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# RYERSON UNIVERSITY

## Department of Aerospace Engineering

AER 504 Aerodynamics
Mid-term Examination

Tuesday October 23, 2007

Instructions:

1. Calculators and 1 double sided formula sheet are permitted.
2. All questions have similar value, you are to attempt all problems.
4. You must show All
5. Blank work pages are included after every problem.
6. No communication of any form is permitted during the exam.
7. A table of integral formulas is given on the last page.
8. The length of time given for the exam is 1 hour 50 minutes.

Question 1: __________/10

Question 2: __________/10

Question 3: __________/10

Total:_________/30

Name:________________________________________

Student Number:______________________________

Section:___________________________________
2
A new type of wing configuration is being proposed that consists of a rotating cylinder.
Each cylinder is to be 2 meters in diameter and is expected to provide a lift coefficient of
C
L'
=8.8 based on the flow about its cross-sectional shape (shown in the diagram below).
Consider a free stream velocity of V

## =50m/s. A cross-section of the cylinder is given below.

Using a potential flow analysis for flow about a lifting cylinder to model the system, find;
( note: you must show all work to receive credit )
a) The value of the circulation about the cylinder. ( 2 marks )
b) The total number of stagnation points on the surface of the cylinder (if any). ( 1 mark )
c) The location of any stagnation points (give both r and values). ( 2 marks )
d) The location and C
p
value of the lowest pressure on the cylinder surface. ( 5 marks )

V

=50 m/s
=0

=/2

3
workspace
4
The wing of an aircraft flies through air at V

=1.0 kg/m
3
and pressure P

## =100 kpa. The chord length of the wing cross-section was

measured to be 2m ( as shown), the angle of attack was = 10 degrees. On the Lower surface the
pressure is constant at 105 kpa. On the upper surface, the shape of the surface and the pressure
coefficient are given by the functions provided in the figure below.
Viscous effects are not present
a) The normal and axial forces ( 4 marks )
. Find;
b) The lift and drag coefficients
c) Assuming that the moment due to axial forces is negligible, calculate the moment coefficient
MLE
. ( 3 marks ).
, C
L
, C
D
( 2 marks )
d) The location of the center of pressure along the x axis, x
cp
( 1 mark )

Lower surface
P =105 kpa, y(x) =0
:

y(x) =-0.2(x-1)
2
+0.2
Upper Surface:
C
p
(x) =-Sin(x/2)

V

=200 m/s,

=1.0 kg/m
3

P

=100 kpa

x
y

V

Upper Surface
Lower Surface
x =2
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
sin
x
C
p

P =105 kpa
5
workspace

6
A rectangular control volume is draw around an airfoil moving through air as shown. The
pressure and density are constant on all control volume boundary surfaces ( P
,

). The
entering velocity at 1 is U

## , while the velocity leaving 3 is given by the equation below. Both of

these velocities are in the x direction only. No air leaves through surface 2. A uniform velocity,
v
4
, in the y direction only leaves the control volume through surface 4.
Find as a function of U

,
,

, h and b;
a) Use continuity to find the value of the constant velocity v
4
( 3 marks)
b) The total lift force on the airfoil ( 3 marks )
c) The total drag force on the airfoil ( 4 marks )

Boundaries:
1. Uniform velocity; U

,
entering
2. No flow through surface
3. Velocity, U
3
(y), shown
4. Uniform velocity v
4
, in y
direction only
v
4
=constant
U

(

|
.
|

\
|
=

h
y
U y U

sin 5 . 0 1 ) (
3
L
D

y=h
y=0
x
x =0
x =b

7
workspace

8

Useful Trigonometric Integral Formulas

= ) cos(
1
) sin( ax
a
dx ax

= ) sin(
1
) cos( ax
a
dx ax

= ) 2 sin(
4
1
2
) ( sin
2
ax
a
x
dx ax
| |

+ = 2 ) ( sin ) cos(
3
1
) ( sin
2 3
ax ax
a
dx ax

+ = ) 4 sin(
32
1
) 2 sin(
4
1
8
3
) ( sin
4
ax
a
ax
a
x
dx ax

+ = ) 2 sin(
4
1
2
) ( cos
2
ax
a
x
dx ax
| |

+ = 2 ) ( cos ) sin(
3
1
) ( cos
2 3
ax ax
a
dx ax

+ + = ) 4 sin(
32
1
) 2 sin(
4
1
8
3
) ( cos
4
ax
a
ax
a
x
dx ax

= = )) ln(sec(
1
)) ln(cos(
1
) tan( ax
a
ax
a
dx ax
= = )) ln(sin(
1
)) ln(csc(
1
) cot( ax
a
ax
a
dx ax

+ = + = ))
2 4
ln(tan(
1
)) tan( ) ln(sec(
1
) sec(
ax
a
ax ax
a
dx ax

= = ))
2
ln(tan(
1
)) cot( ) ln(csc(
1
) csc(
ax
a
ax ax
a
dx ax

= ) cos( ) sin(
1
) sin(
2
ax
a
x
ax
a
dx ax x

= ) cos(
2
) sin(
2
) sin(
3
2 2
2
2
ax
a
x a
ax
a
x
dx ax x

= ) cos(
6
) sin(
6 3
) sin(
3
3 2
4
2 2
3
ax
a
x x a
ax
a
x a
dx ax x

+ = ) sin( ) cos(
1
) cos(
2
ax
a
x
ax
a
dx ax x

+ = ) sin(
2
) cos(
2
) cos(
3
2 2
2
2
ax
a
x a
ax
a
x
dx ax x

= ) sin(
6
) cos(
6 3
) cos(
3
3 2
4
2 2
3
ax
a
x x a
ax
a
x a
dx ax x

= ) ( sin
2
1
) cos( ) sin(
2
ax
a
dx ax ax

= ) 4 sin(
32
1
8
) ( cos ) ( sin
2 2
ax
a
x
dx ax ax

+
=
+
a m
ax
dx ax ax
m
m
) 1 (
) ( cos
) ( cos ) sin(
1

+
=
+
a m
ax
dx ax ax
m
m
) 1 (
) ( sin
) cos( ) ( sin
1
2 2
;
) ( 2
) ) sin((
) ( 2
) ) sin((
) sin( ) sin( n m
n m
x n m
n m
x n m
dx nx mx
+
+

2 2
;
) ( 2
) ) sin((
) ( 2
) ) sin((
) cos( ) cos( n m
n m
x n m
n m
x n m
dx nx mx
+
+
+

2 2
;
) ( 2
) ) cos((
) ( 2
) ) cos((
) cos( ) sin( n m
n m
x n m
n m
x n m
dx nx mx
+
+