WELCOME

Drug and alcohol misuse can have a serious negative impact on the people, performance and productivity of an organisation. Substance misuse often impairs individual’s judgement and abilities. This can make it difficult to cope and carry out tasks in all areas of life – and work is no exception. In a competitive environment, retaining a healthy and effective workforce is paramount for employers. Protecting one’s employees and business from harm can help ensure sustained quality of work, commitment and output. To this end, the successful management of substance misuse in the workplace is now a key issue for HR and Occupational Health Professionals in the UK. In any organisation, there may be someone whose life is affected by substance misuse in some way, and who may subsequently be unable to do his or her job effectively. For employers in safety-critical industries (such as transport and manufacturing) this can be a major problem, posing a threat to the health and wellbeing of everyone around them. There is also the social and economic cost of drug and alcohol misuse which, in terms of absenteeism, sickness and crime, is estimated to be in excess of £20 million.1

IN THIS ISSUE
This FRANK Action Update supports the Substance Misuse and the workplace: A business tool for employers produced by the Home Office, and aims to help you address the problem of substance misuse at work. Containing information, facts and statistics, it shows you some of the signs of misuse, suggests ideas for action and partnership, and discusses the need for robust workplace policies on drugs and alcohol. FRANK stakeholders will probably be familiar with some of the material contained in this pack. However, you may find some useful background information on workplace issues, and ideas on how to offer support to employers in your area.

CONTENTS:
FRANK IN ACTION VITAL STATISTICS MOVERS AND SHAKERS IDEAS FOR ACTION CHECKLIST FOR ACTION USEFUL RESOURCES Feedback from the public and local networks about the FRANK campaign Statistics, trends and insights into drugs and alcohol in the workplace Snapshots of positive practice Ideas and inspiration for workplace initiatives Useful contacts, publications, resources and websites 2 3 11 15 19 20

LOOSE SHEETS:
FRANK ACTIVITIES FRANK Talk FRANK Crossword The Knowledge Quiz To Test or Not to Test? Order your FRANK resources Tell us about your FRANK activities and plans

FRANK TIPS MORE FRANK TELL FRANK

FRANK Action Update – alcohol The core audiences for this Update are employers, their employees and local drug and FRANK at work FRANK Action Update – Understanding Crack Cocaine partnerships.

1

FRANK IN ACTION
The FRANK campaign aims to be the no-nonsense source of information and advice on drugs and their effects for young people. Since May 2003, 4,700 people have registered with the campaign and there have been over 1.5 million visits to talktofrank.com. The free helpline has received more than 400,000 calls and responded to over 30,000 emails. The campaign now has access to 1,969 referral organisations on the drug services database.
For news on how FRANK is progressing, and details of future plans, make sure you register at www.drugs.gov.uk/campaign

VITAL STATISTICS
THE TOPLINE
WHAT ARE DRUGS?
The social and economic cost of drug misuse is estimated to be in excess of £20 billion. £6.4 billion of this cost is borne by industry.2 But, what is meant by the term ‘drugs’? There are distinctions to be made between legal and illegal drugs, differing levels of classification and harm, not to mention issues of use and misuse. Simply lumping all drugs and drug use together can lead to stereotyping and wrongful assessment of people’s problems and needs. Knowing the facts about drugs and drug use can help inform a more effective workplace policy that ensures protection and support for both employers and employees.

FRANK FEEDBACK
The [FRANK] campaign makes it very easy for us to pass out the information to a wide variety of different groups because they do the thinking about who needs what.
Comment from a local drugs worker on the campaign materials

Whether we like it or not, drugs, and the associated problems they cause, are part of modern day life. In addition to an established drugs and alcohol policy, Woolworths is committed to working with FRANK to provide help and advice to our employees and customers.
Daniel Hinsworth Corporate Affairs Manager Woolworths

LEGAL DRUGS
Broadly speaking,‘drugs’ refers to any substance that affects how we think or feel. This includes legal substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine. It also includes a myriad of prescription medicines that are intended to improve people’s health and make them feel better. These can range from simple painkillers through to anabolic steroids and tranquillisers. However, legal drugs also carry risks of dependency and damage, and can be ‘misused’ in the same way that illegal drugs can. Certain ‘legal’ drugs, such as temazepam or flunitrazepam, are ‘illegal’ without a prescription, while others can carry Class C penalties for supply. Class A includes: ecstasy, cocaine, crack cocaine, heroin, LSD, mescaline, methadone, morphine, opium and injectable forms of Class B drugs. Maximum penalties for possession: seven years and/or a fine. Maximum penalties for supply: life imprisonment and/or a fine.

FRANK THANKS
FRANK wants to thank Marks & Spencer & Kent DAT who have developed a local working partnership following concerns that substance misuse was a significant contributor to M&S stock losses through shoplifting. Together, Kent DAT and Marks & Spencer successfully bid for between £2 and £3 million of public-sector funding, allowing Marks & Spencer to set up a drugs referral programme for 20 months at the Bluewater shopping centre. FRANK wants to thank West Sussex DAAT who have developed a free online training course to help local businesses tackle drugs and alcohol in the workplace and to implement their workplace policy. More than 120 people have logged onto their website to use the training package since its launch in January 2004. For further details, see the Movers and Shakers section on pages 14-15 of this Update.

FRANK would like to thank Woolworths for their promotion of FRANK to their staff and customers. FRANK credit cards are currently available in 20 of their stores that experience a high rate of drug-related crime. Woolworths see the benefit of informing their customers that help is around should they need it for themselves or a family member. Hundreds of cards have been distributed which is helping to get FRANK 'out there' in communities where drugs are impacting upon them. FRANK will also feature in an up-coming staff magazine with a circulation of 35,000. The helpline item will list organisations that offer help and advice on a range of issues that can affect staff and their family.

Class B includes: oral preparations of amphetamines, barbiturates, codeine and methaqualone (mandrax). Maximum penalties for possession: seven years and/or a fine. Maximum penalties for supply: 14 years imprisonment and/or a fine.

ILLEGAL DRUGS
In the UK, The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is the principle piece of legislation for the control and classification of drugs. It places restrictions upon the possession and supply, production, import and export of any controlled substance. The Misuse of Drugs Act lists the drugs that are subject to control and classifies them according to the level of harm associated with their misuse. Class C includes: cannabis, most benzodiazepines, valium, and other less harmful drugs of the amphetamine group. Maximum penalties for possession: Two years and/or a fine. Maximum penalties for supply: 14 years imprisonment and/or a fine.

KEEP IN TOUCH!
Tell us what you’re doing – and what people are saying locally about FRANK – using the Tell FRANK form at the back of this Update, or by email to frank@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk

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FRANK Action Update – Understanding Crack Cocaine 3

VITAL STATISTICS: DRUGS
THE LOWDOWN
WHAT IS SUBSTANCE MISUSE?
Just as there are different levels of drug classification, so there are different levels of drug use and harm.
RECREATIONAL DRUG USE is drug use that is controlled and occasional – often involving
drugs from lower class categories – and that does not necessarily impact too significantly on the user’s ability to cope with everyday life.

PREVALENCE, RISK AND COST
Given the availability of alcohol and illegal drugs, substance misuse in the workplace is an issue employers can no longer ignore:

• Protecting themselves against the cost of dealing with the problems associated with substance misuse • Raising awareness of substance misuse among staff • Demonstrating good corporate social responsibility (CSR) Ultimately, the best way to respond to the issue of substance misuse at work is to implement a robust workplace policy on drugs and alcohol. See pages 9-10 for more information and order the Substance Misuse and the Workplace: A business tool for employers pack by calling 0870 241 4680 and quote ref DSD16.

SUBSTANCE MISUSE is the use of illegal drugs and the inappropriate use of legal drugs,
including alcohol, prescription medicines and substances such as solvents.‘Misuse’ refers to use that is problematic or harmful, either for the individual or those around them.

• 40% of the workforce under 40 have experimented with illicit drugs3 • Almost 17 million working days are lost each year due to alcohol misuse alone4 • Drug-using employees are three times more likely to require sick leave or benefits5 • A member of staff under the influence of drugs or alcohol will only achieve on average 67% of their work potential6

‘PROBLEMATIC DRUG USE’ (as defined in the current Drug Strategy to identify the priority group
cuasing or experiencing harm) is characterised by the use of multiple drugs, often by injection. These drugs will typically be Class A, and their use will be chaotic and unpredictable. Problematic drug use has serious consequences, significantly affecting the user’s health and lifestyle. In the workplace, as elsewhere, each case of drug use or misuse needs to be assessed in isolation. For instance, a recovering heroin user using prescribed methadone requires a different approach to a problematic crack cocaine user.

In addition to the measurable costs of increased sickness, poor productivity and poor quality of work, there are hidden costs for employers who do not address the problem of drugs and alcohol at work. These include: • • • • • Diverted managerial time Friction among workers Rapid staff turnover Disciplinary and legal actions Health and safety implications
REFERENCES: 1 Godfrey, Eaton, McDougall and Culyer, The Economic and Social Costs of Class A Drug Use in England and Wales, HORS 249, 2000 2 Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England, 2004 3 DrugScope 1998 4 Alcohol Strategy, Department of Health, 2004 5 Jackson, Drug and Alcohol Policies, 1999 6 Substance Abuse Survey, IPD, 1998 7 Guidance for developing a drug and alcohol policy – A business tool for employers, Home Office, 2003/4 8 Department of Health, 1999 9 Reward Group for IPD, 1998 10 The Brewers Society, 1998 11 British Journal on Occupational Medicine, 1992

DRUGS AND ALCOHOL IN THE WORKPLACE
Substance misuse can affect an individual’s ability to do their job properly. Even if substances are taken only at the weekend, the after-effects can last well into the working week. This can lead to impaired judgement and abilities, lowered productivity and performance, and, especially in safety-critical industries, can seriously compromise employees’ health and welfare and the safety of colleagues.

These days, it is vital that employers attract, retain and develop an educated, effective and healthy workforce. To this end, those who successfully manage drug and alcohol issues will be7: • Creating a more productive working environment • Protecting their employees and their business • Fulfilling their duty of care to safeguard the health, safety and welfare of their employees

A-Z OF DRUGS
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ACID; AEROSOLS; ALCOHOL; AMPHETAMINES; AMYL NITRATE;

ANABOLIC STEROIDS; BASE; BENZOS; BEVY; BHANG; BILLY; BLACK; BOOZE;

BROWNIES; BURGERS; CANNABIS; CHARLIE; COCAINE; CIGGIES; COKE;

CRACK; DEXIES; DISCO BISCUITS; DOOBIE; DOPE; DOTS; DOVES;

DOWNERS; DRAW; DROP; E; ECSTASY; EGGS; FAGS; FLASH; FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 5

VITAL STATISTICS: DRUGS
THE LOWDOWN
DRUGS: TYPES AND EFFECTS DRUGS: HOW DO YOU KNOW IF THERE’S A PROBLEM?
Determining whether or not an employee has a drug problem is no easy task. However, if a member of staff is suffering from the effects of drug misuse, there are a number of recognisable signs that may manifest themselves: • Sudden mood changes • Unusual irritability or aggression • Increased mistakes and poor judgement • Hand tremors • Noticeably persistent dilated or concetrated pupils with altered behaviour • Lack of concentration • Confusion • Increased number of accidents • Poor timekeeping • Increased sickness • Frequent absence from desk or post while at work • Deteriorating relationships with colleagues • Dishonesty • Theft (to support a habit) • Poor performance and reduced productivity • Deterioration of personal appearance It is important not to jump to conclusions, though, and remember: some of these signs could be caused by other factors including stress, fatigue or depression.

WHAT DO YOU DO NEXT
If you think you’ve detected an employee with a drug problem, avoid jumping to conclusions or making unfounded accusations. Contact your local Drug Action Team (DAT) or Drug and Alcohol Action Team (DAAT) and speak to a specialist drug worker. They may be able to help you find a way to establish the truth in a sensitive way without impacting on the morale of other employees. They may also be able to advise on finding appropriate treatment for the staff member in question, and could be a useful long-term partner in dealing with substance misuse issues at work. Contact details for D(A)AT representatives can be found at www.drugs.gov.uk/Directory FRANK can also put you in touch with local drug services. Ring the FRANK helpline on 0800 776600 Alternatively, there are a number of organisations that can offer help and advice. See the Resources section of this pack for more information. Health risks

Alkyl Nitrates

Amphetamenes

Cannabis

Cocaine & crack cocaine
Coke, charlie, snow Rock wash, stone

Ecstasy

Solvents

Heroin

LSD

Also called

Poppers, amyl nitrates, butyl nitrates

Speed, whizz, uppers, amph, Billy

Draw, blow, weed, puff, hash, ganga, wacky backy, gear

E, doves, XTC, disco drug, burgers, fantasy

Include: Gases, aerosols

Smack, brown, horse, gear, junk, H, jack, scag

Acid, trips, tabs, blotters, dots

biscuits, hug glues,

How taken

Vapour breathed through mouth or sniffed

Swallowed

Rolled up and smoked, or cooked and eaten in food

Snorted up the nose, smoked or injected

Swallowed

Sniffed or breathed into the lungs

Smoked snorted or injected

Swallowed

Users feel

Brief head rush

Excited and Relaxed confident and talkative

Alert and confident

Alert, alive, in tune with

Thickheaded, dreamy

Warm, relaxed, drowsy

Experience surroundings differently, distortions of sound and colour

surroundings giggly,

Feel faint and sick, skin problems, fatal if swallowed

Fatigue, depression, panic, heart strain

Affects concentration,

Addiction, fatigue and depression, heart convulsions transmission of HIV/AIDS

Depression, overheating, kidney problems

Vomiting, black-outs, heart

Addiction, overdose, coma, death, transmission of HIV/AIDS via needles

Flashbacks, fear, mental health problems

hallucinations, paranoia

dehydration problems

and anxiety problems,

For more information on drugs and their effects, log on to www.talktofrank.com

via needles

FREEBASE; GANJA; GAS; GLUE; GHB; GEAR; GRASS; GREEN; H; 6 FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work

HASH; HASHISH; HEMP; HERB; HEROIN; HORSE; ICE; JELLIES; K;

KETAMINE; KHAT; LADY; LIBERTIES; LIQUID GOLD; LOVE DOVES; LSD; LUCY;

MAGIC MUSHROOMS; MAGICS; MARIJUANA; MAZZIES; MDMA; METH;

METHADONE; MOGGIES; MORPHINE; MUSHIES; NEW YORKERS; NEXUS;

NORTHERN LIGHTS; OPIUM; PASTE; PERCY; PHET; PILLS; POP; POPPERS; FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 7

VITAL STATISTICS: ALCOHOL
THE LOWDOWN
ALCOHOL
BRITISH DRINKING CULTURE
4. Liver

The effects of aclohol on the body:
1. Brain

2. Sight

ALCOHOL IN THE WORKPLACE
Alcohol misuse can pose a threat to the health and effectiveness of a working environment. • In 1998, 46% of firms surveyed said they had received reports of alcohol misuse by staff 9 • 20% of industrial accidents involve workers who have been drinking10 • In a survey, staff drinking over 21 units of alcohol per week took twice as much sick leave as those drinking less11 Even small amounts of alcohol can affect someone’s ability to drive or operate machinery or other equipment.

3. Central Nervous System 5. Sexuality

Over 90% of the adult populaton drink, and alcohol consumption is beginning to take its toll:
• 1 in 25 adults is dependent on alcohol 8 • In 1999 in th UK, there were an estimated 1.2 million incidents of alcohol-related violence2 • Nearly six million people, two-thirds of them men, fall within the ‘binge drinker’ category 2 • Drink-related crimes cost the criminal justice system £31.8bn2 • Deaths linked to alcohol total 4,000 a year 2 • The NHS spends £1.7bn a year caring for people with alcohol-related illnesses2

6. Motor skills

LIMITS AND GUIDELINES THE WORK-DRINK CULTURE
So serious has our collective drink problem become, the Government has recently unveiled plans to forge new partnerships with the health and police services, the drinks industry and communities, to combat alcohol misuse in England. The National Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England puts joint action at the heart of a series of measures intended to: • Tackle alcohol-related disorder in town and city centres • Improve treatment and support for people with alcohol problems • Clamp down on irresponsible promotions by the industry • Provide better information to consumers about the dangers of alcohol misuse.

EFFECTS AND RISKS OF ALCOHOL
From mild hangovers and the shakes through to liver damage and ‘delirium tremens’ (DTs), alcohol can affect the body and mind in a number of ways. Most common effects, dependent on consumption, age, gender, build etc, include: • Feeling relaxed, with inhibitions, reaction times and decision making affected • Emotional highs and lows, uncoordinated movement, blackouts and unconsciousness • Nausea and sickness • Slurred speech and unsteady gait The risks, meanwhile, include: • Liver damage • Suffocation from inhalation of vomit when unconscious • Overdose, if mixed with drugs, leading to death • Social problems, violence and aggression

There are several factors affecting how much a person can drink – namely, age, gender, body size, state of health and whether or not someone is taking medication. MEN Health experts recommend that men drink no more than 3-4 units of alcohol per day. That’s one and a half pints of ordinary strength lager, beer or cider, or three small glasses of wine. WOMEN Health experts recommend that women do not exceed 2-3 units of alcohol per day. That’s a pint of ordinary strength lager, beer or cider, or a couple of small glasses of wine a day. • A very heavy drinker is someone taking in up to 50 units, or 25 pints of beer, a week • A binge drinker is someone who drinks to get drunk or someone who drinks substantially more than the recommended daily limits in a single session.
SOLVENTS; SPECIAL K; SPEED; SPLIFF; SUGAR; SWEETIES; TAB; TEMAZZIES;

Alcohol is often a regular feature of the British workplace. Lunchtime and after-work drinking are common social activities, and alcohol often comes into play during special events or celebrations, such as office Christmas parties. Distinctions need to be made, however, between ‘leisure drinking’ and drinking that impacts upon the heath, safety and productivity of employees. For example, drinking before, or during, a shift in a safety-critical occupation is different from having a couple of pints after work. A balance needs to be struck between outright censure and active encouragement. Employers also need to remember that what people do in their own time is very much their own business: employees’ out-of-hours drinking habits cannot be policed. Only if these habits impact upon performance in the workplace can employers become involved.

For further information on the Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England see www.strategy.gov.uk

POT; PUFF; QUAT; RAINBOWS; RAM; RESIN; RHUBARB AND CUSTARD; 8 FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work

ROCK; ROLIES; ROOFIES; SENSEMILLA; SHAMROCKS;

SHROOMS; SKAG; SKUNK; SMACK; SMILIES; SMOKES; SNOW; SOAP;

TEMS; THRUST; TNT; TOBACCO; TOOT; TRANQUILLISERS; TRIPS; TULIPS;

VALLIES; WACKY BACCY; WASH; WEED; WHITE; WHIZZ; X; XTC; YABA; ZERO FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 9

VITAL STATISTICS
ALCOHOL: HOW DO YOU KNOW IF THERE’S A PROBLEM?
The telltale signs of alcohol misuse are similar to those of drug misuse, with the additional possibility of slurred speech and the smell of alcohol on clothing and breath. Again, don’t jump to any conclusions, but keep an eye out for: • Sudden mood changes • Unusual irritability or aggression • Increased mistakes and poor judgement • Hand tremors • Lack of concentration • Confusion • Increased number of accidents • Poor timekeeping • Increased sickness • Frequent absence from desk or post while at work • Deteriorating relationships with colleagues • Dishonesty • Poor performance and reduced productivity • Deterioration of personal appearance

ADOPTING A WORKPLACE POLICY
WHAT IS A WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL POLICY?
The best way to respond to the issue of substance misuse at work is to implement a workplace policy on drugs and alcohol. A workplace drug and alcohol policy states how an organisation aims to prevent substance misuse problems in the workplace, and, if they occur, how that organisation will treat an employee with a drug or alcohol problem.

to take reasonable care of themselves and others who could be affected by what they do. Through undergoing the training that supports the adoption of a good workplace policy, staff and managers are better able to spot the signs and symptoms of drug or alcohol misuse and better placed to manage the situation. Early identification can help resolve the underlying cause of the problem at an earlier stage and help alleviate problematic use of substances later on.

THE GOVERNMENT’S DRUG STRATEGY TO TACKLE DRUGS AND ALCOHOL IN THE WORKPLACE
The Government’s commitment to this issue is outlined in the Updated Drug Strategy 2002, and is delivered through Drug and Alcohol Action Teams – or D(A)ATs who can provide good quality advice on drug and alcohol misuse to the workforce and encourage companies to implement effective workplace policies. In many areas, D(A)ATs are merged with local Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships (CDRPs). The business engagement objectives in the strategy are: • To make business and local communities more aware of effective anti-drug activities at both national and local levels, and to provide encouragement for them to become actively involved in the Drug Strategy • To encourage the business community to implement effective workplace drug and alcohol policies In some areas there are business trainers connected to D(A)ATs/CDRPs across the country, ready to respond to enquiries about drug and alcohol issues. Business trainers can visit individual companies to provide the following services: • Train company staff in drug and alcohol issues • Advise and review drug and alcohol policies • Assess and advise individual employees for treatment Business trainers can be contacted via www.drugs.gov.uk/Directory. For more information on how to tackle drugs and alcohol in the workplace see www.businessengagement.com For guidance on drafting a drug and alcohol policy, order Substance Misuse in the Workplace: A business tool for employers on 0870 241 4680

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR)
Employers who adopt a workplace policy on drugs and alcohol, and who successfully manage substance misuse in the workplace, will be demonstrating good corporate social responsibility, or, as it is commonly known, CSR. Essentially, CSR is about how business takes account of its economic, social and environmental impacts in the way that it operates. Over and above compliance with minimum legal requirements, CSR comprises the voluntary actions made by a business to address both its own competitive interests and the interests of society. Embracing CSR means that an organisation recognises that business has responsibilities beyond the bottom line – responsibilities to one’s workforce, the environment and society at large. A progressive workplace policy on drugs and alcohol is an expression of commitment to a sustainable working environment. Organisations adopting such policies should reap the rewards of increased staff loyalty and productivity. Ultimately, CSR makes good business sense.

A WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL POLICY SHOULD:
• Outline a company’s rules and procedures for dealing with substance misuse • Give clear definitions of employee and employer responsibilities • Aim to support affected employees rather than punish them • Seek to help employees who admit to having a drug or alcohol-related problem, and encourage them to seek treatment, rather than lead to their dismissal • Provide assistance and support to employees with problems, with the aim of integrating them back into the workplace

WHERE TO GO FOR HELP
If you think you’ve detected an employee with an alcohol problem, contact your local Drug (and Alcohol) Action Team. They may be able to help you find the right treatment for the staff member in question, and could be a useful long-term partner in dealing with substance misuse issues at work. You can find their number at: www.drugs.gov.uk/Directory. Alternatively, there are a number of organisations that can offer help and advice. See the Resources section of this pack for more information. For further information on alcohol, log on to www.alcoholconcern.org.uk

WHY A WORKPLACE POLICY MAKES GOOD BUSINESS SENSE
Principally, a workplace policy helps employers fulfil their legal duty of care, to safeguard the health, safety and welfare of employees under the Health & Safety at Work Act, 1974. If an employer knowingly allows an employee under the influence of excess drugs or alcohol to continue working, and this places the employees or others at risk, they could be prosecuted. Similarly, employees are required

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VITAL STATISTICS
THE LOWDOWN
HOW TO DEVELOP A WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL POLICY
The publication, Substance Misuse and the Workplace: A business tool for employers (Home Office 2004) provides comprehensive guidelines and a step-by-step approach to developing and adopting successful workplace policies. A sample drug and alcohol policy is included. In addition, the guidance includes a series of case studies highlighting best practice on how to deal with a variety of situations relating to drug testing. Order the publication (free of charge) by calling 0870 241 4680 and quote ref DSD16. The guidance is also available online at: www.businessengagement.com. Furthermore, testing can be counter-productive and have a negative impact on employeeemployer relations. Against Drugs initiative as part of the Government’s wider commitment to helping the most disadvantaged members of society. P2W provides support for clients who have made significant progress in their recovery, but whose history of drug misuse is likely to be a significant factor in preventing them from getting or keeping work. An initial investment of £40 million has been made to develop and implement the scheme. It is initially being developed in 30 pilot areas, known as Pathfinders, but will eventually be rolled out across all of the UK. P2W staff are also able to offer advice on related issues such as stress management and confidentiality. For further information on Progress To Work, log onto www.dwp.gov.uk or find out your local Jobcentre Plus office at www.jobcentreplus.gov.uk

WORKPLACE TESTING: PREVALENCE
Although the number of employers using drug testing in the workplace is small, it is becoming an increasingly common practice. A survey of UK employers by MORI in 2003 found that only 4% of companies currently used tests, but that a majority would be more likely to test if they felt that drug use adversely affected health and safety (89%) or productivity (78%). The survey reported that 9% were planning to introduce testing in the next year. Before adopting drug and alcohol testing as a part of an approach to substance misuse at work, it is important to consider the following: • • • • • • • • • • • The objectives of testing The type of testing Which drugs should be tested for The circumstances in which you will test Who will collect samples The arrangements to ensure sample security How much you are prepared to spend on a testing regime What action you will take if a test result is positive Confidentiality and legal issues The effect of testing on employees The effect on your business in terms of potentially losing a valuable staff member where the quality of their work is not impaired The effect on industrial relations: how this kind of ‘surveillance’ will be received The social implications and consequences of dismissal for the employees

THE LIMITATIONS OF WORKPLACE TESTING
Workplace testing for drugs and alcohol is not a straightforward procedure, and problems surrounding reliability and interpretation are common. The Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency (MHRA) recently evaluated the analytical performance and ease of use of 16 on-the-spot devices for testing the presence of commonly used drugs in urine. They found significant variation in product quality, as well as confusing labelling, terminology and instructions. Other limitations include: • Positive results for drugs other than those stated on the kit • Detection of medicinal drug use: over-the-counter medication containing codeine may test positive in an opiates test • Inability to differentiate between chronic and one-off use • Tests being unable to show the extent to which an employee’s performance has been affected by the detected substance • Some test specimens, particularly urine samples, being subject to adulteration – such as substitution and dilution

DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING
Workplace testing for drugs and alcohol is a complex and sensitive issue. There is currently no legal requirement to carry out testing. There are also concerns about human rights infringements and the active prying into private behaviour that testing constitutes. This has led many to conclude that it has no place in the modern workplace. However, while it does not explicitly promote drug and alcohol testing at work, the Government’s drug strategy does recognise the value of testing in safety-critical environments. Likewise, it is widely accepted by employers and employees’ bodies, such as the Trade Union Congress, that drug screening serves a purpose in industries such as engineering, transport and construction. Some employers view drug testing as integral to their obligation under Health and Safety legislation.

EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMMES (EAPS)
Employee Assistance Programmes are workplace-focused programmes aimed to assist in the identification and resolution of employee concerns that affect, or may affect, performance. EAPs address team and individual performance, psychological health and wellbeing. They are strategic interventions, and are unique in the field of occupational health in that they address both employee wellbeing and organisational output. EAPs represent a proven, cost-effective solution to many of the problems faced by employers in today’s competitive environment. For advice on introducing EAPs into your organisation, contact the Employee Assistance Professionals Association (EAPA) to find out more details on National Standards and how to develop a relevant EAP tailored to your business needs. See Resources for details.

• •

Employers should think carefully about whether their business and staff would benefit from the introduction of workplace testing. The Independent Inquiry into Drug Testing at Work concludes that,“good management, education and support for staff is more useful, effective and less costly in dealing with drug problems”.

PROGRESS 2 WORK (P2W)
P2W aims to get people recovering from drug misuse back into the workplace, or to help them gain and sustain employment for the first time. Led by Jobcentre Plus, P2W was announced alongside the Communities

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MOVERS AND SHAKERS
In this section, we profile some of the excellent local initiatives aimed at tackling drug and alcohol misuse in the workplace.

CITY OF LONDON DRUG ACTION TEAM (DAT)
The City of London DAT was one of the first to actively address the issue of drugs and alcohol in the workplace. The City, being synonymous with work, has been an ideal place for them to concentrate their efforts and since 2001, when they produced their toolkit for business, they have enjoyed the support of Old Mutual, ACE European Group, London Chamber of Commerce and BP . In 2003, in the London borough of Newham, three seminars were held using local companies who had already adopted workplace policies and training programmes on substance misuse, with the aim of sharing experiences and encouraging other companies to follow suit. Stagecoach Bus Company, London City Airport, Tate & Lyle and Bell Group Security were all contributors. Information from DASL treatment service was also included. Over 80 companies attended these sessions, which were followed by policy advice for those who needed it. The DAT are currently using the East London Business Alliance, Federation of Small Businesses and the Docklands Business Club to help spread the messages that emerged from these seminars. This year, City of London DAT are continuing to support FRANK and deliver action on drugs in the workplace in a timely, convenient and customer-friendly way. They are holding events to encourage companies to either introduce a viable, robust workplace policy followed by appropriate training, or review existing policies and run awareness raising programmes. For further information, contact: Golda Behr Tel: 020 7332 3484 Email: golda.behr@corpoflondon.gov.uk

LONDON UNDERGROUND PEOPLE UNITED AGAINST CRIME, ROTHERHAM PRIMARY CARE TRUST AND DAT
People United Against Crime is a partnership of individuals, companies and agencies determined to make a contribution to the regeneration of South Yorkshire by helping to reduce crime and the fear of crime. Working in partnership with the Rotherham Primary Care Trust and Drug Action Team, People United Against Crime has organised a number of free one-day seminars for local companies. The seminars feature drug and alcohol awareness training, plus guidance on how to draft, update and introduce a workforce policy on drugs and alcohol. Following the seminars, individual organisations that need it, receive additional contact and support. So far in 2004, a total of 24 companies have attended the one-day courses. Companies from a wide range of sectors, including construction, engineering and food manufacture, have established a working relationship with the People United partnership beyond the seminar forum. Plans are currently afoot to replicate the South Yorkshire model and roll out the programme in collaboration with DAAT’s in Sheffield and Barnsley. For further information, contact: People United Against Crime Tel: 0114 275 8688 As part of its Drug and Alcohol Advisory Service, London Underground runs a series of ‘Effective Treatment Services for Chemically Dependent Employees’. Operating under the maxim that ‘in critical areas, you can’t afford half measures’, the company has devised an innovative substance misuse policy. Their Golden Rule promise to employees is: “Come forward and we’ll help. Get caught and you’re out!” London Underground’s Drug and Alcohol Advisory Service is an integral part of its commitment to public safety. By encouraging employees to come forward, the company is striving to achieve a healthy and efficient workforce built on trust and transparency. Substance-misusing employees are assessed and referred to appropriate treatment programmes. In order to be restored to their safety critical post, they must show: “Evidence of profound and substantial change in attitude and lifestyle, with a demonstrable, on-going commitment to abstinence.” Post-treatment monitoring is built into the programme, which has resulted in over 50% self-referrals, less sickness time on the job, a healthier workforce and safer general public. For further information, contact: London Underground Tel: 020 7332 3084

WEST SUSSEX DAAT FREE ONLINE TRAINING FOR BUSINESS
The West Sussex DAAT has developed a free online training course to help local businesses tackle drugs and alcohol in the workplace and to implement their workplace policy. More than 120 people have logged onto their website to use the training package since its launch in January 2004. The resource was set up after local DAAT research showed that: • 25% of people receiving treatment for serious drug dependency across West Sussex, Brighton and Hove are employees • 35% of the people receiving treatment in West Sussex for serious alcohol dependency are employed The online training can be accessed 24 hours a day. There are five separate sections to complete and in total the course takes around two-and-a-half hours. It includes short videos, quizzes, an employment tribunal database and case studies. There is also a selection of live workplace policies that can be viewed. The training course can be accessed at: www.daapw.org.uk/intro.asp For further information, contact: Elizabeth Flegg HR Project Manager Tel: 01243 382 935 Email: Elizabeth.flegg@westsussex.gov.uk

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FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 15

IDEAS FOR ACTION
The following pages give some food for thought on working with local partnerships and ideas for communications activities to promote your drug and alcohol policy internally and externally in tandem with the FRANK campaign.

FRANK IN THE KNOW
Raise staff awareness by organising staff training sessions to give information about drugs and alcohol. To lessen the chances of people feeling that there is a ‘witch-hunt’ within the company and an infringement of their privacy, you need to pitch the information carefully. You could include them as part of a series of sessions on ‘Health and Safety’ or ‘Healthy Living’ and incorporate information on drugs and alcohol using the quiz contained in this pack. Using the factsheets from the FRANK campaign and information from www.talktofrank.com and your local partnership, create information packs for staff to take away from the sessions. Use your discretion as to how much emphasis you place on drugs vs alcohol – focusing more on alcohol could be more acceptable in some environments and gives you the opportunity to gently extend the information to include certain drugs. Make sure that you include details of how people can get help if they need it.

FRANK FAMILIES AND FRIENDS
Some of your employees could be parents who may be worried about their children, or young people who have friends who take drugs. Devise an awareness initiative to educate parents about drugs and alcohol. The poster accompanying this pack encourages employees to think about the issues and encourages them to talk to FRANK, log on to the website and contact organisations for information and support. The poster contains space for you to add details of local helplines, support groups and the contact in the department responsible for overseeing the initiative in your workplace. For further information and ideas on activities with families, see the FRANK Action Update – We are Family available from www.drugs.gov.uk/campaign/resources

FRANK ON DISPLAY
Display FRANK posters, or ones you have produced yourself, on any noticeboards. Bathrooms are always a good place to get through to people. You could put FRANK stickers on mirrors or posters in cubicles.

FRANK IN THE COMMUNITY
If your business handles cash, why not collect small change for local drug and alcohol initiatives, donate appropriate items (such as equipment, paint or plants) or organise a fundraising initiative. Employee volunteering can also help motivate staff and gives an opportunity for increasing understanding about an issue. Maybe there are projects in your community where staff could volunteer their time. Activities could include painting premises, gardening, mentoring or giving the organisation help with administration or business skills. By creating a relationship with these organisations you will gain positive PR, support your community and help to establish links with skilled professionals who could visit your business and deliver information, training or support.

GET FRANK
First, make sure you register with the campaign at www.drugs.gov.uk/campaign and familiarise yourself with the information and materials available from FRANK. As there can often be sensitivities surrounding drugs and alcohol, you may find it useful to organise a steering group made up of people from different areas of the company to advise on how you are going to address the issue of drugs and alcohol in the workplace.

FRANK ON THE MOVE
Think about how your employees get to and from work. You could put FRANK posters on notice boards at bus or train stations or offer to print taxi receipts in return for getting the FRANK logo included on the back or information about drugs or alcohol. Put FRANK credit cards or postcards in car-pool cars. Or, arrange an ‘alternative transport’ day as part of a healthy lifestyle initiative and encourage staff to walk or cycle to work and include information about drugs and alcohol in your campaign information.

FRANK PARTNERS
For a company looking to adopt a workplace policy, enlisting the support of a local drug and alcohol partnership can help share expertise both in terms of specialist technical knowledge and in communicating the policy to senior management, employees and the outside world. Contact your local Drug and Alcohol Action Team (find their details www.drugs.gov.uk/Directory) and see if they would be willing to help you. You could ask them to come in and talk to you about the issues surrounding drug and alcohol misuse and give you an outline of the support services available in the area or local projects that you might like to consider supporting as a company. They may also be willing to be on hand for staff training or question and answer sessions at briefings or be able to bring along a client who is happy to talk about their own experiences.

FRANK COMMUNICATION
Use your existing staff communication channels such as e-mail, and newsletters to give information about drugs and alcohol and to communicate your policy. Include a flyer with payslips or, if you are feeling creative, develop a game or quiz on your intranet to encourage people to assess their own drinking habits or find out more about drugs and alcohol in the workplace. Start as you mean to go on. Make sure that details of local support are included in induction processes/literature for new staff. (See the checklist on page 18 for more background information on things to consider when planning your communication initiatives).

FRANK IN PRINT
Are there particular shops and pubs that service your workforce? Details of drug treatment or information or simply the FRANK logo can be positioned on beer mats, pizza boxes, napkins or sandwich bags. You could also develop merchandise with the FRANK logo such as mugs, pens, mouse-mats, note-pads, water cooler cups, key-rings, desk calendars and clocks for the office environment.

The FRANK campaign offers a variety of resources which are available free of charge including posters, postcards, stickers and leaflets. Each edition of the FRANK Action Updates contain ideas for action and activity sheets for use with a variety of audiences. Log on to www.drugs.gov.uk/ campaign /resources/artwork and use the FRANK branding to customise your own materials.

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FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 17

CHECKLIST FOR ACTION
It helps to plan effective drugs communication in exactly the same way as a company would think about marketing a product. Before you begin, ask:
WHO ARE YOU TRYING TO REACH?, WHAT WOULD THEY RESPOND TO?, WHERE AND WHEN CAN YOU REACH THEM? This process can be as detailed or as brief as you choose it to be. Here are some issues to address and techniques you may find useful.

USEFUL RESOURCES
ORGANISATIONS
ADVISORY, CONCILIATION AND ARBITRATION SERVICE (ACAS) Aims to improve organisations and working life through better employment relations. Works with employers and employees to solve problems and improve performance and offers help on good employment practice including procedures to deal with drug misuse. Helpline: 08457 474747 www.acas.org.uk ADFAM Charity supporting families affected by drugs and alcohol. Offers a range of resources including publications and videos, a family newsletter, e-mail group and online database of local services. 020 7928 8898 ww.adfam.org.uk ALCOHOL CONCERN The national agency on alcohol misuse providing information, factsheets and advice on alcohol-related issues. Offers services to employers including training and consultancy. Website includes an on-line directory of local alcohol services. 020 7928 7377 (Workplace Development Officer) @ workplace@alcoholconcern.org.uk www.alcoholconcern.org.uk DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH Publications Order Line: 08701 555 455 www.doh.gov.uk DOWN YOUR DRINK An online tool for people to assess whether their drinking is putting them at risk of harm, and a programme of information and support for people who want to reduce their drinking and develop safer drinking habits. Funded by the Department of Health and the Alcohol Education Research Council. www.downyourdrink.org.uk DRINKLINE The national alcohol helpline offering information and advice to those with alcoholrelated problems and their families. Run by the Department of Health. 0800 917 8282 (Monday–Thursday, 9am–11pm, Saturday and Sunday) DRUGSCOPE UK centre of expertise on drugs. Conduct research and seek to improve knowledge on drugs-related issues and have an extensive library of drug information. 020 7928 1211 www.drugscope.org.uk HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE Responsible for the regulation of most of the risks to health and safety arising from work activity in the UK. Assists the Health and Safety Commission ensure that risks to people’s health and safety are properly controlled. Information Line 08701 545500 Publications Order Line 01787 881165 www.hse.gov.uk RELEASE A range of specialist services to professionals and the public concerning drugs and the law. Release provides free advice to drug users, their families, friends, and statutory and voluntary agencies. 020 7729 9904 (Monday–Friday 10am–5pm). www.release.org.uk TACADE Provides help, resources, training, consultation and research on alcohol and drugs. 0161 836 6850 www.tacade.com

ISSUE TO ADDRESS
KNOW YOUR ‘MARKET’.
Every business is different, every workforce has its own culture. In order to make good decisions about creating communication around substance misuse, treatment or your company’s drug and alcohol policy you need first to understand the particular nature of your employees’ habits and lifestyles.

QUESTIONS TO ASK
How do the lifestyles of your various employees differ? Eg: • Where do the warehouse staff socialise? • Is it different from the accounts department? • Do your sales force all get drunk on a Thursday night? • Do your younger staff go clubbing on the weekend? • Are they all exhausted on a Monday?

CONSIDERATIONS
Getting an insight into the culture of your company need not take the form of an interrogation. Work with members of the workforce; get involved in organising social events that would appeal to them and make sure the time, place and method of your communication is appropriate.

KNOW YOUR ‘PRODUCT’ AND WHERE TO PROMOTE IT
Drug and alcohol resources are often delivered in a very serious manner – this does not always ensure that they get read!

• What are the most useful pieces of information you can provide your workforce with? • How do your employees get to and from work? • Are there notice boards at bus or train stations, which you could use? • Are there particular shops and pubs that service your workforce? • Where can you put information in the office environment? • What about training sessions?

Use the results of your research exercise to inform your decisions and think creatively about different methods and channels for communicating.

KNOW YOUR ‘FIGURES’
Establish a plan for assessing the success of your activities.

• What specific outcomes do you want to achieve? • How can these be measured? • Who will be responsible for collating the data?

Evaluating your activities is essential.As well as keeping data on numbers of materials distributed, costs, attendees at seminars etc, measurement methods can include sending out an email to ask your staff where and when they’ve seen your information or a more thorough questionnaire. Has there been any impact on absenteeism, morale or awareness?

CELEBRATE YOUR SUCCESSES
Keep staff, and especially senior management, informed of achievements. This helps to maintain momentum and promote a supportive corporate culture.

• What has been key to the success of the programme? • Who should be acknowledged? • Do you have any positive or innovative stories that you could highlight in-house, in the community or in the press?

If appropriate, use opportunities such as Christmas Drinks, AGM’s or conferences to update your colleagues and employees about the positive actions you have taken.

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FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 19

USEFUL RESOURCES
UK EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROFESSIONALS ASSOCIATION (EAPA) The professional body for Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs). Represents the interests of and sets national standards of practice for professionals concerned with employee assistance, psychological health and well- being. 0800 783 7616 www.eapa.org.uk UNITED KINGDOM ACCREDITATION SERVICE (UKAS) The sole national accreditation body responsible for assessing organisations that provide certification, testing, inspection and calibration services. A laboratory accredited by UKAS will have satisfied assessors that it meets all criteria for providing drug screening test results. 020 8917 8400 @ info@ukas.com www.ukas.com Drink, Drugs and Work Don’t Mix Handbook published by Alcohol Concern/ISDD designed to help employers take a pro-active approach to preventing and handling problems with alcohol and drug misuse in the workplace. Available from Alcohol Concern. Substance Misuse and the Workplace: A business Tool for Employers Publication from the National Workplace Initiative. Gives information on substance misuse and outlines how employers can develop a workplace policy on drugs and alcohol. Available from www.businessengagment.com or call 0870 241 4680 and quote ref DSD16 UK Standards of Practice and Professional Guidelines for EAPs Reference book for HR and EAP practitioners and others with responsibilities for, or an interest in, personnel performance and well-being in the workplace. Covers requirements and guidance on the design, operation and management of all employee assistance services. Available from the Employee Assistance Professionals Association (Price £9.95) Updated Drug Strategy Outlines the Government’s strategy for addressing drug-related issues including education, treatment and controlling supply. Download from www.drugs.gov.uk/ReportsandPublications

PUBLICATIONS
Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England The Government’s strategy aiming to tackle alcohol-related disorder in town and city centres; improve treatment and support for people with alcohol problems; clamp down on irresponsible promotions by the industry; and provide better information to consumers about the dangers of alcohol misuse. Available from the Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit. Download from www.strategy.gov.uk/su/alcohol/index.htm Don’t Mix It – A guide for employers on alcohol at work Booklet developed by the Health Education Authority, the Health and Safety Executive, and the Department of Health to help the owners and managers of small and mediumsized businesses deal with alcohol-related problems at work. Available from the Health and Safety Executive.

And don’t forget talktofrank.com for information and advice on drugs.

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