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County Durham

Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements

Annual Report 2002-3

By Paul Goggins, Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Community

and Custodial Provision in the Home Office.

As the recently appointed Minister with responsibility for the

MAPPA, I am pleased to introduce this, the second, Annual
MAPPA Report. It is clear that in the last year [2002/2003] the
multi agency public protection arrangements [the MAPPA]
continued to play an important role in what remains one of this
government’s highest priorities – the protection of the public from
dangerous offenders.

As someone with many years experience of working in the field

of child protection, I am particularly impressed by the important
contribution the MAPPA are making to strengthen collaboration
between agencies at a local level where the focus is on the
dangerous offender. These improvements must, however,
impact on the protection of the children. As the tragic death of
Victoria Climbie showed, an effective multi agency partnership is
crucial and the MAPPA are an important element.

To ensure greater consistency in the MAPPA across the 42

Areas of England and Wales, and to prepare for the
implementation of measures contained in the Criminal Justice
Bill, we published the MAPPA Guidance in April. Building on
good practice, that Guidance clarified the structure of the
operational arrangements as well as the importance of formal
review and monitoring – of which this annual report is a vital part.
The Criminal Justice Bill will strengthen the MAPPA in two ways.
First, it will make the involvement of other agencies part of the
statutory framework. Second, it will introduce the involvement of
Lay People – those unconnected with day to day operation of the
MAPPA – in reviewing and monitoring the MAPPA. Annual
Reports and this new lay involvement show the Government’s
commitment to explaining how the often sensitive and complex
work of public protection is undertaken.

The Government is also strengthening the protection of the

public with other measures in the Criminal Justice Bill. They
include new sentences for dangerous offenders to prevent their
release if they continue to be dangerous. Additionally, the
Sexual Offences Bill will tighten up sex offender registration,
introduce a new offence of “grooming”, and enable sex offender
orders to be imposed on violent offenders who pose a risk of
causing serious sexual harm – thereby extending sex offender
registration to them.

I commend this report to you and congratulate all the agencies

and individuals who have contributed to the achievement of the
MAPPA locally in your Area.
The National Picture

This section of the report draws attention to the wider context of

the operation and development of the Multi Agency Public
Protection Arrangements [the MAPPA].

The most important work undertaken within the MAPPA is done

locally, led by the Police and Probation – who act jointly as the
“Responsible Authority” in your Area – and in each of the 42
Areas of England and Wales. The experience and good practice
upon which this work is based began in the 1990s – most
significantly as a result of the closer working relationship
required by the Sex Offender Act [1997]. The Criminal Justice
and Court Services Act [2000] formalised that relationship and
built on the existing experience by requiring the Police and
Probation Services to establish arrangements [the MAPPA] for
assessing and managing the risks posed by sexual and violent
offenders. The Act also required the Responsible Authority to
publish an annual report on the operation of those arrangements.
This report, covering April 2002 to March 2003, is the second
annual report.

The Importance of Partnership

Key to the development of the MAPPA in the past year has been
the closer involvement of other agencies, such as Housing,
Health and Social Services, working alongside Police and
Probation. The truly multi agency nature of the MAPPA and the
collaboration which underpins it is to be strengthened further by
the Criminal Justice Bill. The Bill will place a “duty to co-operate”
on a wide range of organisations including local Health
Authorities and Trusts; Housing Authorities and Registered
Social Landlords; Social Services Departments; Jobcentres;
Youth Offending Teams; and local Education Authorities. In
addition, the Prison Service will join the Police and Probation
Services and become part of the MAPPA “Responsible

Supporting and co-ordinating the development of the MAPPA

throughout the 42 Areas of England and Wales, is the National
Probation Directorate’s Public Protection Unit [PPU]. This Unit
acts as a central point for advice and, increasingly, involvement
in the management of difficult cases. These include, for
example, UK citizens who have committed serious offences
abroad and return to this country without anywhere to live. The
Unit is also able to provide financial support when the risk
management plans make exceptional demands upon local

Involving the Public

MAPPA developments in the next 18 months will also include the

appointment by the Home Secretary of two “Lay Advisers” to
each Area. The eight Areas of England and Wales which have
been piloting these arrangements since January [Cumbria,
Greater Manchester, Durham, South Wales, Dorset, Hampshire,
Surrey and West Midlands] report that they add real value. Lay
Advisers will contribute to the review and monitoring of the
MAPPA which is undertaken by each Area’s Strategic
Management Board – the work of which you can read more in
this report.

The purpose of appointing “Lay Advisers” is to ensure that

communities understand more of what is done to protect them
and that those involved professionally with the MAPPA are
aware of the views of the community. The Lay Advisers will not
“represent” the community in the way, for example, that local
councillors do, nor will they be involved in operational decision-
making. And, given the sensitivity of much of what MAPPA
does, especially with the few offenders who pose a very high risk
of serious harm to the public, it is not practicable for the general
public to be involved. Lay Advisers will, however, ensure an
appropriate and a practical level of community involvement.

MAPPA Offenders

This year the annual report provides a more detailed breakdown

of the number of sexual and violent offenders who are covered
by the MAPPA in your Area. As last year, the figures include the
number of Registered Sex Offenders. Because Sex Offender
Registration is for a minimum of 5 years [and generally for much
longer] the figures are cumulative. This is why they have
increased – by 16% in England and Wales. Only a very small
proportion [about 6% throughout England and Wales] are
considered to pose such a high risk or management difficulty that
they are referred to the highest level of the MAPPA – the Multi
Agency Public Protection Panels [the MAPPP].

Figures alone do not, of course, tell the whole story. The

anonymised case studies illustrate the practical work of the
MAPPA, and demonstrate the preventative action which can be
taken. Prior to the MAPPA, action of this kind was mainly taken
by one agency alone, with the effect that on occasion offenders’
behaviour which might have triggered preventative action went
unnoticed. The multi agency approach of the MAPPA helps
ensure that if an offender does breach the condition of the
licence under which they are released from Prison or a Court
Order prohibiting certain activities, then action to enforce the
condition or order and protect the public can be taken more

If you are interested in reading the reports of other Areas, they

will be published on the National Probation Service’s website [under the public protection
section] with all of them being available once the last Area has
published its annual report in September.
1. Area Summary

This second MAPPA Annual Report for County Durham and

Darlington aims to update and inform local communities about
the ongoing and developing Inter Agency Work that operates in
this area to ensure that individuals who pose a risk of serious
harm are jointly managed within local Multi Agency Public
Protection Arrangements [MAPPA].

The first Annual Report described at length our structure. The

intention of this report is to summarise that information, but
provide more examples of how together both statutory agencies
and individuals in the community assist making County Durham
and Darlington safer places to live.

The local strategy is fully supported by the following agencies:

‰ National Probation Service County Durham

‰ Durham Constabulary
‰ County Durham and Darlington Social Services Department
‰ County Durham and Darlington Housing Departments
‰ County Durham and Darlington Health Authority, NHS Trusts
and Primary Care Organisations
‰ The Prison Service
‰ Crown Prosecution Service
‰ Youth Offending Services – County Durham Youth Offending
Service and Darlington Youth Offending Service
‰ Education – County Durham and Darlington
‰ Victim Support
Origins of Multi Agency Public Protection Arrangements in County
Durham and Darlington
In April 1997, County Durham and Protection Strategy Group and to manage those people considered
Darlington Police, Probation, Steering Group. These body’s to pose a risk of serious harm to the
Prisons, Housing, Health and Social ensure that all agencies are involved public.
Services agreed a joint approach in in the development and oversight of
dealing with Sex Offenders and the Unit’s work. This uniqueness Our local strategy fully meets the
Dangerous Persons in the resulted in national recognition and legislative duty placed on the Police
community. A partnership County Durham and Darlington is and Probation Services. Beyond
agreement was put in place prior to now to be a pilot area for a new these expectations, we also have
the introduction of the Sex Offender national database VISOR [Violent arrangements in place for convening
legislation, which came into force in Offender and Sex Offender Register] other Public Protection Meetings
September of that year. that will considerably aid the tracking [PPM’s]. These manage those
of these people in the community. people whose level of risk falls
In November 1999, the outside that defined in the Criminal
establishment of a unique Public The local initiatives described above Justice and Court Services Act 2000
Protection Unit, comprising Police resulted in significant work being but which, if realised, would cause
and Probation personnel within one undertaken prior to the legislative harm to the public. The strategy is
team, strengthened the role of Public duty placed on Police and Probation underpinned by the creation of
Protection in County Durham and Services by the Criminal Justice and productive and manageable
Darlington. This also improved the Court Services Act 2000. This Act partnerships with key local agencies,
level of inter agency co-operation required the assessment and which make a significant contribution
within the area. The County Durham management of dangerous offenders to the process.
and Darlington Public Protection Unit and the convening of Multi Agency
is now supported by a Public Public Protection Panels [MAPPP’s]

MAPPA Areas of Responsibility

The following are the key areas of believed to pose a risk of serious offending behaviour, in a
MAPPA responsibility: harm to the community, to the rigorous and accountable way.
Public Protection Unit and This can involve accessing
a) The joint assessment and request a Multi Agency Public specialist mental health
management of Sex Offenders Protection Panel Meeting]. provision, specialist housing
who are required to register under provision, etc.
the Sex Offender Act 1997. Principles of MAPPA
‰ We share and use the best
b) The oversight of all other serious It is important in managing information available to us – we
violent offenders and other sex dangerousness that we remember need to remember that cases
some important principles: such as Safeguarding Children
offenders who are not required to
emphasise the need for
register under the 1997 Act [the
‰ We operate within existing agencies to share information,
definition used related to
legislation and remember that and use the best assessment
offenders who receive a custodial tools available.
sentence of 12 months or more Human Rights legislation
for such an offence]. This links impacts on all individuals
including offenders. ‰ We remember that the rights of
directly to responsibilities the
children are paramount and that
National Probation Service has to frequently Child Protection
‰ We monitor known offenders,
victims of serious sexual and Procedures are the priority and
based on individual risk
violent offenders. MAPPA has to link to those
assessments, and enforce
Orders when required promptly. procedures.
c) The co-ordination of Multi
Agency Public Protection Panel’s ‰ We provide accredited treatment ‰ We provide the best advice and
[this enables any agency to bring programmes both in Prisons and support to victims, through
concerns about an offender in the community to address requirements under the Victims
Charter, through links to Victim Significant Events in the 5. Education Departments in
Support, the specialist service Last Year Durham and Darlington are now
for victims, and through physical members of the Public
security measures if required. Protection Strategy Group.
1. We believe that we are the first
Area in the Country to have a full 6. Victim Support is now a member
‰ We review out inter agency
time Senior Youth Offending of the Public Protection Strategy
arrangements and links with the
Team Officer seconded to work Group.
community to ensure we are
providing the best standards within the PPU to enable the
development of best practice for 7. Audit of the work of the Public
within legislative requirements
the management of young Protection Unit found that it is
and the resources available.
perpetrators in County Durham. meeting all requirements.
The recognition of alternative
MAPPP Referral approaches to young people is 8. We have worked with
identified and by sharing skills Darlington’s Scrutiny Committee
Referrals to a MAPPP should only
we hope this will evolve utilising for Public Protection to assist
be made when the process is judged
the best knowledge available. elected members review this
as being an aid to securing
area of work.
protection of the public. Only those
2. We appointed Lay Members to
cases in which the high risk of harm
our Public Protection Strategy 9. We have implemented N-SOGP
is imminent and can be effectively
Group for County Durham and [Northumbria Sex Offender
managed on an inter agency basis
Darlington in the first phase of Group Programme], which is an
should be referred. This enables the
the national pilot to improve links accredited treatment programme
speedy allocation of appropriate
with local communities. for sex offenders. This operates
resources if immediate action is
at 4 levels.
required to reduce risk. The MAPPP
3. Links with ACPC [Child
can authorise disclosure about
Protection] have been i. Assessment and Psychometric
dangerous offenders to members of
strengthened through a formal Testing – by Police, Probation
the community.
protocol building bridges and Psychologists using
between Public Protection and approved assessment tools.
County Durham and Darlington also
Child Protection.
operate a second tier level of inter
agency meeting. Public Protection ii. Full Treatment Programme –
Meetings [PPMs], enable a multi 4. We have installed equipment to runs 6 hour sessions over a 15
agency approach to managing pilot the Violent Offender and month period with interim
offenders who pose a High Risk of Sex Offender Register [VISOR] contacts and reviews.
Serious Harm, but who did not meet and have an Interim Programme
the MAPPP criteria. It is credit to the running which has all Registered iii. Relapse Prevention Programme
people who established this locally Sex Offenders details listed. – for offenders who have
that this practice is now included for Following the pilot period this is completed a full programme in
all areas to implement in the new intended to be linked to all parts Prison or in the community.
National MAPPA Guidance of the Country and enable
published in March 2003 and selected Police and Probation iv. Short Programme – for people
confirms how the County Durham personnel by way of a National who do not have a Court Order
and Darlington Public Protection Unit database to quickly locate or Licence long enough for a full
has informed National good practice. details about all Multi Agency programme to run.
Public Protection Arrangement
[MAPPA] offenders.

2. Roles and Responsibilities
The new MAPPA Guidance 4. Darlington YOS are members 10. Health are represented at
places increased expectations on of Public Protection Steering Primary Care Trust [PCT] and
a number of statutory agencies Group [PPSG] and have a Trust level on PPSG, and this
and we are currently examining nominal link officer to PPU. year has been one of
the implications of implementing They attend PPM’s and transition for them. A
this. However existing roles and MAPPP’s. significant input is the work of
responsibilities have been as the 2 MDO nurses who
follows: 5. Social Services Department provide regular assessments
in County Durham and and input to PPM’s and
1. Police provide 1 Police Darlington provide MAPPP’s and provide
Sergeant and 3 Police Management input to valuable expertise.
Constables [1 temporary] to MAPPP’s and PPM’s and are
work within PPU. There is members of PPSG and 11. Crown Prosecution Services
Senior Manager engage in development work provides consultancy advice
representation at Steering with Area Child Protection at PPSG level.
Group and Strategy Group Committee and MAPPA links.
level. In addition Divisional MAPPA In Practice
support for all PPM and 6. Prisons provide links through
MAPPP meetings, press a Police Officer, attendees to This section aims to demonstrate
liaison, and Prison liaison MAPPP’s and PPM’s and what all the meetings and often
exists. links to internal Prison unseen work means for our
MAPPA processes. This communities in practice. It
2. Probation provide 1 Manager provides critical intelligence. therefore provides examples of
and 3 full time staff to the They also are represented at situations addressed during the
PPU plus Senior PPSG level. last year.
Management oversight,
Chairing of MAPPP’s, 7. The Housing Departments 1. “I think there is a sex
accommodation and have 2 representatives on offender in my ward who is
administrative support for PPSG and link to MAPPP’s causing problems – what
PPU and MAPPA work, as and PPM’s as required. The can I do about it?”
well as 1 Victim Liaison development of Supporting
Officer and Manager for People has identified areas This enquiry came through a
MAPPA work, and Case for further clarification and Councillor, through Social
Managers for prisoners and development. Services Department [other calls
violent offenders. There is had come direct from the public].
also Senior Management 8. Victim Support are Providing people are prepared to
representation at Steering represented on PPSG and provide the details of their
Group and Strategy Group also have links with Police concerns we will respond
level. and Victim Liaison Officer in immediately. The information
the direct and specialist was sufficient for us to check on
3. County Durham Youth support of victims. certain individuals known to be in
Offending Scheme [YOS] that area and confirm whether
provides 1 full time Senior 9. Education as new members any changes to their
YOS worker within the Public on PPSG have offered circumstances could increase
Protection Unit [PPU] and valuable input in identifying risk. In this case they had not –
Senior Management oversight problems with young but we were glad of the call. We
regarding Steering Group and offenders placed in Schools would not provide direct feedback
Public Protection Strategy and the management issues to the referrer but could confirm
Group [PPSG]. In addition that arise. that the matter had been properly
links to Victim Liaison Officer addressed.
regarding MAPPA offenders.
2. “I need to know if there is a An offender who was considered living in our area. To manage
paedophile living in the high risk had additional Police known offenders we ensure that
neighbourhood” Surveillance provided to establish where possible there are no
more details of his movements vulnerable children or adults living
This is a well publicised issue, and associates. The offender, in close proximity.
and an understandable anxiety. It conscious of local monitoring,
is important for communities to attempted to go to another area to However we can all contribute to
know that when an individual is at offend, and was quickly protecting our community. These
risk then they are told. For apprehended before serious harm simple things can help:
example, an offender from occurred. Excellent co-operation
another area bought a house in between Police Areas i. Do not let people you don’t
County Durham and was visiting it subsequently meant the offender know look after your
without the agreement of his was apprehended and detained children.
supervising officer. He was attempting to leave the country.
immediately challenged and this ii. Ensure you know where
resulted in the house being sold. 4. “All the support goes to the your children are and that
However the immediate offender – what about the they know the importance of
neighbours who had children victim?” not getting into
were advised. Their responsible conversations with
approach to working with the Our Victim Liaison Officer attends strangers.
Police improved monitoring of all MAPPP meetings where there
others safety, and avoided major are victim concerns and in the last iii. Encourage openness with
panic. In reality the most year we have frequently: children and young people
dangerous offenders are the ones you know. It is “secret
we do not know. ‰ Added prison licence conversations” that help sex
conditions that mean the offenders get close to
Public concern can create offender will be returned to children and win their trust.
situations where offenders custody if contact with the
disappear or need to be re- victim is made [in one iv. If you are suspicious ask
located at short notice. If this situation a MAPPP offender someone to check it out –
occurs the risk of harm increases was released from Prison at you can speak to Police,
for everyone. It also takes 8.30am and was back in Social Services, Councillors,
precious resources away from Prison by 5.30pm as he had PPU and any other agency
planned interventions. not complied with one connected to MAPPA. Your
condition on his licence]. concerns will be
3. “How can you watch them investigated.
all the time?” ‰ Provided alarms, improved
locks, and put in place v. Please remember the
The honest answer is we can’t contact measures to provide majority of sexual offending
and that is why we have to use reassurance. against children is
the best risk assessment committed by people known
available and work together with 5. “Nearly all sex offenders to the children
others. All MAPPA offenders are live in Darlington” and
assessed regarding the level of “There are 5 sex offenders 6. “What does the Lay Person
danger they pose at a given time in our village”. do?”
and all of these assessments are
reviewed. Police and Probation In 2002/2003 the PPU heard such Lay Members were appointed in a
staff in County Durham and comments as; “nearly all sex voluntary capacity. This role is
Darlington are trained to use offenders live in Darlington”, and still evolving – here is a flavour of
appropriate tools and resources “there are 5 sex offenders in our the local member’s initial
are allocated on the basis of the village”. Fear and/or response.
resulting judgements. Priority is misinformation drive these
given to those who are assessed comments. All of us are “My belief that ordinary members
as being of highest risk. members of the community – are of the public can and should
all likely to have sex offenders make a contribution to the
strategic direction of public to keep them in touch with openness and public participation
protection activities led to my ordinary citizens. This can help afforded by the inclusion of lay
application to be a Lay Member prevent professional agencies people in the decision-making
on the Strategic Management becoming too “inward looking” processes involved in public
Board. Having now been in the and help ensure that they are as protection. By working with the
role for seven months, that belief interested in, and responsive to, professional agencies, we have
has been strengthened. I was the concerns of the public as they the potential to help make our
encouraged by the way I was are about their own organisational community a safer place in which
welcomed by all the major legitimacy. to live”.
agencies involved in protecting
the public, and by their Since my appointment, I have “If you would like to let me know
assurances of readily available gained insight into challenges of your comments or views – either
advice and support. The formal dealing effectively with those from a community group or as an
induction and training I have people who may pose a risk to individual – I’d be happy to
undertaken was thorough and public safety. Although these are receive them”
informative, as have been the few in number, it is important that
opportunities to observe Public everything possible is done to Contact address [in writing
Protection procedures at first protect victims from further harm only] to : Lay Member, National
hand. This has enabled me to and reduce the possibility of harm Probation Service County
see how decisions are made and to others. Effective management Durham, Forest House, Aykley
implemented for public protection. and supervision of sex offenders Heads Business Centre,
in the community, for example, is Durham DH1 5TS.
My experience so far has of vital importance. By enhancing
confirmed that as someone with public understanding of sexual
no professional attachment to any offending, we can have more
of the agencies involved. I can confidence in accepting some
challenge and enhance their responsibility for our own safety. I
professional expertise by helping am encouraged by the greater


3. The Strategic Management of MAPPA

In County Durham we have had two The role of the group is still practice issues. It also ensures that
levels of Management oversight. evolving with the emphasis this the recommendations of audits and
year being on integrating inspections are implemented.
1. The Public Protection Strategy learning into policies and sharing
Group meets quarterly and practice across agencies.
addresses issues of concern
across agencies and tracks The Public Protection Steering
national developments. Group reviews all re-offending and

4. Victim Work
Section 69 of the Criminal Justice plans address victim concerns. Over Victim Support are the National
and Court Services Act 2000 places the year we have represented the organisation which support Victims
a duty on the Probation Service to views of victims in requesting and they are represented on our
provide a service to victims of specific conditions to be placed on Strategic Board. Their local contact
serious sexual and violent offenders. licences to the Prison Service. point is:-
In respect of young offenders this is When a licence is enforced due to
undertaken in conjunction with YOS victim concerns it is normally Area Manager VSCD
colleagues across the area. In expedited and the recall actioned Area Office
2002/2003 we met our requirements within the same day. 5 Court Lane
in 100% of all relevant cases. In Durham
MAPPP and PPM Meetings we DH1 3AW
consider the needs of victims and
ensure that where possible action Tel : 0191 3831389.
5. Statistical Information

The Annual Report in 2003 provides more detailed breakdown of information about offenders considered under
MAPPA than we had last year. You will see some numbers have risen significantly and it is important to understand
the reason for this.

1. The Number of Registered Sex Offenders 3. The Number of Violent Offenders and Other
Sex Offenders
Many offenders are required to Register for Life
and therefore it is anticipated that this number will This has increased for 2 reasons:
rise steadily each year as more offenders are
convicted for offences and become Registered for i) Greater clarity on how this group are
the first time. measured.

2. The Number Breaching their Requirement to ii) Offenders who commit offences of this
Register nature have to be serving at least 12 months
imprisonment, and many of them
We are pleased this number has not increased. All significantly longer, some for Life.
breaches relate to failing to register on time, the Therefore, again this number is likely to rise
majority for people who were moving address. over time.
Statistical Information No. of Offenders

i. The number of registered sex offenders on 31 March 2003 240

ii. The number of sex offenders having a registration requirement who were 10
either cautioned or convicted for breaches of the requirement, between 1
April 2002 and 31 March 2003

iii. The number of Sex Offender Orders applied for and gained between 1
April 2002 and 31 March 2003

(a) The total number of Sex Offenders Orders applied for 0

(b) The total number granted 0

(c) The total number not granted 0

iv. The number of Restraining Orders issued by the Courts between 1 April 1
2002 and 31 March 2003 for offenders currently managed within MAPPA

v. The number of violent and other sexual offenders considered under 285
MAPPA during the year 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2003 (as defined by
section 68 [3], [4] and [5])

vi. The number of "other offenders" dealt with under MAPPA during the year 27
1 April 2002 and 31 March 2003 as being assessed by the Responsible
Authority as posing a risk of serious harm to the public (but who did not
fall within either of the other two categories, as defined by s.67 [2b])

vii. For each of the three categories of offenders covered by the MAPPA
("registered sex offenders", "violent and other sex offenders" and "other
offenders"), identify the number of offenders that are or have been dealt
with by:

a) MAPPP - registered sex offenders 3

b) MAPPP - violent and other sex offenders 0

c) MAPPP - other offenders 0

viii. Of the cases managed by the MAPPP during the reporting year what was
the number of offenders:

a) who were returned to custody for breach of licence 3

b) who were returned to custody for breach of a Restraining Order or Sex 0

Offender Order

c) charged with a serious sexual or violent offence 0


County Durham Probation Area Address Phone

Sue Hine NPS County Durham 0191 3839083

Assistant Chief Officer Forest House Aykley Heads Business Centre

Durham Police Address Phone

Ian Scott Durham Constabulary 0191 3864929

Detective Chief Superintendent Aykley Heads Durham

County Durham
List of Abbreviations

ACPC Area Child Protection Committee

MAPPA Multi Agency Public Protection Arrangements

MAPPP Multi Agency Public Protection Panel

MDO Mental Disordered Offender

NHS National Health Service

NPD National Probation Directorate

N-SOGP Northumbria Sex Offender Programme Group

PCT Primary Care Trust

PPM Public Protection Meeting

PPSG Public Protection Strategy Group

PPU Public Protection Unit

VISOR Violent Offender & Sex Offender Register

YOS Youth Offending Service