Passport to Crime Reduction

Problem Solving Process

Pa rt Two - The p rocess of crime re d u c t i o n
I n t ro d u c t i o n
The aim of this section is to give you an understanding of the problem solving process used in crime reduction.

O b j e c t i ve
By the end of this section you will be able to: Describe the problem solving process used in crime reduction Identify each stage of the process Describe the tools that can be used to help crime reduction Identify how the process can be used in crime reduction

O ve rv i e w

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Section One - Problem solving Covers and identifies each stage of the problem solving approach to crime reduction.

Section Two - Crime reduction tools Describes and explains some of the tools that can be used in crime reduction. Case Study This will give you a chance to practice using the problem solving process and the crime reduction tools.

A summary of key points in this part can be found on page 69.

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Problem Solving Process

Problem solving
The problem solving process in crime reduction has four stages. The stages are:

Scanning
- spotting problems using knowledge, basic data and other information

Assessment
- looking back to see if the solution worked and what lessons can be learned.

Analysis
- using information and technology to dig deeper into the characteristics and underlying causes of a problem

Response
- devising a solution, working with the community.

This process is often called SARA and it is a process that has been used for some time as an integral part of community policing and therefore often referred to as Problem Oriented Policing or POP. The techniques and skills involved in SARA are used by community safety practitioners in every field and are not confined to ‘policing’. Applying the process will help to ensure that a crime problem is effectively identified and tackled and will also help organisations in partnerships to deal with local problems.

We will now look at each stage of this process in turn.

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Identify the problem - Scanning
There is an almost endless range of situations that could be described as a problem. Incidents may vary in terms of seriousness, cost and impact on the community. To identify a problem it is important to pay attention to crime and disorder patterns and the underlying causes of crimes rather than simply dealing with the individual incidents. Scanning allows incidents to be grouped into clusters. These comprise similar, related or recurring incidents that can be identified from: Calls from the public Local intelligence Partner agencies Police data Adopt the use of intelligence and information about offenders and their activities to increase the effectiveness of your organisation by: Matching resources with increasing demand Tackling repeat victimisation Encouraging multi-agency and partnership working Adopting long term sustainable solutions It is important that problems identified are part of a pattern or series of incidents, not a single incident. It makes sense to spend time and resources on long-term problems rather than on ones that will only last for a short time.

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The details of the problem - An a l y s i s
In this phase, you can identify the conditions that give rise to a particular problem by examining its characteristics and impact in greater detail. For example, scanning might reveal that there were many thefts from shops in a particular area, but analysis will provide the hour, day or month that the thefts took place and from which particular shops. Analysis may involve collecting information about offenders and victims, the time of occurrence, location and other details of the physical environment, the history of the current problem, the motivations, gains and losses of involved parties, the apparent (and hidden) causes and competing interests, and the results of current responses. Practitioners will need to talk to colleagues, partners, local businesses and members of the community to better understand the problem. As well as police data, information held by other organisations such as insurance companies, hospitals, local authorities, probation and schools may be useful.

A tool which can be useful at this stage is the

Problem Analysis Triangle. See
page 33 for an explanation.

What facilities have you got in your organisation for collecting and analysing data about crime and disorder?

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Take appropriate action - Re s p o n s e
Once you have identified the problem and analysed it, the response should be identified. Response is any action taken to try to address a problem and it should be devised and implemented involving the relevant agencies, organisations and members of the community. It might vary from the simple (for example a practitioner advising someone what they should or should not be doing) to the complex, such as a practitioner involving the community and local bodies to set up a project to help young people. Work done in the analysis phase helps to identify or isolate the element that can most easily and effectively be tackled to try to resolve a problem. Often, responses will combine actions to tackle more than one aspect of the problem identified during the analysis phase. In selecting responses, it is crucial to work out in detail how they are expected to produce their intended effects.

At this stage the

Routine Activity Theory is a
useful tool to use. You can find out more about it on page 39.

Your response must be Appropriate, Realistic and Cost effective (ARC).

Appropriate to the risk - If the risk is small a simple
solution will be appropriate. The higher the risk the more that will need to be done.

Realistic - Make sure that your response tackles the
specific problem and any other potential risks.

Cost effective - the cost to implement your response
should be in proportion to the risk and affordable.

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Evaluation - As s e s s m e n t
In the final stage of SARA, you will need to review attempts to deal with a problem and evaluate how successful they have been. There are three major reasons why the assessment stage is very important: To find out whether a particular problem still exists and requires continuing attention. This is important in deciding whether the resources are being used effectively to tackle the problem and whether to continue to deploy resources. To improve problem-solving skills by finding out what seems to work in different circumstances. This avoids reinventing the wheel and contributes to the "what works" knowledgebase and the dissemination of good practice. To enable effective problem-solving to be recognised and to acknowledge individuals’ efforts. Assessment can be difficult to do well and as a result is often largely overlooked. It must be a routine feature of any problem-solving structure. Assessment is not an evaluation of the performance of those involved but what happened when a problem was tackled. An assessment that concludes that a problem has been dealt with successfully does not always mean that it has been eliminated. There are many different types of success. For example: The problem and its impact remain the same but the volume of police effort to respond to it may be reduced. The harm to the public may be reduced even though the number of incidents remains the same.

For more information on evaluation go to page 71 and read the Evaluation Section.

The number of problem incidents may be reduced. The problem may be entirely eliminated.

Problem solving is the framework you use to tackle crime and disorder. The next section looks at some of the tools needed to solve problems effectively.

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Crime reduction tools

Crime reduction tools
This section looks at some of the most widely used tools in crime reduction.

The Problem Analysis Tr i a n g l e
This tool can be used to analyse problems in the second stage of the SARA process. The Problem Analysis Triangle (PAT) breaks incidents down into three constituent elements: the features of the location of the incident the features of the victim the features of the offender or of the source of the incident. It helps to be as precise as possible when defining the problem, having identified the incidents to be included in the analysis. It is crucial to establish what it is about the place, victim, and the offender or source of the problem that causes it to arise, and how and when it happens. It may need some lateral thinking to define the factors behind a problem.

Location

An accurate assessment of the problem is one of the main elements of Problem Oriented Policing. If a response to a problem fails, you can then return to the analysis to see whether another element might be influenced.

On the next page is an example of how the Problem Analysis Triangle (PAT) can be used to analyse a problem.

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In our example there is a problem with shoplifting from a corner shop. Here’s how to use PAT in a structured way. First, write down what the problem is The problem is with shoplifting. The shop is a small corner shop on the main road about 500 yards from a local comprehensive school. It is in a small precinct with 5 other shops. The shopkeeper has reported at least 6 offences of shoplifting from the shop in the past 4 weeks, but suspects that there are many more than that. The offenders that have been reported are children.

Location

N ow write down all the features of the location you can find out about Sweets are stolen from the shop, especially from a display rack next to the door. The shop is the nearest sweetshop to the school and children usually gather outside the shop on the way home from school. The offences mainly take place between 3.30 pm and 4.00 pm.

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N ow write down all the features of the offenders The offenders are all children aged between 12 and 15. They are all from the local school. There are about 6 of them, but none are known to the shopkeeper. Large groups of children congregate near the shops after school. A common complaint from children is that there is nothing for them to do in the area. Finally write down what you know about the victim The shopkeeper is an elderly woman. She runs the shop alone. She feels vulnerable because there is no one else in the shop to help keep an eye on the problem. She feels intimidated by the older children who come into the shop. There are several factors that cause this problem: the location of the school, the presence of potential offenders and a vulnerable victim. You will probably find that there is always more than one cause of a problem, but by using PAT you can identify all the features that may have an impact. Knowing the causes will help you to find the right solutions.

When you are clear about the problem you are going to address, you must set clear aims and objectives for your project.

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SM A RT O b j e c t i ve s
It is important not to confuse aims and objectives. An aim is a simple statement, which sets out the purpose of the project. For example, “The aim of this project is to reduce the number of violent disorders in Newton Grange” Objectives are specific statements that can be measured and state exactly what you want to achieve. Objectives are a key tool for project management and they often cause problems for people who have to write and use them. Objectives must be written so that they can be measured. For this to happen objectives should be SMART, which means they are: S pecific - all objectives should have specific outcomes. M easurable - the outcome of an objective must be capable of being measured. A chievable - the objective should describe something that can be achieved within the timescale and resources set for the project. R ealistic - objectives describe something that can actually be done. T imebound - a deadline should be set by which the objective is to be achieved.

Sometimes you may hear the acronym SMARTER. The additional points are Evaluated and Reviewed.

You set SMART objectives once you have done the analysis in the second stage of SARA. You should set smart objectives for a specific project before you start work on it. This is when you should also set objectives for the evaluation of the project/initiative. Setting your objectives will help you to target your responses in a structured way.

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Below is a SMART objective. Which parts of the objective do you think are: Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Timebound. Write your answers in the space below. The objective is:
“By the end of the project (in six months time), the number of violent disorders in Allertown town centre will have reduced by 20%”

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Here is the objective with all five SMART elements identified.

“By the end of the project Specific the objective has a specific outcome

(in six months time), the number of

violent disorders in Allert own town Measurable it should be possible to evaluate the outcome

c e n t re will have been reduced by Timebound there is a timescale in which the objective has got to be achieved

20%” Realistic targets should not be set too high

Achievable reaching the target can be done within the timescale with the resources available

It’s important that project teams set a realistic number of objectives. For most crime reduction initiatives three or four objectives are enough, any more can make a project difficult to manage and very difficult to evaluate. Measurable objectives will always contain a target, which is the measurable part of an objective. For example in this objective: “by the end of the project (in six months time), the number of violent disorders in Allertown town centre will have reduced by 20%” - the target is a 20% reduction in six months time.

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Routine Activity Theory - RAT
This tool can be used in the third stage of SARA to identify effective responses. RAT was developed by Marcus Felson, a criminologist who has worked on crime reduction theories for a number of years. This theory will help you understand why crimes occur by analysing the 3 elements present when any crime is committed. RAT, sometimes called the basic triangle, is a well known and straightforward explanation that can be used as a practical tool by practitioners in the field. The theory states that in order for a crime to occur 3 things must happen at the same time and in the same place: A suitable target is available. There is a lack of a capable guardian to prevent/deter the crime. A likely and motivated potential offender is present.

Suitable Target
There are plenty of potential targets around and they can be a person, an object or a place. Not all targets are suitable. Four things make a target suitable to an offender. Value
- the offender must either value the target for what they may gain from it or value the effect they may have on it. In other words, burglars value the objects they steal for the money they can get from selling them, whereas vandals value the satisfaction they get from the damage they cause.

Capable Guardian

Offender

Inertia
- how easily it can be removed/moved. The size and weight of the potential target can affect how suitable it is to the offender. For example, items such as CDs are suitable targets for shoplifters because they are small and portable.

Visibility
- how easy it is to see a target will affect how suitable it is. A television in front of a window, or someone counting cash at a cash machine make visible targets. The target would be less suitable if an offender would be clearly visible while committing the offence.

Access
- if a potential target is easy to get to, the suitability is increased. For example, an unlocked car or goods displayed outside shops.

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A capable guardian is any person or object that discourages an offence from happening. A capable guardian could be a householder, neighbour, security guard, CCTV or alarm system etc. The likely and motivated potential offender is a person who has made the decision to offend for whatever reason. To reduce the risk of an offence taking place, you should make sure that the 3 elements cannot happen at the same time and in the same place. If you have a potential target, but access is denied, the potential offender will be unable to carry out the offence. Similarly, making sure that there is a capable guardian in place will help to protect the target.

You may wish to use the Ten Principles as a checklist for assessing whether you have considered all the options for responding to the identified problem.

Once you have used RAT to identify which element of a potential crime situation you want to alter to reduce the risk, you can then use the Ten Principles to select the exact method.

The Ten Principles of Crime Pre ve n t i o n
Before we look at each of the ten principles in turn, here is a list of all ten of them.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Target Hardening Target Removal Remove the Means to Commit Crime Reduce the Payoff Access Control Visibility/Surveillance Environmental Design Rule Setting Increase the Chance of Being Caught Deflecting Offenders

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1 Ta rget Hard e n i n g Target Hardening is the first of the Ten principles. Target hardening means: “Making targets more resistant to attack or more difficult to remove or damage.” A target is anything that an offender would want to steal or damage. It could be an object, property, person or in some cases an animal, such as a valuable pet.

In the space below, make a list of all the examples of Target Hardening you can think of.

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Here are some examples of Target Hardening. You may have thought of some we haven’t included. fitting better doors, windows or shutters window or door locks alarms screens in banks and building societies fencing systems repairing damaged and derelict property.

2 Ta rget Re m ova l Target Removal is: “Permanent or temporary removal of vulnerable persons or property” Quite simply this means making sure that any object in which a potential offender might be interested is not visible. This can include: removing radios from parked cars placing valuable items in a secure location demolishing derelict property removing jewellery from shop windows at night moving small vulnerable items nearer to cash tills in shops rehousing vulnerable people. Target Removal can be quite a simple process.

Simply putting the car into the garage and locking it up is a good example of target removal.

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3 Re m ove the Means to Commit Crime The previous techniques are aimed at reducing the risks directly associated with the target. Removing the Means to Commit Crime looks at the problem from a different point of view. Removing the Means to Commit Crime means: “Making sure that material capable of being used to help an offender commit a crime is not accessible.” Look at this photograph. What could be changed to reduce the chance of a crime taking place? Write your answer in the space below and compare your answer with ours.

The dustbins could provide an easy access to the open window. Removing these dustbins and locking them away in a shed would remove the means to commit crime. Think about how many times you have seen large wheely bins around industrial premises. These can easily be used as mobile platforms. To remove this threat they could be chained or locked up so that they cannot be moved. Other examples of removing the means to commit crime are: locking up tools and gardening equipment securing building materials such as scaffolding using plastic drinking glasses in venues where there is a history of disorder. 43

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4

Reduce the Pa yo f f Before we give you a definition of this principle, have a go at defining it yourself. In the space below, write down what you think Reduce the Payoff means. The answer and some examples follow.

Reduce the Payoff means: “Reducing the gain for the criminal if a crime is committed” Examples of this include: using a safe to reduce the amount of cash held in a till using a replica in a shop window property marking to make items identifiable and therefore less valuable to the criminal.

Bear in mind that even though adequate insurance will not reduce the gain to the criminal, it will reduce the loss to the individual or organisation.

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5 Access Contro l Access Control means: “Restricting access to sites, buildings or parts of sites and buildings.” Can you think of any examples of Access Control that you have seen? Write your answers in the box and compare your answers with ours.

There are many forms of Access Control. Some of them are quite complex, but some are relatively simple. They include: door locks (and making sure doors are shut) identity cards entry card systems entry phones baggage screening separate entries and exits combination locks.

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6

Vi s i b i l i t y / S u rve i l l a n c e

This principle is defined as “Making sure that offenders would be visible if they carried out a crime.” This principle ties in well with the idea of capable guardians in the Routine Activity Theory (RAT). Unlike any of the other principles, there are three types of surveillance, these are: Natural Formal Informal. Like all the other principles there is a range of methods and techniques that can be applied. N a t u ral surveillance Involves modifying the existing surroundings to increase visibility. It can include: pruning or removing shrubbery improving or installing lighting changing the height of fences placing a playground area so that it overlooks nearby homes (and is overlooked by those homes).

Low level dusk to dawn lights will improve natural surveillance.

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Formal surveillance Uses technology or specialist staff who are employed or tasked to deter and identify actual or potential offenders. Formal surveillance methods include: deploying police and security staff store detectives alarm systems caretakers tasked with a security role closed circuit television (CCTV) systems. Some formal surveillance systems can be on a small scale, for example individual shops and premises. On the other hand, there are some large scale systems, such as city centre CCTV systems. Informal or employee surve i l l a n c e This involves residents, employees and the community being encouraged to be vigilant and knowing what to do when they see a potential risk. For example receptionists, counter staff and office staff can be trained to spot potential problems. Procedures should be put in place to tell individuals or staff what to do if they see anything suspicious.

7 E n v i ronmental Design Crime prevention using Environmental Design is a large topic. It involves: “Changing the environment of a building, a site, an estate or a town to reduce opportunities for committing crime.” The emphasis is on putting a range of preventive measures in place at the planning stage. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) can be used in existing environments, or in new developments. It can include a whole range of features, such as: Visibility/Surveillance Target Hardening street and pathway layout lighting.

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Crime prevention can be built into a new housing development at the planning stage.

On this estate there are several features: All doors and windows have good quality locks. Planting has been kept to a minimum to increase surveillance. The estate has an open design which also increases surveillance. There are parking spaces outside each house which deter possible offences by providing more surveillance of the cars. Opposite the row of houses there is seating and a park which encourages people to circulate. The driveway paving is a different colour and texture to the public spaces. This lets any potential offenders know that they are on private land. There is good street lighting and lighting outside each front door. The whole approach to crime prevention on this estate was considered at the planning stage and crime prevention measures are used in a co-ordinated way.

8 Rule Se t t i n g Rule Setting means: “The introduction of legislation, by-laws and codes of conduct, which set out what is acceptable behaviour.” There are many types of Rule Setting, here a just a few: Wearing ID badges. Internal rules within businesses. Local by-laws, such as those limiting consumption of alcohol in public places. Signs prohibiting access to buildings or certain areas in buildings. Requests to report to reception. Laws enacted by Parliament. 48

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9 I n c rease the Chance of Being Caught “Anything that slows down an offender or increases their risk of being caught.” Preventive methods are more effective if the offender risks being caught. Anything that slows down an offender or increases the chance of detection is an effective method of prevention. This means that good Target Hardening increases the time it takes to enter a building and increases the chances of being spotted. The longer it takes to commit an offence, the more vulnerable the offender feels. Increasing the chance of an offender being caught can be achieved by: proper management of CCTV systems lighting that makes offenders more visible making sure security equipment works properly putting several preventive methods in place, which slows an offender down even further alerting offenders to the fact that CCTV systems and alarms are being used publicising successes in detecting offenders.
Note: We use Ten Principles as a basis for formulating a response to particular problems, but you may have heard of the 16 situational principles. These were set out by Ronald V Clarke in his second edition of Situational Crime Prevention: successful case studies (Harrow and Heston, 1997). The Ten principles cover exactly the same areas as the original 16 but some principles have been combined where appropriate to make it easier to remember.

10 Deflecting Offenders This is the final principle of crime prevention and means: “Diverting the offenders and potential offenders from committing crime.” This involves agencies working with young people and offenders to influence standards, thinking and attitudes. The aim is to prevent potential offenders turning to crime. Examples include: education programmes & schools programmes drug action teams youth groups and organisations providing training and work experience. This method of preventing crime is increasing and the introduction of Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships has encouraged multi-agency working.
This completes our view of the Ten Principles of Crime Prevention. Now you can go on to the case study on the next page.

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Case Study

Case Study
This case study gives you the opportunity to practice using the process of crime reduction and the crime reduction tools.

Scanning
The case study is based around a cricket club. Below is a diagram of the area around the club and some details of its history and the potential offenders in the area.
Boundary Fence Steel Container The Old Pavilion Open Ground 1.5 miles in either direction

Car Park

New Pavilion

Roller Tree Screen Allotments Church

Terraced Houses

The Cricket Club • The cricket club has been in existence for over 100 years. • From the early 1980s the club went into a decline. Membership dropped and the older members were left to run the club. The club used to have a good junior following but junior membership has also declined. • Because of the drop in membership, income was lost and maintenance tasks around the ground were ignored as there was no one to carry them out. • In the last five years the club’s fortunes have started to improve. Membership has increased and there is much more active participation in the club. New members have joined and junior membership has increased.

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The club has also managed to secure some lottery funding. This has been used to build an extension to the brick pavilion that was built in the early 1970s. The club has concentrated on building up its playing facilities so hasn’t looked at security. This is increasingly becoming a problem. Although 1 or 2 players live near the ground, many live 3 or more miles away. This means that apart from practice sessions and match days the ground is unoccupied and unused.

Here are some general views around the cricket club. The entrance to the club notice there is no gate across the road and access to the field is very open. This entrance is also used by gardeners who rent the allotments from the club. View of the field from the new pavilion. The aspect is very open. Views of the new and old pavilions. The new pavilion has been recently extended and contains a bar.

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The pavilion in these pictures has been on the site since around 1900. It has been used for storing equipment since the new pavilion was built. This pavilion is in a bad state of repair. There are several weak places in the walls where the planking has been patched up and the shutters and doors are easy to open. Most recently there has been an arson attempt when someone crawled under the pavilion and lit a fire. There has also been some damage to the planking.

The new pavilion contains the club's changing rooms, kitchen, bar and social club. The original building dates from the 1970s, but the right hand section has been built in the last two years. Security is generally poor, especially the locks on the shutters and doors. There have been several attempted break-ins and one successful one. Beer, spirits and cigarettes were taken. The break-in was through the small back window to the left of the photograph. The window was broken with a beer barrel.

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Passport to Crime Reduction There have been several incidents of damage to the cricket pitch in recent weeks. Two of these involved the roller which was pulled on to the pitch by youths riding on it. There is a persistent problem with dog fouling, caused by people using the ground as a short cut and as a place to walk their dogs. There is also a litter problem, including beer cans and broken bottles. The steel container in the picture contains a ride-on mower and all the club's tools. Recently there was an unsuccessful breakin attempt when someone tried to force open the doors with a crowbar or something similar.
Case Study

These photographs are of the deserted garages that you can see on the left hand edge of the map of the club. They are owned by the club, but have been left unused for the last 7 or 8 years. All the garages show signs of damage and there is also damage to the boundary fence of the cricket club. Youths have been using the garages to gather and the amount of damage has increased in the past few weeks. The cricket club have complained to the police. Evidence of recent use, such as beer cans and cigarette ends, has been found in the garages.

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Now you should have enough information to move on to the next stage Analysis.

Potential Offenders There are three groups of potential offenders. 1 There are large numbers of young people living in the estates in the area. A large group of them used to gather round a shopping precinct about half a mile away. This group was believed to be responsible for a number of offences, including shoplifting and criminal damage. They also caused considerable nuisance in the area. Following increased patrols by the police the youths have dispersed from around the shopping precinct. There are few facilities in the area so, in the past couple of months, they have started to gather in the area of the cricket club. 2 There have been a number of burglaries from sheds in the area in recent months. The targets have been high value tools and equipment, such as power tools and ride-on lawn mowers. The police think that these offences are being committed by a gang from outside the district who are very organised in their approach to stealing and disposing of equipment. 3 Access to the cricket ground is very open. This has led to it being used by local residents as a shortcut to the local estates and as a place to walk dogs.

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Analysis
This part of the case study is your chance to identify some of the crime problems on the site. There are 2 stages to this exercise: - list the crime problems - carry out a PAT Analysis.

Use the background information (pages 50 to 54) to identify the problems on the site and any additional ones you can think of. Write your answers in the box below and compare them to ours on the next page.

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Here are some suggestions. You may have thought of things we haven’t but don’t worry as long as you have identified some crime problems and potential crime problems. The deserted garages are a site for criminal damage and for disorder problems such as underage drinking. The old pavilion is run-down and is a target for arson and criminal damage. The new pavilion contains cigarettes and drinks, which makes it a potential target for burglary and attempted burglary. The steel container is a potential target for burglaries as it contains high value items like the ride-on mower. The pitch is liable to damage, particularly from the roller. There is a large potential for trespass, dog fouling and other minor damage.

Now, using our list of crime problems and potential crime problems, you should use the problem analysis triangle to identify the; features of the location what you know about the victim features of the offender. Write your PAT analysis in the space provided. If it helps you can draw the PAT triangle and write down your points next to it. Take about 30 minutes to complete this exercise, but don't worry if you don't manage to complete a PAT analysis for each problem. The purpose of the exercise is to help you get used to using the technique.

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Use additional paper if you need to.

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Here are our suggestions. They may be different from yours but the important thing is to get used to analysing and identifying the features of the location, victim and offender(s).

Location

Features of Location The ground is quite open with no housing on three sides, so it is vulnerable. The housing is screened from the field by trees. There is insufficient fencing round the site, which increases access. The old pavilion is in a general state of disrepair and it is easy to break into. The condition of locks and screens on the doors of the new pavilion make it vulnerable. Rubble and beer barrels left around the site can be used to break into buildings. The ground is used as a public space, which causes further problems. The ground is an open and quiet space, which makes it attractive to people who want to gather there. The garages are attractive because they are unused and easy to get into.

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Features of Victim The victims are the owners of the cricket ground and the club members. They are largely absent from the site when offences are committed. The general historical problems with getting people to take responsibility for the club's upkeep has led to neglect of the potential problems. The new club committee has yet to take ownership of all the crime and disorder problems as they have been more concerned with building up the club's resources and facilities. Features of Offender There appear to be three main groups of offender. The youths that meet in the deserted garages have nowhere else to go and find the area a useful place to meet. They have a desire for drinks and cigarettes and have found a ready supply in the pavilion and the means of getting them.

The offenders that attempted to break into the steel container are probably from a different group. They were after high value equipment and were more organised and systematic in the way they tried to enter the container.

A third group are the potential offenders who may be amongst people who use the ground to walk their dogs and as a short cut. Such use is likely to add to the general feel of the ground as a public, rather than a private, space.
Now you have identified the crime problem and analysed it you can find an appropriate response to reduce it.

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Case Study

Re s p o n s e
This part of the case study is your chance to practice using Routine Activity Theory (RAT). If you remember, on page 56 we identified 6 main problems at the site: The deserted garages are a site for criminal damage and for disorder problems such as underage drinking. The old pavilion is run-down and is a target for arson and criminal damage. The new pavilion contains cigarettes and drinks, which makes it a potential target for burglary and attempted burglary. The steel container is a potential target for burglaries as it contains high value items like the ride-on mower. The pitch is liable to damage, particularly from the roller. There is a large potential for trespass, dog fouling and other minor damage. Using Routine Activity Theor y (RAT) In this exercise look at the 6 main problem areas and use RAT to: identify the target and say why it is suitable identify which capable guardian is absent identify the offenders and their possible motivations decide which of these 3 you are going to modify (your response) to reduce the chance of a crime taking place. Use the space provided for your RAT analysis. If it helps you can draw the RAT triangle and write down your points next to it. Take about 30 minutes to complete this exercise, but don't worry if you don't manage to complete a RAT analysis for each problem you find. The purpose of the exercise is to help you get used to using the technique.

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Case Study

Use additional paper if you need to.

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Here are our suggestions. Don’t worry if your answers are different from ours. There are no right and wrong responses as long as the risk of a crime happening has been reduced. D e s e rted Ga ra g e s Target The garages are the suitable target because: - their value is that they provide shelter for the youths who use them and are a good place to gather - they have poor visibility from anyone who might stop the youths from getting into them - their poor physical condition makes it easy to gain access to the shelter they provide. Guardian There is a complete lack of capable guardians present, either human or otherwise. The site is secluded and is not overlooked by anyone. There are no physical barriers, lighting or alarms to make the target less attractive. The generally dilapidated appearance of the garages also makes them more vulnerable - if they looked used that would act as a form of guardian. Offenders The offenders are the youths who use the garages. Their motivation is the need for shelter in an environment that does not provide them with any alternative places to go. Modify The easiest feature to modify is the target. By removing the garages or renovating them they would be less attractive. Giving the youths an alternative place to go would also work. There is little point in modifying the absence of a capable guardian because of the isolated position and value of the target. The Old Pa v i l i o n Target The old pavilion is a suitable target because: - its value is based around its vulnerability and the pleasure that the offenders get from setting fire to it. - inertia is a factor because it cannot be removed - the target is highly visible - there is easy access to it. Guardian As with the garages, the site is secluded and not overlooked. There is no alarm on the building and the incomplete boundary fence is another absent guardian.

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Offenders The offenders are unknown but could be the youths who use the garages. Their motivation is possibly the need to cause damage to the garages, plus a belief that causing the damage is not wrong. There may also be peer pressure to cause the damage. Modify It may be possible to improve security around the target or work with potential offenders. The New Pa v i l i o n Target The target in this scenario was not really the pavilion, but the drinks and cigarettes inside it. They were suitable because: - the drink and cigarettes provided items of value to a potential offender - the target items were small and portable, so there was no problem of inertia - although the beer and cigarettes were not visible from the outside of the building when the break-ins happened, the barrels outside are a good indication of what is inside - access to the target is no problem, the security is fairly primitive and because of the seclusion of the spot it would be fairly easy to get inside without being disturbed. Guardian There is a complete lack of capable guardians present, either human or otherwise. The site is secluded and is not overlooked by anyone. The only people near the site when it is not in use are the residents, and the trees screen their view. A complete boundary fence, gate, lighting and alarms are all absent. Offenders The most likely offenders seem to be the youths who use the deserted garages. The motivation is the beer and cigarettes. Modify The easiest feature to modify is the target, although a guardian such as a burglar alarm would also be useful.

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The Steel Container Target The target is the tools inside the container rather than the container itself. This is the least suitable target on the field. Although the equipment is of high value, it isn't visible inside the container and access is extremely difficult. Guardian Although the equipment is physically isolated, the container is a good guardian, and fencing round it would help. Offenders The offender in this case is almost certainly motivated by gain because of the value of the equipment. Modify Apart from making access to the container more difficult, there is not a lot that can be done to make it more secure. The Pitch and Roller Target There are two targets here, the pitch and the roller. The value once again would appear to be damage to the property of the club. The roller is visible and access to it is easy. Guardian Although the pitch and roller are near the houses, there are no capable guardians nearby. Offenders The offenders seem to be motivated by the desire to cause damage and the belief that it is not wrong to do so. Modify The best approach would be to modify the target and remove the roller to a more secure place. Trespass and Dog Fo u l i n g Target The target is the ground itself. There is value in being able to use it as a recreational area, it is visible and can't be moved, and there is good access to it. Guardian There is no capable guardian and the lack of a complete boundary fence also makes the problem worse. Offenders Offenders are the people who regularly use the ground. The motivation is the gain of a place to walk dogs, the local habit of using the ground for this purpose and the belief that it probably isn't a crime. Modify The easiest thing to modify is the target by restricting access, but signs saying it is private land would also help.

Now we’ve looked at Routine Activity Theory, we’ll use the next section of the case study to practice using the Ten Principles of Crime Prevention.

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Passport to Crime Reduction For the next exercise we have picked these two main problems: The new pavilion contains cigarettes and drinks, which makes it a potential target for burglary and attempted burglary. There is a large potential for trespass, dog fouling and other minor damage. Look at these problem areas and use the Ten Principles (starting on page 40) to: identify which principles apply to the problem suggest some specific methods to use. In the previous exercise you used the RAT analysis to identify whether you would modify the target, absence of a capable guardian or offender for each problem. Use those results to help you decide where to apply the Ten Principles. Take about 30 minutes to complete this exercise.
Case Study

Use additional paper if you need to.

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Remember, whatever your response it must be Appropriate, Realistic and

Here’s one way to apply the Ten Principles to the two problems. It doesn’t matter if you have chosen a different method to apply the Ten Principles as long as the method you used is Appropriate, Realistic and Cost effective. The New Pa v i l i o n Target Hardening. There’s plenty of scope here for target hardening, including: - completing the perimeter fence around the cricket ground - improving the doors and window shutters - fitting better locks to the doors - fitting a burglar alarm system. Target Removal. The cigarettes and drinks could be stored away from the pavilion if appropriate. Remove The Means To Commit Crime. The beer bar rels are a potential tool for breaking doors and windows and should be removed. Reduce the Payoff. This could be achieved by removing the stock of bottled beers and cigarettes from the pavilion when it is closed and putting notices up to advertise this. Access Control. This could apply to the gate to the ground. Proper target hardening to the ground would include some form of access control at the gate. Surveillance. There’s only limited scope for increasing surveillance because the pavilion is in a secluded spot. However, there are some things that could be done, including: - reducing the height of the trees to make the pavilion visible to the people living in the terraced housing - installing lighting to make the pavilion more visible - installing a CCTV system - it’s probably not cost effective to employ security patrols, but an increase in police patrols around the ground and at the garages might be a deterrent. Environmental Design. It is possible to redesign the ground, mainly by cutting down the trees and improving visibility. The area round the deserted garages could also be redesigned. Demolishing the garages and landscaping the area would deprive possible offenders of a place to congregate, plan offences and consume the proceeds.

Cost effective (ARC).

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Passport to Crime Reduction Rule Setting. Signs could be used around the ground and on the pavilion explaining: - when and by whom the ground can be used - what security measures are in place - the consequences of not abiding by the rules. Increase The Chance Of Being Caught. A combination of all the measures mentioned here would make the ground more secure, slow down the burglars and increase their chances of being caught. Deflecting Offenders. The cricket club and ground have good facilities, but they are underused. There is considerable scope to increase use of the pavilion and the club generally by: - increasing young people's involvement in the club - using the pavilions for other groups during the week - working with the community to identify how the area could be used. This would increase ownership of the area. If potential offenders were encouraged to become involved it would reduce the chance of them offending. Trespass and Dog Fo u l i n g Target Hardening. The target is the ground, so a perimeter fence with effective gates would harden the target. Target Removal. This is not feasible as the ground can't be moved, but a perimeter fence would help to a certain extent. Remove the Means to Commit Crime. This principle doesn't apply in this case. Reduce the Payoff. The payoff is being able to gain access to the ground. Making access more difficult reduces the payoff. Access Control. The fencing will provide access control. Surveillance. Cutting down the trees behind the new pavilion to increase visibility from the houses would help, as would increased police patrols. Environmental Design. There is some scope for landscaping the perimeter to encourage people to walk around fences rather than trying to climb over them. Rule Setting. Signs at the perimeter would be a good form of rule setting. Another option would be to investigate local by-laws about dog fouling and trespass and advertise the consequences. Increase the Chance of Being Caught. Fencing will increase the chance of being caught. Deflecting Offenders. Giving some access via community activities might deflect people from using the ground for other reasons.
Case Study

Obviously you can apply the same process to the other four main problems. You may like to try this to get even more practice applying the Ten Principles. Now we’ve scanned for problems, analysed the problems and made a response we can move onto the next section of the case study - assessment.

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Assessment
This stage of the problem solving process is essential. Evaluation is vital for learning lessons, finding out what worked and what didn’t, and discovering if the project has been successful in achieving what it set out to do. It is important to remember that: “Assessment is not an evaluation of the performance of those involved but what happened when the problem was tackled.” Every time you use the problem solving process and each time you use any of the crime reduction tools you should think of it as part of a learning process. Evaluation will provide a valuable source of information that you can build on. It will help to give you more knowledge of the best ways to implement the process and the tools you can use.
We have now completed Part Two of this passport. In the next part we will look at assessment/ evaluation.

For more information on assessment go to the next part which begins on page 71.

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Summary

S u m m a ry - Pa rt Tw o
In this part we looked at the four stages of the problem solving process; Scanning - identifying the problem Analysis - the details of the problem Response - taking appropriate action Assessment - evaluating the response. We also studied the crime reduction tools: The Problem Analysis Triangle - particularly useful in the Analysis stage of the process. SMART objectives - this and the next 2 tools are invaluable during the Response stage of the process. Routine Activity Theory The Ten Principles of crime prevention We looked at the Problem Analysis Triangle and the features of the location, the victim and the offender which helped to decide on the objectives for the project. The Routine Activity Theory states that for a crime to take place 3 things happen at the same time in the same place - a suitable target, an offender and the lack of a capable guardian. We looked at what makes a target suitable and what is a capable guardian. We also gave you the definitions and explanations of each of the Ten Principles of crime prevention Target Hardening Target Removal Remove the Means to Commit Crime Reduce the Payoff Access Control Surveillance Environmental Design Rule Setting Increase the Chance of Being Caught Deflecting Offenders

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Summary

The Case Study gave you an opportunity to practice using the problem solving process and to apply each of the crime reduction tools. It contained practical exercises about using the Problem Analysis Triangle, Routine Activity Theory and the Ten Principles of Crime Prevention.

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