhead Squat The overhead squat is an absolute must to improve snatch ability. Athletes who do not possess a comfort level in the overhead position will struggle to handle weights overhead. Work on this comfort and strength level through overhead squats.

Figure 4.19: Overhead squat start

83

Figure 4.20: Overhead squat finish

The athlete should be cued to press up hard overhead and try to spread the bar apart. This functions to provide even more stability to this position. This movement will lead to a great amount of strength overhead and in the hole when coming up with greater weights.

Many athletes typically struggle with pulling the weight from the floor and when overhead in the snatch.

Snatch Deadlift Many athletes typically struggle with pulling the weight from the floor and when overhead in the snatch. Most of the skills of the clean translate to the middle of the snatch, but these two portions of the lift are typically most problematic in the snatch. The athlete should work the floor position with the snatch deadlift. Lifting the weight from the floor with either a dynamic start or a static start, the athlete should focus on the angle and position of the torso. In particular, maintaining trunk alignment until the bar passes the knees is critical. Once the bar is above the knees, the athlete should drive the hips forward to complete the movement.

84

Figure 4.21: Snatch deadlift start

Figure 4.22: Snatch deadlift finish

85

Snatch Gear and Accessories


Straps
Repetitive snatches will seriously tax the athletes ability to hold the bar. While not highly recommended for the clean unless going from the hang position, straps for all sets of snatches over two repetitions are highly recommended.

Weightlifting Belts

Like the clean, wearing a weightlifting belt in the snatch is not absolutely necessary. Unless maxing out, there is greater value in challenging, rather than assisting, the core. The one exception may be when an athlete knows how to effectively breathe into the belt to create even greater stiffness in the core. If an athlete has proper control of the diaphragm and can utilize the belt in this way, it is best to avoid maxes that might need a belt.

Use it. Lots of it. Try to emerge from a cloud of it every time the athlete lifts.

Chalk

Use it. Lots of it. Try to emerge from a cloud of it every time the athlete lifts.

Footwear for Power Snatches

As discussed previously, proper weightlifting shoes are critical to balance and stability. All things considered, minimalist and running shoes most often simply cannot provide the stability preferred when performing any Olympic lift, including the snatch.

86

LOADING the OLYMPIC LIFTS

5
87

Loading the Olympic Lifts


here are three primary patterns for loading that I use with the Olympic lifts. Each has value for lifters of different experience levels. The first is the bodyweight method, the second is the work up method, and the third is the percentage method.

The Bodyweight Method


The bodyweight method is for use with novice lifters and is as simple as it sounds. Rather than working to achieve one repetition maximums in unfamiliar lifts, all loads are based on the current lean bodyweight of the athlete. This method dominates the first four to six weeks of programming for athletes who are new to the lifts. The following represents a typical loading scheme using the bodyweight method: Snatch lifts: 40-50% of lean bodyweight Clean lifts: 50-60% of lean bodyweight Squat lifts: 60%+ of lean bodyweight. For a 200 lb. athlete with 175 lbs. of lean bodyweight (12.5% BF), loads would be as follows: Snatch and related lifts: 70-87.5 lbs. Clean and related lifts: 87.5-105 lbs. Squat lifts: 105 lbs. + This method allows the athlete to spend a significant amount of time developing movement efficiency in the specific patterns about which we are most concerned. While many athletes seem to scoff at the idea of loads as light as 50% of their own bodyweight, this is the exact method that I first used when training as a novice lifter.

The overhead position is certainly difficult, but the stability required to hold weight overhead can be carried over to the field for any athlete that finds it necessary to push on another object, ball, or person.

88

At the age of 15 in my first Olympic lifting experience, I came in with an ugly PR of 165 lbs. in the clean and began using the bodyweight method for the first six weeks of training. When the reins were taken off of me after loading with this method, I PRed with a 185 lbs. max. Six weeks later, I set a new personal record again with a 250 lbs. max. I have never again added 70 lbs. to my power clean 1RM in a 12 week span. Such results were based in loads determined according to my lean body weight.

The Work Up Method


The work up method is one that I use for any non-novice lifter for whom I do not know a current 1 RM. This method allows great freedom in the loads used on any given day but will always dial in to the perfect load on a given day. There are no specific percentages at which an athlete should be working when using the work up method. Implementation of the method is relatively straightforward. First, the athlete should work up to the best set of the given reps on any day the athlete is training. Some days will be better than others, but the athlete should always work up to the best set that day with perfect form. Then the athlete would count sets backwards and count any set within 10% of the best as a work set. For example, if snatch was prescribed for four sets of three reps and the athlete snatched the following sets: 40 kg x 3 50 kg x 3 60 kg x 3 70 kg x 3 80 kg x 3 85 kg x 3 92% 85 kg x 3 90 kg x 3 92 kg x 3 100% On this day, the athlete would count the highlighted sets. Each of these sets falls within ten percent of the highest load on the snatch that day.

The work up method is one that I use for any non-novice lifter for whom I do not know a current 1 RM.

89

To further illustrate, if the athlete completed the following sets on a snatch workout, he or she may need to add another set below the highest weight in order to complete the correct number of work sets. 40 kg x 3 60 kg x 3 70 kg x 3 80 kg x 3 86% (do not count) 90 kg x 3 92 kg x 3 100% Because only two sets were within ten percent of the best on that day, the athlete would need to complete the following in order to complete the appropriate number of work sets: 85 kg x 3 85 kg x 3

The work up method allows for high intensity training at the best level an athlete can reach on any given day.

The work up method allows for high intensity training at the best level an athlete can reach on any given day. For large groups of athletes with varying levels of confidence and competence in the Olympic lifts this may be the most appropriate method to use. At the collegiate level, I used this method for nearly every repetition I completed. I trained in a group of other throwers and our strength coach rarely prescribed intensities. It was expected that each days workout was to be performed at the highest intensity possible. I used this method on my way to the best lifts I ever completed: a 320 lbs. snatch and a 402 lbs. clean and jerk. Big weights can be had using this method for motivated athletes.

The Percentage Method


The percentage method is most commonly used with elite level weightlifters and athletes. This method uses known one repetition maximums and specific percentages to prescribe training loads.

90

In a given training period, the goals for the completion of the training cycle should be known. That is, what numbers would the coach and athlete like to hit by the end of the cycle? All load values will be based upon these numbers. The 100% snatch number is the first number to be used. This number is for the full snatch, started from the ground and received in the low squat position. All snatch exercises will be based off of this number, including snatch pulls, power snatches, hang snatches and block snatches. Each will come back to the 100% snatch number. Power snatches from any start position should be about 80% of the full snatch number. Snatch pulls and snatch deadlifts will be performed at somewhere around the 90110% level. Weights at 60-80% of the snatch maximum will be used to enhance speed with higher repetition sets. The 100% clean and jerk will be the second number that must be known, and is typically around 120% of the snatch maximum. Again, clean and jerks, power cleans, power jerks, push presses, split jerks, and clean pulls will be based off of this number. Prilepins table, designed by former Soviet weightlifting coach A.S. Prilepin can be used to closely predict the sets and reps used at any level of intensity.

Prilepins Table
Percent Zone 70-75% 80-85% 90% + Rep range per set 3 to 6 2 to 4 1 to 2 Total reps 18 15 10

Summary
There is a lot of information here that can seem overwhelming. My best advice to the committed coach is to digest it, watch the DVD, and read it again. Above all else, never stop learning, practicing, implementing, and changing. It is unquestionably the pathway to meaningful change and long-term success.

91

SAMPLE PROGRAMS

92

Olympic Lifting Warm-Up


Self Myofascial Release (SMR)
Thoracic spine Glute complex x 30 Quads Hamstrings Feet (lacrosse ball) Groin/adductors (medicine ball) Traps (lacrosse ball) Forearms, elbows to wrists (lacrosse ball) All performed 20-30 ea

Range of Motion/Activation
Ankle mobility on wall Kneeling rockback Glute bridge with 3 hold Contralateral superman Y, T, I, W shoulder raise on incline bench Groiner Cradle walk Goblet squat with knee pry (vertical torso) Overhead squat with dowel and 3 hold at bottom x 10 ea side x 10 x 10 x 10 ea side x 10 ea x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10

Imitation Complexes
Snatch imitation First set Snatch grip deadlift Snatch pull from below knee Power snatch + overhead squat Full snatch Second set Perfect snatch x 30 x6 x6 x6 x6 Clean imitation First set Clean pull from floor Power clean + front squat Full clean Split jerk Second set Perfect clean & jerk x 30 x6 x6 x6 x6

93

Novice Program
Monday
Order & Exercise 1A: Snatch 2A: Snatch pull 3A: Front squat Week 1 3x2 3x3 3x3 Week 2 4x2 4x3 4x3 Week 3 4x3 4x3 Week 4 3x3 3x3 Tempo Exp Exp Mod 1 x 2, 2, 1, 1 4 x 1

Wednesday
Order & Exercise 1A: Clean and jerk 2A: Clean pull 3A: Back squat Week 1 3x2 3x2 3x5 Week 2 4x2 4x2 4x5 Week 3 4x2+1 4x3 5x3 Week 4 Tempo Exp Exp Mod

Friday
Order & Exercise 1A: Power snatch 2A: Power clean and power jerk 3A: Romanian deadlift Week 1 3x2 3x2+1 3x5 Week 2 4x2 4x2+1 4x5 Week 3 4x2 4x2 4x5 Week 4 4x1 4x1 4x5 Tempo Exp Exp Mod

94

Six Week Beginner Program


Monday
Order & Exercise 1A: Pull up 2A: Scarecrow snatch drill 3A: Overhead squat 3B: Plank Week 1 3 x 5 ea 3x5 3x5 3 x 30 Week 2 3 x 5 ea 3x5 3x5 3 x 30+ Week 3 4 x 5 ea 4x5 4x5 4 x 30+ Tempo Mod Exp Mod Mod

Block 1

Wednesday
Order & Exercise 1A: Goblet squat 2A: Romanian deadlift 3A: Standing dumbbell press 3B: Goblet farmers walk Week 1 3 x 5-8 3x5 3x5 3 x 40 yds Week 2 3 x 5-8 3x5 3x5 3 x 40 yds Week 3 4 x 5-8 4x5 4x5 3 x 40 yds Tempo Mod Mod Mod Mod

Friday
Order & Exercise 1A: Vertical jump 2A: Hang clean/high pull 3A: Hang snatch/high pull 4A: Farmers walk, unilateral 4B: Turkish get up Week 1 3 x 3 x3 3 3x5 3 x 40 yds 3 x 2 ea Week 2 3x3x3 3x5 3x5 3 x 40 yds 3 x 2 ea Week 3 4x3x3 4x5 4x5 3 x 40 yds 3 x 2 ea Tempo Exp Exp Mod Mod Mod

95

Six Week Beginner Program


Monday
Order & Exercise 1A: Hang snatch pull 2A: Hang snatch 3A: Overhead squat 3B: Plank Week 1 3x5 3x5 3x3 3 x 30 Week 2 3x5 3x3 3x3 3 x 30+ Week 3 4x5 4x3 4x3 4 x 30+ Tempo Exp Exp Mod Mod

Block 2

Wednesday
Order & Exercise 1A: Hang clean pull 2A: Hang clean + push press 3A: Goblet squat 3B: Waiters walk Week 1 3x5 3x3 3x5 3 x 40 yds Week 2 3x5 3x3 3x5 3 x 40 yds Week 3 4x5 4x3 4x5 3 x 40 yds Tempo Exp Exp Mod Mod

Friday
Order & Exercise 1A: Vertical jump 2A: Clean grip deadlift 3A: Power jerk 4A: Farmers walk unilateral 4B: Turkish get up Week 1 3x3x3 3 3x5 3 x 40 yds 3 x 2 ea Week 2 3x3x3 3x5 3x5 3 x 40 yds 3 x 2 ea Week 3 4x3x3 4x5 4x5 3 x 40 yds 3 x 2 ea Tempo Exp Mod Exp Mod Mod

96

Eight Week Advanced Program


Day 1: Snatch Day 1
Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Technique: Power snatch from high hip position 1B Plyo: Box jump 2A Full lift: Snatch 3A Lower body: Front squat 3B Corrective: Band hip flexor mobilization 4A Strength: Neutral grip pull up Technique: Snatch lift off floor to knee 3 3 4 4 4 3 1 Sets Reps 30-40 3 3-5 2 5 30 5 20 Vertical torso Notes

Week 1

Finish with elbows high Work to high box

Band around trail hip Pause at knee, 85-95%

Day 2: Clean Day 1


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Technique: Clean from blocks below knee 1B Plyo: Hurdle jump 2A Full lift: Power clean and jerk 3A Upper body: Push press 3B Corrective: Band pull apart 4A Lower body: Clean grip deadlift Technique: Overhead barbell split squat 3 3 4 3 3 3 1 Sets Reps 30-40 3 5 2 5 25 5 20 90/90 position Keep chest up, knees back Notes

Day 3: Snatch Day 2


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Technique: Hang snatch from above knee 1B Plyo: Depth jump + box jump 2A Full lift: Snatch 3A Assistive: Snatch pull from floor 4A Lower body: Back squat 4B Corrective: Half kneeling cable bar lift Technique: Snatch balance Sets 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 1 Reps 30-40 3 5 3 5 3 8 20 Each side Dip & drive up, ride bar Low catch Notes

Day 4: Clean Day 2


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Technique: Power clean from above knee 1B Plyo: Vertical jump 2A Full lift: Clean 3A Strength: Split squat 4A Upper body: Neutral grip dumbbell overhead press 4B Corrective: Band pull apart Technique: Clean pull to knee Sets 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 1 Reps 30-40 3 3 5 8 8 25 20 Squeeze shoulders down Each leg Notes

97

Eight Week Advanced Program


Day 1: Snatch Day 1
Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Technique: Hang snatch from below knee 1B Plyo: Box jump 2A Full lift: Snatch 3A Lower body: Front squat 3B Corrective: Band hip flexor mobilization 4A Strength: Dumbbell batwing row Technique: Snatch grip deadlift with pause Sets 1-2 3 3 5 4 4 3 1 Reps 30-40 3 3-5 2 5 30 5 20 Vertical torso Notes

Week 2

Transition around knee Work high box for 3-5 reps

Band around trail hip Keep lats tight Pause at knee level

Day 2: Clean Day 1


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Technique: Clean from blocks below knee 1B Plyo: Hurdle jump 2A Full lift: Clean and jerk 3A Upper body: Push press 3B Corrective: Band pull apart 4A Strength: Clean grip deadlift Technique: Overhead barbell split squat Sets 1-2 3 3 4 3 3 3 1 Reps 30-40 3 3 2 5 25 5 20 90/90 position Keep chest up, knees back Notes

Day 3: Snatch Day 2


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Technique: Snatch from blocks below knee 1B Plyo: Depth jump + box jump 2A Full lift: Snatch 3A Assistive: Snatch pull from floor 4A Lower body: Back squat 4B Corrective: Half kneeling cable bar lift Technique: Snatch balance Sets 1-2 3 3 5 3 5 4 1 Reps 30-40 3 5 3 5 3 8 20 Each side Dip and drive up, ride bar Transition around knee Notes

Day 4: Clean Day 2


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Technique: Hang clean from above knee 1B Plyo: Vertical jump 2A Full lift: Split jerk 3A Strength: Front squat 4A Upper body: Neutral grip dumbbell overhead press Sets 1-2 3 3 4 4 4 4 1 Reps 30-40 3 3 5 8 8 25 20 Squeeze shoulders down Pause at knee Work technique; clean! Notes

98

4B Corrective: Band pull apart Technique: Clean pull to knee

Eight Week Advanced Program


Day 1: Snatch Day 1
Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Technique: Snatch from blocks below knee 1B Plyo: Box jump 2A Full lift: Snatch 3A Lower body: Front squat 3B Corrective: Band hip flexor mobilization 4A Strength: Pull up Technique: Overhead squat Sets 1-2 3 3 5 5 4 3 1 Reps 30-40 3 3-5 2 5 30 5 20 Vertical torso Notes

Week 3

Transition around knee Work high box for 3-5 reps

Band around trail hip Keep lats tight Vertical torso

Day 2: Clean Day 1


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Technique: Hang clean from above knee 1B Plyo: Hurdle jump 2A Full lift: Clean 3A Lower body: Split jerk 3B Corrective: Band pull apart 4A Strength: Clean pull Technique: Clean grip deadlift Sets 1-2 3 3 5 3 3 4 1 Reps 30-40 3 5 2 3 25 3 20 Watch torso angle Keep chest up, knees back Notes

Day 3: Snatch Day 2


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Technique: Hang snatch from three positions 1B Plyo: Depth jump + box jump 2A Full lift: Snatch 3A Assistive: Snatch pull from floor 4A Lower body: Back squat 4B Corrective: Half kneeling cable bar lift Technique: Snatch balance Sets 1-2 3 3 5 3 5 4 1 Reps 30-40 1 ea 5 3 3 3 8 20 Each side Dip and drive up, ride bar Below & above knee, hip Notes

Day 4: Clean Day 2


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Technique: Hang clean from above knee 1B Plyo: Vertical jump 2A Full lift: Clean and jerk 3A Strength: Squat jump 4A Upper body: Push press 4B Corrective: Band pull apart Technique: Clean pull to knee + power clean Sets 1-2 3 3 5 4 4 4 1 Reps 30-40 3 3 2 10 5 25 20 Squeeze shoulders down Pause at knee Work technique; clean! Notes

99

Eight Week Advanced Program


Day 1: Snatch Day 1
Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Technique: Hang snatch from above knee 1B Plyo: Box jump 2A Full lift: Snatch 3A Lower body: Front squat 3B Corrective: Band hip flexor mobilization 4A Strength: Pull up Technique: Overhead squat Sets 1-2 3 3 5 5 4 3 1 Reps 30-40 2 3-5 1 5 30 5 20 Vertical torso Notes

Week 4

Transition around knee Work high box for 3-5 reps

Band around trail hip Keep lats tight Vertical torso

Day 2: Clean Day 1


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Technique: Clean from below knee 1B Plyo: Hurdle jump 2A Full lift: Clean and jerk 3A Lower body: Split squat 3B Corrective: Half kneeling cable lift 4A Strength: Clean pull Technique: Clean grip deadlift Sets 1-2 3 3 5 3 3 4 1 Reps 30-40 3 5 1 5 25 3 20 Watch torso angle Keep chest up, knees back Notes

Day 3: Snatch Day 2


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Technique: Snatch from blocks below knee 1B Plyo: Depth jump + box jump 2A Full lift: Snatch 3A Assistive: Snatch balance 4A Lower body: Back squat 4B Corrective: Half kneeling cable bar lift Technique: Snatch grip deadlift Sets 1-2 3 3 5 3 5 4 1 Reps 30-40 1 ea 5 3 3 3 8 20 Each side Dip and drive up, ride bar Notes

Day 4: Clean Day 2


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Technique: Power clean + front squat 1B Plyo: Vertical jump 2A Full lift: Split jerk 3A Strength: Front squat 4A Upper body: Push press 4B Corrective: Band pull apart Technique: Clean pull to knee Sets 1-2 3 3 5 4 4 4 1 Reps 30-40 3 3 2 8 5 25 20 Squeeze shoulders down Pause at knee Work technique; clean! Catch high then squat Notes

100

Eight Week Advanced Program


Day 1: Snatch Day 1
Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 2A Full lift: Snatch 3A Lower body: Front squat 3B Corrective: Band hip flexor mobilization 4A Strength: Pull up 4B Core: Farmers walk (unilateral) Technique: Overhead squat Sets 1-2 4 3 4 3 3 1 Reps 30-40 1 2 5 30 5 40-60 yds 20 Work up to 5 RM Notes

Week 5

1A Combo: Power snatch + OH squat + snatch w/ pause 3

1 rep ea; pause at bottom

Band around trail hip Keep lats tight Heavy db or kb Vertical torso

Day 2: Clean Day 1


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Combo: Power clean + front squat + clean + jerk 2A Full lift: Clean and jerk 3A Lower body: Snatch balance 3B Corrective: Half kneeling cable lift 4A Strength: Three position clean pull Technique: Half jerk Sets 1-2 3 4 3 3 4 1 Reps 30-40 1 2+1 5 25 3 20 Flr, mid-shin, above knee Use bar only Notes

Day 3
Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Assistive: Snatch from hang above knee 2A Combo: Klokov complex: CG DL + full clean + front squat + push press + jerk 3A Assistive: Flat foot hang snatch pull 4A Lower body: Split squat 4B Corrective: Ankle mobilizations 5A Core: Turkish get up 5B Core: Bilateral heavy farmers walk Technique: Snatch grip deadlift Sets 1-2 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 1 Reps 30-40 2 1 3 5 12 2 ea 40-60 yds 20 Dip and drive up, ride bar Each side Get knees out of the way Notes

Day 4: Max Day


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Full: Snatch 2A Full: Clean and jerk 3A Lower body: Back squat 4A Core: Weighted plank 4B Core: Balloon breathing Sets 1-2 X X 4 3 3 Reps 30-40 1 8 5 1 5 breaths After 60% take singles up in 3-5% increments Same as snatch Up to 5 RM Front, side, side Notes

101

Eight Week Advanced Program


Day 1: Snatch Day 1
Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 2A Full lift: Snatch 3A Lower body: Front squat 3B Corrective: Band hip flexor mobilization 4A Strength: Press 4B Core: Farmers walk (unilateral) Technique: Overhead squat Sets 1-2 4 3 4 3 3 1 Reps 30-40 1 2 3 30 5 40-60 yds 20 Work up to 3 RM Notes

Week 6

1A Combo: Power snatch + OH squat + snatch w/ pause 4

1 rep ea; pause at bottom

Band around trail hip Press shoulders to ears Heavy db or kb Vertical torso

Day 2: Clean Day 1


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Combo: Power clean + front squat + clean + jerk 2A Full lift: Clean and jerk 3A Lower body: Snatch balance 3B Corrective: Half kneeling cable lift 4A Strength: Three position clean pull Technique: Jerk dip squat Sets 1-2 4 4 3 3 4 1 Reps 30-40 1 2+1 5 25 3 20 Mid-shin, abv knee, finish Use 100% jerk max 2 cleans + 1 jerk Notes

Day 3
Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Assistive: Power clean from blocks 2A Combo: Klokov complex: CG DL + full clean + front squat + push press + jerk 3A Assistive: Flat foot clean high pull 4A Lower body: Split squat 4B Corrective: Ankle mobilizations 5A Core: Turkish get up 5B Core: Bilateral heavy farmers walk Technique: Snatch grip deadlift Sets 1-2 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 1 Reps 30-40 2 1 3 5 12 2 ea 40-60 yds 20 Dip and drive up, ride bar Each side Dont finish on toes Get knees out of the way Notes

Day 4: Max Day


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Full: Snatch 2A Full: Clean and jerk 3A Lower body: Back squat 4A Core: Weighted plank 4B Core: Balloon breathing Sets 1-2 X X 4 3 3 Reps 30-40 1 8 3 1 5 breaths After 60% take singles up in 3-5% increments Same as snatch Up to 3 RM Front, side, side Notes

102

Eight Week Advanced Program


Day 1: Snatch Day 1
Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 2A Full lift: Snatch 3A Lower body: Front squat 3B Corrective: Band hip flexor mobilization 4A Strength: Pull up 4B Core: Farmers walk (unilateral) Technique: Overhead squat Sets 1-2 5 3 4 3 3 1 Reps 30-40 1 2 5, 3, 1 30 5 40-60 yds 20 Heavy db or kb Vertical torso Work up to 1 RM Notes

Week 7

1A Combo: Power snatch + OH squat + snatch w/ pause 4

1 rep ea; pause at bottom

Band around trail hip

Day 2: Clean Day 1


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Combo: Power clean + front squat + clean + jerk 2A Full lift: Clean and jerk 3A Lower body: Snatch balance 3B Corrective: Half kneeling cable lift 4A Strength: Three position clean pull Technique: Jerk dip squat Sets 1-2 4 5 3 3 4 1 Reps 30-40 1 2+1 5 25 3 20 Mid-shin, abv knee, finish Use 100% jerk max 2 cleans + 1 jerk Notes

Day 3
Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Assistive: Snatch from blocks at mid-shins 2A Combo: Klokov complex: CG DL + full clean + front squat + push press + jerk 3A Assistive: Flat foot high pull 4A Lower body: Split squat 4B Corrective: Ankle mobilizations 5A Core: Turkish get up 5B Core: Bilateral heavy farmers walk Sets 1-2 3 4 3 4 4 3-4 3-4 Reps 30-40 2 1 3 5 12 2 ea 40-60 yds Each side Dont finish on toes Get knees out of the way Notes

Day 4: Max Day


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Full: Snatch 2A Full: Clean and jerk 3A Lower body: Back squat 4A Core: Weighted plank 4B Core: Balloon breathing Sets 1-2 X X 4 3 3 Reps 30-40 1 8 5, 3, 1 1 5 breaths After 60% take singles up in 3-5% increments Same as snatch Up to 1 RM Front, side, side Notes

103

Eight Week Advanced Program


Day 1: Snatch Day 1
Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 2A Full lift: Snatch 3A Lower body: Front squat 3B Corrective: Band hip flexor mobilization 4A Strength: Pull up 4B Core: Farmers walk (unilateral) Technique: Overhead squat Sets 1-2 4 3 4 3 3 1 Reps 30-40 1 2 5 30 5 40-60 yds 20 Heavy db or kb Vertical torso Notes

Week 8

1A Combo: Power snatch + OH squat + snatch w/ pause 4

1 rep ea; pause at bottom 60%; work on speed Band around trail hip

Day 2: Clean Day 1


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & clean initiation 1A Combo: Power clean + front squat + clean + jerk 2A Full lift: Clean and jerk 3A Lower body: Snatch balance 3B Corrective: Half kneeling cable lift 4A Assistive: Flat foot clean pull Technique: Jerk dip squat Sets 1-2 4 4 3 3 4 1 Reps 30-40 1 2+1 5 25 3 20 95% of 3 RM Use 100% jerk max 2 cleans + 1 jerk Notes

Day 3
Order & Exercise OFF Sets Reps Notes

Day 4: Max Day


Order & Exercise Warm-up: SMR/mobility & snatch initiation 1A Full: Snatch 2A Full: Clean and jerk Sets 1-2 X X Reps 30-40 1 8 After 60% take singles up in 3-5% increments Same as snatch Notes

104

Combo Program
Monday
Order & Exercise 1A: Power snatch + OH squat + Snatch w/ pause at bottom 2A: Snatch 3A: Snatch pull 4A: Front squat Week 1 3 x 1 ea x 2 4x2 3x3 3x5 Week 2 3 x 1 ea x 2 4x2 3x3 3x3 Week 3 4 x 1 ea x 2

Combos for technique


Week 4 4 x 1 ea x 2 Tempo Exp Exp Mod Mod

1 x 2, 2, 2, 1 4 x 1 4x3 1 x 5, 3, 1 4x3 3x5

Tuesday
Order & Exercise 1A: Power clean + front squat + clean + jerk (pause in split position on jerk) 2A: Clean and jerk 3A: Push press 4A: Clean pull Week 1 3 x 1 ea 4x2+1 3x5 3x3 Week 2 3 x 1 ea 4x2+1 3x3 3x3 Week 3 4 x 1 ea 4x2+1 1 x 5, 3, 1 3x3 Week 4 4 x 1 ea 4x1+1 3x5 3x3 Tempo Exp Exp Mod Exp

Thursday
Order & Exercise 1A: Clean grip deadlift + clean grip hang snatch 2A: Power snatch 3A: Snatch balance 3B: Romanian deadlift 4A: Farmers walk unilateral Week 1 3x3 3x3 3x5 3 x 6 ea 3 x 60 yds Week 2 3x3 3x3 3x5 3 x 6 ea 3 x 60 yds Week 3 3x4 3x4 4x5 4 x 6 ea 4 x 60 yds Week 4 4x3 3x4 4x5 4 x 6 ea 4 x 60 yds Tempo Exp Exp Exp Exp Mod

Friday
Order & Exercise Week 1 Week 2 3 x 2 ea 4x2 3x5 3x5 Week 3 4 x 2 ea 4x2 1 x 5, 3, 1 4x5 Week 4 4 x 2 ea 4x1 3x5 4x5 Tempo Exp Mod Mod Mod 1A: Hang clean pull + hang power clean + 3 x 2 ea power jerk 2A: Clean 3A: Back squat 4A: Press 4x2 3x5 3x5

105

General Sport & Athlete Program


Monday
Order & Exercise 1A: Hang snatch 2A: Front squat 3A: Bench press 4A: Goblet split squat 4B: Turkish get up Week 1 3x3 3x8 3x5 3 x 8 ea 3x2 Week 2 3x3 3x8 3x5 3 x 8 ea 3x2 Week 3 4x3 4x8 4x5 4 x 8 ea 4x2 Week 4 4x3 4x8 4x5 4 x 8 ea 4x2 Tempo Exp Mod Mod Mod

Tuesday
Order & Exercise 1A: Hang clean 2A: Trap bar deadlift 3A: Chin up 4A: Straight leg Romanian deadlift 4B: Double farmers walk Week 1 3x4 3x8 3x5 3x8 3 x 40 yds Week 2 3x4 3x8 3x5 3x8 3 x 40 yds Week 3 4x4 4x8 4x5 3x8 4 x 40 yds Week 4 4x4 4x8 4x5 3x8 4 40 yds Tempo Exp Mod Mod Mod Mod

Thursday
Order & Exercise 1A: Clean grip snatch 2A: Back squat 3A: Push press 4A: Walking lunge 4B: Farmers walk unilateral Week 1 3x3 3x5 3x5 3 x 40 yds 3 x 40 yds Week 2 3x3 3x5 3x5 3 x 40 yds 3 x 40 yds Week 3 4x3 4x5 4x5 4 x 40 yds 4 x 40 yds Week 4 4x3 4x5 4x5 4 x 40 yds 4 x 40 yds Tempo Exp Exp Mod Mod Mod

Friday
Order & Exercise 1A: Power clean pull 2A: Romanian deadlift 3A: Inverted row 4A: Lateral goblet lunge 4B: Plank (all ways) Week 1 3x3 3x5 3x8 3 x 40 yds 3 x 30 Week 2 3x3 3x5 3x8 3 x 40 yds 3 x 30 Week 3 4x3 4x5 4x8 4 x 40 yds 4 x 30 Week 4 4x3 4x5 4x8 4 x 40 yds 4 x 30 Tempo Exp Mod Mod Mod Mod

106

Speed & Explosive Program


Monday
Order & Exercise 1A: Hang snatch 2A: Barbell back squat 2B: Box jump 2C: Barbell jump squat 3A: Dumbbell bench press 3B: Band pull apart Week 1 3x2 3x5 3x5 3x8 3x5 3 x 15-20 Week 2 3x2 3x5 3x5 3x8 3x5 3 x 15-20 Week 3 4x2 4x5 4x5 4x8 4x5 4 x 15-20 Week 4 4x2 4x5 4x5 4x8 4x5 4 x 15-20 Tempo Exp 3:0:0:0 Exp Exp Mod Mod

Tuesday
Order & Exercise 1A: Split clean 2A: Power jerk 3A: Chin up 4A: Face pull 4B: Double farmers walk Week 1 3 x 2 ea 3x4 3x5 3x8 3 x 40 yds Week 2 3 x 2 ea 3x4 3x5 3x8 3 x 40 yds Week 3 4 x 2 ea 4x4 4x5 3x8 4 x 40 yds Week 4 4 x 2 ea 4x4 4x5 3x8 4 40 yds Tempo Exp Exp Mod Mod Mod

Thursday
Order & Exercise 1A: Clean grip snatch 2A: Romanian deadlift 3A: Distance jump 4A: Weighted split lunge 4B: Farmers walk unilateral Week 1 3x3 3x5 3x5 3 x 6 ea 3 x 60 yds Week 2 3x3 3x5 3x5 3 x 6 ea 3 x 60 yds Week 3 4x3 4x5 4x5 4 x 6 ea 4 x 60 yds Week 4 4x3 4x5 4x5 4 x 6 ea 4 x 60 yds Tempo Exp 3:0:0:0 Mod Exp Mod

Friday
Order & Exercise 1A: Hang clean pull + hang power clean 2A: Split jerk 3A: Inverted row 4A: Lateral goblet lunge 4B: Plank (all ways) Week 1 3 x 2 ea 3 x 2 ea 3x8 3 x 40 yds 3 x 30 Week 2 3 x 2 ea 3 x 2 ea 3x8 3 x 40 yds 3 x 30 Week 3 4 x 2 ea 4 x 2 ea 4x8 4 x 40 yds 4 x 30 Week 4 4 x 2 ea 4 x 2 ea 4x8 4 x 40 yds 4 x 30 Tempo Exp Mod Mod Mod Mod

107

ABOUT THE AUTHOR


il Fleming is the Owner of Force Fitness and Performance and Athletic Revolution Bloomington, in Bloomington, Indiana. Force Fitness opened just over two years ago and is already one of the most successfultraining facilities in the Midwest. With business partner Ryan Ketchum, Wil has established the business as one of the most sought-after facilities in the region, serving nearly 400 fitness and performance clients. In just 24 months, Fleming has been instrumental in helping 15 athletes earn Division I scholarships and 35 others earn collegiate athletic scholarships at other levels of participation. In addition to being a business owner, Fleming is an accompliched author. He wrote the International Conditioning Associations Olympic Lifts Instructor Course manual as well as the the Speed and Agility chapter in IYCA Essentials of High School Strength and Conditioning text. He also authored and filmed the Core Lifts program intended to help Athletic Revolution franchisees lean and refine their coaching technique regarding fundamental weight lifting skills and his work also appears on T-Nation, STACK, and a number of other media outlets. Prior to being a business owner, Fleming was an Olympic Trials participant, an all-American athlete, and the school record holder at Indiana University as a hammer thrower. Wil was a resident athlete at the Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs for Olympic weightlifting after winning a Jr. National Championship in the same sport. You can always catch his latest work on his website, www.wilfleming.com.

WIL FLEMING

108

ABOUT THE EDITOR


oby Brooks currently serves as the Director of Research and Education for the International Youth Conditioning Association. The Golconda, Illinois native completed his undergraduate studies in Athletic Training and was named one of the Top 25 Graduating Seniors at Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIUC) in 1998. He then accepted a graduate assistant athletic trainer position at the University of Arizona. At the U of A, he completed both his Masters and Doctoral degrees in Physical Education while working with the Wildcat womens gymnastics, football, and baseball programs. Dr. Brooks has worked as a certified athletic trainer and/or strength coach with numerous professional, collegiate, and high school athletics programs, including the Oakland Raiders, USA Baseball, the University of Texas El Paso, Liberty University, the Florida Firecats, Shawnee Community College, the Southern Illinois Miners, and seven high schools across three states. He has also has published multiple books, articles, and studies and is a regular presenter at national and international conferences. Dr. Brooks currently serves as an Assistant Professor in the Master of Athletic Training Program at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas. Toby is also co-founder and creative director for NiTROhype Creative (nitrohype.com), a graphic design firm specializing in web and print-based media production primarily for athletic, fitness, and motorsports-based businesses.

www.CompleteOlympicLifting.com 109

110

111