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WELCOME

Drug and alcohol misuse can have a serious negative impact on the
people, performance and productivity of an organisation. Substance misuse
often impairs individual’s judgement and abilities. This can make it difficult
to cope and carry out tasks in all areas of life – and work is no exception.

In a competitive environment, retaining a healthy and effective workforce


is paramount for employers. Protecting one’s employees and business from
harm can help ensure sustained quality of work, commitment and output.
To this end, the successful management of substance misuse in the workplace
is now a key issue for HR and Occupational Health Professionals in the UK.

In any organisation, there may be someone whose life is affected by


substance misuse in some way, and who may subsequently be unable to
do his or her job effectively. For employers in safety-critical industries (such as
transport and manufacturing) this can be a major problem, posing a threat
to the health and wellbeing of everyone around them. There is also the
social and economic cost of drug and alcohol misuse which, in terms of
absenteeism, sickness and crime, is estimated to be in excess of £20 million.1

IN THIS ISSUE
This FRANK Action Update supports the Substance Misuse and the workplace: A business tool for employers
produced by the Home Office, and aims to help you address the problem of substance misuse at work.
Containing information, facts and statistics, it shows you some of the signs of misuse, suggests ideas
for action and partnership, and discusses the need for robust workplace policies on drugs and alcohol.
FRANK stakeholders will probably be familiar with some of the material contained in this pack. However,
you may find some useful background information on workplace issues, and ideas on how to offer support
to employers in your area.

CONTENTS:
FRANK IN ACTION Feedback from the public and local networks about the FRANK campaign 2
VITAL STATISTICS Statistics, trends and insights into drugs and alcohol in the workplace 3
MOVERS AND SHAKERS Snapshots of positive practice 11
IDEAS FOR ACTION Ideas and inspiration for workplace initiatives 15
CHECKLIST FOR ACTION 19
USEFUL RESOURCES Useful contacts, publications, resources and websites 20

LOOSE SHEETS:
FRANK ACTIVITIES FRANK Talk
FRANK Crossword
The Knowledge Quiz
FRANK TIPS To Test or Not to Test?
MORE FRANK Order your FRANK resources
TELL FRANK Tell us about your FRANK activities and plans

The core audiences for this Update are employers, their employees andFRANK Action
local Update
drug and– FRANK at work
alcohol
partnerships. FRANK Action Update – Understanding Crack Cocaine 1
FRANK IN ACTION VITAL STATISTICS
The FRANK campaign aims to be the no-nonsense source of information and
advice on drugs and their effects for young people. Since May 2003, 4,700 THE TOPLINE
people have registered with the campaign and there have been over 1.5 million
visits to talktofrank.com. The free helpline has received more than 400,000 calls WHAT ARE DRUGS?
and responded to over 30,000 emails. The campaign now has access to 1,969
referral organisations on the drug services database. The social and economic cost of drug misuse is estimated to be in excess
of £20 billion. £6.4 billion of this cost is borne by industry.2
For news on how FRANK is progressing, and details of future plans, make sure you register at www.drugs.gov.uk/campaign

But, what is meant by the term ‘drugs’? There are distinctions to be made
FRANK FEEDBACK between legal and illegal drugs, differing levels of classification and harm,
not to mention issues of use and misuse. Simply lumping all drugs and drug
use together can lead to stereotyping and wrongful assessment of people’s
The [FRANK] campaign makes it very Whether we like it or not, drugs, and the
easy for us to pass out the information associated problems they cause, are problems and needs. Knowing the facts about drugs and drug use can
to a wide variety of different groups part of modern day life. In addition to help inform a more effective workplace policy that ensures protection
because they do the thinking about an established drugs and alcohol policy, and support for both employers and employees.
who needs what. Woolworths is committed to working
Comment from a local drugs worker on the campaign with FRANK to provide help and advice
materials to our employees and customers. LEGAL DRUGS
Daniel Hinsworth Corporate Affairs Manager Woolworths
Broadly speaking,‘drugs’ refers to any Class A includes: ecstasy, cocaine, crack
substance that affects how we think or feel. cocaine, heroin, LSD, mescaline, methadone,
FRANK THANKS This includes legal substances such as alcohol, morphine, opium and injectable forms of
tobacco, and caffeine. It also includes a myriad Class B drugs.
FRANK wants to thank Marks & Spencer & FRANK wants to thank West Sussex DAAT who of prescription medicines that are intended to Maximum penalties for possession:
Kent DAT who have developed a local working have developed a free online training course to help improve people’s health and make them feel seven years and/or a fine.
partnership following concerns that substance misuse local businesses tackle drugs and alcohol in better. These can range from simple painkillers Maximum penalties for supply:
was a significant contributor to M&S stock losses the workplace and to implement their workplace through to anabolic steroids and tranquillisers. life imprisonment and/or a fine.
through shoplifting. Together, Kent DAT and Marks policy. More than 120 people have logged onto their
& Spencer successfully bid for between £2 and £3 website to use the training package since its launch However, legal drugs also carry risks of
million of public-sector funding, allowing Marks & in January 2004. For further details, see the Movers dependency and damage, and can be Class B includes: oral preparations
Spencer to set up a drugs referral programme for and Shakers section on pages 14-15 of this Update. ‘misused’ in the same way that illegal drugs of amphetamines, barbiturates, codeine
20 months at the Bluewater shopping centre. can. Certain ‘legal’ drugs, such as temazepam and methaqualone (mandrax).
or flunitrazepam, are ‘illegal’ without a Maximum penalties for possession:
FRANK would like to thank Woolworths for their promotion of FRANK to their staff and customers. prescription, while others can carry Class C seven years and/or a fine.
FRANK credit cards are currently available in 20 of their stores that experience a high rate of drug-related penalties for supply. Maximum penalties for supply:
crime. Woolworths see the benefit of informing their customers that help is around should they need it for 14 years imprisonment and/or a fine.
themselves or a family member. Hundreds of cards have been distributed which is helping to get FRANK
'out there' in communities where drugs are impacting upon them. FRANK will also feature in an up-coming ILLEGAL DRUGS
staff magazine with a circulation of 35,000. The helpline item will list organisations that offer help and advice In the UK, The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is the Class C includes: cannabis, most
on a range of issues that can affect staff and their family. principle piece of legislation for the control benzodiazepines, valium, and other less
and classification of drugs. It places restrictions harmful drugs of the amphetamine group.
upon the possession and supply, production, Maximum penalties for possession:
KEEP IN TOUCH! import and export of any controlled substance. Two years and/or a fine.
Tell us what you’re doing – and what people are saying locally about FRANK – using the Tell FRANK form The Misuse of Drugs Act lists the drugs that are Maximum penalties for supply:
at the back of this Update, or by email to frank@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk subject to control and classifies them according 14 years imprisonment and/or a fine.
to the level of harm associated with their misuse.

2 FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work FRANK Action Update – Understanding Crack Cocaine 3
VITAL STATISTICS: DRUGS

THE LOWDOWN PREVALENCE, RISK AND COST • Protecting themselves against the cost
of dealing with the problems associated
Given the availability of alcohol and illegal with substance misuse
drugs, substance misuse in the workplace is an • Raising awareness of substance misuse
WHAT IS SUBSTANCE MISUSE? issue employers can no longer ignore: among staff
• Demonstrating good corporate social
Just as there are different levels of drug classification, so there are responsibility (CSR)
• 40% of the workforce under 40 have
different levels of drug use and harm. experimented with illicit drugs3 Ultimately, the best way to respond to the issue
• Almost 17 million working days are lost each of substance misuse at work is to implement a
RECREATIONAL DRUG USE is drug use that is controlled and occasional – often involving year due to alcohol misuse alone4 robust workplace policy on drugs and alcohol.
drugs from lower class categories – and that does not necessarily impact too significantly • Drug-using employees are three times See pages 9-10 for more information and order
on the user’s ability to cope with everyday life. more likely to require sick leave or benefits5 the Substance Misuse and the Workplace:
• A member of staff under the influence A business tool for employers pack by calling
SUBSTANCE MISUSE is the use of illegal drugs and the inappropriate use of legal drugs, of drugs or alcohol will only achieve on 0870 241 4680 and quote ref DSD16.
including alcohol, prescription medicines and substances such as solvents.‘Misuse’ refers average 67% of their work potential6
to use that is problematic or harmful, either for the individual or those around them.

‘PROBLEMATIC DRUG USE’ (as defined in the current Drug Strategy to identify the priority group In addition to the measurable costs of
cuasing or experiencing harm) is characterised by the use of multiple drugs, often by injection. increased sickness, poor productivity and poor
These drugs will typically be Class A, and their use will be chaotic and unpredictable. Problematic quality of work, there are hidden costs for
drug use has serious consequences, significantly affecting the user’s health and lifestyle. employers who do not address the problem
of drugs and alcohol at work. These include:
In the workplace, as elsewhere, each case of drug use or misuse needs to be assessed
in isolation. For instance, a recovering heroin user using prescribed methadone requires • Diverted managerial time
a different approach to a problematic crack cocaine user. • Friction among workers
• Rapid staff turnover
• Disciplinary and legal actions
• Health and safety implications
DRUGS AND ALCOHOL IN THE
WORKPLACE These days, it is vital that employers attract, REFERENCES:
retain and develop an educated, effective 1 Godfrey, Eaton, McDougall and Culyer, The Economic
and Social Costs of Class A Drug Use in England and
Substance misuse can affect an individual’s and healthy workforce. To this end, those who
Wales, HORS 249, 2000
ability to do their job properly. Even if successfully manage drug and alcohol issues 2 Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England, 2004
substances are taken only at the weekend, will be7: 3 DrugScope 1998
the after-effects can last well into the working 4 Alcohol Strategy, Department of Health, 2004
5 Jackson, Drug and Alcohol Policies, 1999
week. This can lead to impaired judgement • Creating a more productive working 6 Substance Abuse Survey, IPD, 1998
and abilities, lowered productivity and environment 7 Guidance for developing a drug and alcohol policy
performance, and, especially in safety-critical • Protecting their employees and their business – A business tool for employers, Home Office, 2003/4
8 Department of Health, 1999
industries, can seriously compromise • Fulfilling their duty of care to safeguard 9 Reward Group for IPD, 1998
employees’ health and welfare and the the health, safety and welfare of their 10 The Brewers Society, 1998
safety of colleagues. employees 11 British Journal on Occupational Medicine, 1992

BROWNIES; BURGERS; CANNABIS; CRACK; DEXIES; DISCO BISCUITS; DOWNERS; DRAW; DROP; E;
A-Z OF DRUGS ACID; AEROSOLS; ALCOHOL;
AMPHETAMINES; AMYL NITRATE;
ANABOLIC STEROIDS; BASE; BENZOS;
BEVY; BHANG; BILLY; BLACK; BOOZE; CHARLIE; COCAINE; CIGGIES; COKE; DOOBIE; DOPE; DOTS; DOVES; ECSTASY; EGGS; FAGS; FLASH;

4 FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 5
VITAL STATISTICS: DRUGS

THE LOWDOWN
DRUGS: TYPES AND EFFECTS

DRUGS: HOW DO YOU KNOW WHAT DO YOU DO NEXT Alkyl Amphet- Cannabis Cocaine Ecstasy Solvents Heroin LSD
IF THERE’S A PROBLEM? Nitrates amenes & crack
If you think you’ve detected an employee with cocaine
Determining whether or not an employee a drug problem, avoid jumping to conclusions
has a drug problem is no easy task. However, or making unfounded accusations. Contact Also Poppers, Speed, Draw, blow, Coke, E, doves, Include: Smack, Acid, trips,
if a member of staff is suffering from the your local Drug Action Team (DAT) or Drug called amyl whizz, weed, puff, charlie, XTC, disco Gases, brown, tabs,
effects of drug misuse, there are a number and Alcohol Action Team (DAAT) and speak to nitrates, uppers, hash, snow biscuits, hug glues, horse, gear, blotters,
of recognisable signs that may manifest a specialist drug worker. They may be able to butyl amph, Billy ganga, Rock wash, drug, aerosols junk, H, dots
themselves: help you find a way to establish the truth in a nitrates wacky stone burgers, jack, scag
sensitive way without impacting on the morale backy, gear fantasy
• Sudden mood changes of other employees. They may also be able
• Unusual irritability or aggression to advise on finding appropriate treatment
• Increased mistakes and poor judgement for the staff member in question, and could How Vapour Swallowed Rolled up Snorted up Swallowed Sniffed or Smoked Swallowed
• Hand tremors be a useful long-term partner in dealing with taken breathed and the nose, breathed snorted
• Noticeably persistent dilated or substance misuse issues at work. through smoked, smoked or into the or
concetrated pupils with altered behaviour mouth or or cooked injected lungs injected
• Lack of concentration Contact details for D(A)AT representatives sniffed and eaten
• Confusion can be found at www.drugs.gov.uk/Directory in food
• Increased number of accidents
• Poor timekeeping FRANK can also put you in touch with local
• Increased sickness drug services. Ring the FRANK helpline on Users Brief head Excited and Relaxed Alert and Alert, alive, Thick- Warm, Experience
• Frequent absence from desk or post while 0800 776600 feel rush confident and confident in tune with headed, relaxed, surroundings
at work talkative surroundings giggly, drowsy differently,
• Deteriorating relationships with colleagues Alternatively, there are a number of dreamy distortions
• Dishonesty organisations that can offer help and of sound
• Theft (to support a habit) advice. See the Resources section of and colour
• Poor performance and reduced this pack for more information.
productivity
• Deterioration of personal appearance Health Feel faint Fatigue, Affects Addiction, Depression, Vomiting, Addiction, Flashbacks,
risks and sick, depression, concen- fatigue and over- black-outs, overdose, fear,
It is important not to jump to conclusions, skin panic, tration, depression, heating, heart coma, mental
though, and remember: some of these signs problems, hallucinations, paranoia heart dehydration problems death, health
could be caused by other factors including fatal if heart strain and anxiety problems, kidney transmission problems
stress, fatigue or depression. swallowed convulsions problems of HIV/AIDS
transmission via needles
of HIV/AIDS
For more information on drugs and their via needles
effects, log on to www.talktofrank.com

FREEBASE; GANJA; GAS; GLUE; HASH; HASHISH; HEMP; HERB; KETAMINE; KHAT; LADY; LIBERTIES; MAGIC MUSHROOMS; MAGICS; METHADONE; MOGGIES; MORPHINE; NORTHERN LIGHTS; OPIUM; PASTE;
GHB; GEAR; GRASS; GREEN; H; HEROIN; HORSE; ICE; JELLIES; K; LIQUID GOLD; LOVE DOVES; LSD; LUCY; MARIJUANA; MAZZIES; MDMA; METH; MUSHIES; NEW YORKERS; NEXUS; PERCY; PHET; PILLS; POP; POPPERS;

6 FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 7
VITAL STATISTICS: ALCOHOL
The effects of aclohol on the body:
THE LOWDOWN
1. Brain ALCOHOL IN THE WORKPLACE
2. Sight

Alcohol misuse can pose a threat to the health


ALCOHOL 3. Central
and effectiveness of a working environment.
Nervous
BRITISH DRINKING CULTURE 4. Liver System • In 1998, 46% of firms surveyed said they had
Over 90% of the adult populaton drink, and alcohol consumption received reports of alcohol misuse by staff 9
• 20% of industrial accidents involve workers
is beginning to take its toll: 5. Sexuality
who have been drinking10
• In a survey, staff drinking over 21 units of
• 1 in 25 adults is dependent on alcohol 8 alcohol per week took twice as much sick
• In 1999 in th UK, there were an estimated 1.2 million incidents of alcohol-related violence2 leave as those drinking less11
• Nearly six million people, two-thirds of them men, fall within the ‘binge drinker’ category 2
• Drink-related crimes cost the criminal justice system £31.8bn2 Even small amounts of alcohol can affect
6. Motor skills
• Deaths linked to alcohol total 4,000 a year 2 someone’s ability to drive or operate
• The NHS spends £1.7bn a year caring for people with alcohol-related illnesses2 machinery or other equipment.
LIMITS AND GUIDELINES
THE WORK-DRINK CULTURE
So serious has our collective drink problem EFFECTS AND RISKS OF ALCOHOL There are several factors affecting how much
become, the Government has recently a person can drink – namely, age, gender, Alcohol is often a regular feature of the British
unveiled plans to forge new partnerships From mild hangovers and the shakes through body size, state of health and whether or not workplace. Lunchtime and after-work drinking
with the health and police services, the drinks to liver damage and ‘delirium tremens’ (DTs), someone is taking medication. are common social activities, and alcohol
industry and communities, to combat alcohol alcohol can affect the body and mind in often comes into play during special events
misuse in England. The National Alcohol Harm a number of ways. Most common effects, MEN or celebrations, such as office Christmas parties.
Reduction Strategy for England puts joint dependent on consumption, age, gender, Health experts recommend that men drink
action at the heart of a series of measures build etc, include: no more than 3-4 units of alcohol per day. Distinctions need to be made, however,
intended to: That’s one and a half pints of ordinary between ‘leisure drinking’ and drinking
• Feeling relaxed, with inhibitions, reaction strength lager, beer or cider, or three small that impacts upon the heath, safety and
• Tackle alcohol-related disorder in town times and decision making affected glasses of wine. productivity of employees. For example,
and city centres • Emotional highs and lows, uncoordinated drinking before, or during, a shift in
• Improve treatment and support for people movement, blackouts and unconsciousness WOMEN a safety-critical occupation is different
with alcohol problems • Nausea and sickness Health experts recommend that women do from having a couple of pints after work.
• Clamp down on irresponsible promotions • Slurred speech and unsteady gait not exceed 2-3 units of alcohol per day. That’s A balance needs to be struck between
by the industry a pint of ordinary strength lager, beer or cider, outright censure and active encouragement.
• Provide better information to consumers The risks, meanwhile, include: or a couple of small glasses of wine a day. Employers also need to remember that what
about the dangers of alcohol misuse. • Liver damage people do in their own time is very much their
• Suffocation from inhalation of vomit • A very heavy drinker is someone taking own business: employees’ out-of-hours drinking
when unconscious in up to 50 units, or 25 pints of beer, a week habits cannot be policed. Only if these habits
For further information on the Alcohol • Overdose, if mixed with drugs, leading • A binge drinker is someone who drinks to impact upon performance in the workplace
Harm Reduction Strategy for England to death get drunk or someone who drinks can employers become involved.
see www.strategy.gov.uk • Social problems, violence and aggression substantially more than the recommended
daily limits in a single session.

POT; PUFF; QUAT; RAINBOWS; RAM; ROCK; ROLIES; ROOFIES; SHROOMS; SKAG; SKUNK; SMACK; SOLVENTS; SPECIAL K; SPEED; SPLIFF; TEMS; THRUST; TNT; TOBACCO; TOOT; VALLIES; WACKY BACCY; WASH; WEED;
RESIN; RHUBARB AND CUSTARD; SENSEMILLA; SHAMROCKS; SMILIES; SMOKES; SNOW; SOAP; SUGAR; SWEETIES; TAB; TEMAZZIES; TRANQUILLISERS; TRIPS; TULIPS; WHITE; WHIZZ; X; XTC; YABA; ZERO

8 FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 9
VITAL STATISTICS
ALCOHOL: HOW DO YOU KNOW IF
THERE’S A PROBLEM? ADOPTING A WORKPLACE to take reasonable care of themselves and THE GOVERNMENT’S DRUG
POLICY others who could be affected by what they do. STRATEGY TO TACKLE DRUGS AND
The telltale signs of alcohol misuse are similar ALCOHOL IN THE WORKPLACE
to those of drug misuse, with the additional WHAT IS A WORKPLACE DRUG Through undergoing the training that supports
possibility of slurred speech and the smell of AND ALCOHOL POLICY? the adoption of a good workplace policy, staff The Government’s commitment to this issue
alcohol on clothing and breath. Again, don’t and managers are better able to spot the signs is outlined in the Updated Drug Strategy 2002,
jump to any conclusions, but keep an eye The best way to respond to the issue of and symptoms of drug or alcohol misuse and and is delivered through Drug and Alcohol
out for: substance misuse at work is to implement better placed to manage the situation. Early Action Teams – or D(A)ATs who can provide
a workplace policy on drugs and alcohol. identification can help resolve the underlying good quality advice on drug and alcohol
• Sudden mood changes A workplace drug and alcohol policy cause of the problem at an earlier stage and misuse to the workforce and encourage
• Unusual irritability or aggression states how an organisation aims to prevent help alleviate problematic use of substances companies to implement effective workplace
• Increased mistakes and poor judgement substance misuse problems in the workplace, later on. policies. In many areas, D(A)ATs are merged
• Hand tremors and, if they occur, how that organisation will with local Crime and Disorder Reduction
• Lack of concentration treat an employee with a drug or alcohol CORPORATE SOCIAL Partnerships (CDRPs). The business engagement
• Confusion problem. RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) objectives in the strategy are:
• Increased number of accidents
• Poor timekeeping A WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL Employers who adopt a workplace policy • To make business and local communities
• Increased sickness POLICY SHOULD: on drugs and alcohol, and who successfully more aware of effective anti-drug activities
• Frequent absence from desk or post while manage substance misuse in the workplace, at both national and local levels, and to
at work • Outline a company’s rules and procedures will be demonstrating good corporate social provide encouragement for them to become
• Deteriorating relationships with colleagues for dealing with substance misuse responsibility, or, as it is commonly known, CSR. actively involved in the Drug Strategy
• Dishonesty • Give clear definitions of employee and • To encourage the business community to
• Poor performance and reduced productivity employer responsibilities Essentially, CSR is about how business takes implement effective workplace drug and
• Deterioration of personal appearance • Aim to support affected employees rather account of its economic, social and alcohol policies
than punish them environmental impacts in the way that it
• Seek to help employees who admit to operates. Over and above compliance with In some areas there are business trainers connected
having a drug or alcohol-related problem, minimum legal requirements, CSR comprises to D(A)ATs/CDRPs across the country, ready to
WHERE TO GO FOR HELP and encourage them to seek treatment, the voluntary actions made by a business to respond to enquiries about drug and alcohol
rather than lead to their dismissal address both its own competitive interests and issues. Business trainers can visit individual
If you think you’ve detected an employee
• Provide assistance and support to the interests of society. Embracing CSR means companies to provide the following services:
with an alcohol problem, contact your local
employees with problems, with the aim of that an organisation recognises that business
Drug (and Alcohol) Action Team. They may
integrating them back into the workplace has responsibilities beyond the bottom line – • Train company staff in drug and alcohol issues
be able to help you find the right treatment
responsibilities to one’s workforce, the • Advise and review drug and alcohol policies
for the staff member in question, and could
WHY A WORKPLACE POLICY MAKES environment and society at large. • Assess and advise individual employees for
be a useful long-term partner in dealing with
GOOD BUSINESS SENSE treatment
substance misuse issues at work. You can find
A progressive workplace policy on drugs and
their number at: www.drugs.gov.uk/Directory.
Principally, a workplace policy helps employers alcohol is an expression of commitment to a Business trainers can be contacted
Alternatively, there are a number of
fulfil their legal duty of care, to safeguard the sustainable working environment. Organisations via www.drugs.gov.uk/Directory.
organisations that can offer help and advice.
health, safety and welfare of employees under adopting such policies should reap the rewards For more information on how to tackle
See the Resources section of this pack for
the Health & Safety at Work Act, 1974. If an of increased staff loyalty and productivity. drugs and alcohol in the workplace see
more information.
employer knowingly allows an employee Ultimately, CSR makes good business sense. www.businessengagement.com
under the influence of excess drugs or alcohol For guidance on drafting a drug and
For further information on alcohol, log on
to continue working, and this places the alcohol policy, order Substance Misuse
to www.alcoholconcern.org.uk
employees or others at risk, they could be in the Workplace: A business tool for
prosecuted. Similarly, employees are required employers on 0870 241 4680

10 FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 11
VITAL STATISTICS

THE LOWDOWN Furthermore, testing can be counter-productive Against Drugs initiative as part of the
and have a negative impact on employee- Government’s wider commitment to helping
employer relations. the most disadvantaged members of society.
HOW TO DEVELOP A WORKPLACE WORKPLACE TESTING: PREVALENCE
DRUG AND ALCOHOL POLICY Before adopting drug and alcohol testing as P2W provides support for clients who have
Although the number of employers using drug a part of an approach to substance misuse made significant progress in their recovery,
The publication, Substance Misuse and the testing in the workplace is small, it is becoming at work, it is important to consider the following: but whose history of drug misuse is likely to be
Workplace: A business tool for employers an increasingly common practice. A survey of a significant factor in preventing them from
(Home Office 2004) provides comprehensive UK employers by MORI in 2003 found that only • The objectives of testing getting or keeping work. An initial investment
guidelines and a step-by-step approach 4% of companies currently used tests, but that • The type of testing of £40 million has been made to develop
to developing and adopting successful a majority would be more likely to test if they • Which drugs should be tested for and implement the scheme. It is initially
workplace policies. A sample drug and alcohol felt that drug use adversely affected health • The circumstances in which you will test being developed in 30 pilot areas, known as
policy is included. In addition, the guidance and safety (89%) or productivity (78%). The • Who will collect samples Pathfinders, but will eventually be rolled out
includes a series of case studies highlighting survey reported that 9% were planning to • The arrangements to ensure sample security across all of the UK. P2W staff are also able
best practice on how to deal with a variety introduce testing in the next year. • How much you are prepared to spend on to offer advice on related issues such as stress
of situations relating to drug testing. a testing regime management and confidentiality.
THE LIMITATIONS OF WORKPLACE TESTING • What action you will take if a test result
Order the publication (free of charge) is positive For further information on Progress To Work,
by calling 0870 241 4680 and quote ref DSD16. Workplace testing for drugs and alcohol is not • Confidentiality and legal issues log onto www.dwp.gov.uk or find out your
The guidance is also available online at: a straightforward procedure, and problems • The effect of testing on employees local Jobcentre Plus office at
www.businessengagement.com. surrounding reliability and interpretation are • The effect on your business in terms of www.jobcentreplus.gov.uk
common. The Medicines and Healthcare potentially losing a valuable staff member
DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Regulatory Agency (MHRA) recently evaluated where the quality of their work is not EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMMES
the analytical performance and ease of use of impaired (EAPS)
Workplace testing for drugs and alcohol is a 16 on-the-spot devices for testing the presence • The effect on industrial relations: how this
complex and sensitive issue. There is currently of commonly used drugs in urine. They found kind of ‘surveillance’ will be received Employee Assistance Programmes are
no legal requirement to carry out testing. significant variation in product quality, as well • The social implications and consequences workplace-focused programmes aimed
There are also concerns about human rights as confusing labelling, terminology and of dismissal for the employees to assist in the identification and resolution
infringements and the active prying into instructions. Other limitations include: of employee concerns that affect, or may
private behaviour that testing constitutes. This Employers should think carefully about whether affect, performance. EAPs address team and
has led many to conclude that it has no place • Positive results for drugs other than those their business and staff would benefit from individual performance, psychological health
in the modern workplace. stated on the kit the introduction of workplace testing. The and wellbeing. They are strategic interventions,
• Detection of medicinal drug use: Independent Inquiry into Drug Testing at and are unique in the field of occupational
However, while it does not explicitly over-the-counter medication containing Work concludes that,“good management, health in that they address both employee
promote drug and alcohol testing at work, codeine may test positive in an opiates test education and support for staff is more useful, wellbeing and organisational output.
the Government’s drug strategy does • Inability to differentiate between chronic effective and less costly in dealing with drug
recognise the value of testing in safety-critical and one-off use problems”. EAPs represent a proven, cost-effective solution
environments. Likewise, it is widely accepted • Tests being unable to show the extent to many of the problems faced by employers
by employers and employees’ bodies, such to which an employee’s performance has PROGRESS 2 WORK (P2W) in today’s competitive environment. For advice
as the Trade Union Congress, that drug been affected by the detected substance on introducing EAPs into your organisation,
screening serves a purpose in industries such • Some test specimens, particularly urine P2W aims to get people recovering from contact the Employee Assistance Professionals
as engineering, transport and construction. samples, being subject to adulteration drug misuse back into the workplace, or to Association (EAPA) to find out more details
Some employers view drug testing as integral – such as substitution and dilution help them gain and sustain employment on National Standards and how to develop
to their obligation under Health and Safety for the first time. Led by Jobcentre Plus, P2W a relevant EAP tailored to your business needs.
legislation. was announced alongside the Communities See Resources for details.

12 FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 13
MOVERS AND SHAKERS

In this section, we profile some CITY OF LONDON DRUG ACTION


of the excellent local initiatives TEAM (DAT)
aimed at tackling drug and alcohol The City of London DAT was one of the first to
misuse in the workplace. actively address the issue of drugs and alcohol
LONDON UNDERGROUND in the workplace. The City, being synonymous
with work, has been an ideal place for them to
As part of its Drug and Alcohol Advisory concentrate their efforts and since 2001, when
PEOPLE UNITED AGAINST CRIME, Service, London Underground runs a series of they produced their toolkit for business, they
ROTHERHAM PRIMARY CARE ‘Effective Treatment Services for Chemically have enjoyed the support of Old Mutual, ACE
TRUST AND DAT WEST SUSSEX DAAT FREE ONLINE Dependent Employees’. European Group, London Chamber of
TRAINING FOR BUSINESS Commerce and BP.
People United Against Crime is a partnership Operating under the maxim that ‘in critical
of individuals, companies and agencies The West Sussex DAAT has developed a free areas, you can’t afford half measures’, the In 2003, in the London borough of Newham,
determined to make a contribution to the online training course to help local businesses company has devised an innovative substance three seminars were held using local
regeneration of South Yorkshire by helping tackle drugs and alcohol in the workplace and misuse policy. Their Golden Rule promise to companies who had already adopted
to reduce crime and the fear of crime. to implement their workplace policy. More than employees is: workplace policies and training programmes
120 people have logged onto their website to on substance misuse, with the aim of sharing
Working in partnership with the Rotherham use the training package since its launch in “Come forward and we’ll help. Get caught experiences and encouraging other
Primary Care Trust and Drug Action Team, January 2004. and you’re out!” companies to follow suit. Stagecoach Bus
People United Against Crime has organised Company, London City Airport, Tate & Lyle
a number of free one-day seminars for local The resource was set up after local DAAT London Underground’s Drug and Alcohol and Bell Group Security were all contributors.
companies. The seminars feature drug and research showed that: Advisory Service is an integral part of its Information from DASL treatment service was
alcohol awareness training, plus guidance commitment to public safety. By encouraging also included. Over 80 companies attended
on how to draft, update and introduce a • 25% of people receiving treatment for serious employees to come forward, the company these sessions, which were followed by policy
workforce policy on drugs and alcohol. drug dependency across West Sussex, is striving to achieve a healthy and efficient advice for those who needed it. The DAT
Brighton and Hove are employees workforce built on trust and transparency. are currently using the East London Business
Following the seminars, individual organisations • 35% of the people receiving treatment in Alliance, Federation of Small Businesses and
that need it, receive additional contact and West Sussex for serious alcohol dependency Substance-misusing employees are assessed the Docklands Business Club to help spread the
support. So far in 2004, a total of 24 companies are employed and referred to appropriate treatment messages that emerged from these seminars.
have attended the one-day courses. programmes. In order to be restored to their
Companies from a wide range of sectors, The online training can be accessed 24 hours safety critical post, they must show: This year, City of London DAT are continuing
including construction, engineering and food a day. There are five separate sections to to support FRANK and deliver action on drugs
manufacture, have established a working complete and in total the course takes around “Evidence of profound and substantial change in the workplace in a timely, convenient and
relationship with the People United partnership two-and-a-half hours. It includes short videos, in attitude and lifestyle, with a demonstrable, customer-friendly way. They are holding events
beyond the seminar forum. quizzes, an employment tribunal database on-going commitment to abstinence.” to encourage companies to either introduce
and case studies. There is also a selection of a viable, robust workplace policy followed by
Plans are currently afoot to replicate the live workplace policies that can be viewed. Post-treatment monitoring is built into the appropriate training, or review existing policies
South Yorkshire model and roll out the The training course can be accessed at: programme, which has resulted in over 50% and run awareness raising programmes.
programme in collaboration with DAAT’s www.daapw.org.uk/intro.asp self-referrals, less sickness time on the job, a
in Sheffield and Barnsley. healthier workforce and safer general public. For further information, contact:
For further information, contact: Golda Behr
For further information, contact: Elizabeth Flegg For further information, contact: Tel: 020 7332 3484
People United Against Crime HR Project Manager London Underground Email: golda.behr@corpoflondon.gov.uk
Tel: 0114 275 8688 Tel: 01243 382 935 Tel: 020 7332 3084
Email: Elizabeth.flegg@westsussex.gov.uk

14 FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 15
IDEAS FOR ACTION

The following pages give some FRANK IN THE KNOW FRANK FAMILIES AND FRIENDS FRANK ON DISPLAY
food for thought on working with Raise staff awareness by organising staff Some of your employees could be parents Display FRANK posters, or ones you have
training sessions to give information about who may be worried about their children, produced yourself, on any noticeboards.
local partnerships and ideas for drugs and alcohol. To lessen the chances or young people who have friends who Bathrooms are always a good place to get
communications activities to of people feeling that there is a ‘witch-hunt’ take drugs. Devise an awareness initiative through to people. You could put FRANK
promote your drug and alcohol within the company and an infringement to educate parents about drugs and stickers on mirrors or posters in cubicles.
of their privacy, you need to pitch the alcohol. The poster accompanying this pack
policy internally and externally in
information carefully. You could include them encourages employees to think about the
tandem with the FRANK campaign. as part of a series of sessions on ‘Health and issues and encourages them to talk to
Safety’ or ‘Healthy Living’ and incorporate FRANK, log on to the website and contact FRANK IN THE COMMUNITY
information on drugs and alcohol using organisations for information and support. The If your business handles cash, why not collect
GET FRANK the quiz contained in this pack. Using the poster contains space for you to add details small change for local drug and alcohol
First, make sure you register with the factsheets from the FRANK campaign and of local helplines, support groups and the initiatives, donate appropriate items (such
campaign at www.drugs.gov.uk/campaign information from www.talktofrank.com and contact in the department responsible for as equipment, paint or plants) or organise a
and familiarise yourself with the information your local partnership, create information overseeing the initiative in your workplace. fundraising initiative. Employee volunteering
and materials available from FRANK. As there packs for staff to take away from the sessions. can also help motivate staff and gives an
can often be sensitivities surrounding drugs Use your discretion as to how much emphasis For further information and ideas on activities opportunity for increasing understanding
and alcohol, you may find it useful to organise you place on drugs vs alcohol – focusing more with families, see the FRANK Action Update – about an issue. Maybe there are projects in
a steering group made up of people from on alcohol could be more acceptable in some We are Family available from your community where staff could volunteer
different areas of the company to advise environments and gives you the opportunity www.drugs.gov.uk/campaign/resources their time. Activities could include painting
on how you are going to address the issue to gently extend the information to include premises, gardening, mentoring or giving
of drugs and alcohol in the workplace. certain drugs. Make sure that you include the organisation help with administration or
details of how people can get help if they FRANK ON THE MOVE business skills. By creating a relationship with
need it. Think about how your employees get to these organisations you will gain positive PR,
FRANK PARTNERS and from work. You could put FRANK posters support your community and help to establish
For a company looking to adopt a workplace on notice boards at bus or train stations or links with skilled professionals who could visit
policy, enlisting the support of a local drug and FRANK COMMUNICATION offer to print taxi receipts in return for getting your business and deliver information, training
alcohol partnership can help share expertise Use your existing staff communication the FRANK logo included on the back or or support.
both in terms of specialist technical knowledge channels such as e-mail, and newsletters information about drugs or alcohol. Put
and in communicating the policy to senior to give information about drugs and alcohol FRANK credit cards or postcards in car-pool
management, employees and the outside and to communicate your policy. Include cars. Or, arrange an ‘alternative transport’
world. Contact your local Drug and Alcohol a flyer with payslips or, if you are feeling day as part of a healthy lifestyle initiative The FRANK campaign offers a variety of
Action Team (find their details creative, develop a game or quiz on your and encourage staff to walk or cycle to resources which are available free of charge
www.drugs.gov.uk/Directory) and see if they intranet to encourage people to assess their work and include information about drugs including posters, postcards, stickers and
would be willing to help you. You could ask own drinking habits or find out more about and alcohol in your campaign information. leaflets. Each edition of the FRANK Action
them to come in and talk to you about the drugs and alcohol in the workplace. Start Updates contain ideas for action
issues surrounding drug and alcohol misuse as you mean to go on. Make sure that details and activity sheets for use with a variety
and give you an outline of the support services of local support are included in induction FRANK IN PRINT of audiences. Log on to www.drugs.gov.uk/
available in the area or local projects that processes/literature for new staff. (See the Are there particular shops and pubs that campaign /resources/artwork and use the
you might like to consider supporting as a checklist on page 18 for more background service your workforce? Details of drug FRANK branding to customise your own
company. They may also be willing to be on information on things to consider when treatment or information or simply the FRANK materials.
hand for staff training or question and answer planning your communication initiatives). logo can be positioned on beer mats, pizza
sessions at briefings or be able to bring along boxes, napkins or sandwich bags. You could
a client who is happy to talk about their own also develop merchandise with the FRANK logo
experiences. such as mugs, pens, mouse-mats, note-pads,
water cooler cups, key-rings, desk calendars
and clocks for the office environment.

16 FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 17
CHECKLIST FOR ACTION USEFUL RESOURCES
It helps to plan effective drugs communication in exactly the same way
as a company would think about marketing a product. Before you begin, ask:
ORGANISATIONS
WHO ARE YOU TRYING TO REACH?, WHAT WOULD THEY RESPOND TO?, WHERE AND WHEN CAN YOU REACH THEM? ADVISORY, CONCILIATION AND ARBITRATION DRINKLINE
SERVICE (ACAS) The national alcohol helpline offering
This process can be as detailed or as brief as you choose it to be. Here are some issues to address and techniques
Aims to improve organisations and working information and advice to those with alcohol-
you may find useful.
life through better employment relations. related problems and their families. Run by
Works with employers and employees to solve the Department of Health.
ISSUE TO ADDRESS QUESTIONS TO ASK CONSIDERATIONS problems and improve performance and offers 0800 917 8282 (Monday–Thursday,
help on good employment practice including 9am–11pm, Saturday and Sunday)
KNOW YOUR ‘MARKET’. How do the lifestyles of your various Getting an insight into the culture procedures to deal with drug misuse.
Every business is different, every employees differ? Eg: of your company need not take Helpline: 08457 474747 DRUGSCOPE
workforce has its own culture. • Where do the warehouse staff the form of an interrogation. Work
www.acas.org.uk UK centre of expertise on drugs. Conduct
In order to make good decisions socialise? with members of the workforce;
about creating communication • Is it different from the accounts get involved in organising social research and seek to improve knowledge
around substance misuse, treatment department? events that would appeal to ADFAM on drugs-related issues and have an extensive
or your company’s drug and alcohol • Do your sales force all get drunk them and make sure the time, Charity supporting families affected by drugs library of drug information.
policy you need first to understand on a Thursday night? place and method of your and alcohol. Offers a range of resources 020 7928 1211
the particular nature of your • Do your younger staff go communication is appropriate. including publications and videos, a family www.drugscope.org.uk
employees’ habits and lifestyles. clubbing on the weekend?
newsletter, e-mail group and online database
• Are they all exhausted on a Monday?
of local services. HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE
020 7928 8898 Responsible for the regulation of most of the
KNOW YOUR ‘PRODUCT’ • What are the most useful pieces Use the results of your research ww.adfam.org.uk risks to health and safety arising from work
AND WHERE TO PROMOTE IT of information you can provide your exercise to inform your decisions activity in the UK. Assists the Health and Safety
Drug and alcohol resources are workforce with? and think creatively about
ALCOHOL CONCERN Commission ensure that risks to people’s
often delivered in a very serious • How do your employees get to and different methods and channels
manner – this does not always from work? for communicating. The national agency on alcohol misuse health and safety are properly controlled.
ensure that they get read! • Are there notice boards at bus or train providing information, factsheets and advice Information Line 08701 545500
stations, which you could use? on alcohol-related issues. Offers services to Publications Order Line 01787 881165
• Are there particular shops and pubs employers including training and consultancy. www.hse.gov.uk
that service your workforce? Website includes an on-line directory of local
• Where can you put information
alcohol services. RELEASE
in the office environment?
• What about training sessions? 020 7928 7377 A range of specialist services to professionals
(Workplace Development Officer) and the public concerning drugs and the law.
@ workplace@alcoholconcern.org.uk Release provides free advice to drug users,
KNOW YOUR ‘FIGURES’ • What specific outcomes do Evaluating your activities is essential.As www.alcoholconcern.org.uk their families, friends, and statutory and
Establish a plan for assessing you want to achieve? well as keeping data on numbers of
voluntary agencies.
the success of your activities. • How can these be measured? materials distributed, costs, attendees
• Who will be responsible for collating at seminars etc, measurement DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH 020 7729 9904 (Monday–Friday 10am–5pm).
the data? methods can include sending out an Publications Order Line: 08701 555 455 www.release.org.uk
email to ask your staff where and www.doh.gov.uk
when they’ve seen your information TACADE
or a more thorough questionnaire. DOWN YOUR DRINK Provides help, resources, training, consultation
Has there been any impact on
An online tool for people to assess whether and research on alcohol and drugs.
absenteeism, morale or awareness?
their drinking is putting them at risk of harm, 0161 836 6850
and a programme of information and support www.tacade.com
CELEBRATE YOUR SUCCESSES • What has been key to the success If appropriate, use opportunities for people who want to reduce their drinking
Keep staff, and especially senior of the programme? such as Christmas Drinks, AGM’s and develop safer drinking habits. Funded
management, informed of • Who should be acknowledged? or conferences to update your
by the Department of Health and the Alcohol
achievements. This helps to • Do you have any positive or colleagues and employees
maintain momentum and promote innovative stories that you could about the positive actions you Education Research Council.
a supportive corporate culture. highlight in-house, in the community have taken. www.downyourdrink.org.uk
or in the press?

18 FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work 19
USEFUL RESOURCES

UK EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROFESSIONALS Drink, Drugs and Work Don’t Mix


ASSOCIATION (EAPA) Handbook published by Alcohol Concern/ISDD
The professional body for Employee Assistance designed to help employers take a pro-active
Programmes (EAPs). Represents the interests approach to preventing and handling
of and sets national standards of practice problems with alcohol and drug misuse in the
for professionals concerned with employee workplace. Available from Alcohol Concern.
assistance, psychological health and well- being.
0800 783 7616 Substance Misuse and the Workplace:
www.eapa.org.uk A business Tool for Employers
Publication from the National Workplace
UNITED KINGDOM ACCREDITATION SERVICE Initiative. Gives information on substance
(UKAS) misuse and outlines how employers can
The sole national accreditation body develop a workplace policy on drugs
responsible for assessing organisations that and alcohol. Available from
provide certification, testing, inspection and www.businessengagment.com or call
calibration services. A laboratory accredited 0870 241 4680 and quote ref DSD16
by UKAS will have satisfied assessors that it
meets all criteria for providing drug screening UK Standards of Practice and Professional
test results. Guidelines for EAPs
020 8917 8400 Reference book for HR and EAP practitioners
@ info@ukas.com www.ukas.com and others with responsibilities for, or an interest
in, personnel performance and well-being
PUBLICATIONS in the workplace. Covers requirements and
guidance on the design, operation and
Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England management of all employee assistance
The Government’s strategy aiming to tackle services. Available from the Employee
alcohol-related disorder in town and city Assistance Professionals Association (Price £9.95)
centres; improve treatment and support for
people with alcohol problems; clamp down Updated Drug Strategy
on irresponsible promotions by the industry; and Outlines the Government’s strategy for
provide better information to consumers about addressing drug-related issues including
the dangers of alcohol misuse. Available from education, treatment and controlling supply.
the Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit. Download Download from
from www.strategy.gov.uk/su/alcohol/index.htm www.drugs.gov.uk/ReportsandPublications

Don’t Mix It –
A guide for employers on alcohol at work And don’t forget talktofrank.com
Booklet developed by the Health Education for information and advice on drugs.
Authority, the Health and Safety Executive,
and the Department of Health to help the
owners and managers of small and medium-
sized businesses deal with alcohol-related
problems at work. Available from the Health
and Safety Executive.

20 FRANK Action Update – FRANK at work