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WELCOME
Welcome to this issue of the FRANK Action Update. This is a special reference edition designed to give information on a wide range of audiences and can be used alongside other Updates in the series. The range of professionals in the FRANK network is very broad, so some issues of the Update may be more relevant to your work and your client group than others. But we hope that each Update will bring you useful information and inspiration as you get on with the vital job of raising awareness about drugs.

IN THIS ISSUE
Britain has always been a mixed society; a nation peopled by migrants1. Today, five thousand years since the Neolithic nomads first set foot in North West Europe, Britain is more diverse and heterogeneous than ever before. Multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, multi-lingual and multi-layered, modern British society boasts a rich mix of ethnic minorities and communities whose various cultural histories and influences now form an integral part of our collective national identity. Ethnicity, however, is not our only source of social diversity. Disabled people and lesbian, gay, and bisexual communities make up a significant slice of the population, adding their own distinctive identities to our diverse modern society. But while diversity enriches our culture, it also poses certain challenges. Different people have different needs, particularly in terms of communications. When it comes to drugs – which are available to and used by people of every age, race, class, creed and ability - how do we ensure that the right information gets through? The range of needs can seem daunting. This FRANK Action Update aims to provide background information on a wide range of groups and communities in Britain today, plus useful checklists and ideas for action to help you create successful, targeted campaigns. It is unlikely to cover everything, but should help you make an important step towards understanding diversity.

CONTENTS:
FRANK IN ACTION VITAL STATISTICS (Including Movers and Shakers) Feedback from the public and local networks Statistics, trends and insights into: Ethnic minority communities Lesbian, gay and bisexual people Disabled people Language and literacy Ideas and inspiration for media work and local action Useful contacts, publications, resources and websites 2 3 4 32 37 40 42 46

IDEAS FOR ACTION USEFUL RESOURCES

LOOSE SHEETS:
FRANK TIPS Checklists for action Barriers to communication Engaging with communities Communicating with disabled people The legal framework Order your FRANK resources

FRANK FACTS MORE FRANK

The core audience for this Update is anyone who is planning, or needs to plan, communications activity about drugs with a wide range of non-mainstream audiences.
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FRANK IN ACTION
Research with young people and parents shows that FRANK has been well-received and is seen as welcoming and inclusive for both people who have a problem with drugs and others who have more straightforward questions or concerns. The work of local organisers is adding significant value to FRANK and getting the message across to key audiences.
For news on how FRANK is progressing, and details of future plans, make sure you register at www.drugs.gov.uk/campaign

FRANK FEEDBACK
“I think this whole project is fantastic. I have never seen anything so honest about drugs.All the kids in the schools have heard of it and I shall encourage them to visit the website.”
e-mail about the FRANK campaign from a Theatre in Education worker

“FRANK seems really clued-up.They know all the lingo which makes me feel FRANK is one of us.There’s no getting away from drugs, they’re always going to be around. FRANK is dealing with it in the best way, by being relaxed. I feel I could ring them and not be judged.”
Comment from teenager participating in FRANK research

“I was shocked! I never knew that there were so many drugs around. I found this very educational and helpful. Kids think parents don’t know much when they talk with their friends in front of you. FRANK will help me understand what they are saying and, hopefully, catch on much quicker if my kids or my friends’ kids are in trouble.An eye-opener.Thanks!”
e-mail about the FRANK website from a parent

“Many thanks for your information pack which I received the other day. Posters are now up in work and all staff have found it very informative.We look forward to more in the future.”
e-mail about the FRANK Action Update Summer: Feel the Heat from a drug worker

FRANK THANKS
FRANK would like to thank Graham Rimmer, National Union of Students (NUS) Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Campaign Further Education Representative, for working directly with the campaign while coordinating anti-spiking programmes and drugs awareness initiatives across UK campuses. Graham has helped establish contact with LGB communities within student unions, and has spread FRANK messages and materials far and wide. FRANK would also like to thank Communities Against Drugs in the East Midlands, for establishing active links with the campaign in their efforts to raise awareness and tackle the issue of drugs in the local Asian community. Working with vulnerable young Asian people, the project has helped overcome the taboo of talking about drugs and, using agency links and FRANK literature, has developed local services to meet community needs.

KEEP IN TOUCH!
Tell us what you’re doing – and what people are saying locally about FRANK – by emailing the campaign team at frank@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
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VITAL STATISTICS
Britain is becoming an increasingly diverse society. The following facts and figures provide a snapshot of the social and cultural make-up of the country today, and of the multiple needs and identities that should be considered when devising communication campaigns.

THE TOPLINE
ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES
In 2001, nearly 8% of the UK population – over 4.6 million people – came from ethnic minority communities. That’s an increase of 1.5 million in just one decade. In particular, we’ve seen an increase in arrivals from the Middle East and Eastern Europe2. In London and Birmingham it is estimated that, within less than 15 years, Black Caribbean and Asian people will make up at least 40% of the youth population3. There are also thought to be more than 300,000 Gypsies and Travellers in the UK who may often be excluded from regular and mainstream sources of information8.

NEWLY ARRIVED COMMUNITIES
In 2003, 20,975 people, including dependants, were accepted for permanent settlement in the United Kingdom, either following recognition as refugees or under exceptional leave4. In the same year, an additional 119,000 people entered Britain as work permit holders5. Disability affects all sectors of the population but is especially prevalent among older people, refugees and asylum seekers and among people on lower incomes.

DISABLED PEOPLE
Around 10 million people, almost one in six of the population, have some form of disability that may affect their access to mainstream services, venues and communications6.

LITERACY
It is estimated that 16% of the adult population (5.2 million adults) have some kind of literacy problem7. This figure is subject to regional variation, and in some areas can rise to up to 40%, with four out of 10 adults unable to read or write properly or do simple sums.

LESBIAN, GAY AND BISEXUAL (LGB) COMMUNITIES
Many studies have been conducted to establish the size of the LGB community in Britain, and while statistics differ, the majority of evidence indicates that lesbian, gay and bisexual people account for roughly 7% of the total UK population9.

Drugs are a fact of life. They can affect anyone anytime, regardless of geographical location, social or sexual orientation, gender, race or ability and touch upon communities in many different ways. We know more about some groups of people than others so this Update contains facts and figures on some of the key ethnic minority communities, cultures and main groups of disabled people currently in Britain. It is important that you find out as much as you can about the audiences you are targeting and don’t make simplistic assumptions.
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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

Each part of the country is made up of different populations facing different problems. However, there are some key demographic statistics that tell us certain things about large groups of people. These can be useful in helping you understand the different needs of different communities and so help you tailor your message accordingly.
When planning communications, you will need to be aware of the diversity of the communities in your local area so that you can make your initiatives accessible to everybody. You may know your local social demographics but, if not, results from the 2001 Census can tell you great deal more about who lives and works where, and some of the issues they are facing. See www.ons.gov.uk/census2001 for the latest official information. Historically, the uptake of drug services by ethnic minority communities has been low. Many drug users from these communities regard much of the existing drug treatment services as run by, and for, white people10. As such, opiate users from these communities are less likely to engage in drug treatment than their white counterparts11. Drug users are also less likely to see their GPs about drug use12. The needs of some ethnic minority groups are also overlooked by existing services, which tend to focus on injecting rather than smoking. Research has shown “significant shortcomings in..... specific provision for minority ethnic women” and suggests that drugs workers require training on not only race, but also wider equality issues. In order to attract clients from these communities, services need to be targeted.

MAJOR POPULATION GROUPS IN THE UK1
Ethnic group Number (to nearest 1,000) % of total UK population

Total population White All minorities Indian Pakistani Black Caribbean Black African Bangladeshi Chinese Somali*

58,790,000 54,150,000 4,640,00.00 1,053,000 747,000 566,000 485,000 283,000 247,000 125,000-150,000

100 92.1 7.9 1.8 1.3 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.2-0.25

Source: ONS UK Census 2001 * Exact figs for the Somali community in the UK not currently available.

Within our diverse population, some groups of people are highly visible and have long established communities with thriving social and cultural networks. These include people from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and the Caribbean. Other groups, such as the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities, disabled people and those with poor literacy skills, can be less visible but their needs must also be considered and catered for. Some people, such as disabled people who are gay or part of an ethnic minority community, may also face multiple discrimination.

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ASIA
UNITED KINGDOM EASTERN EUROPE EUROPE RUSSIA

IRELAND

CHINA MIDDLE EAST PAKISTAN BANGLADESH ASIA

INDIA AFRICA

DRUG MISUSE
South Asian opiate users both smoke and inject opiates but are more likely to smoke than inject13. There is a strong stigma attached to drug use, which is seen as a moral failing and a religious sin and is often attributed to deficient parenting11. This view contributes to stigma within the community. The family of a known drug user will suffer from shame, a loss of status and respect. South Asians are under-represented among individuals presenting to drug services. Those living outside the London area often have little knowledge of locally available drug services. Parents have little idea of the costs and availability of treatment and may be ignorant as to what it entails – some believe that treatment involves brain surgery, for example. Parents can also favour “traditional” approaches, such as physical punishment, sending their children “back home” or marrying them off. Parental knowledge of drug use varies, depending on their level of education, English fluency and involvement in mainstream society. Indian parents and some Bangladeshi and Pakistani men are more likely to be better informed as they tend to have more fluency in English and access to a wider range of information. Young people know more, but their knowledge is patchy and often based on personal experience. Incidence of substance misuse would seem to be lower among the Chinese community than among the mainstream population. According to the British Crime Survey (2002), 4% had taken an illicit drug in the last year, compared to 12% of the white British population. Although there is a general low incidence of drug misuse, anecdotal evidence suggests that certain high-stress groups within the Chinese community could be at risk of higher usage, such as students in higher education and catering workers.

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

THE BANGLADESHI COMMUNITY
SNAPSHOT
• There are 283,063 Bangladeshis living in the UK (+74% since 1991) • That’s 0.5% of the total population, and 6.1% of the ethnic minority population • The majority of Bangladeshis are Muslim • Bangladeshis are less likely to have contact with other ethnic groups • Bangladeshi homes are often poor quality and overcrowded • Much importance is placed on commitment to family obligations and religious observance • Only 41% of Bangladeshi women and 32% of Bangladeshi men speak English ‘very well’ • Overall, men have a higher proficiency in both written and spoken English. For women over 30, ability in English drops off sharply

ORIGINS
Most Bangladeshi people in Britain come from the rural area of Sylhet in North East Bangladesh. Their family backgrounds are predominantly in landholding or farming, and Bangladeshis are less likely than Indian people to have formal educational qualifications, with only 14% of Bangladeshi migrants in the UK having A-level equivalents, and 75% having no formal qualifications at all. While some older Bangladeshi men have been in Britain for 20 or 30 years, their partners and children may have arrived more recently, with the peak phase of migration coming in the 1980s.

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SOCIO-ECONOMICS
The Bangladeshi population is split evenly between men and women, but is heavily skewed towards the young: • • • • 90% 32% 20% 38% are are are are under 50 years old aged 25-49 aged 16-24 under 15

UK GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSAL
Asian or Asian British, Bangladeshi

o East Midlands o East of England o London o North East o North West o South East o South West o West Midlands o Yorkshire and the Humber o Wales
Source: ONS UK Census 2001

6,923 18,503 153,893 6,167 26,003 15,358 4,816 31,401 12,330 5,436

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Bangladeshis are one of the most deprived communities in the UK, with over 73% of the population in the lower income (DE socio–economic) groups. The employment rate of the community as a whole is 39%, the lowest amongst all the established ethnic minority groups. Only 60% of Bangladeshi men and 16% of Bangladeshi women are in employment3. Many find unskilled work in industry, manufacturing and catering. brought up with a good knowledge of Islam, and religious matters are central to most Bangladeshi households. The COI Common Good Research – Ethnic Minority Communities 2003, highlighted the fact that many Muslims (young and old alike) said they were Muslims first and foremost, and that all other identities were secondary to this. Men are more likely to visit Mosques than women, and often attend discussions on social and spiritual topics. It is during these discussion sessions that the issue of drugs is often raised and addressed.

IDENTITY, FAMILY AND FAITH
The Bangladeshi community tends to be extremely family-focused, with much importance attached to family unity and discipline. The community’s kinship network is called Gushti. Mosques and community centres act as a source of support, often providing information on local employment opportunities. Most Bangladeshis are Muslim (92%, the vast majority of whom are Sunni), and Islam plays a crucial part in everyday life. Children are

BANGLADESHI COMMUNITY: COMMUNICATION PROFILE
Generation Principal language of communication Key communication medium Younger English Any Older Bengali (written), Sylheti (spoken) Audio cassette, Bi-lingual leaflet

Specialist media Print media: Eastern Eye - weekly newspaper aimed at young British Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs. News and views from an Asian perspective. Large female readership. Sister paper of Asian Times. Tel: 020 7650 2000 Janomot - upmarket weekly Bengali newspaper, circulated throughout the UK and Europe. Tel: 020 7650 2000 Radio: Asian Sound Radio – based in Manchester, broadcasts in Bengali and English as well as Gujarati, Punjabi, Urdu and Hindi. Tel: 0161 288 100 DOs and DON’Ts • Avoid touching Muslim and Asian women • Muslim women who wear the Hijaab (veil) may have concerns about mixed gender gatherings • Avoid discussions on religious and political issues • When using visuals they should clearly refer to the largely Muslim Bangladeshi community

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN
THE INDIAN COMMUNITY
SNAPSHOT

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

• The Indian community is the largest ethnic minority community in Britain • There are 1,053,411 Indians living in the UK – 1.8% of the total population, and 23% of the ethnic minority population • The majority of British Indians are Sikhs from the Punjab (50%) and Hindus from Gujarat (30%) • Indians are most likely to mix with other groups • Among Indians, employment closely resembles the national UK profile • 60% of Indian women and 63% of Indian men can speak English ‘very well’ • Indian men are more proficient in both written and spoken English. Young people have a greater knowledge of both written and spoken English. For women over 30, ability in English drops dramatically13

and 30% of British Indians respectively. Some were originally from farming backgrounds, particularly those from Gujarat. Others were from towns and cities and held vocational or degree-level qualifications. Of those who came to Britain aged 16+, about a third had at least A-level equivalent qualifications, but around half had no formal qualifications at all. There is also a considerable group of people who first migrated to East Africa (mainly Uganda and Kenya), and who then came from Africa to Britain in the early 1970’s. These people are sometimes referred to as East African Asians. Thus, the Indian community can come from a range of different countries, not just India.

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SOCIO-ECONOMICS
The British Indian population is split evenly between men and women and is biased towards the young: • • • • 81% 42% 16% 23% are are are are under 50 years old aged 25-49 aged 16-24 under 15

ORIGINS
Indian people arriving in Britain come mainly from the Punjab and Gujarat. Those from the Punjab are mostly Sikhs, while those from Gujarat are mostly Hindus, accounting for 50%

Compared to certain other British ethnic minority

UK GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSAL
Asian or Asian British, Indian

o East Midlands o East of England o London o North East o North West o South East o South West o West Midlands o Yorkshire and the Humber o Wales
Source: ONS UK Census 2001

122,346 51,035 436,933 10,156 72,219 89,219 16,394 178,691 51,493 8,261

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groups, Indians are relatively prosperous, with 37% belonging to the higher income (ABC1 socioeconomic) groups and enjoying a degree of economic success. The employment rate of the community as a whole is 69% - the highest among all non-white groups. Employment is relatively welldistributed between females (63%) and males (75%). Skilled wholesale work and retail trade provides the main source of employment. Within the traditional Indian family, there are clear designated roles for the father and mother: the father is the head, breadwinner, decision-maker and teacher, while the mother takes care of domestic duties and looks after the children. However, the role of women has developed in recent years, and they are increasingly able to attend further/higher education and earn their own living. The majority (45%) of Indians practice Hinduism. A large percentage (30%) are Sikhs, and a smaller proportion are Muslims (13%). However, the religious composition of East African Asians is different: 27% are Sikh, 58% Hindu and 15% Muslim. Religious identities are important, but less than among, say, the Bangladeshi population. Indian people are more likely to mention their national identity before they mention religious affiliations. Religious and community festivals are central to the lives of young and old alike, presenting opportunities for cross-generational get-togethers.

IDENTITY, FAMILY AND FAITH
The Indian community in Britain is extremely diverse, made up of people from different countries and regions, and encompassing a wide range of languages and religions. However, commonalities exist regarding values and social structure. The Indian population tend to have larger than average families and family structure and unity is very important. Much importance is attached to education and academic achievement.

INDIAN COMMUNITY: COMMUNICATION PROFILE
Generation Principal language of communication Key communication medium Younger English Any Older Gujurati and Punjabi Bi-lingual leaflet

Specialist media Print media: Asian Times – weekly English language Asian newspaper. Respected and influential, no political or religious affiliation. Sister paper of the Eastern Eye. Tel: 020 7650 2000 The Sikh Times – weekly English and Punjabi newspaper with news features, fashion and entertainment. Aimed at young Asian professionals and older readers (40+). Tel: 0121 515 4213 Garavi Gujarat – weekly magazine printed in Gujarati and English. Covers major news from the Indian sub-continent, as well as news for Asians living in the UK. Features includes articles on religion and politics. Tel: 020 7928 1234 Radio: Asian Sound Radio – based in Manchester, broadcasts in Bengali and English, as well as Gujarati, Punjabi, Urdu and Hindi. Tel: 0161 288 1000 DOs and DON’Ts • Avoid touching Muslim and Asian women • Avoid discussions on religious and political issues

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN
THE PAKISTANI COMMUNITY
SNAPSHOT

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

the 1960’s following the flooding of the land surrounding the Mirpur Dam. The Mirpur group is now the largest group of Pakistanis in Britain. The first generation of Pakistani migrants was a more homogeneous population than the Indian migrants, typically holding few formal qualifications. Just under one in five who arrived aged 16 or older had at least A-level equivalent qualifications, whilst around two thirds had no formal qualifications at all. Men migrated first and used wages to purchase property and send money back to their families in Pakistan.

• The Pakistani community is the second largest ethnic minority community in Britain • There are 747,285 Pakistanis in the UK. That’s 1.3% of the total population, and 16.1% of the ethnic minority population • Generations of people of Pakistani origin born in Britain are now establishing their own unique identity in British culture • The extended family often lives together so families are large. Homes may be overcrowded • Many Pakistani women conduct their lives entirely within the community and have little need to speak English • 51% of Pakistani women and 43% of Pakistani men can speak English ‘very well’. Overall, men are more proficient in written and spoken language. For women over 30 and men over 50, ability in English drops off sharply14

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SOCIO-ECONOMICS
The British Pakistani population is split between men and women at 51%/49%. The population is heavily skewed towards the young: • • • • 88% 34% 19% 35% are are are are under 50 years old aged 25-49 aged 16-24 under 15

ORIGINS
The Pakistani community originally migrated to Britain following the political instability caused by the Partition of India in 1947 and then in

Families tend to be large, with an average size of 6.2 people per household. The Pakistani community is one of the most disadvantaged groups in Britain, experiencing greater

UK GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSAL
Asian or Asian British, Pakistani

o East Midlands o East of England o London o North East o North West o South East o South West o West Midlands o Yorkshire and the Humber o Wales
Source: ONS UK Census 2001

27,829 38,790 142,749 14,074 116,968 58,520 6,729 154,550 146,330 8,287

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economic deprivation than the Indian community, although less deprivation than the Bangladeshi community. The employment rate (47%) is the second lowest amongst all of the established minority communities. 64% of Pakistani men and 29% of Pakistani women are in employment. Independent retailing or catering, garment factories and the minicab industry are the most popular employment. part in everyday life. As with the Bangladeshi community, Mosques and community centres act as a source of support, often providing information on local employment opportunities. Children are brought up with a good knowledge of Islam, and religious matters are central to most Pakistani households. It is common for younger children to attend Arabic classes for two hours each evening in order to learn to recite the Koran, and praise is lavished on those demonstrating a commitment to religious observances. As with people from Bangladesh, many Pakistanis consider themselves to be Muslims first and foremost, with all other identities being secondary to this.

IDENTITY, FAMILY AND FAITH
The British Pakistani community is mainly made up of people who originated from the North West Frontier Province and the Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. People from these regions tend to socialise within their own supportive networks, called Biraderi. Family honour is extremely important for Pakistani people, both within individual households and the community as a whole. Most Pakistanis are Muslim (92%, the vast majority of whom are Sunni), and Islam plays a crucial

PAKISTANI COMMUNITY: COMMUNICATION PROFILE
Generation Principal language of communication Key communication medium Younger English Any Older Urdu (written), Punjabi (spoken) Bi-lingual leaflet (Urdu, English)

Specialist media Print media: Asian Times – weekly English language Asian newspaper. Respected and influential, no political or religious affiliation. Sister paper of the Eastern Eye. Tel: 020 7650 2000 The Nation – bi-lingual weekly newspaper published in English and Urdu. Contains news stories from Pakistan, India and Bangladesh and is targeted mainly at older people. Mainly distributed in Birmingham, Bradford, Manchester and London. Tel: 020 8478 3200 Radio: Asian Sound Radio – based in Manchester, broadcasts in Bengali and English, as well as Gujarati, Punjabi, Urdu and Hindi. Tel: 0161 288 1000 DOs and DON’Ts • Avoid touching Muslim and Asian women • Muslim women who wear the Hijaab (veil) may have concerns about mixed gender gatherings • Avoid discussions on religious and political issues

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN
THE CHINESE COMMUNITY
SNAPSHOT

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

ORIGINS
Britain’s first Chinatown sprang up in Limehouse, East London, in the 1880’s, when Chinese seamen settled there to escape the cramped lodgings provided elsewhere by the East India Shipping Company. The next major wave of immigration came in the 1960’s, as land reform in Hong Kong brought disillusioned agricultural workers to Britain in search of a new life. Many of those who arrived in the 1960’s made a living by opening or working in Chinese restaurants. Today, 71% of self-employed Chinese, and 15% of the community as a whole, are employed in the catering industry.

• The Chinese community is the sixth largest ethnic minority community in Britain • There are 247,403 Chinese people in the UK (+57% since 1991). That’s 0.4% of the total population, and 5.3% of the ethnic minority population • Chinese people in Britain derive mainly from Hong Kong, although some have migrated from Malaysia and Vietnam and a growing number from China • 15% of the Chinese community are employed in the catering industry, often working long and unsociable hours • Although overall the community is more disadvantaged than the mainstream population, Chinese young people have the highest levels of educational achievement • 75% of Chinese women and 77% of Chinese men can speak English ‘very well’. For men and women over 45, ability in English drops off dramatically14

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SOCIO-ECONOMICS
The British Chinese population is evenly split between men and women, and is heavily skewed towards the young: • • • • 90% 32% 20% 38% are are are are under 50 years old aged 25-49 aged 16-24 under 15

UK GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSAL

o East Midlands o East of England o London o North East o North West o South East o South West o West Midlands o Yorkshire and the Humber o Wales
Source: ONS UK Census 2001

12,910 20,385 80,201 6,048 26,887 33,089 12,722 16,099 12,340 6,267

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The British Chinese are more likely to live in a flat (26%) and in relatively overcrowded conditions. The second generation have attained relatively high academic qualifications (30% of Chinese are successful in further and higher education) and are generally as economically active as the white British population (although in more manually-oriented roles). Accommodation tied to work is still common practice for those working in restaurants. As a result, homelessness is a serious issue faced by many elderly retirees. ensuring that children learn to read and write Chinese, and to speak either Cantonese or Mandarin. Concerned about the dilution of Chinese culture among the younger, British-born generation, parents are often keen to educate their children in cultural matters to ensure that this is passed down the line. Chinese festivals, such as Chinese New Year, the Mid-Autumn festival and the Dragon Boat festival, are observed within the family. Research has shown that Chinese parents value hard work, higherlevel studies and financial independence, and try to instil these values in their children4. Social life within the Chinese community still has a strictly observed hierarchical structure where the father has the ultimate voice in the family. Older and more traditional people are uneasy about discussing personal matters with strangers, one of the reasons why it is difficult for them to access public services. There are three principal forms of religion practised in Britain: Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism. However, some Chinese people may come from a Christian (Protestant or Catholic) background.

IDENTITY, FAMILY AND FAITH
Chinese people represent a close and relatively tight-knit community, who continue to place considerable emphasis upon maintaining their cultural identity. However, while traditional Chinese values may be gradually eroded under Western influences, the sense of obligation and responsibility toward family remains a core value. Distinctions between those who come from Hong Kong, Malaysia, mainland China or Vietnam are important and observed. Many Chinese parents place great store by

CHINESE COMMUNITY: COMMUNICATION PROFILE
Generation Principal language of communication Younger English Older Hong Kong Chinese: Cantonese (spoken) Classical Chinese (written) Mainland China: Mandarin (spoken) Simplified Chinese (written) Bi-lingual leaflet

Key communication medium

Any

Specialist media Print media: Sing Tao – daily Chinese broadsheet newspaper. Targets the whole community and so contains news and information to interest readers from 18-65. Also has sections on news and current affairs from Hong Kong and China. Tel: 020 8732 7628 DOs and DON’Ts • Images that reinforce the close link between generations will be well received • Be aware that older and more traditional people can be uneasy about discussing personal matters with strangers

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MOVERS AND SHAKERS
ASIAN COMMUNITIES SUBSTANCE MISUSE SUPPORT PROJECT, KEIGHLEY, WEST YORKSHIRE
Project 6 is a community drugs agency based in Keighley, West Yorkshire. In April 2002, the agency launched an Asian Communities Substance Misuse Support Project with the aim of increasing the number of Asian people accessing local drug services. For some time prior to the project’s inception, voluntary sector service workers had noticed an increase in drug use by members of the local South Asian community – the largest ethnic minority group in Bradford and Keighley. Reports issued to the police and Local Authority confirmed this trend, although there was very little evidence of Asian people seeking help or accessing services. In order to address the issue, the post of Asian Communities Development (ACD) Worker was created, with a view to: • • • • Networking with community organisations Organising drugs awareness sessions Directing members from ethnic minority communities towards Project 6 services Providing direct treatment interventions with members of ethnic minority communities

For the first six months the appointed ACD worker, a South Asian woman from Bradford with a background in social work, engaged with Asian community centres in order to gain the trust of community leaders, establish local credibility and increase awareness of Project 6 and all it has to offer. Now, almost three years on, the ACD worker has regular contact with the Asian community organisations in Keighley, providing direct advice and information to those she visits. She also engages in Drugs Awareness events, and runs a number of innovative projects exploring substance misuse issues. Responsible now for a small caseload of clients, and continually involved in development work, the ACD worker sees approximately half of the members of the South Asian community currently accessing Project 6 services. She provides: • • • • Assessment, care planned casework and appropriate therapeutic referral for clients Advice, information and support for parents and carers of substance users Referral to other Project 6 services, such as complementary therapies Home visits, whenever appropriate

Overall, the project has lead to a significant increase of interventions within the local South Asian community, with the percentage of Asian people accessing Project 6 services rising from 3% to 10% in the first year alone. Having broken down the initial barrier to engagement, with a culturally sensitive approach seen as integral to the Project’s success, a number of options are now being considered to extend and improve the available services. These include setting up outreach work and peer-education, and establishing a drug clinic at the Keighley Healthy Living Network.

For further information, contact: Alison Richards, DAT Coordinator, Bradford DAT Tel: 01274 752 012 Email: alison.Richards@bradford.gov.uk

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ASIAN DRUGS INFORMATION BEFRIENDING OUTREACH PROJECT (ADIBOP) AND LUTON DRUG AND ALCOHOL PARTNERSHIP (LDAP)
In Luton, the Asian community is predominantly made up of Bangladeshis, Pakistanis and Kashmiris. Not long ago, community research identified growing drug misuse problems within these ethnic groups, particularly among the young, with the provision and take-up of services severely hindered for a number of reasons, including: • Lack of community support in the local area • Limited awareness and information about drug issues in communities • Difficulty in recognising the symptoms and problems of drug misuse In an attempt to address these local issues, the Asian Drugs Information Befriending Outreach Project (ADIBOP) was founded in collaboration with Luton Drug and Alcohol Partnership, with three years of funding from the Luton Health Action Zone. The aim of the project is to provide information, advice and support services to young Asian people and their families in a culturally sensitive and appropriate environment; to develop innovative drugs education and prevention programmes and to offer sustained support to Asian people while in treatment. Overall responsibility for the project is shared between the Centre for Youth and Community Development (CYCD) and the Bangladeshi Youth League. ADIBOP employs multilingual male and female drugs workers from the Bangladeshi, Pakistani and Kashmiri communities who are able to offer advice and guidance in a number of languages, including Urdu, Punjabi and Sylethi. Based in community centres across the town, they provide confidential one-to-one befriending and support to those who need it. The project as a whole, meanwhile, promotes drugs information in the community by working with local high schools that have a high proportion of Asian students to help develop drugs education programmes; organising workshops and drama activities during annual summer schools; holding education and awareness-raising sessions at local mosques and community groups, and setting up drug information points at youth clubs and gyms. After its initial three-year period, ADIBOP has now been further developed, becoming mainstreamed by drug and alcohol commissioners. Locally, the project has met with success, supporting members of the Asian community to access new GP services for crack cocaine and opiate-related problems. Through its information services and diversionary work, ADIBOP has also managed to reach parents, opening up drug-related dialogue in a culturally sensitive way. The project’s female workers have also enabled ADIBOP to reach local Asian women, who have otherwise proved difficult to engage, while the promotion of cross-generational support in drug-related issues has brought older members of the community into the picture. ADIBOP offers an on-going consultancy service for other agencies and generic services, while networks of schools, youth groups and parent groups seeking ADIBOP information and education programmes are growing steadily.

For further information, contact: Glynis Allen, Strategic Development Manager, Luton Drug and Alcohol Partnership Tel: 01582 709 118 Email: glynis.allen@luton-pct.nhs.uk

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN
AFRICA
UNITED KINGDOM EASTERN EUROPE EUROPE

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

RUSSIA

IRELAND

CHINA MIDDLE EAST PAKISTAN INDIA GHANA NIGERIA

ASIA

SOMALIA

AFRICA

DRUG MISUSE
Black Africans are not a single homogenous community. Nigerians, Ghanaians and Somalis are three of the largest groups of Black Africans in the UK and as such we know most about them. Black Africans have lower rates of drug misuse than Black Caribbeans. According to the British Crime Survey 2001/2002, 3% of Black Africans had used cannabis in the previous year, compared with 11% of white British and 17% of Black Caribbeans. Only 2% of Black Africans had ever used a Class A drug. However, the issues outlined for ethnic minority communities - in relation to drug misuse and access to services - still apply and should be taken into consideration when targeting the Black African community with drugs information. Although Somalis are typically considered to use khat, crack cocaine use is increasing in the community and this is not just confined to men. Khat use for Somali men is often cultural. Attending the khat house (or mafresh) is considered equivalent to going to the pub. GPs and other service providers are perceived as having little knowledge of khat. In addition, the type of counselling offered by treatment services is perceived as inappropriate culture to the community. The word “counselling” was also seen as having a stigma attached to it. The community favours community-based, culturally appropriate solutions and treatments. Black African people tend to have high unemployment levels, low income and experience discrimination and lack of recognition of the skills and educational qualifications that they obtained in Africa. This means that many do jobs that do not reflect their capabilities or educational attainment.

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ES
THE GHANAIAN COMMUNITY
SNAPSHOT
• There are an estimated 60-80,000 Ghanaian people currently living in the UK • Over the last ten years, there have been just over 9,000 applications for asylum from Ghana, excluding dependants. Applications were running at 1,500-2,000 a year in the early 1990s, but these figures have decreased to a few hundred people a year • 82% of UK Ghanaians born in Ghana currently live in London. The most popular boroughs are Lambeth, Haringey, Brent, Newham, Southwark and Wandsworth. Outside London, people are spread evenly, although there is a small Ghanaian community in Manchester • The vast majority of Ghanaians are fluent and literate in English, which is the official language of Ghana. However, there are more than 17 main language groups, and most people speak more than one language4 and were easily assimilated within the mainstream. Political upheavals in Ghana in the late1970’s and early 1980’s caused an increase in applications for asylum. Since 1992, stability has returned to the country and, in recent years, Ghana has made moves to try to encourage people to return.

IDENTITY, FAMILY AND FAITH
The Ghanaian community is one of the largest and oldest African groups in the UK. British colonisation of Africa meant that many Ghanaians found themselves in the UK as a result of slavery or, over time, through trade. Family life and kinship are important to Ghanaians, and the traditional social values of respect for elders and ancestor worship still have a bearing on people’s lives. The majority of Ghanaians in the UK are Christians, with an estimated 60:40 split between Protestants and Catholics. Traditional animist beliefs are also popular, while around 5-10% of the Ghanaian population is Muslim. In addition to the normal Christian and Islamic religious festivals, Ghanaians celebrate several National days. Whilst not currently widespread in the UK, as people rediscover their African roots, they may become more popular. These National Days are Independence Day (March 6); Apoo (New Year festival, a 13-day festival that ends on March 21); Homowo (Harvest festival - September).

ORIGIN
Most people who emigrated from Ghana in the Twentieth Century came either as merchant seamen who settled in the port towns, or as students who tended to settle around London. The majority were from an urban background

GHANIAN COMMUNITY: COMMUNICATION PROFILE
Generation Principal language of communication Key communication medium Younger English Any Older English Any

Specialist media Print media: The Voice – weekly newspaper aimed at Black Caribbeans and Africans. Tel: 020 7737 7377 DOs and DON’Ts • It is very important to be seen to treat older people with respect and deference

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN
THE NIGERIAN COMMUNITY
SNAPSHOT

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SOCIO-ECONOMICS
Nigerians who came to the UK in order to broaden their education are referred to as “students who stayed”. The socio-economic profile of this group is therefore urban and well educated. As Nigerians are very family-centric, the achievement ethic has continued through to the second education.

• Although there are no official figures, current estimates put the total number of Nigerians resident in the UK at 125-150,000 • English is the adopted official language of Nigeria, so the vast majority of Nigerians born outside the UK speak and read English. However, there are an estimated 250 ethnic groups in Nigeria, all of whom have their own language or dialect. The main languages are Yoruba (south western region), Hausa/Fulani (northern region) and Igbo/Ibo (south eastern/eastern region) • Hausa and Yoruba are widely understood, as both languages are used as linguae franca throughout West and Central Africa • The Church is very influential within the Nigerian community. There are a number of black-led churches that have large congregations

IDENTITY, FAMILY AND FAITH
As well as being very family-focused, Nigerians retain a great respect for elders within the community. Elders are often consulted on all major issues affecting the family or community as a whole. Nigerians also consider it a duty to look after all relatives, and for most people it is a matter of pride that they do. It is estimated that 75% of Nigerians in Britain are from the mainly Christian Yoruba tribe, while the Igbo community account for about 20% and are also predominantly Christians. There are, however, Muslims among both Yoruba and Igbo populations. As is true of most Black African communities, the older UK Nigerian generation retain a strong sense of pride and in their heritage and culture. Parents are keen for their children to maintain a sense of cultural identity, and often insist on upholding African traditions and customs in the home.

ORIGINS
The main period of immigration for Nigerians was in the late 1940’s, and again in the 1960’s. After Nigeria gained independence in 1960, there became a need for more skills and higher levels of education, and many Nigerians initially came over to the UK to study. However, many of these people ended up settling in the UK and having families. The mid-to-late 1960’s ushered in a time of political and civil unrest in Nigeria, resulting in an influx of refugees arriving in the UK. Most Nigerians in Britain are likely to be Yoruba or Igbo.

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NIGERIAN COMMUNITY: COMMUNICATION PROFILE
Generation Principal language of communication Key communication medium Younger English Any Older English Any

Specialist media Print media: Nigerian News – fortnightly newspaper aimed at the Nigerian community. Tel: 020 7266 4564 Television: BEN Television – non-subscription satellite television channel aimed primarily at the Nigerian community. Shows a mixture of entertainment and information programming, in-house news programmes and imported Nigerian films and series, as well as public service advertising. Tel: 020 8808 8800 DOs and DON’Ts • Remember, not all Nigerians are Christians; some may be Muslims • The community holds elders in high esteem, so it is important to show respect to older people and their opinions

THE SOMALI COMMUNITY
SNAPSHOT
• Community sources estimate that there are between 125,000 and 150,000 Somalis in Great Britain • The most recent arrivals are refugees: victims of the ongoing civil war and famine • The civil war has resulted in a breakdown in the Somali education infrastructure, which has had a direct impact upon both Mother Tongue literacy and English fluency • Any first-generation Somali immigrant aged 45+ is likely to have received a formal education and will probably have an understanding of English. However, both older and younger Somalis in Britain are likely to be illiterate in their mother tongue commenced during the First World War, when Somali men were recruited to fight alongside British soldiers. A steady stream of new arrivals, many of whom were merchant seamen, followed this initial wave of immigrants. Subsequent waves of immigration occurred in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s.

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SOCIO-ECONOMICS
The UK Somali community experiences fairly acute economic deprivation and social exclusion, experiencing a high level of unemployment while often living in dilapidated and over-crowded housing. Jobs are traditionally obtained by word of mouth, while low levels of English fluency create further barriers to employment and self-improvement. Many of the Somalis recently granted refugee status in the UK are young mothers who have been forced to flee their home country without their husbands.

ORIGINS
Somalis have a long history of settlement in Britain and are believed to be the oldest African community in London. Migration

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN
IDENTITY, FAMILY AND FAITH

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

Somali society is patriarchal in structure, creating clearly defined roles for men (the ‘breadwinners’) and women (the ‘homemakers’). Somali women often suffer from social exclusion caused by Islamic restrictions against mixing with men outside their own family. The Somali community is clan-based. This culture persists in Britain, where clan affinities can determine an individual’s job prospects, social standing and credibility. Clan affiliations may also have implications upon the effectiveness and acceptance of community initiatives. In Somalia there are over 100 of these clans (or ‘Rers’). Many Somalis in Britain are from the Isaaq clan. The clan system is less important to younger Somalis, however, despite the fact that support groups tend to be organised on this basis. Somalis have a powerful belief in independence and individualism, as well as a strong belief in

family and community. However, the combination of potential intra-ethnic conflict, combined with asylum seeker dispersal, means that the Somali community lacks the internal cohesion and support experienced by many other ethnic minority communities. Furthermore, the traumas suffered by fleeing civil war have led to high incidences of mental health problems among the Somali population in the UK and a perceived growth in suicide rates. This is compounded by the male Somali penchant for chewing the khat leaf, which is blamed by some community leaders as contributing to mental ill-health. The majority of the British Somali community are Sunni Muslim. Rural Somalis may blend Islamic belief with traditional African religions. A small minority follow the Roman Catholic faith.

SOMALI COMMUNITY: COMMUNICATION PROFILE
Generation Principal language of communication Key communication medium Specialist media Print media: n/a DOs and DON’Ts • Avoid touching Muslim women • Muslim women may have concerns about mixed gender gatherings • Community-based treatment options are often seen as more culturally appropriate and sympathetic and may therefore be more acceptable Younger Somali English Audio cassette Bi-lingual leaflet Older Somali English Audio cassette

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MOVERS AND SHAKERS
EALING DRUG EDUCATION PROJECT (EDEP)
Ealing Drug Education Project (EDEP) - part of the Drug and Alcohol Action Programme (DAAP) provides drug education to all the communities in the London Borough of Ealing. The project works in a focused way with the African and Somali communities in Southall and other parts of Ealing, as well as with Caribbean and South Asian communities. This is to ensure that the borough’s range of cultural and language needs are met appropriately, and that relevant drug education resources are used at all times.EDEP works with individuals, families and organisations to increase their knowledge of drugs and drug-related issues. The project maintains that local cohesion is essential to empowering communities to tackle drug use and its associated harms, and provides a number of services including: • Drug education in appropriate languages to parents, young people and organisations, including Somali, Gurmukhi Punjabi, Mirpuri Punjabi, Urdu, Bengali, Gujrati, English and Farsi • Training local volunteers to disseminate drug education. The project currently has twenty volunteers who are trained in drug, equality and diversity issues, and who can work with different language and cultural groups • The project has set up a Young People’s Council to help young people to present the issues relevant to their lives. There are also targeted sessions for young Somali and Asian women and young men who are drug users • Providing professional input and support for school-based, culturally appropriate drug education to meet the diverse needs of the borough’s communities. There are a number of EDEP options for schools, including: tailored drugs awareness sessions (e.g. working with young people from the Somali community to raise awareness about khat and illegal drugs); self-development sessions with young people deemed to have a problem around drugs; drug education sessions for parents • Working with local drug services to develop culturally sensitive services including producing resources in appropriate languages • Working with religious, business, statutory and voluntary organisations For further information, contact: DAAP Tel: 020 8843 0945 Email info@daap.org.uk

PROJECT LIBAN - REACHING THE SOMALI COMMUNITY
Tower Hamlets is known for its large Bangladeshi community. However, the London Borough is also home to over 10,000 Somalis who make up a significant proportion of the Borough’s African population. Following in-depth needs assessments and community analysis, Project Liban was set up to provide information and advice to the local Somali community on substance misuse problems. Based at a local hospital and employing four full-time workers, the project offers outreach, one-to-one client support and drug education, while also delivering drugs awareness sessions in schools and youth centres attended by young Somalis. Thanks to the new service, Somali people in Tower Hamlets now have a culturally-specific and specialist drug programme at their disposal – one that provides confidentiality on what is generally regarded by Somalis as a taboo subject, and encourages people to access the help and information that they need. For further information, contact: Ahmed Dirir, Project Liban Tel: 0208 880 7057 Email: ahmeddirir@hotmail.com
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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN
CARIBBEAN
UNITED KINGDOM

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

DRUG MISUSE
The level of drug use among Black Caribbeans is similar to that of the mainstream white community11. This may be explained by their use of cannabis: among 16-59 year olds, Black Caribbeans are significantly more likely than white people to have used cannabis10. Indeed, problematic drug use among Black Caribbean users is more likely than other groups to focus on cannabis. Black Caribbean communities are affected by opiate use, but tend not to inject. Subsequently, their needs are sidelined by existing services, which tend to focus on injecting rather than smoking. Likewise, the lack of stimulant services across the country has marginalised the needs of many Black Caribbean communities.

CANADA

IRELAND EUROPE

AMERICA

CARIBBEAN MEXICO AFRICA

SOUTH AMERICA

UK GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSAL
Black or Black British, Caribbean

o East Midlands o East of England o London o North East o North West o South East o South West o West Midlands o Yorkshire and the Humber o Wales
Source: ONS UK Census 2001

26,684 26,199 343,567 927 20,422 27,452 12,405 82,282 21,308 2,597

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ES
SNAPSHOT
• Black Caribbeans are the fourth largest ethnic minority group in the UK, comprising 565,876 people. That’s 1% of the total UK population • Black Caribbeans have a younger age profile than the mainstream population, although – as a result of migration patterns of the 1950’s – a significant proportion of the population of this community (11%) is aged 65 or over • The majority of Black Caribbeans in the UK are of Jamaican origin, although the community comprises people from all of the 100 islands that make up the West Indies • Black Caribbeans are more likely to live in England than the rest of the UK. 61% of Black Caribbeans live in London, although there are also communities settled in the rest of the country in places such as the West Midlands, the North and Yorkshire and the Humber For Black Caribbeans, unemployment is highest among young people under 25. Even older Black Caribbean men and women have unemployment rates in excess of 20%. Black Caribbeans do not tend to be employed in professional occupations: over half of Black Caribbean women work in the public administration, education or health sectors. On the whole, Black Caribbean pupils have a low level of GCSE attainment. Only 23% of boys and 38% of girls achieve five or more A*-C grade GCSEs. Black Caribbean pupils are also more likely to be permanently excluded from schools than children from other ethnic groups. The permanent exclusion rate among Black Caribbean pupils is 42 per 10,000. Nonetheless, many parents place great importance on education. Supplementary schools (Saturday schools) have been in existence since the 1970’s and are one way in which parents are attempting to improve their children’s educational attainment.

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SOCIO-ECONOMICS
There has been a black presence in England since the 1600’s, but the largest sustained migration began in 1948 with the arrival of the Empire Windrush from the West Indies, which was carrying 490 migrants. The post-war boom and subsequent labour shortages then paved the way for increased waves of migration. Between 1931 and 1951, the number of Black Caribbean people living in Britain grew from 8,585 to 15,301. By 1961 the number was 171,800. Industry and the newly-founded NHS ran recruiting schemes in the West Indies. This meant that many people would arrive in England to take up guaranteed jobs – mainly in health, transport, catering and engineering.

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN
IDENTITY, FAMILY AND FAITH

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

Extended family structures are prevalent in the Caribbean, and although these are less pronounced in the UK community, extended family is still called upon to help with childcare, resolve family problems and act as general support network. Family structures are matriarchal, with women seen as the backbone of the family. Despite the high prevalence of severe health conditions among the community, such as strokes, diabetes, Sickle Cell and Lupus, Black Caribbeans are less likely to feel comfortable accessing health services – mainly due to a fear, or previous experience, of unsatisfactory treatment due to racism. The preference, instead, is often for traditional remedies from the Caribbean. The majority of the Caribbean community in the UK are Christians, and religion – especially among the older generation – is very important. The Church and the church community have a great deal of influence among Black Caribbeans.

However, mainstream British churches were not initially welcoming to black people, so a number of Pentecostal and Evangelical churches were established to provide places for worship, and they have become important as social centres as well. A small number of Black Caribbeans in the UK are followers of the Rastafarian religion. This religion is based on the teachings of Christianity and the ideas of Marcus Garvey. One of the central tenets of Rastafarianism is that it is valid to believe that God in one’s own image is black. Rastafarians revere the late Emperor of Ethiopia – Haile Selasse – as the second coming of Christ.

BLACK CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY: COMMUNICATION PROFILE
Generation Principal language of communication Key communication medium Younger English Any Older English Any

Specialist media Print media: Caribbean Times – weekly newspaper aimed at all Black Caribbeans, but appealing to a slightly older readership. Includes lifestyle, political and general interest articles about Britain and the Caribbean. Sister paper to Asian Voice and Eastern Eye. Tel: 020 7650 2000 The Voice – weekly newspaper aimed at all Black Caribbeans and Africans, but appealing to a slightly younger readership. Tel: 020 7737 7377

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MOVERS AND SHAKERS
MAKING THINGS EQUAL – KIRKLEES, WEST YORKSHIRE
In Kirklees, West Yorkshire, the Black Caribbean community forms part of a diverse regional ethnic minority population. In 2000, as a result of two detailed needs assessments carried out under the Department of Health’s ethnic minority needs assessment programme, various drug education issues were brought to the attention of local authorities. These included a lack of knowledge of available drugs services among Black Caribbean and other ethnic minority communities, and an urgent need to improve service access for these people. Building on earlier pioneering projects in East Lancashire, Making Things Equal was designed to help Black Caribbean and other ethnic minority communities develop their own solutions and preventative measures to drug use and related harms. The project also sought to increase community involvement in local service and strategy development by creating partnerships between communities and service providers. Whereas the previous proto-type projects had concentrated on drugs education and prevention and targeted South Asian communities specifically, the Kirklees programme sought a broader approach by: • Capacity-building in all areas of service provision and treatment • Working with all ethnic minority communities in the area: Black Caribbean, African, South Asian, Kurdish and asylum seekers While the scope of new project is broad, within the Kirklees team there is a support worker dedicated to the needs of Black Caribbean and Africa community members, providing culturally relevant advice, help and information. Meanwhile Community Interacters, individuals with unique access to the targeted ethnic minority communities, help disseminate and gather information, working from within to help foster better understanding and dialogue between the communities and service providers. As a result of Kirklees project activities, knowledge and awareness of available drug services has increased dramatically, and the number of Black Caribbean and other ethnic minority community members accessing these services has risen. Specifically, the Interacters programme has proved hugely successful in reaching, engaging and informing communities, and has been integral in building up local expertise in dealing with drug use by people from ethnic minority groups.

For further information, contact: Maggie Hanson Team Leader, Making Things Equal Project, Kirklees Tel: 01484 537 511 Email: Maggie.hanson@mtelifeline.org

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

REFUGEES AND ASYLUM SEEKERS

SCANDINAVIA

UNITED KINGDOM EASTERN EUROPE EUROPE

RUSSIA

CANADA

IRELAND

AMERICA MIDDLE EAST MEXICO CARIBBEAN AFRICA PAKISTAN INDIA

CHINA

ASIA

SOUTH AMERICA

DRUG MISUSE
It is widely assumed, sensibly, that evidence of refugee and asylum seeker involvement with drugs is hard to find because both of these groups (especially the latter) would be powerfully motivated to conceal any such involvement. Drug use rarely becomes evident at early assessments related to asylum application, partly because asylum seekers fear any disclosure will put paid to their hopes of being granted asylum and partly because the people involved in doing the assessments, arranging housing etc, are not drugs specialists. The likelihood of asylum seekers and refugees being involved in illegal drugs in the UK is determined by a number of factors. Most significant, however, are individual attitudes and experiences and religious and cultural influences. The prevalence of drug taking in the country of origin (and indeed in the UK-resident communities of the same ethnic or national origin) and its prevalence in the localities where refugees and asylum seekers are housed, may also have an influence. Beliefs about what may jeopardise an asylum application or UK residence is also an issue. As is well documented, drug misuse correlates with disadvantage, deprivation and mental health. The overwhelming majority of asylum seekers and refugees have little or no money and are highly disadvantaged in terms of educational and economic opportunity. As displaced people, they may suffer (in varying degrees) from feeling they do not belong in the UK resulting in feelings of insecurity and depression. There is also a higher prevalence of disability both physical and mental – among refugees and asylum seekers, often due to the treatment they received in their own country.

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SNAPSHOT
• In 2003 the number of applications for asylum in the UK was 49,4055 • The countries that produced the largest number of applicants were: - Iraq - Somalia - China - Zimbabwe - Iran • According to 2003 asylum statistics: - The majority of principal applicants in 2003 were under 35 years old (that’s 82%) - 15% were aged between 35 and 49 - 3% were aged 50 or older - Over two thirds (69%) of principal applicants were male

KEY ISSUES FACING ASYLUM SEEKERS
Asylum seeker communities are likely to be fragmented, with families not yet reunited, living in temporary accommodation with uncertain immigration status. Although asylum seekers have urgent information and service needs – housing, health, benefits and employment – there is no community infrastructure, such as community centres. As a result, this group is likely to be highly reliant on staff or key individuals in the community for help and advice. Accessing education and health care and exposure to crime are all issues that these newly arrived communities will have to contend with.

PROFILE
Refugees (those people who have applied for and been granted asylum in the UK) have no restrictions on where they can live, what benefits they are eligible for, or what employment they can take up. Asylum seekers however, are subject to such restrictions and of course have to live with the tension that arises from not knowing how their status will be determined. A report published in June 2004 showed that three out of four asylum seekers were fleeing countries in conflict. Afghanistan, Iraq and Somalia have been in the top five refugeeproducing countries for the past three years. War, human rights abuses and the repression of ethnic minority communities are common to all these countries17.

INFORMATION GAPS
There is little information on the drugs misused by asylum seekers/refugee communities. Drug services do not normally record immigration status of users. Whilst drug users from ethnic minority communities are less likely to access drug services than white users, refugees and asylum seekers are even less likely to access drug treatment services due to lack of awareness, lack of relevant languages and fear of jeopardising their application or status. Police arrest data is also unreliable for the same reasons; numbers of people arrested for drugs offences are not considered to be an accurate indication of numbers using or dealing in drugs.

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN
GYPSIES AND TRAVELLERS
DRUG MISUSE

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

Problematic drug use is increasing within the Travelling community. Although drugs are perceived to be more of an issue among young men, anecdotal evidence suggests that both girls and older men and women are also developing drug misuse problems. Many Travellers fail to access services, largely due to mistrust coupled with a lack of knowledge and fear of what will happen to them once they are “in the system”. Additionally, traditions of self-reliance mean that Travellers are unlikely to seek help from outside the community. Parents are often reluctant to ask for help if a child is taking drugs for fear that other children will be taken into care. They will often try to get their child away from drugs without outside support. Recent research18 suggests that, due to stigma, fear and insufficient knowledge, Travellers often feel helpless in the face of drugs and drug misuse. During a series of interviews, the research established that: • Misuse of illegal drugs is widely reported, particularly among young men within the Travelling community: ‘dope’ or ‘hash’, but also ‘smack’ and heroin, were specifically mentioned. Younger Travellers were said to mix more with people in houses now, while young lads are said to “go clubbing and get drugged up” • Drugs are widely feared because of the devastating impact they can have on families • Shame, anticipated rejection and the fear of placing an extra burden on family members means that drug misuse often remains a hidden problem • Many Gypsies and Travellers expressed a desire for a clinic or service that they could access without fear of the community being aware

SNAPSHOT
• While no official figures exist on the size of the Traveller population, it has been suggested that there are more than 300,000 Gypsies and Travellers living in Britain today • Gypsies often prefer to be known as ‘Roma’ or ‘Romani’ • Roma are descendents of the ancient warrior classes of the Punjab: their language, religion, and customs have roots in Northern India • The term ‘New Travellers’ refers to a growing community of people from a range of cultural and social backgrounds who have taken up a nomadic life over the last 40 years • As many as 100,000 Travellers have no safe, legal or secure stopping place, potentially lacking access to water, refuse disposal or other essential amenities • Compared to mainstream communities, travelling communities face: lower life expectancy; higher birth rate and infant mortality; high incidence of chronic illnesses,

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such as respiratory disease, rheumatism, and digestive illness • Smoking is common and drug misuse is an issue • Travellers can have difficulty accessing education for their children due to being on the road, and often lack support on issues such as bullying or exclusion

Subsequently, Travellers have had to move into more diverse employment opportunities. As recently as the 1960’s, Gypsies and Travellers had a right to pull up on all Common land. This right has been gradually eroded and the enactment of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (1994) effectively means that there are very few legal stopping places and that local authorities no longer have a legal duty to provide sites for Travellers.

ORIGINS
It is thought that Gypsies first arrived in Britain as part of a wave of migration from India about 600 years ago. These pioneering Gypsies are believed to have travelled through the Middle East and Europe before finally reaching the British Isles. Ethnic Gypsies were first recorded in Britain around the year 1500. In 1989, Romany Gypsies were recognised as an ethnic group under the Race Relations Act 1976. Irish Travellers were accepted as an ethnic group under racerelations legislation in August 2000.

IDENTITY, FAMILY AND FAITH
The legal definition of a Gypsy is “persons of nomadic habit of life, whatever their race or origin”19. This definition is explicitly concerned with habitual lifestyle rather than ethnicity, and may include both ‘born’ Gypsies or Travellers and ‘elective’ travellers, such as the so-called New (Age) Travellers. There is also an ethnic definition for both Gypsies and Travellers, with formal recognition under racerelations legislation. The Travelling community is organised along traditional lines. The family and home is the domain of women, while men are responsible for earning money. Travelling people have very strict conventions about what can be discussed and with whom. For example, it would not be appropriate for a female health visitor to attempt to discuss issues such as prostate cancer with a male Traveller.

DEMOGRAPHICS AND SOCIO-ECONOMICS
Research has shown that Gypsies are one of the most socially excluded and disengaged groups in the UK, mainly due to: • Basic socio-demographic factors • Poor health • Prejudice and discrimination on the part of the settled community • Very poor living conditions on both authorised and unauthorised sites Traditionally, Travellers integrated with the local rural economy via seasonal agricultural labour, and also by supplying other needs of the rural population. With increasing mechanisation, the need for seasonal labour slackened during the 1950’s and many Travellers had to leave the rural for the urban and semi-urban environment.

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN

ETHNIC MINORITY COMMUNITIES

Many Gypsies and Travellers are afraid of being corrupted by outside influences, and so do not seek integration. Members of the community also fear that public admission of being Romani will single them out for discrimination. This deliberate separation and distance from mainstream society places the Travelling community at a greater disadvantage to other, less separatist ethnic minority communities. Slowly, however, many Romani people are beginning to integrate and participate in mainstream society without compromising their cultural identity. The majority of the Romani community rely heavily on distinctions between behaviour that is pure,‘vujo’ or ‘wuzho’, and behaviour that is polluted,‘marimé’ or ‘mokadi’. Roma define themselves in part by their adherence to these cleanliness rituals. There may be class distinctions among some Roma, based on how strictly individuals or families maintain divisions between purity and impurity. Irish Travellers traditionally follow the Roman Catholic faith, while evangelical Christianity has been on the rise in recent years among Romani communities.

TRAVELLING COMMUNITY: COMMUNICATION PROFILE
Generation Principal language of communication Key communication medium Younger English Audio cassette Video Leaflets Older English Audio cassette Video

Specialist media Print media: Travellers Times – Quarterly magazine for Gypsies and Travellers and the people who work with them. Information on all subjects of interest to the community, plus health and wellbeing messages Tel: 01432 344 039 Web: www.travellerstimes.org.uk DOs and DON’Ts • The Travelling community has a deep mistrust of mainstream services and providers and often expects prejudice from them. A positive, non-judgmental attitude from drug workers is vital • It would be considered highly inappropriate for a male worker to be alone with an unmarried Romani woman • Men would feel uncomfortable discussing intimate problems with a female worker

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MOVERS AND SHAKERS
CULTURAL SENSITIVITY TO TRAVELLERS IN THE CAMBRIDGESHIRE DAT
The Travelling community is Cambridgeshire’s largest ethnic minority group. Community Development Workers often report concerns voiced by Travellers about drug misuse and the need for appropriate education, prevention and treatment pathways. Few members of the local Travelling community access available services. There are a number of reasons for this, including: • Rates of literacy among the Travelling community are low. Standard approaches to education and information by the printed word are therefore inappropriate and ineffective • There is a lack about knowledge of what drug services are on offer, and a common perception that services and treatment must cost money • There is often a failure, both by individual Travellers and within the community as a whole, to admit to drug problems when they exist • Other concerns of Traveller life, such as water supply, food and fuel, tend to take priority over seeking help for drug problems In an attempt to address the situation, Cambridgeshire DAT came up with the idea of employing a part-time project worker to work within the Travelling community and with drug agencies across Cambridgeshire. A primary aim of the project is to empower members of the Travelling community themselves to tell drug service providers what the community wants to know and the services and treatments the community wants to access. The idea is equip these community members to be ‘knowledge facilitators’ who help the rest of the community identify and access the information it needs. This Drugs Liaison Work with the Travelling community is an extension of the current community development approach; an approach that has a proven and successful methodology for increasing the take-up of services by the Travelling community and providing culturally appropriate information. The project worker will provide advice, information and support relating to drug misuse and the Travelling community; collect information on needs within the Travelling community; inform the Travelling community about drug health issues and the services available; support Travellers in accessing specialist services; and work with treatment service providers to improve their understanding of issues within the Travelling community. The most effective means of communication within the Travelling community is word of mouth. A project worker and community development workers operating in the community are therefore the best means of communicating with the target group. CDs and tapes will also be used as methods of spreading awareness of drugs and drugs services.

For more information, contact: Vicky Crompton, DAT Coordinator, Cambridgeshire DAT Tel: 01223 718225 Email: Vicky.Crompton@cambridgeshire.gov.uk

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN

LGB COMMUNITIES

LESBIAN, GAY AND BISEXUAL COMMUNITIES (LGB)
DRUG MISUSE20*
As with mainstream communities, there are broadly two types of drug use within LGB communities: recreational drug use, associated with friends, patterns of work and relaxation, and problematic drug use, triggered by emotional difficulties, issues of identity and self-esteem. Research studies have found, however, that people from the LGB community are much more likely than the general population to misuse drugs and alcohol. There are several reasons for this. For one, members of LGB communities are known to experience greater amounts of stress than the general population. It is thought that the belief that drugs will reduce this stress, and help overcome low selfesteem, depression, anxiety and confusion surrounding issues of sexuality and identity, often leads members of the LGB community into substance misuse. The frequent use of pubs, clubs and bars as the central social and cultural spaces for the gay community is also considered to be a very strong factor in alcohol and drug misuse. Styles of drinking, and the perception that alcohol or other drugs are indispensable to having ‘a good time’, create a social climate where substance misuse can often be seen as the norm. Indeed, acceptance and normalisation of drug and alcohol misuse, whereby it’s okay to be ‘off your face’, is higher among LGB communities than among the rest of the population. Given the cultural centrality of drugs and alcohol among the LGB community, experimentation and excessive consumption could be seen as a route to gaining acceptance and feeling connected. Some lesbian women even say that if they were to stop their drinking or drug taking, they would be isolated from ‘the scene’. In this respect, LGB substance misuse can be seen as essentially a consequence of lifestyle rather than a consequence of sexuality. Nevertheless, research has also found that some gay men use alcohol or drugs to enhance their sexual experiences and to forget about the risk of HIV/AIDS, while gay men with HIV/AIDS may want to live to the full and use legal and illegal substances to maximise the pleasure they derive from social and sexual experiences. Polydrug use for the pleasure-enhancement can often lead to unsafe sex, while there is increasing concern about the use of ‘date-rape’ drugs such as GHB and Rohypnol among gay men and women.

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KEY DRUGS USED WITHIN THE LGB COMMUNITY
While studies have yet to offer concrete identification of drugs specifically and exclusively used by the LGB communities, connections can be made between particular drugs and specific contexts, such as the club scene, where dance drugs (e.g. ecstasy, amphetamines and LSD) are extremely popular. Other drugs associated with the LGB communities include: cannabis, speed, ketamine, cocaine, steroids, GHB and heroin. However, there are divergences in patterns of use around the country and within LGB constituents. Ketamine, for instance, causes problems in London while being virtually unheard-of in other parts of the country. Among the lesbian community, alcohol is widely seen to be the most problematic drug of all – far more so than any illegal substance. Meanwhile, competitiveness over body image (particularly male) may also increase the use of steroids to build the body or amphetamines to ward off fat.

SNAPSHOT
• Many studies have been conducted to establish the size of the LGB community in Britain, and while statistics differ, the majority of evidence indicates that lesbian, gay and bisexual people account for roughly 7% of the total UK population19 • Several research studies have found that lesbians, gay men and bisexuals are more vulnerable to stress. The main causes of this stress, contributing directly to drug and alcohol misuse within the LGB community, include: - Homophobia (internalised and externalised; perceived and actual) - The ‘coming out’ process - Diminished familial, social, or religious support - Fears about HIV/AIDS - Leading a double life (particularly in the case of individuals who are married, have a family or work in an environment where they fear rejection), and feeling unable to be completely open about their sexuality - Issues of identity, especially during adolescence

ENGAGEMENT AND COMMUNICATIONS: POINTS TO CONSIDER
Stereotypes Thanks to popular media misrepresentations, heterosexual assumptions and general misunderstanding, LGB communities have become frequently and easily stereotyped. However, these communities in the UK represent a wide variety of people and behaviours, and programmes of engagement and communication based on stereotypes will be neither useful nor productive. Labelling and making sweeping statements of any kind should be avoided at all costs. Reaching LGB communities While the first port of call for accessing LGB communities should be openly gay bars, clubs and venues, events or areas of towns, every effort should be made to reach the many different types of people who make up the majority of this group. This will mean thinking about alternative lifestyles, venues, forums and events beyond the more obvious and visible locus of ‘the scene’.

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN

LGB COMMUNITIES

The Lesbian Community It is important to bear in mind that lesbians can be a challenging, closed, defensive and difficult group to reach and communicate with. This may be the result of a self-perception, common among gay women, of being a minority within a minority. Certainly, gay women often report feeling inadequately represented by existing LGB groups, which they perceive to be focused on and primarily catering for the gay male community. Communications activities targeting lesbian-only venues, or promoting lesbian-specific initiatives, are highly advisable. Transgender Communities Transgender communities view themselves as being significantly different from LGB communities, and are very sensitive about lumped under the same umbrella. They believe that theirs is a gender issue, not a sexuality issue, and that their choices and behaviour are independent of sexual preference. The Internet The internet is a very powerful medium among the LGB communities. It serves as an important tool for mobilising and informing, while also being a highly effective means of making social arrangements and publicising events. Other Issues While drug use is the number one concern for people working in conjunction with FRANK, for LGB communities other issues (such as discrimination, self-esteem, identity and ‘coming out’) are much more important. Drug-related issues are secondary to these more immediate preoccupations. It is also important that, in the context of LGB communities, drug use is associated first and foremost with lifestyle, rather than with sexuality.

INFORMATION GAPS
While research studies have indicated that higher levels of drug use and experimentation exist amongst lesbians and gay men than among the general population, for planning purposes it would be helpful to quantify the extent of the problem by commissioning a survey among the local LGB population. One of the key issues is how DATs can make their services more sensitive to the LGB community. Further research is needed to help ascertain: • To what extent DATs should provide LGBspecific services versus non LGB-specific services • Whether DATs should monitor the sexuality of service users • The key characteristics of a LGB-friendly service • How the needs of the LGB community can best be integrated at a strategic planning level

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BEST PRACTICE
The following ideas on best practice in engaging with the LGB community are highlighted in current literature and practice to encourage members of the LGB community to access services and to deal with issues such as homophobia.

WHAT
Training for service providers on how to serve lesbian, gay and bisexual clients Written policies on equal opportunities and non-discrimination Targeted services

ISSUES INCLUDED
• Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender culture • The effects of homophobia • Other issues important to LGB clients, such as concepts of domestic partnership • Written policy of non-discrimination, displayed publicly in facilities and in literature • Equal opportunities policy for staff and clients, specifically sexuality • Developing an LGB-specific drug service, and marketing it as such • Encourage generic services to be LGB-friendly, and then offer targeted literature to address specific needs. Some research has suggested this solution is preferred to a gay-specific service by some gay communities • LGB-specific drug issues addressed at the strategic level, as well as at the provision level • Consultation and inclusion of representatives from the LGB community on planning and advisory bodies Opinions are mixed on this issue. • Some argue that monitoring is needed to determine levels of need within LGB groups, and the effectiveness of targeted services • Others have questioned the appropriateness and effectiveness of a sexuality box on questionnaires, or a sexuality question in one-to-one interviews

Strategic consideration of LGB community needs

Monitoring sexual orientation

* The material in this section is based on research work-in-progress entitled Drugs and Sexuality, currently being carried out by COI Communications. For further information, please contact: www.coi.gov.uk/contacts.php?contact=10

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MOVERS AND SHAKERS
ANTIDOTE – LGB-SPECIFIC DRUG SERVICE, PART OF THE HUNGERFORD PROJECT, LONDON
Antidote is based in Soho, central London – an area well known for its gay bars, clubs and strong links with the gay community. The project’s aim is to reduce drug-related harm within the LGB community by providing information, support and advice through relevant and targeted services. It also works with generic service-providers to improve their ability to meet the needs of LGB clients and so improve overall access to services for the community. Antidote is staffed by a combination of paid staff and volunteers, and the project now includes: • A drop-in advisory service • Support groups, including a gay/bisexual men’s group, and a lesbian/bisexual women’s group • Complementary therapy sessions (including acupuncture), to help clients maintain stress levels, detox and generally recover • A helpline • One-to-one counselling • Keyworking • Referrals into counselling, treatment or other therapy services • Training, consultancy and education for youth groups, youth professionals and a variety of service providers The Antidote training course enables participants to explore possible issues and barriers that may arise when attempting to meet the needs of clients who identify themselves as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender. These include: • • • • • Attitudes and stereotypes about LGB people Examining the effects of homophobia Elements of good practice when working with LGB clients Other LGB specialist support The impact of the law on LGB clients

LGB drug users access the specific services provided by the project, feeling welcomed and confident that their needs will be met. The targeted services complement each other well, moving a client through from first contact to keyworking to support groups, and on to a range of therapies. All of these combine to improve the client’s chances of making a full recovery. Antidote now provides a full training course for agencies and groups wanting to develop targeted services and improve access for the LGB community. The project’s training and consultancy role allows it to share good practice and help move drug services provision towards a position where LGB uses feel they can access treatment anytime, anywhere.

For more information, contact: Monty Moncriffe Tel: 020 7287 8743 Email: monty.moncriffe@turning-point.co.uk

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN
DISABLED PEOPLE
DRUG MISUSE

DISABLED PEOPLE

SNAPSHOT
• There are around 10 million disabled people in the UK • It is not possible to generalise – disabled people are found in all areas of society and in all parts of the country. Unlike many ethnic minority communities, they do not congregate in particular areas, nor do they share a common culture* • Many people covered by the Disability Discrimination Act do not consider themselves disabled or may not wish to disclose their disability. This can make disabled people more difficult to identify and to target than people from ethnic minority communities
* There are concentrations of Deaf people in a very few areas and there is a Deaf culture.

It is suggested that drug misuse among disabled people is higher than the general population. However, most evidence is anecdotal and there is a lack of reliable evidence to support this assumption. Surveys that do exist have generally been small scale and often from the USA. The only substantial body of British research tends to concern dual diagnosis relating to mental health and drug misuse.What evidence there is suggests that the primary causes of drug misuse among disabled people (apart from those which apply to the population in general) are: • Additional stress related to disability • A search for pain relief • The nature of the disabilities, such as mental health and learning disabilities When disabled people rely on personal care within the family or from carers, access to drugs is generally more difficult. The recent moves towards care in the community, rather than institutional care, means that some people with learning disabilities and mental health problems may have greater exposure and access to a wider range of illicit drugs. Disability may itself occur as a result of drug misuse and some disabled people may take prescribed drugs relating to their disability or for pain control. It is important to take these considerations into account when providing services for disabled people.

ENGAGING AND COMMUNICATING WITH DISABLED PEOPLE
When planning work it is crucial to be aware of the communications needs of disabled people. When arranging the content, distribution or format of communications, bear in mind those who may require extra help or information, including people who: • Have difficulty reading because they have a visual impairment, have a learning disability, are profoundly deaf and use British Sign Language as their first language, or have a low standard of literacy • Cannot hear spoken information, nor use a voice telephone because they are deaf or hard of hearing • Cannot see text, images or moving pictures • Have a speech impairment and therefore find it difficult to use a phone or call a helpline • Have dexterity problems making it difficult for them to hold or manipulate a printed document or use a keyboard

Remember, some people may have invisible or multiple disabilities.

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN

DISABLED PEOPLE

SUGGESTED MEASURES TO IMPROVE DRUG SERVICES FOR DISABLED PEOPLE
• Involve disabled people in planning and decision making • Improve accessibility of services, premises and information • Make sure clients understand any information or advice you give them. • Ensure all information is in plain language and clearly presented • Publicise the existence of accessible formats (via mainstream publications as well as through organisations for disabled people) • Don’t label materials in alternative formats as specially for disabled people • Target carers, and medical or social workers • Make it easier for disabled people (especially adolescents) to talk about their substance misuse. This can be done through disability awareness training, and providing a confidential setting • Integrate treatment processes and referral relationships – eg between psychiatric services and drug misuse services • Include disabled people in your workforce • Be flexible Important measures for certain groups of people with disabilities include: • Mental health nurses can play a key role in the early recognition and management of drug misuse amongst mentally ill patients • Provide drug prevention and intervention services for young people disabled people as part of their regular educational or rehabilitation programme • Recognise that drug misuse that may be denied by the user due to potential stigma
See the loose sheet ‘Communicating with Disabled People’ in this Update for further information.

THE DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION ACT (DDA)
Companies and organisations providing goods, facilities or services to the general public have duties under the DDA. It is unlawful, for instance, to refuse to serve a disabled person or provide a lower standard of service because of their disability, unless this can be justified. Duties are also in place to ensure that employers, product, facility or service providers make ‘reasonable adjustments’ in the way they provide their services to disabled people. Changes to the DDA came into force in October 2004, extending the scope of the legislation to encompass employers with fewer than 15 employees, and introducing new duties. The new duties are all about physical access. Now, reasonable adjustments may have to be made to make a service more accessible by removing, altering or helping avoid any physical barriers preventing use by disabled people. Where this is not possible, services may have to be provided in a reasonable alternative way. If a disabled person believes that they have been discriminated against because of their disability, they can take the case to an employment tribunal or sue through the civil courts and may be awarded compensation.

‘REASONABLE’ ADJUSTMENTS
‘Reasonable’ means whatever is practical and affordable. However, many physical changes to premises are simple and low cost eg changing the height of a door handle so that a wheelchair user can reach it, keeping aisles clutter-free and putting handrails up staircases. Employment changes can also be straightforward, such as allowing someone time off for treatment, providing work-related information in an accessible format (large print, braille or audio) and holding interviews in an accessible location.

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MOVERS AND SHAKERS
2 SMART 4 DRUGS
2 Smart 4 Drugs (2S4D) is an inclusive and innovative drug education programme devised and delivered by Essex Police in partnership with Essex FM. Now in its ninth year of activity, 2S4D targets 11-13 year olds across the county, raising awareness of drugs and drug-related issues through theatre, music, dance and sport. Combining vibrant, interactive roadshows with follow-up work in schools, 2S4D equips young people with the facts and information necessary to make their own informed decisions about drugs. As a key component of the roadshows, theatre performances are used to deliver drug education messages in accessible and engaging formats, with scripts being constantly updated and adapted to keep pace with local trends. On-stage sports activities, often involving the local ice hockey team, are then used to deliver the message that sport and drugs don’t mix. The idea that personal performance and ambitions are inhibited, rather than enhanced, by drugs is reinforced by the ubiquitous role model figures (dancers, singers, hockey players, Radio DJs) who participate in the events and interact with the school-children. The project as a whole sets out to engage and empower as many young people as possible, actively catering for those with disabilities, special needs and problematic behavioural tendencies. An in-depth needs assessment of each participating school is carried out prior to every roadshow, with wheelchair access and stage-lifts provided where necessary. At each venue, seating is carefully arranged to allow space for wheelchair-users, and wherever possible 2S4D workers encourage total integration of able and non-able bodied members of the audience. Every child who wants to participate in on-stage activities is given the opportunity to do so, with mental or physical disabilities never considered a barrier to inclusion. Deaf children are able to follow events by lip-reading and rhythmic appreciation, while plans are a-foot to introduce visual transcript screens for deaf or hard-of hearing children in the near future. 2S4D employs a multi-agency approach to tackling drugs and disseminating core education messages and materials. Essex Police are the major contributors, with Essex FM matching the project costs in airtime, using allocated radio slots to help promote 2S4D and plug the FRANK helpline. Essex Police and Essex, Southend and Thurrock DATs contribute to the costs of the roadshow events, while local councils provide free or subsidised venues. The passionate and continued support received from local schools, business and the general public is testament to the success of 2S4D and the sense of value, trust and excitement that has built up around the project over the years. In 2004, 15,000 children attended 2S4D, which is four-times the usual number, and equates to about half of the county’s children in the 11 to 13 year-old age range. Larger venues commensurate with the project’s ambitions, such as theatres and sports centres, have been sought and filled, and for 2005 a new comedy slot has been built into the roadshow fixture. Comedian Mike Gunn, resident at the Comedy store and an ex-drug user himself, will be working with school children across the county, amusing and informing them as he tells his story.

For further information, contact: Victoria C Wilson Tel: 01245 452194 Email: Victoria.Wilson@essex.pnn.police.uk

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VITAL STATISTICS:
THE LOWDOWN

LANGUAGE & LITERACY

Currently, the official languages in the UK are English, Welsh, Gaelic (Scottish and Irish), Lowland Scots, Ulster Scots and Cornish. In March 2003, the government also committed itself to recognising British Sign Language (BSL) as a language in its own right and to give careful consideration to any proposals the Council of Europe’s Charter for Regional or Minority Languages may make.
There is no ‘official’ list of languages that all government departments and public bodies use. In addition, literacy can be an issue in any language. It is estimated that one adult in five in England is not functionally literate7. This means some seven million people would be unable to find a page reference for a plumber if they were given the index to the Yellow Pages. It is good practice to be aware of the language needs and literacy levels of the communities you are dealing with and to consider how best to communicate with them. It is always best to write in plain language. You may wish to consult organisations such as the Plain English Campaign or consider using World English – a correct but simplified form of English which has a very low reading age and is suitable for a wide range of groups. Using plain language also helps keep costs down when translating materials into other languages or transcribing them into other formats (eg braille, audio formats or BSL). levels of fluency in English with over three quarters of the population being comfortable both reading and speaking the language. As the language of Bollywood movies, Hindi is broadly understood by many within the South Asian community. For this reason, many Britishbased Indian radio stations broadcast in Hindi. Punjabi is the primary spoken language for over half of the British Pakistani community. Urdu is spoken by the rest of the British Pakistani community and is the language of education and literacy. It is most likely to be used by those originating from urban rather than rural areas, and is the most common language read among older members of the community. The written form of Punjabi in the Gurmukhi script, which is read by Sikhs, is not intelligible to Pakistani Punjabis. Within families there may be a range of different abilities in English and Mother Tongue. A typical British Pakistani family, for example, might comprise a mother who speaks a dialect of Punjabi which is not written, and who also speaks Urdu, reads some Urdu, but who neither reads nor speaks English; a father who is fluent in Punjabi and Urdu, reads Urdu, understands and speaks English reasonably well but has limited literacy in English; younger children who are fluent and literate in English, who speak basic Urdu but do not read Urdu and an older cousin or uncle who is fluent and literate in English and Urdu.

ASIAN COMMUNITIES
Among the Indian community in Britain, the main spoken languages are Punjabi and Gujarati. Although Hindi is the national language of India, Hindi speakers represent a small minority of British Asians: a minority that is mainly established within the professional middle-classes, and is fluent and literate in English. Overall, among all the ethnic minority groups in Britain, Indian people have the highest

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Among the Bangladeshi community in Britain, the main spoken languages are Bengali and Sylheti. Bengali is the national language of Bangladesh and the language of education and literacy, while Sylheti is a spoken dialect only. The Bangladeshi community has the lowest English fluency and literacy of all the South Asian communities in Britain. The Chinese community in Britain speak a number of languages and dialects. Cantonese, the language spoken in Hong Kong, is the most prevalent of these. Cantonese is spoken by 71 million worldwide, including 4.5% of the mainland Chinese population. Mandarin is the principal language of mainland China, and is the world’s most commonly spoken language. Most people in China, who don’t speak Mandarin as their first language, can speak or at least understand a conversation in Mandarin. This, however, is not the case in Hong Kong, where Mandarin is rarely spoken or understood. Three quarters of Chinese people claim to speak English at least fairly well.

from the West Indies speak patois or Creole languages amongst themselves. These are traditional community languages which are continually evolving.

TRAVELLERS AND GYPSIES
English Romany Gypsies and Irish Travellers have English as their mother tongue. Romany Gypsies traditionally speak the Romany language, but this is now less widespread and has always been spoken alongside English. However, despite the fact that English is the mother tongue of the Travelling community, there are high levels of illiteracy due to poor access to education and traditional values that prioritise practical skills.

BRITISH SIGN LANGUAGE (BSL)
BSL is recognised by the government as an official language in the UK. It is used by up to 70,000 Deaf people, and a number of hearing people, most of whom learn the language to communicate with Deaf children, parents or siblings, or to act as interpreters between hearing and Deaf people. BSL is a visual-gestural language with its own vocabulary and grammar in which the hands, body, and facial expression are used to communicate. Sign language is not an international language, and most countries have their own version. Because English is the second language of many BSL users, levels of literacy are lower among the Deaf Community than among the population as a whole. This is one of the arguments for providing communications in BSL rather than in spoken or written English.

BLACK AFRICAN COMMUNITIES
Within the UK Black African communities, there is considerable diversity. People originally came from hundreds of different ethnic and language groups. Whilst there are many different languages, most Black Africans are also familiar with English (in particular those from Nigeria, Ghana and Uganda). People from the Somali community speak Somali, although a small number may also speak English, Italian or Arabic, reflecting the chequered history of the country.

BLACK CARIBBEAN COMMUNITIES
English is the main language for Black Caribbeans in the UK, and all have a good command of spoken English. Historically people

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IDEAS FOR ACTION
We hope the ideas in this section will help kickstart your own thinking about ideas for communicating with diverse audiences. Do think about your audiences, what you know about them and the particular issue you are trying to communicate to them. Refer to the checklists included with this Update for useful information on communications issues including the barriers that you may need to consider. The vital statistics in this booklet will also give you further information on the specific issues relating to different groups. When developing your activities, always remember to consider the issue of disability as a matter of course as this could be relevant to people within any of the audiences that you target. Also be aware of multiple discrimination which may affect some people.
WAYS OF ENGAGING COMMUNITIES
The Community Engagement Project has offered a number of recommendations for effective engagement of hard-to-reach audiences, particularly those from ethnic minority communities. The following have been highlighted as particularly useful. • Take advantage of local cultural/religious events such as melas or carnivals • Use existing contacts through local community groups • Use events such as Asian fashion shows and ‘Bollywood’ nights incorporating drug themes (especially for targeted audiences such as young Pakistani females) • Promote drug services through local newsletters or Asian media to give the community a better understanding of the different types of interventions • Use local radio stations to create dialogue and discussions with the local community. To maintain anonymity, encourage callers to phone in during break intervals rather than ‘live’ on air. The issues can then be discussed after the break. This has worked well where drug workers have used bilingual speakers/ community researchers to generate discussion within their community • Identify the most appropriate format for information. For some communities, bilingual literature works well whereas others may prefer information in audio or video format • Place drug information and advice among literature on other services - such as at a health centre or local library - so that people are not openly seen to be accessing drug services. (This route is particularly preferred by ethnic minority communities) See the loose sheet ‘Engaging Communities’ in this Update for more information on the Community Engagement Project.

USE THE MEDIA
Britain has a plethora of specialist media aimed at specific regional ethnic groups, disabled people and their carers, and the LGB community. You may also find local branches of disability organisations have their own publications. Read any local newspapers and magazines that would be relevant to your target audience and contact them to see if they would run a story on your activities. You may also find radio stations in your area who have a specific ethnic audience. Stations such as Choice in London (African-Caribbean),

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Spectrum (range of ethnic groups), Sabras in Leicester (Asian) and Sunrise in Bradford (for the Bengali community) could be useful to contact in addition to the BBC local and specialist network. Radio also provides a good means of targeting people with visual impairments or people who are housebound. Talk to the promotions team, or the station manager and see if you could: • Organise a radio phone in to FRANK on the subject of ‘drugs and the community’ • Use their database to mail information, and their DJ’s to promote your events 1and activities on-air • Use their roadshows and club events to ‘piggy back’ your communication to their specialist audiences

could talk at schools or at women’s groups, or at employers’ offices. It’s important to invest time to ensure that they are well supported and briefed and to be there yourself to answer questions, explore any opportunities that arise and organise any relevant follow up. You could arrange similar presentations to your local Deaf club through a BSL interpreter. Most places of worship are also community and informal education centres. Each religious centre will usually have a central office with a number of administrators. These will often be structured in areas of activity such as religious instruction and prayer, education (especially religious education for young people) and community and social work. Contact the relevant administrator and offer to: • Organise a 1 hour presentation and discussion on modern British youth culture and its impact on the younger generation in their community. Using music and video can help participants understand young people better and ‘bridge the divide’ • Explain the role of FRANK and arrange a community discussion about the merits of openness • Work with specialist youth workers within the place of worship to assist you in workshops. Use the notice boards and mailers that are often sent out, to publicise your events Try approaching local employers – particularly in sectors – such as health, catering, construction and cleaning - which employ a large number of people from ethnic minority communities. Larger employers are likely to have occupational health departments or specialists whose remit is health in the workplace. Can you hold any events or distribute materials?

THINGS TO CONSIDER
Be aware that some communities may find it taboo to talk about the issue of drugs so check first. The station manager or programme producer will be able to guide you on what is appropriate.

GET THEM TALKING (AND LISTENING!)
A key issue in many ethnic groups is the ‘generation divide’ between traditional members of the community and second or third generation young people from the community who feel misunderstood by their elders. See if you can bring together people from across your region, to discuss jointly a community strategy on communicating with young people. Try a simple ‘Question Time’ format with a number of local experts invited (for example, include a religious leader, local police, DAT rep, youth worker, young people etc on the panel). Can you recruit ‘ambassadors’ from the target group who are prepared to talk about their own experiences? This can be a very powerful way of bringing the issue alive. Ambassadors

THINGS TO CONSIDER
There are issues for many Deaf people relating to confidentiality due to the fact that the Deaf community (those who use BSL) is very small and close-knit.

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IDEAS FOR ACTION
Ask your local community groups if you can meet people to chat informally about their views on drugs issues and what their community needs. It’s worth exploring whether you can attend a regular group so that you know people will come and will be willing to talk.

THINGS TO CONSIDER
Within some communities there are strict rules about the roles of men and women within the area of religion. In order to approach the women of these communities, it may be better to do so via organised women’s activities or cultural events rather than religious festivals.

THINGS TO CONSIDER
Be sensitive to the ways in which people from different generations communicate with each other. There are sometimes protocols to follow and being aware of them will help you maximise the opportunities of getting generations to talk. Always take the advice of representatives from the community with which you are aiming to communicate.

Check out the hobbies and activities of the target group. For young people sport can be an excellent way in. For example, The London Playing Fields Society enables refugees and people from ethnic minorities to participate in football leagues. Explore opportunities to help local communities or local disability groups to make a video or a radio documentary or launch their own website. This could be in the written or spoken language of that community and/or in BSL. It could cover drugs issues in a ‘soft’ way rather than being explicit about drugs. Or maybe you could organise an exhibition of art or photography around drug themes. Link up with any existing creative projects or sponsor a competition that would enable the winner to create their own message.

GO WHERE THE ACTION IS
Look at where people from your targeted community hang out. Visit the corner shop, hairdressers, clubs, betting shops, cafes, video shops and record shops and see if you could have FRANK materials available for people to pick up.

THINGS TO CONSIDER
Hairdressers’ shops and nail salons can be especially popular with Black Caribbean women so can be good places in which to make contact.

THINGS TO CONSIDER
Promoting drugs in a ‘soft’ way can help you get the subject on the agenda with any group who may not find it acceptable (or interesting) otherwise. Be creative and seek alternative opportunities to a blatant ‘drug awareness’ activity.

Check out any upcoming cultural events or religious festivals. These might be ones aimed at ethnic minority audiences, the disabled or people from the LGB community or mainstream events that would be attended by people from these communities eg pop festivals. Contact the relevant faith leaders and explore whether there are opportunities to reach out to people. Talk to the event organisers. Are there opportunities to promote your messages, distribute your materials, have a stand, run a quiz or competition?

Approach the people who already work with the communities you want to target. Contact health visitors, youth workers, local beat officers, women’s support groups, GPs and practice nurses and job centres. See if you can encourage them to carry FRANK materials or the campaign contact details.

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Talk to the local groups of national disability charities and see how you can fit in with their work. You could arrange to talk informally to their members or maybe get an article about FRANK in their newsletter or on their website. They may also be able to help you source case studies of local disabled people who have used drugs. Don’t forget to check if celebrities who support them could also support you. All ethnic minority groups have speciality foods and shops for purchasing ingredients. Work with the stores and wholesalers to leaflet or sticker produce with the message you want to get through, particularly to older or first generation people.

Traditional music events will provide an opportunity to reach, especially parents and first generation people from ethnic groups. How about arranging a music event which brings together older and younger people through ‘cross over’ music, ie dance music which incorporates traditional elements. Try working with a theatre group that specialises in productions for people from ethnic minority communities, disabled people or for lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender people. Can you produce a play – perhaps with time for discussion and debate about the issues raised? In some such projects, the actors will come out to talk to the audience in character to explore the issues raised. You could consider plays for young people in schools, or working with a local employer to show the play in a canteen or communal area. This could provide a strong hook for involving the local media.

THINGS TO CONSIDER
With any public event or forum, make sure you consider issues of accessibility for disabled people. This isn’t just limited to mobility; also be aware of less obvious conditions such as epilepsy and diabetes, for example, which can have effects on vision.

THINGS TO CONSIDER
The majority of ethnic minority communities, LGB and disabled people read mostly mainstream publications or watch mainstream TV. Therefore, such communications also need to be inclusive and accessible.

Supporting a national team or a particular sport is a powerful form of community bonding. Small and major sporting events, where a particular community gather, is often a good opportunity to get messages through to older and younger members, (often fathers and sons). Be bold, and ask to use the electronic board, or use leaflets, stickers and poster opportunities. Get a team to sign posters, shirts etc, which you can later use as prizes for other events you will run in the future.

Order the FRANK Drug Pack – an ‘easy reading’ information pack for people with learning disabilities or low levels of literacy. Use the More FRANK order form in this Update or see www.drugs.gov.uk/campaign/resources

FRANK FOR DIVERSITY
FRANK is here to make sure that all parents, carers and young people, irrespective of ethnic origin sexuality or disability, get the information and advice they need to deal with their concerns about drugs. FRANK’s materials and activities are designed to give you backup for your own campaigns in getting through to hard-to-reach groups. For more information, please ring the FRANK campaign support line on 020 7035 0200, or email the FRANK campaign team at frank@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk.

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USEFUL RESOURCES
INFORMATION
CODE OF PRACTICE: RIGHTS OF ACCESS – GOODS, FACILITIES, SERVICES AND PREMISES Practical guidance on how to avoid discrimination against disabled people in accessing services or premises. Available from the Stationery Office (ISBN 0-11-702860-6) THE COMMON GOOD Research on effective communication with ethnic minority communities. Available from COI Communications at www.coi.gov.uk/documents/commongood-bme-exec-summ-pdf DIVERSITY MANUAL Guidance and practical tips for regional drug teams and DATs on working with diversity PLUS an implementation tool. Download from www.drugs.gov.uk/workpages/diversity LETS MAKE IT ACCESSIBLE A guide to developing a strategy to meet the needs of disabled clients. Available at www.disability.gov.uk MULTICULTURAL MATTERS A monthly subscription-based newsletter aimed at all professionals communicating with or targeting specific communities within the UK. It covers all of the groups within Britain's multicultural society. www.multicultural-matters.com NEIGHBOURHOOD STATISTICS Local information on every neighbourhood in the UK. Produced by the Office for National Statistics and based upon the 2001 Census. www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk INFORMABILITY MANUAL A good practice guide to making information more accessible in the light of the Disability Discrimination Act. Available from the Stationery Office ( ISBN 0-11-702038-9)

ORGANISATIONS
A) ETHNIC MINORITY GROUPS:
CHINESE IN BRITAIN FORUM 1st Floor, Boardroom House 64 Broadway, Stratford, London E15 7NG 020 8432 0681 www.chinese-forum.co.uk COMMISSION FOR RACIAL EQUALITY St Dunstans House, 201–211 Borough High Street London SE1 1GZ 020 7939 0000 www.cre.gov.uk CONFEDERATION OF INDIAN ORGANISATIONS www.southall-punjabi.com/business/ confederation_indian_org.html IRISH TRAVELLER MOVEMENT (BRITAIN) 156-162 Kilburn High Road, London NW6 4JD 020 7625 2255 GYPSY COUNCIL FOR EDUCATION, CULTURE, WELFARE AND CIVIC RIGHTS European and UK Office, Avely Clinic 8 Hall Road, Avely, Essex RM15 4HD 01708 868986 NATIONAL GYPSY COUNCIL Greenacres Caravan Park, Hapsford, Helsby, Warrington WA6 0JS Tel 01937 842 782 REFUGEE ACTION The Old Fire Station,150 Waterloo Road London SE1 8SB Tel 020 7654 7700 www.refugee-action.org.uk THE ORGANISATION OF BLIND AFRICAN CARIBBEANS (OBAC) Gloucester House (1st Floor) 8 Camberwell New Road London SE5 0RZ

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USEFUL RESOURCES
THE REFUGEE COUNCIL 3 Bondway, London SW8 1SJ www.refugeecouncil.org.uk THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF ASIAN AFFAIRS 2 Belgrave Square, London SW1X 8PJ 020 7235 5122 w.rsaa.org.uk RNID (ROYAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR DEAF PEOPLE) 19-23 Featherstone Street London EC1Y 8SL Voice: 020 7296 8000 Helpline 0870 605 0123 www.rnid.org.uk WOMEN WITH VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE DISABILITIES (WINVISIBLE) 230a Kentish Town Road, London NW5 2AB 020 7483 2496 BRITISH COUNCIL OF DISABLED PEOPLE (BCODP) Litchurch Plaza, Litchurch Lane Derby DE24 8AA 01332 295 551 www.bcodp.org.uk NATIONAL INFORMATION FORUM Post Point 905, BT Burne House, Bell St London NW1 020 7402 6681 www.nif.org.uk PEOPLE FIRST (NATIONAL ORGANISATION OF PEOPLE WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES) PO Box 5200, Northampton NN1 1ZB 01604 721 666

B) DISABILITY AND OLDER PEOPLE:
AGE CONCERN ENGLAND (NATIONAL COUNCIL ON AGEING) Astral House, 1268 London Road London SW16 4ER. 020 8679 8000 www.ace.org.uk BRITISH DEAF ASSOCIATION 1-3 Worship Street, London EC2A 2AB Voice: 020 7588 3520 www.britishdeafassociation.org.uk DISABILITY RIGHTS COMMISSION Helpline 08457 622 633 (8am - 8pm Mon-Fri) Fax: 08457 778 878 Textphone: 08457 622 644 www.drc-gb.org MENCAP (ROYAL SOCIETY FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AND ADULTS) 123 Golden Lane, London EC1Y 0RT 020 7454 0454 RADAR (THE ROYAL ASSOCIATION FOR DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION) 12 City Forum, 250 City Road London EC1V 8AF 020 7250 3222 www.radar.org.uk RNIB (ROYAL NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE BLIND) 105 Judd Street, London WC1H 9NE 020 7388 1266 www.rnib.org.uk

C) SEXUALITY AND GENDER
GENDER TRUST PO Box 3192, Brighton BN1 3WR 01273 234024 www.gendertrust.org.uk STONEWALL 46 Grosvenor Gardens, London SW1W 0EB 020 7881 9440 mini: 020 7881 9996 www.stonewall.org.uk

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USEFUL RESOURCES
WEBSITES
www.liberty-human-rights.org.uk A range of information on issues including equality, asylum and immigration, mental health and human rights. www.movinghere.org.uk Website celebrating, exploring and recording why people came to England, and what their experiences were and are now. The site looks at the Caribbean, Irish, Jewish and South Asian communities but is growing. www.education-otherwise.org Information and support for families whose children are educated outside school. www.romaedu.org.uk Website of the Roma education network. www.groundswelluk.net/~fft/fft/index.htm Friends, Families and Travellers: leading organisation working to address the problems facing Gypsy and Traveller communities. www.traved.org.uk Website to support the education of Travellers and their children. www.britishcouncil.org/multilingualuk/who.htm British Council website looking at languages used in the family and in school in the UK. The following websites have useful information on disability and links to other sites: DISABILITY RIGHTS COMMISSION www.drc-gb.org.uk BBC www.bbc.co.uk/health/conditions GOOGLE http://directory.google.com/Top/Health/ Conditions_and_Diseases/
© ©

This listing is provided for information only. Inclusion does not imply endorsement of resources listed. And don’t forget talktofrank.com for information and advice on drugs. The FRANK website contains accessible information on a wide range of drugs, practical advice on raising the issues, as well as a searchable database of local services.

REFERENCES
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Commission for Racial Equality ONS UK Census, 2001 Research undertaken by the BBC, 2000 Common Good Research, Turnstone Research and Consultancy on behalf of COI Communications, 2003 Control of Immigration: Statistics United Kingdom, 2003, Home Office, 2004 Disability Rights Commission, 2004 National Needs and Impact Survey of Literacy, Numeracy and ICT Skills, DfES, 2003 Roma Education Network, 2000 Fair Play Partnership, 2003 Delivering drug services to Black and minority ethnic communities, Drugs Prevention Advisory Service, Home Office, 2001 Tackling Drugs to Build a Better Britain - Updated Drug Strategy 2002 Asian families and drugs, Turnstone Research and Consultancy on behalf of COI and Department of Health, 2004 Black and minority ethnic groups in England: Second health and lifestyle survey – Health Education Authority 1999) Health and Lifestyles of the Chinese population in England (1999) SCPR on behalf of HEA Drugs and alcohol – an issue for young black and ethnic minority Scots, NHS Greater Glasgow, 2002 Community engagement project carried out by the Wai Yin Chinese Women Society in Manchester, 2001 Refugee Council 2005 (www.refugeecouncil.org.uk/news/myths/myth001.htm) The Health Status of Gypsies and Travellers in England: Preliminary Report of Qualitative Findings (2004) Patrice Van Cleemput, Kate Thomas, Glenys Parry, Jean Peters, Julia Moore, Cindy Cooper, The University of Sheffield for Department of Health Section 16, Caravan Sites Act, 1968 Drugs and Sexuality (research in progress) carried out by COI Communications

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PHOTOGRAPHY
John Harris/reportdigital.co.uk – page 1 Jess Hurd/reportdigital.co.uk – page 3,5 (both),7 (both),27,32,34,43 © Philip Wolmuth/reportdigital.co.uk – page 9,16,23 (both),30 © David Bocking/reportdigital.co.uk – page 11 © Paul Box/reportdigital.co.uk – page 13 © Janina Struck/reportdigital.co.uk – page 17 © Saulius T. Kondrotas/reportdigital.co.uk – page 29 © Paul Mattsson/reportdigital.co.uk – page 33

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