Collage (From the French: coller, to glue, French pronunciation:  [kɔ.laːʒ]) is a technique of an art production, primarily used in the visual arts, where the artwork is made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. A collage may sometimes include newspaper clippings, ribbons, bits of colored or handmade papers, portions of other artwork or texts, photographs and other found objects, glued to a piece of paper or canvas. The origins of collage can be traced back hundreds of years, but this technique made a dramatic reappearance in the early 20th century as an art form of novelty. The term collage derives from the French "coller" meaning "glue".[1] This term was coined by both Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in the beginning of the 20th century when collage became a distinctive part of modern art.[2]

Early precedents

Kurt Schwitters, Das Undbild, 1919, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart

Techniques of collage were first used at the time of the invention of paper in China, around 200 BC. The use of collage, however, wasn't used by many people until the 10th century in Japan, when calligraphers began to apply glued paper, using texts on surfaces, when writing their poems.[] The technique of collage appeared in medieval Europe during the 13th century. Gold leaf panels started to be applied in Gothic cathedrals around the 15th and 16th centuries. Gemstones and other precious metals were applied to religious images, icons, and also, to coats of arms.[] In the 19th century, collage methods also were used among hobbyists for memorabilia (e.g. applied to photo albums) and books (e.g. Hans Christian Andersen, Carl Spitzweg).[]

such as the war in the Balkans. some art authorities argue that collage. Christo. Braque took up the concept of collage itself before Picasso. 1919. method are called etrécissements by Marcel Mariën from a method first explored by Mariën. these chopped-up bits of newspaper introduced fragments Epoch in Germany.Collage 2 Collage and modernism Despite the pre-twentieth-century use of collage-like application techniques. The Sidney Janis Gallery held an early Pop Art exhibit called the New Realist Exhibition in November 1962. Jean Tinguely. The glued-on patches which Braque and Picasso added to their canvases offered a new perspective on painting when the patches "collided with the surface plane of the painting. and Schifano. Wesselmann took part in the New Realist show with some reservations.[6] . Jim Dine. Roy Lichtenstein. Surrealist games such as parallel collage use collective techniques of collage making. or perhaps identical. through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Furthermore. Staatliche Museum. "at once serious and tongue-in-cheek.[3] According to the Guggenheim Museum's online art glossary. Rotella. Cubomania is a collage made by cutting an image into squares which are then reassembled automatically or at random. Baj."[4] Collage in painting Collage in the modernist sense began with Cubist painters Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. and Andy Warhol." according to the Guggenheim essay. collage has brought the incongruous into meaningful congress with the ordinary. properly speaking. Picasso immediately began to make his own experiments in the new medium."[4] In 1912 for his Still Life with Chair Caning (Nature-morte à la chaise cannée). collage was part of a methodical reexamination of the relation between painting and sculpture. and these new works "gave each medium some Hannah Höch.". Many of these artists used collage techniques in their work. Collages produced using a similar. Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife of the characteristics of the other." was fundamental to the inspiration behind collage: "Emphasizing concept and process over end product." This juxtaposition of signifiers. and entails much more than the idea of gluing something onto something else. and Europeans such as Arman. and marked the international debut of the artists who soon gave rise to what came to be called Pop Art in Britain and The United States and Nouveau Réalisme on the European continent. Picasso adopted collage immediately after (and was perhaps indeed the first to use collage in paintings. Picasso was the first to use the collage technique in oil paintings. did not emerge until after 1900. George Segal. Festa. current events. Berlin. collage is an artistic concept associated with the beginnings of modernism."[4] In this perspective. According to some sources. which included works by the American artists Tom Wesselmann. According to the Guggenheim Museum's online article about collage. applying it to charcoal drawings. James Rosenquist. 90x144 cm. Surrealist artists have made extensive use of collage. the Tate Gallery's online art glossary states that collage "was first used as an artists' technique in the twentieth century. Robert Indiana.[5] Picasso pasted a patch of oilcloth with a chair-cane design onto the canvas of the piece. Yves Klein. Claes Oldenburg. and to popular culture enriched the content of their art. collage of pasted of externally referenced meaning into the collision: "References to papers. It followed the Nouveau Réalisme exhibition at the Galerie Rive Droite in Paris. For example. as opposed to drawings): "It was Braque who purchased a roll of simulated oak-grain wallpaper and began cutting out pieces of the paper and attaching them to his charcoal drawings. in conjunction with the early stages of modernism.

The technique of wood collage is also sometimes combined with painting and other media in a single work of art. which can sometimes be viewed from either side. wood shavings. Georges Braque initiated use of paper collage by cutting out pieces of simulated oak-grain wallpaper and attaching them to his own charcoal drawings. and architectural remnants like stair railings or moldings. It was during a fifteen-year period of intense experimentation beginning in the mid-1940s that Louise Nevelson evolved her sculptural wood collages. It usually features pieces of wood.[7] The principle of wood collage is clearly established at least as early as his 'Merz Picture with Candle'. or parts of found and unaltered logs. assembled from found scraps.Collage exhibiting two 1962 works: Still life #17 and Still life #22. wood-relief collages offer the artist an opportunity to explore the qualities of depth. typically with glue.. Such framed. the idea of gluing wood to a picture was implicitly there from the start. culturally determined context. Much wood collage art is considerably smaller in scale. framed and hung as a painting would be.for example. and functioning or signifying in some cultural context. in a kind of semiotic collision. and painted black. The intensely self-critical Lee Krasner also frequently destroyed her own paintings by cutting them into may be so weathered by salt and sea that its past functional identity is nearly or completely obscured. Well known for use of this technique is British artist John Walker in his paintings of the late 1970s. very large. A truncated wooden chair or staircase newel used in a Nevelson work can also be considered a potential element of collage in the same sense: it had some original. since (according to the Guggenheim online). what is called "wood collage art" uses only natural wood . since the paper used in the very first paper collages was a commercial product manufactured to look like wood. or even looked through. branches. Frequently. "As a rectangular plane to be viewed from the front.[8][9] It is also interesting to note that wood collage in a sense made its debut.[4] Thus. at the same time as paper collage. arguably has no such context. or bark. only to create new works of art by reassembling the pieces into collages. and historical resonances that arise from the tradition of creating pictures to hang on walls. including parts of furniture. dating from the mid to late 1920s. sticks. indirectly. which is the application. picture-like. conventions. The collage brings these still-recognizable "signifiers" (or fragments of signifiers) together. the characteristic contextual disruptions associated with the collage idea. cannot really take place. 3 Collage with wood The wood collage is a type that emerged somewhat later than paper collage. This is because the early. natural color. Generally rectangular. of separately painted canvas patches to the surface of a painting's main canvas. Concerning Nevelson's Sky Cathedral (1958). they resemble gigantic paintings. but canvas collage was already an integral part of the mixed media works of such American artists as Conrad Marca-Relli and Jane Frank by the early 1960s. and textural variety inherent in the material.) . while drawing on and taking advantage of the language. assembled on a canvas (if there is painting involved). natural wood. This raises the question of whether such artwork is collage (in the original sense) at all (see Collage and modernism). therefore. Kurt Schwitters began experimenting with wood collages in the 1920s after already having given up painting for paper collages. or scraps. (Driftwood is of course sometimes ambiguous: while a piece of driftwood may once have been a piece of worked wood . Another technique is that of canvas collage. Unaltered. paper collages were generally made from bits of text or pictures . Sky Cathedral has the pictorial quality of a painting. the Museum of Modern Art catalogue states."[10] Yet such pieces also present themselves as massive walls or monoliths. as it originated with Braque and Picasso. pieces of wooden crates or barrels. or on a wooden board.such as driftwood. such as one might find on a forest floor.. part of a ship .things originally made by people.

The composite picture was sometimes photographed so that the final image is converted back into a seamless photographic print.[11] Richard Hamilton has subsequently created several works in which he reworked the subject and composition of the pop art collage. front-projection and computer montage techniques. Many artists have created derivative works of Hamilton's collage. Romare Bearden’s (1912–1988) series of black and white "photomontage projections" is an example. such as Victorian "combination printing". depending on the amount of paper involved). In the early part of the 20th century. The technique is referred to by professionals as compositing. O. . cut and layered to add apparent depth. 'to cut out') as it attained great popularity during the 17th and 18th centuries. was at the forefront of trade with the Far East and it is generally thought that it is through these trade links that the cut out paper decorations made their way into Europe. artists also combine montage techniques. and items could take up to a year to complete due to the many coats and sandings applied. Rejlander.Collage 4 Decoupage Decoupage is a type of collage usually defined as a craft. Most famous are Matisse's Blue Nude II. the practice came to China. In addition. The most likely origin of decoupage is thought to be East Siberian funerary art. Italy. the printing from more than one negative on a single piece of printing paper (e. cut out paper was being used to decorate lanterns. There are many varieties on the traditional technique involving purpose made 'glue' requiring fewer layers (often 5 or 20. Some famous or aristocratic practitioners included Marie Antoinette. C. The picture is often coated with varnish or some other sealant for protection. In fact the majority of decoupage enthusiasts attribute the beginning of decoupage to 17th century Venice. 20th century artists who produced decoupage works include Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. he enlarged the collages photographically. so appealing? was created in 1956 for the catalogue of the This Is Tomorrow exhibition in London. paint. The same method is accomplished today using image-editing software. began experimenting with a less realistic and more abstract style. Just what is it that makes today's homes so different. windows. Photomontage is the process (and result) of making a composite photograph by cutting and joining a number of other photographs. Photomontage Collage made from photographs. England in which it was reproduced in black and white. boxes and other objects. including a 1992 version featuring a female bodybuilder. However it was known before this time in Asia. Much as a collage is composed of multiple facets. the piece was used in posters for the exhibit. The craft became known as découpage in France (from the verb découper. In the 17th century. P. and by the 12th century. like many other art methods. Currently decoupage is a popular handicraft. Decoupage can involve adding multiple copies of the same image. Cutouts are also applied under glass or raised to give a three dimensional appearance according to the desire of the decouper. Madame de Pompadour. and photographs put on boards 8½ × 11 inches. or parts of photographs. and Beau Brummell. Many advanced techniques were developed during this time. The 19th century tradition of physically joining multiple images into a composite and photographing the results prevailed in press photography and offset lithography until the widespread use of digital image editing. Contemporary photo editors in magazines now create "paste-ups" digitally.g. Nomadic tribes would use cut out felts to decorate the tombs of their deceased. 1857). G. It is the process of placing a picture into an object for decoration. Subsequently. especially in Venice. His method began with compositions of paper. From Siberia. Bearden fixed the imagery with an emulsion that he then applied with handroller. is called photomontage. Helm made a year 2000 interpretation.[12] Other methods for combining pictures are also called photomontage. decoupage.

illustration and graphics in a seamless photographic whole.Small pieces. The current trend is to create pictures that combine painting. It is commonly used in the creation of digital art. temples as a spiritual significance of interior design. Yet some artists are pushing the boundaries of digital image editing to create extremely time-intensive compositions that rival the demands of the traditional arts. Martin Henri Matisse John McHale Robert Motherwell Vik Muniz Wangechi Mutu Joseph Nechvatal Robert Nickle Eduardo Paolozzi Francis Picabia Pablo Picasso David Plunkert David Ratcliff Man Ray • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Gordon Rice Larry Rivers James Rosenquist Martha Rosler Mimmo Rotella Anne Ryan Kurt Schwitters Winston Smith Gino Severini John Stezaker Daniel Spoerri Francois Szalay . marble. beads.Colos Roderick Slater Ivan Tabakovic Jonathan Talbot Lenore Tawney Cecil Touchon Scott Treleaven Jacques Villeglé Kara Walker Burhan Doğançay • Johannes Theodor Baargeld • Richard Hamilton • Robert Rauschenberg • . 3-Dimensional Collage A 3D Collage is the art of putting altogether 3-Dimensional objects such as rocks.Collage Creating a photomontage has. for the most part. buttons. eCollage The term "eCollage" (electronic Collage) can be used for a collage created by using computer tools. Dove Jean Dubuffet Marcel Duchamp Max Ernst Nick Gentry Terry Gilliam Juan Gris George Grosz Raymond Hains Raoul Hausmann John Heartfield Damien Hirst Hannah Höch David Hockney Ray Johnson Peter Kennard • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jiří Kolář Lee Krasner François Lanzi Kazimir Malevich Conrad Marca-Relli Eugene J. bead circles. allowing for faster workflow and more precise results. churches. (diminutive tessellae). stones. of stone or glass of different colors. etc. etc. They are often found in cathedrals. Mosaic It is the art of putting together or assembling of small pieces of paper. Examples of these can be a houses. Pixel image editor. Collage artists • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Vikky Alexander Johannes Baader Nick Bantock Hannelore Baron Romare Bearden Peter Blake Umberto Boccioni Rita Boley Bolaffio Henry Botkin Mark Bradford Georges Braque Alberto Burri Reginald Case Jess Collins Greg Colson Felipe Jesus Consalvos Joseph Cornell Amadeo de Souza Cardoso Eric Carle • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jim Dine Arthur G. known as tesserae. These programs make the changes digitally. coins or even soil to form a new whole or a new object. normally roughly quadratic. 5 Digital collage Digital collage is the technique of using computer tools in collage creation to encourage chance associations of disparate visual elements and the subsequent transformation of the visual results through the use of electronic media. become easier with the advent of computer software such as Adobe Photoshop. theatre. 3D collage is often one of the infamous kinds of collage. tiles. and GIMP. They also mitigate mistakes by allowing the artist to "undo" errors. are used to create a pattern or picture.

Instead. much less seeking the types of disruptions of meaning that occur with collage.. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. collage was more a metaphor than an actual practice. the likes of Christian Marclay and the group Negativland reappropriated old audio in new ways. Whereas for Rowe. Miller aka DJ . violon et verre. In music. Another member of that group was Bernhard Hoesli. hip-hop and electronic music. In the same year. especially in rap. able to get a sense of how better to operate. papier collé and charcoal on paper. New York City based artist. avant-garde artists started experimenting with cutting and pasting since the middle of the twentieth century. George Martin created collages of recordings while producing the records of The Beatles. and frequently introduced the question of collage and disruption in his studio work.2006 Collage in other contexts Collage in architecture Though Le Corbusier and other architects used techniques that are akin to collage. The Sunblind.Collage • Tom Wesselmann 6 Gallery Pablo Picasso. Rowe and Koetter were not. so it was hoped. In the 1960s.[] In 1996. DJ Shadow released the groundbreaking album. it became apparent that "musical collages" had become the norm for popular music. championing collage in the pictorial sense. 1912 Juan Gris. they were looking to challenge the uniformity of Modernism and saw collage with its non-linear notion of history as a means to reinvigorate design practice. Rowe was a member of the so-called Texas Rangers. He was close to Robert Slutzky. with the popularity of the sampler. 1914.. however. By the 1990s and 2000s. collage as a theoretical concept only became widely discussed after the publication of Collage City (1987) by Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter. made entirely of preexisting recorded material mixed together in audible collage. Hoesli actively made collages as part of his design process. In the 1970s and '80s. Collage on Paper. designers were. with the advances on recording technology. a group of architects who taught at the University of Texas for a while. Fruitdish and Glass. 1912 Georges Braque. Fusion Series #2174. a Swiss architect who went on to become an important educator at the ETH-Zurirch. Collage in music The concept of collage has crossed the boundaries of visual arts. Compotier avec fruits. Not only does historical urban fabric have its place... Paul D. Endtroducing. Tate Gallery Cecil Touchon. but in studying it. fragments from found billboard material c. In 1967 Pop artist Peter Blake made the collage for the cover of the Beatles seminal album Sgt. a New York based artist. writer. and musician..

in the area of sound collage (such as hip hop music). although still ambiguous." In 2000. The collage thus has a copyright separate from any copyrights pertaining to the original incorporated works.” Combining different types of footage can have various implications depending on the director’s approach. Due to redefined and reinterpreted copyright laws. For instance. some court rulings effectively have eliminated the de minimis doctrine as a defense to copyright infringement. sometimes embellished with crayon or other marks. the mise en scène takes on a highly fantasized style. In this case. thus shifting collage practice away from non-permissive uses relying on fair use or de minimis protections. while adding a surreal aspect to an otherwise realistic film. such as newsreels. The copyright status of visual works is less troubled. using vividly coloured hand-textured papers cut to shape and layered together. was especially renown for his collage films. and increased financial interests. a musical collage consisting of approximately 3. the effects serve to enhance clarity. or computer-generated imagery. Eric Carle is a prominent example. especially when animated graphics are layered over traditional film footage. the Principia Discordia. although the Ninth Circuit has held that the first-sale doctrine does not apply to derivative works. the result is what some copyright scholars call a derivative work. including fictitious elements like swirling tunnels of color and light.[16] The de minimis doctrine and the fair use exception also . many of which were made from the cutting room floors of the National Film Board studios (www.Collage Spooky's work pushed the work of sampling into a museum and gallery context as an art practice that combined DJ culture's obsession with archival materials as sound sources on his album "Songs of a Dead Dreamer" and in his books "Rhythm Science [13]" (2004) and "Sound Unbound [14](2008)" (MIT Press).. Collage film can also refer to the physical collaging of materials onto filmstrips. William S. For example. "mash-up" and collage based mixes of authors. samples). can be considered a form of collage. some visual collage artists have argued that the first-sale doctrine protects their work.[] 7 Illustration Collage is commonly used as a technique in Children's picture book illustration.500 musical sources (i. artists. James Joyce. Arthur Lipsett. Collage in film Collage film is traditionally defined as.[15] Examples of musical collage art that have run afoul of modern copyright are The Grey Album and Negativland's U2. and Raymond Scott were featured as part of a what he called "literature of sound. Literary collage Collage novels are books with images selected from other publications and collaged together following a theme or narrative. and musicians such as Antonin Artaud. In post-production The use of CGI. David O. 2001). and toward licensing.e. In his books. some forms of collage art are significantly restricted. See image at The Very Hungry Caterpillar. “A film that juxtaposes fictional scenes with footage taken from disparate sources. The first-sale doctrine prevents copyright holders from controlling consumptive uses after the "first sale" of their work. Russel’s I Heart Huckabees (2004) incorporates CGI effects to visually demonstrate philosophical theories explained by the existential detectives (played by Lily Tomlin and Dustin Hoffman). At certain moments during Amèlie (Jean-Pierre Legal issues When collage uses existing works. The Avalanches released Since I Left You. Canadian Film maker. A collage in literary terms may also refer to a layering of ideas or images. Burroughs. The bible of discordianism. is described by its author as a literary collage.nfb.

editor (Knoxville: University of Tennessee. htm [21] http:/ / www. fr/ pages/ page_id18547_u1l2. revised 2004. [Lanham. html . • Museum Factory [19] -by Istvan Horkay • History of Collage [20] Excerpts from Nita Leland and Virginia Lee and from George F. guggenheimcollection. org/ ) for further explanations. OCLC 191318119 (New York : Hudson Hills Press . com [15] See Bridgeport Music. peak. 222 [11] "This is tomorrow" (http:/ / www. Brommer • West.[17] The Second Circuit in October. • Ruddick Bloom. Co. 131/ collection/ browse_results. pchelm. 3-11. html) [8] Peak. 1989) [17] See the Fair Use Network (http:/ / fairusenetwork.jpg"). Collage City MIT University Press. originally published 2006) [19] http:/ / www. com [14] http:/ / www. org/ search?q=Taylor+ Brandon+ Urban+ Walls+ & qt=owc_search [22] http:/ / om-2010. Wolf Vostell ISBN 978-1-55595-288-4. September 2001).R. -. worldcat. 2008). com/ computage/ just_what_is_it. org/ site/ concept_Collage. "Bernhard Hoesli Collages/Civitas. [16] Mirage Editions.. Retrieved 27 August 2008. [13] http:/ / www.2650057.. [12] "Just what is it" (http:/ / www. 31) [7] (scroll to "image (http:/ / www. org/ p. horkay. p. Shearer (1996). com/ images/ cat_1956/ cat_web/ FrameSet. 26. peak. kurt-schwitters. UK: Bloomsbury (http:/ / www. jpg) [9] Peak. html) [5] Nature-morte à la chaise cannée (http:/ / www. worldcat. Jacques Villeglé. Digital Collage and Painting: Using Photoshop and Painter to Create Fine Art. htm). MoMA Highlights. v. 4.F. Retrieved 27 August 2008. com/ [20] http:/ / www. 2006.The Museum of Modern Art. --. Stealingworth. sharecom. 1980. html) [10] Louise Nevelson (http:/ / 12. uk/ collections/ glossary/ definition. S.Collage provide important defenses against claimed copyright infringement. blogspot. ISBN 1-55595-288-7. htm) . 2006 WL 3040666 (2d Cir. Mimmo Rotella. com/ 2010/ 09/ 025-2010-richard-misiano-genovese-usa. tate. Focal Press." Bernhard Hoesli: Collages. cat. Inc. org. 6th Cir. thisistomorrow2. rhythmscience. Christina Betanzos Pint. • Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter. 1978. essay by [[Clement Greenberg (http:/ / www. Cambridge MA. Raymond Hains. Elza (1998). held that artist Jeff Koons was not liable for copyright infringement because his incorporation of a photograph into a collage painting was fair use. [21] • Excavations [22] (Ontological Museum Acquisitions) by Richard Misiano-Genovese Notes [2] (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-8212-2137-X. ISBN 0-521-59204-6. jsp?entryId=70) [4] Guggenheimcollection. Oct. pchelm. New York: The Museum of Modern Art.T.Musée National Picasso Paris [6] (cf. musee-picasso. Urban walls : a generation of collage in Europe & America : Burhan Dogançay with François Dufrêne. soundunbound. com/ nesting_cranes/ susan_krieg_history_collage. Surrealist Collage in Text and Image: Dissecting the Exquisite Corpse. p.[18] 8 References Bibliography • Adamowicz. ca/ greenberg/ collage. php?criteria=O:AD:E:4278& page_number=1& template_id=1& sort_order=1) .org (http:/ / www.2d 1341 (9th Cir. [18] Blanch v. The Bullfinch Guide to Art.1. Cambridge University Press. exh. org/ ~dadaist/ Art/ (http:/ / www. Albuquerque A. 856 F. • Mark Jarzombek. 2010 [3] Tate. html)]] Retrieved July 20. htm). Robert Rauschenberg. org/ ~dadaist/ Art/ candle. MD] : Distributed in the United States by National Book Network. thisistomorrow2. ISBN 0-240-80705-7. Koons. • Brandon Taylor. Susan (2006). 172.

html) • Exhibition of traditional and digital collage by many artists .ca/greenberg/ . (http://kolajmagazine.html) • Kolaj Magazine.sharecom.collagemuseum. com/ • Cecil Touchon's International Museum of Collage.curated by Jonathan Talbot in 2001 (http://www. a print magazine about contemporary collage. Assemblage and Construction (http://www.Collage 9 External links • Clement Greenberg on Collage (http://www. pasteandpixels.

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