The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Cyber Ethics

By : Mark Arvin Cembrano

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Philippines License. 1

Table of Contents:
The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The Market at the Bottom of the Pyramid Products and Services for the BOP BOP: A Global Opportunity The Ecosystem for Wealth Creation Reducing Corruption: Transaction Governance Capacity Development as Social Transformation

The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics
Foundations of Information Ethics Milestones in the History of Information and Computer Ethics Moral Methodology and Information Technology Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems Personality-Based, Rule-Utilitarian, and Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property 6. Informational Privacy: Concepts, Theories, and Controversies 7. Online Anonymity 8. Ethical Issues Involving Computer Security: Hacking, Hacktivism, and Counterkacking 9. Information Ethics and the Library Profession 10. Ethical Interest in Free and Open Source Software 11. Internet Research Ethics: The Field and Its Critical Issues 12. Health Information Technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science, and Uncertainty 13. Ethical Issues of Information and Business 14. Responsibilities for Information on the Internet 15. Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation 16. Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues 17. The Ethics of Cyber Conflict 18. A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment—A SoDIS Inspection 19. Regulation and Governance of the Internet 20. Information Overload
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

21. Email Spam 22. The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If 23. Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing 24. Censorship and Access to Expression 25. The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics 26. The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future 27. Intercultural Information Ethics

Cyber Ethics
Ethics and the Information Revolution Ethics On-Line Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in Computer Ethics Disclosive Computer Ethics Gender and Computer Ethics Is the Global Information Infrastructure a Democratic Technology Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and Theories to IT Contexts: Some Key Problems and Challenges 8. Just Consequentialism and Computing 9. The Internet as Public Space: Concepts, Issues, and Implications in Public Policy 10. The Laws of Cyberspace 11. Of Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace 12. Fahrenheit 451 2: Is Cyberspace Burning 13. Filtering the Internet in the USA: Free Speech Denied 14. Censorship, the Internet, and the Child Pornography Law of 1996: A Critique 15. PICS: Internet Access Controls Without Censorship 16. Internet Service Providers and Defamation: New Standards of Liability 17. Digital Millennium Copyright Act 18. Note on the DeCSS Trial 19. A Politics of Intellectual Property: Environmentalism for the Net 20. Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good 21. Is Copyright Ethical An Examination of the Theories, Laws, and Practices Regarding the Private 22. On the Web, Plagiarism Matters More Than Copyright Piracy 23. An Ethical Evaluation of Web Site Linking 24. The Cathedral and the Bazaar 25. Towards A Theory of Piracy for the Information Age
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

26. The Structure of Rights in Directive 95 46 EC 27. : Privacy Protection, Control of Information, and Privacy-Enhancing Technologies 28. Toward an Approach to Privacy in Public: Challenges of Information Technology 29. KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness 30. Data Mining and Privacy 31. Workplace Surveillance, Privacy, and Distributive Justice 32. Privacy and Varieties of Informational Wrongdoing 33. PICS: Internet Access Controls Without Censorship 34. Defining the Boundaries of Computer Crime: Piracy, Break-Ins, and Sabotage in Cyberspace 35. Terrorism or Civil Disobedience: Toward a Hacktivist Ethic 36. Web Security and Privacy: An American Perspective 37. The Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age 38. Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity 39. Ethical Considerations for the Information Professions 40. Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved 41. No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are Worse than None at All 42. Subsumption Ethics 43. Ethical Issues in Business Computing 44. The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting The Virtues

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The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid

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Fortune at the Bottom, of the Pyramid, Chapter 1: The Market at the Bottom of the Pyramid Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-EradicatingPublishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1234441981&sr=1-1 Quote: all of us are prisoners of our own socialization. The lenses through which we perceive the world are colored by our own ideology, experiences, and established management practices. Each one of the groups that is focusing on poverty alleviation –the World Bank, rich countries providing aid, charitable organizations, national governments, and the private sectoris conditioned by its own dominant logic. Let us, for example; examine the dominant logic of each group as it approaches the task of eradicating poverty. What I expect to learn: To gain knowledge about The Market at the Bottom of the Pyramid, learn and understand The Market at the Bottom of the Pyramid Review: This part of the chapter talks about The Market at the Bottom of the Pyramid. I used to be one of the people who think that poor people can’t buy things because they are too poor but I was wrong. Wrong to think lowly of the lower classes because they can purchase, we have to think that the poor are victims or burden. Think of them as normal being that are capable of being an entrepreneur and one of the great consumers of the product. This topic also discussed that we have to involve them in activities or give them partnership and etc where they will learn for it to be a win win situation. This topic also discussed the how the pyramids work economically where in the upper class is wealthy while the lower class is the poor people. What I learned: The power of dominant logic The influence of dominant logic The economic pyramid The nature of the BOP market There is money at the BOP The poor and high-cost economic ecosystems Access to BOP markets The BOP markets known to be brand-conscious The BOP market is connected BOP consumers accept advance technology readily 6

The market development imperative Creating the capacity to consume The need for new goods and services Benefits to the private sector

Integrative Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the Bottom of the pyramid? What is The Nature of the BOP Market? What is the power of the dominant logic? What is the economic pyramid? Where are the poor in the Economic Pyramid?

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Fortune at the Bottom, of the Pyramid, Chapter 1: Products and Services for the BOP Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-EradicatingPublishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1234441981&sr=1-1 Quote: More than 40 percent of India is media-dark, so TV- and radio-based massages are inappropriate methods to reach these consumers and educate them on product and service benefits. Not surprisingly, in BOP markets, education is a prerequisite to market development. Consider, for examples, the incidence of stomach disorders among children, especially diarrhea. More than 2 million children die of this malady every year, a totally preventable cause of death. What I expect to learn: To gain knowledge about Products and Services for the BOP , learn and understand Products and Services for the BOP Review: This part of the chapter talks about Products and Services for the BOP. Focusing on these 12 principles of innovation for BOP markets. Focus on price performance of products and services Innovation requires hybrid solutions. Scalable and transportable operations across countries, cultures and languages. Reduced resource intensity: eco-friendly products. Radical product redesign from the beginning: marginal changes to existing Western products will not work. 6. Build logistical and manufacturing infrastructure. 7. Deskill (services) work. 8. Educate (semiliterate) customers in product usage. 9. Products must work in hostile environments: noise, dust, unsanitary conditions, abuse, electric blackouts, water pollution. 10. Adaptable user interface to heterogeneous consumer bases. 11. Distribution methods should be designed to reach both highly dispersed rural markets and highly dense urban markets. 12. Focus on broad architecture, enabling quick and easy incorporation of new features. This was created to make poor people be competitive and to show if it’s for all or to see prove if it’s for wealthy people or poor people. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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What I learned: A philosophy for developing products and services for the BOP The twelve principles of innovation for BOP markets Making each of the principles happen Price performance Innovation hybrids Scale of operations Sustainable development: eco-friendly Identifying functionality of developed markets Process innovation Deskilling of work Education of customers Designing for hostile infrastructure Interfaces Distribution by accessing the customer Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define Price Performance? Define Hybrid Solution? Define Scalability? Define Eco-Friendly? Who is Prahalad?

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Fortune at the Bottom, of the Pyramid, Chapter 1: A Global Opportunity Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-EradicatingPublishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1234441981&sr=1-1 Quote: The micro encapsulation of iodine in salt to preserve the iodine in the harsh conditions of transportation, storage, and cooking in India has found market opportunities, storage, and cooking in India has found market opportunities in Africa, especially in Ivory Coast Kenya, and Tanzania. Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD) is common across the developing world, and the solution found in India has been transported across other similar markets with IDD by Uniliver. What I expect to learn: To gain knowledge about A Global Opportunity, learn and understand A Global Opportunity Review: This part of the chapter talks about A Global Opportunity. This more on discuss the 12 innovative principles, where in it is used by 4 billion people as their livelihood or I guess some where related to what I have said. It’s targeting the lower classes so they can have affluence. With this the lower class will have knowledge or develops create more entrepreneurs –it’s like a win-win situation because the government is handling poverty and by partnering with NGO causes harmony and awareness to all the people. What I learned: Engaging the BOP Local growth opportunities Local innovations and global opportunity BOP solutions for developed markets Lessons for MNCs from BOP markets Capital Intensity Sustainable development Innovations The costs of managing Learning to live in a network of relationships Integrative Questions: 1. Why is BOP effective? 2. How can BOP become a global opportunity? 10

3. What do you mean by sustainable development? 4. What are those aid agencies helping the society today? 5. What principle is the least important among those 12? Fortune at the Bottom, of the Pyramid, Chapter 1: The Ecosystem for Wealth Creation Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-EradicatingPublishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1234441981&sr=1-1 Quote: Underpinning this ecosystem is education across all levels. The individual’s entrepreneur in the village-the Shakti Amma, for example- is being educated to be a responsible entrepreneur. She learns about product, price, returns, and being an advisor and helpers to her customer in the village. When I interviewed one Shakti Amma, who had been an entrepreneur for less than six months, the impact of being part the ecosystem became obvious. What I expect to learn: To gain knowledge about The Ecosystem for Wealth Creation, learn and understand The Ecosystem for Wealth Creation. Review: This Part of the chapter talks about The Ecosystem for Wealth Creation. This mainly discusses the companies that are renowned or so call the private sectors. Mainly talking about the private sectors that targets profit and share their profit with the less fortunate with programs like outreach or free etc, some people might think this is just a scam so they can gain profit but I believe they are really trying to hard to help the poor. What I learned: Ecosystems for a developing country Learning the sanctity of contracts Reducing inequalities in contracts Building governance capabilities among the poor The essence of maturation model. Organization of the group Mobilizing the savings Investing those savings Access to bank capital The ecosystem for wealth creation Integrative Questions: 1. What are private sectors? 11

2. 3. 4. 5.

What are social organizations? Examples of social organizations? What was the symptom of a maturing economy? Is it really necessary to mobilize the savings?

Fortune at the Bottom, of the Pyramid, Chapter 1: Reducing Corruption: Transaction Governance Capacity Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-EradicatingPublishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1234441981&sr=1-1 Quote: Each country and economy might need a different portfolio of the elements of the TGC: one size might not fit all. The goal is to increase the elements of the TGC of society in such a way that a vibrant private sector can flourish. We need to recognize that each country is at a different starting point. What I expect to learn: To gain knowledge about Reducing Corruption: Transaction Governance Capacity, learn and understand Reducing Corruption: Transaction Governance Capacity. Review: That part of the chapter talks about Reducing Corruption: Transaction Governance Capacity. This topic talks about corruption. My opinion about this is every country has graft and corruption. No one is free from corruption but if people are corrupt it depends on the level of corruption. For me it has a level of corruption that is practice for example the corruption in the Philippines is greatly practice by the officials but in other countries like Singapore they are now one of the great countries which is blooming. Philippines once was the best countries but it has sink to its lowest because of corruption. Let me give the definition of Corruption from wikiepedia - Corruption is essentially termed as an "impairment of integrity, virtue or moral principle; depravity, decay, and/or an inducement to wrong by improper or unlawful means, a departure from the original or from what is pure or correct, and/or an agency or influence that corrupts. Basically that covers it. What I learned: Whether the poor are the poor TGC Building TGC The Andhra Pradesh e-Governance Story Intended transformation to citizen-centric governance 12

Corruption and e-governance eSeva centre for good governance the good governance model guiding principles of the CGG in Andhra Pradesh Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How do you define corruption? What is TGC? Are the poor really poor? . How can we stop corruption? What are private sectors?

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Fortune at the Bottom, of the Pyramid, Chapter 1: Development as Social Transformation Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-EradicatingPublishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1234441981&sr=1-1 Quote: it’s natural for us to ask, “If the involvement of the private sectors in BOP markets can have such a significant impact on social transformation, do we need check and balances?” Yes. We need to make sure that no organization abuses its power and influence, be it corrupt government or large firms. Fortunately, checks and balances are evolving rapidly. What I expect to learn: To gain knowledge about Development as Social Transformation, learn and understand Development as Social Transformation Review: That part of the chapter talks about Development as Social Transformation. This chapter talks about change. As we all know corruption is hard to stop because it’s the discipline of the people starting on oneself but if some how the people change their ways and tried to help each other the world will be a better place. Also it discusses sector who stops corruption but still my opinion if their doing their work to stop corruption in the Philippines, shouldn’t be any corrupt people that will get away with graft but still there are only human. Also mainly the target of this is the middle class and the lower class. So they would think that it’s better to be at the top of the pyramid but still the minds of people is still trap that the upper class or the top of the pyramids is the better life. What I learned: The transitions at the private sector and the BOP Breaking down barriers to communication BOP consumers upgrade Gaining access to knowledge Identity for the individual Evolving checks and balances The real test: from the pyramid to the diamond The shape of rural income distribution 14

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why should we alleviate corruption? Where does BOP stand in all of these? What does development as social transformation mean? What are the roles of the business in stopping corruption? Who should enforce the legal actions?

The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics

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Chapter 1: Foundations of Information Ethics Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: Hacking, understood as the unauthorized access to a (usually Computerized) information system, is another good example because it shows quite clearly the change in perspective. What I expect to learn: To know and gain knowledge about Foundations of Information Ethics Review: This chapter of the book is called Foundations of Information Ethics. I would like to say this part “An information ethics should be able to address and solve the ethical challenges arising in the infosphere.” I think this is somewhat right because we are in the information age but nothing is what is seems. Because as said in the book the more the better or such as information is given to you, like in some government movies for example “A Few Good Men by Aaron Sorkin” jack Nicholson said “you want the truth, you can’t handle the truth”. Back to the book, to much information is not good to your health because some information might be useless or some are in a grave importance. My point is. Like Einstein’s letters “A human being is part of the whole, called by us ‘universe,’ a part limited in time and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings, as something separated from the rest, a kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons close to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from our prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all humanity and the whole of nature in its beauty.” It saying that beauty can be appreciated but not alone can we see it but sometimes we need some others point of view to see what is really the beauty that can be seen. I believe that all people want to have company and don’t want to be alone. As stated in virtue ethics what is right and wrong depends on the teaching. 16

What I learned: IE AS AN ETHICS OF INFORMATIONAL RESOURCES IE AS AN ETHICS OF INFORMATIONAL PRODUCTS IE AS AN ETHICS OF THE INFORMATIONAL ENVIRONMENT THE LIMITS OF ANY MICROETHICAL APPROACH TO INFORMATION ETHICS INFORMATION ETHICS AS a MACROETHICS Moral Agents The Responsibilities of Human Agents Four Moral Principles TWO RECURRENT OBJECTIONS AGAINST IE Is IE Inapplicable? Does it Make Sense to Talk of Informational Entities and Agents? Integrative Questions: 1. Does it Make Sense to Talk of Informational Entities and Agents? 2. Is IE Inapplicable? 3. What is information ethics? 4. What are the four moral principles? 5. What are the Responsibilities of Human Agents?

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Chapter 2: Milestones in the History of Information and Computer Ethics Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: I wish to show that the human individual, capable of vast learning and study, which may occupy almost half of his life, is physically equipped, as the ant is not, for this capacity. Variety and possibility are inherent in the human sensorium—and is indeed the key to man’s most noble flights—because variety and possibility belong to the very structure of the human organism. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about the issue and to know the history of information and computer ethics. Review: This chapter of the book is called Milestones in the History of Information and Computer Ethics. The thought of information by Wiener was really extraordinary who too think that a man in the time of world war two. But as said in the book “The academic field of information ethics was born—unintentionally and almost Accidentally” saying it was accidentally but it really revolutionize today’s times. Wiener revolutionizes the world of information and computer because he was the one who created it. People at that time didn’t recognize the genius that he had developed, not until decades and decades until our times have come. As the world grows, the world changes as stated by Wiener “enormous potential for good and for evil” it will continue to give great strength to the people at this information age and also weakness depending on the use. People only react when they are affected if they don’t act meaning they don’t notice or they are ignoring it but sometimes when people are greatly affected they tend to react. So they have notice the changes because people through time grow or evolve into more. Information changes and grows or evolves; the only constant in this world is change. What I learned: History of Information and Computer Ethics 18

NORBERT WIENER.S FOUNDATION OF INFORMATION ETHICS Wiener.s Account of a Good Life Wiener.s Information Ethics Methodology COMPUTER ETHICS DEVELOPMENTS AFTER WIENER AND BEFORE MANER WALTER MANER.S COMPUTER ETHICS INITIATIVE DEBORAH JOHNSON.S INFLUENTIAL TEXTBOOK AND THE START OF THE ‘‘UNIQUENESS DEBATE’’ JAMES MOOR.S CLASSIC PAPER AND HIS INFLUENTIAL COMPUTER ETHICS THEORY THE PROFESSIONAL-ETHICS APPROACH OF DONALD GOTTERBARN COMPUTING AND HUMAN VALUES LUCIANO FLORIDI’S INFORMATION ETHICS THEORY THE EXPONENTIAL GROWTH OF COMPUTER ETHICS

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who is NORBERT WIENER? Who is JAMES MOOR? Who is WALTER MANER? Who is LUCIANO FLORIDI? Who is DEBORAH JOHNSON?

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Chapter 3: Moral Methodology and Information Technology Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: If moral philosophy were to get sidetracked by focusing on these examples in the real world, it would be surely more interesting to try and think about how we could come up with alternative designs of the situation and systems so as to prevent (1) loss of lives and (2) tragic moral dilemmas, instead of looking at actors in tragic and dilemmatic situations where they have to make choices at gunpoint with very little or no relevant information. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about the topic and to learn Moral Methodology and Information Technology Review: This topic Chapter talks about Moral Methodology and Information Technology. Moral methodology talks are related to pastoral responsiveness but were not talking about that. The discussion of moral methodology is kind of hard to understand but as the discussion moves forward it goes to the topic of information technology. Defining moral methodology is kind of your own views of something the combining it with an IT perspective. I think this topic talks about IT and when to use morality because as stated in this chapter there are many issues in IT that we have to understand. It’s more of a virtue ethics by Aristotle that the right and wrong depends on the decision but how it will act. Example of the 10 commandments of computer ethics is more like guidelines. Because in the decision what is right and what is wrong is more of moral but in IT we use guide lines to prove what is right and wrong for me that is. Like for copyright infringement and stealing there is a great difference but there are guidelines to prove what will be the verdict. What I learned: 20

Moral Methodology APPLIED ETHICS Generalism Particularism Reflective Equilibrium THE DESIGN TURN IN APPLIED ETHICS VALUE SENSITIVE DESIGN PACS Sinks Real-Time Emergency Medicine OTHER CONCEPTIONS OF METHOD IN COMPUTER ETHICS Integrative Questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is Moral Methodology? What is APPLIED ETHICS? What is Generalism? Define PACS Define SINKS

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Chapter 4: Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: In a narrow sense, the word “value” refers simply to the economic worth of an object. For example, the value of a computer could be said to be $2000. However, in the work described here, we use a broader meaning of the term wherein a value refers to what a person or group of people consider important in life.1 In this sense, people find many things of value, both lofty and mundane: their children, friendship, morning tea, education, art, a walk in the woods, nice manners, good science, a wise leader, clean air. What I expect to learn: To gain knowledge about Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems, learn and understand Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems Review: This Chapter talks about Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems. Let’s first discuss what Value Sensitive Design is, this is the first time I’ve heard about this Value Sensitive Design. Value Sensitive Design is a theoretically grounded approach to the design of technology that accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process. Meaning these talks about when designing o creating a technology we need to have moral values, because we will be the ones who will develop the technology for the benefit of humankind but it’s more of morality and conscience again virtue ethics. From the value sensitive design when you define it it’s sensitive design to value what you are developing or somewhat like that. When you look the ten commandments of computer ethics, the 9th and 10th commandments is being portrayed that thou shall think about. . . meaning thinking about not only for yourself but to the social order of everyone. What I learned: VALUE SENSITIVE DESIGN 22

Value Related Approaches to Values and System Design THE TRIPARTITE METHODOLOGY: CONCEPTUAL, EMPIRICAL, AND TECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS Conceptual Investigations Empirical Investigations Technical Investigations Multiple Empirical Methods VALUE SENSITIVE DESIGN.S CONSTELLATION OF FEATURES PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR USING VALUE SENSITIVE DESIGN Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Value Sensitive Design? Define Value? What does tripartite mean? What does technical investigation mean? Differentiate CONCEPTUAL, EMPIRICAL, AND TECHNICAL

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Chapter 5: Personality-Based, Rule-Utilitarian, and Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: Certainly the promise of huge profits is part of what drives authors and inventors to burn the midnight oil, but the promise need not be guaranteed by ownership. Fritz Machlup has argued that patent protection is not needed as an incentive for corporations, in a competitive market, to invest in the development of new products and processes. What I expect to learn: To gain knowledge and to understand Justifications of Intellectual Property, Also to learn Justifications of Intellectual Property. Review: This chapter talks about Personality-Based, Rule-Utilitarian, and Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property. Intellectual Property is the ownership of something thought in the mind. It can be artistic and commercial as stated in the Wikipidia. Just to clarify things here the definition by Wikipedia “Intellectual property (IP) are legal property rights over creations of the mind, both artistic and commercial, and the corresponding fields of law.[1] Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; ideas, discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights and trade secrets.” As I figured out right now this topic talks about copyright. As said by adam moore that pirating or other forms of intellectual property stating that authors and inventors who better our lives by creating intellectual works have rights to control what they produce. This topic as I have said talks about Intellectual Property and how to protect the rights of the developer or creator. What I’ve learned: Intellectual Property 24

PERSONALITY-BASED JUSTIFICATIONS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY THE RULE-UTILITARIAN INCENTIVES BASED ARGUMENT FOR PROPERTY Problems for the Rule-Utilitarian Incentives Based Argument Alternatives to Copyrights Alternatives to Patents Trade Secret and Social Utility Long-Term Benefits The Utilitarian Rejoinder THE LOCKEAN JUSTIFICATION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY A Pareto-Based Proviso Bettering, Worsening, and the Baseline Problem

INTELLECTUAL

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are the Long-Term Benefits? What is Intellectual Property? Who is Adam Moore? Who is Locke What does Rule Utilitarian mean?

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Chapter 6: Informational Privacy: Concepts, Theories, and Controversies Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: Philosophers generally distinguish between intrinsic values—that is, where some things are valued for their own sake—and instrumental values, where things are valued because they provide a means for achieving some end or end. What I expect to learn: To Gain knowledge about Informational Privacy and to learn and understand Informational Privacy Review: This Chapter talks about Informational Privacy: Concepts, Theories, and Controversies. This topic talks particularly talks about privacy. Differentiating being left alone and having privacy, such example given by this topic in the book, here are the major topics in this chapter. Physical privacy as the freedom a person enjoys from sensory intrusion, which is “achieved thanks to restrictions on others, Ability to have bodily interactions with (that person).” Decisional privacy as “freedom from procedural interference . . . achieved thanks to the exclusion of others from decisions (concerning, e.g., education, health care, career, work, marriage, faith). Psychological privacy (mental privacy”) as to describe “freedom from psychological interference Informational Privacy is private data like medical, records and etc. that only people who are authorized can view it. Also these topics were discussed lightly. I will quote the parts were in it was emphasized “We also examined some ways in which some relatively recent information/computer technologies have introduced informational privacy concerns that affect four broad categories: consumer 26

privacy, medical privacy, employee privacy, and location privacy. Finally, we considered some proposals for comprehensive policies that aim at protecting informational privacy.”

What I learned: Physical privacy Decisional privacy Psychological privacy Informational Privacy THE CONCEPT OF PRIVACY Unitary, Derivative, and Cluster Definitions of Privacy Interest-Based Conceptions versus Rights-Based Conceptions of Privacy FOUR DISTINCT KINDS OF PRIVACY: PHYSICAL/ACCESSIBILITY, DECISIONAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL/MENTAL, AND INFORMATIONAL PRIVACY Privacy as Non intrusion involving one’s Physical Space: Physical/Accessibility Privacy Privacy as Noninterference Involving One’s Choices: Decisional Privacy Privacy as Non intrusion/Noninterference Involving One’s Thoughts and One’s Personal Identity: Psychological/Mental Privacy Privacy as Having Control Over/Limiting Access to One. Personal Information: Informational Privacy THEORIES OF INFORMATIONAL PRIVACY The Restricted Access Theory The Control Theory The Restricted Access/Limited Control (RALC) Theory Three ‘‘Benchmark Theories” of Informational Privacy Privacy as Contextual Integrity An “Ontological Interpretation” of Informational Privacy Categorial Privacy

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why is Privacy Valued? What Kind of Value is Privacy? What is Physical privacy? What is Psychological privacy? What are the concepts of CONCEPT OF PRIVACY?

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Chapter 7: Online Anonymity Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: Anonymity is achievable because there are ways in which persons can deliberately set up mechanisms by which to block the coordination of their traits with others. But anonymity may also occur “spontaneously,” as noted earlier. In some contexts, for instance in complex modern life, where persons may occupy many social orders that do not overlap or are not connected with one another, traits that identify a person in one social order may not be readily coordinately with traits that are salient in another social order. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Online Anonymity, to understand and to learn Online Anonymity. Review: This Chapter talks about Online Anonymity. Let us define first what is Anonymity is derived from the Greek word meaning "without a name" or "namelessness". In colloquial use, the term typically refers to a person, and often means that the personal identity, or personally identifiable information of that person is not known (based on wikipedia) basically it talks about having privacy or protecting your identity. (1) Anonymity for the sake of furthering action by the anonymous person, or agent anonymity; (2) Anonymity for the sake of preventing or protecting the anonymous person from actions by others, or recipient anonymity; (3) Anonymity for the sake of a process, or process anonymity. This topic was also discussed in the book:

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(1)With anonymity for the sake of enabling action the action could be good, bad, or neutral, and presumably ethical evaluation of any given case will depend on the particular action or range of action that anonymity enables. Meaning the people who has Anonymity doesn’t want to be recognizing by their action even if it’s a good motives. (2) Anonymity could serve the primary purpose of preventing actions by others or more generally protecting the anonymous person from being the recipient of actions by others, hence, for short, “recipient anonymity. These protect people from discrimination because some people become racist or when you have a disease the person will be treated unfairly. (3) Anonymity could also be for the sake of preserving the validity of a process. This is the type of case where the anonymity is primarily or also for the purpose of some other goal than enabling or protecting particular (anonymous) person(s). This is for protecting people who are without bias and without taking sides What I’ve learned: Online Anonymity ANONYMITY AS A FEATURE OF COMPLEX SOCIAL STRUCTURES THE CONCEPT OF ANONYMITY ANONYMITY AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Data Mining, Tracking, and User’s Presumption of Anonymity Anonymity and Attribution Bias Anonymity and Expression of Self Globalization of Online Activity Anonymity and Identity Theft PURPOSES AND ETHICS OF ANONYMITY Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Online Anonymity? Who Luciano Floridi is? What is the purposes anonymity? Define Identity Theft? What is the Concept of Anonymity?

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Chapter 8: Ethical Issues Involving Computer Security: Hacking, Hacktivism, and Counterkacking Quote: Nevertheless, intrusions intended to cause harm out of malice are generally wrong. Although it is sometimes permissible to inflict harm on another person when necessary to secure a greater good, a malicious intention does not seek a greater good. This is not to say that it is necessarily wrong for one party to hack into another party.scomputer for the purpose of causing harm. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Computer Security: Hacking, Hacktivism, and Counterkacking, to learn and understand the issues under Computer Security: Hacking, Hacktivism, and Counterkacking. Review: This Chapter talks about Computer Security: Hacking, Hacktivism, and Counterkacking. I think this is one of the key topics of this book because as we all know there are type of hacker for example the hacktivist, ethical hackers and so on and so on. We all know trespassing is against the law but is trespassing in your computer or so call hacking to your computer is bad. It said in the book that it depends on the situation why are you hacking. If you’re hacking to get some or prove justice then you’re a white hacker but if you’re doing it for self interest then otherwise. The whole idea of this topic that cyber trespassing is bad as the same as trespassing physically. Civil Disobedience (CD) is spreading as people said CD there is nothing wrong on doing this because some government are just to tight that even some small features for example friendster in china it is banned. So in some areas hacking is good but discussing this morally it goes to depending on what your are doing. People who do hacking should be accountable for their action. They should states what they are. If they are a cracker or a cyber terrorist. What I’ve learned: THE PRIMA FACIE CASE AGAINST HACKING OVERCOMING THE PRIMA FACIE CASE: HACKING MOTIVATED BY BENIGN PURPOSES The Social Benefits of Benign Intrusions Benign Intrusions as Preventing Waste 30

Benign Intrusions as Exercising the Right to a Free Flow of Content HACKTIVISM: HACKING AS POLITICALLY MOTIVATED ACTIVISM DISOBEDIENCE CD and Morality Hacktivism Hacktivism Morally Justified as CD HACKING BACK: ACTIVE RESPONSE TO COMPUTER INTRUSIONS The Active Response Spectrum Relevant Moral Principles A Principle Allowing Force in Defense of Self and Others Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define Hacktivism? What is Hacktivism? What is CD? What are the Relevant Moral Principles? What is a cracker?

AND

CIVIL

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Chapter 9: Information Ethics and the Library Profession Quote: While we do not wish to take a position on the controversies concerning how to define information, for the purposes of this discussion, we will use information to mean “meaningful data” (see Fetzer (2004)). Thus, we are not limiting “information” to content that is accurate (see Floridi (2005)), for this would exclude too much of what information professionals do. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Information Ethics and the Library Profession, learn and understand the Information Ethics and the Library Profession. Review: This chapter talks about Information Ethics and the Library Profession. Let me first define what a librarian is. A librarian is one who organizing and colleting information. In short librarian gives information to people who are looking for knowledge. There was one cartoon that I watch the old definition of a librarian I think? It was an all knowing being. That he collect information and stores it in his library. To put short librarians are the one who stores knowledge and to preserve. This means not only by storing knowledge but preserving it. The concept of it is the librarian task is different that defining it there are many kinds of librarian and has many definitions. Public librarian also are affected by ethical issues same as the other. I will also give the five laws of library science. (1) Books are for use. (2) Every person his or her book. (3) Every book its reader. (4) Save the time of the reader. (5) The library is a growing organism.
What I’ve learned: THE CORE VALUE OF THE LIBRARY PROFESSION SELECTION, BIAS, AND NEUTRALITY CLASSIFICATION AND LABELING

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CHILDREN’S ACCESS TO INFORMATION

Integrative Questions: 1. What What What What is a Library Profession? is a Librarian? is the difference of a public librarian and corporate librarian? are the five laws of library science?

2. 3. 4. 5.

What does a librarian do?

Chapter 10: Ethical Interest in Free and Open Source Software Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: The fact that this bazaar style seemed to work, and work well, came as a distinct shock. As I learned my way around, I worked hard not just at individual projects, but also at trying to understand why the Linux world not only didn’t fly apart in confusion but seemed to go from strength to strength at a speed barely imaginable to cathedral-builders. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Ethical Interest in Free and Open Source Software, learn and understand Ethical Interest in Free and Open Source Software. Review: This Chapter talks about Ethical Interest in Free and Open Source Software. To start this chapter let first define what open source is, in my own definition it’s for all meaning all can access but to be more specific here the definition by wikipedia “Open source is an approach to design, development, and distribution offering practical accessibility to a product's source (goods and knowledge). Some consider open source as one of various possible design approaches, while others consider it a critical strategic element of their operations.” Then Free software “Free software or software libre is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things and to prevent consumer-facing hardware manufacturers from preventing user modifications to their hardware. Free software is available gratis (free of charge) in most cases. Richard Stallman was the developer of FS but people are criticizing both FS and OS. I think this topic is more about the money but Richard Stallman said that “the golden rule requires that if I like a program, I must share it with other people who like it.” He also stressed out that programmers have the duty to write free software that selling those is morally wrong and that is 33

what he meant when he said “people who make their profit out of the programs their created making other people not share their programs. Personally I have heard that programming was at first was just a game but many people take it as a career for profit but Richard Stallman said that if you profit from this it lowers the sympathy for knowledge and humane. OSS now is Eric Raymond and Bruce Perens were they are telling the people they are obligated to share their programs

What I’ve learned: Opensource Free Software The History of Free and Open Source Software Critiques of Free and Open Source Software The Controversy Regarding GPL Version 3 WHY OSS FLOURISHES The Motivations of OSS Developers Autonomy Open Source and Accountability The Ethical Responsibilities of Software Developers The Quality of OSS Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is a Free Software? What is an Open Source Software? What is Autonomy? Who are Eric Raymond and Bruce Perens? who is Richard Stallman

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Chapter 11: Internet Research Ethics: The Field and Its Critical Issues Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: A key decision for Internet researchers is often discipline based, that is, do we treat our “subjects” as subjects (as is characteristic of the social sciences) and thereby invoke familiar human subjects protections, and/or do we treat our “subjects” as posters, as authors (as is characteristic of the humanities)? If the latter is the case, then far from emphasizing the need for anonymity and confidentiality, we are rather dealing with posters who intend to act as public agents online. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Internet Research Ethics: The Field and Its Critical Issues learn and understand Internet Research Ethics: The Field and Its Critical Issues. Review: This chapter talks about Internet Research Ethics: The Field and Its Critical Issues. This talks about using IRE for research purposes. From the past that people who doesn’t use internet to the age of now. Basically people now want to develop to develop more protocols, evaluation for web based because times have changes and the ethics before need to be modified for the information age. Also they want to extinct the hard copy information such as book and turn into soft copy. It’s a known fact it will be close to that, to make it online and virtual accessible to anyone. This chapter also talks about our previous topics and the challenges about privacy, anonymity, copyright and many more.

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Also this chapter talks about social networks where million and millions of people were suck into it because games and social interactivity but the question is their privacy protected. What I’ve learned: BACKGROUND AND MAJOR ISSUES IN THE LITERATURE Philosophical Foundations: Sources, Frameworks, and Initial Considerations Emerging issues Copyright Research with Minors Recruitment Revealing Identities Public versus Private Spaces

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Revealing of Identities? What are the emerging issues? What is IRE? What is CFR? What is deontology?

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Chapter 12: Health Information Technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science, and Uncertainty Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: It is sadly and too often the case that many professionals regard ethics as a source of codes for the edification of the not-yet-virtuous, as a place where pointy-headed boffins pass judgment on heathens, as an office to call in search of someone with a horse and a sword to come .round to smite the evildoers. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Health Information Technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science, and Uncertainty, to learn and understand Health Information Technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science, and Uncertainty. Review: This chapter talks about Health Information Technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science, and Uncertainty. This topic is more of a knowledge seeking. Because some people as we all know having an edge over people is some perspective. By using this uncertainty reduction, ethically reasonable principles, and professional standards. Also Goodman said that ethics or science answers our question depending on what our perspective is. When science can’t answer it we go to ethics and goes like a circle that circulates. This improves our understanding of things. As said by Walt Disney “keep moving forward” as we fail we learn, to gain success is good but we learn nothing.

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Define what a tool is to be used by people but some people just criticize the value of a tool. But the tool is still being used even if criticize. It goes to show that even if people judge things they still look at it blindly that it is still useful. What I’ve learned: PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALITY CLINICAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS Diagnostic Expert Systems Prognostic Scoring Systems ‘‘The Standard View” and ‘‘Progressive Caution” PERSONAL HEALTH RECORDS Decision support Status of the professions

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is privacy? What is confidentiality? What is the clinical decision support system? What is Decision Support Define Status of the professions?

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Chapter 13: Ethical Issues of Information and Business Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: One needs to be aware that this is not the only interpretation of the shareholder concept. An alternative interpretation is that it is meant to strengthen the interest of the shareholders against the power of management. This can be ethically motivated, and the term “shareholder value” then stands for a defense against managerial excesses. In public debate this understanding is not as present as the one outlined above. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Ethical Issues of Information and Business, learn and to understand Ethical Issues of Information and Business. Review: This chapter talks about Ethical Issues of Information and Business. If you read this part of the book you can see this is the part of cause and effect of ethics in the business. Privacy is the big issue and intellectual property, because in IT there is more to it than the gadgets and etc it revolves in the business, to above the competitors you have to be more self-sufficient and has a game plan or strategy. According to Bernd Carsten Stahl “ethics is arguably more about raising questions than giving answers” this means ethics can easily be answer so people think of question so they can prevent. Being more annalistic meaning you can see more of the big picture. When you this it raise your awareness about what is happening to your surrounding. In 39

this you use this three central approaches “the corporate social responsibility approach, shared values and norms, and stakeholder approach.” So with this approaches we increase social awareness that give idea to people so they can tell what they believe in. meaning it sharpens their mind and gives open to opinion so they can prove what right and what is wrong. What I’ve learned: APPROACHES TO ETHICAL ISSUES IN BUSINESS AND INFORMATION The Concept of Business Business Ethics Shareholders and Stakeholders Shared Norms and Values Business Ethics and Computer Ethics MICROLEVEL INFLUENCE OF BUSINESS ON ETHICS AND INFORMATION The Impact of Business on Privacy: Employee Surveillance The Ethical Response to Employee Surveillance The Three Central Approaches The Impact of Business on Intellectual Property The Ethical Response to Intellectual Property Protection THE MACROLEVEL INFLUENCE OF BUSINESS ON ETHICS AND INFORMATION Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is business Ethics? Who is Bernd Carsten Stahl? What are the Three Central Approaches What is Employee Surveillance? What is Computer Ethics?

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Chapter 14: Responsibilities for Information on the Internet Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: Some purposes and objectives can be presumed to belong to all or most members of the human species, communities, and groups on the basis of their characteristics and needs. Thus, information can be functional merely for specific individuals, or it can be functional for everyone or for groups of people. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Responsibilities for Information on the Internet, learn and understand Responsibilities for Information on the Internet. Review: This Chapter talks about Responsibilities for Information on the Internet. For me I think there is still no law for the internet because the law for legal is just being use as guidelines for the internet. Because still there are some act in the internet that are not tolerated, I know I am being bias because in legal law there are still act that are not punishable but still in the internet there are more things that are not tolerated and justified by the law. Again in the 10 commandments of computer the 9th and 10th says thou shall think about meaning it’s still a decision by the person. Also I will point out the two major problems of reliability. (a) People lack the necessary expertise to assess information on the basis of content criteria, and they also lack the necessary expertise to assess information on the basis of 41

pedigree criteria. In this case, the problems are due to a lack of competence of the users. (b) People lack the expertise to assess information on the basis of content criteria, and it is impossible for them to test the information with the help of pedigree criteria. This is the case when the users are, in principle, competent in using pedigree criteria, but the information is presented in such a way that there are no indicators or markers of conformity with pedigree criteria. Also I would like to point out what to do when encountering incompetent users (1) The creation of new credibility-conferring systems, such as certification systems, allowing us to use pedigree criteria with regard to (online) information, when such systems are lacking. (2) Raising the visibility of indicators or markers of reliability of information (according to pedigree criteria). (3) Raising expertise and background knowledge in all users (to enable them to recognize reliability on the basis of pedigree criteria). (4) Raising the awareness of the varying qualities of information. I pointed this out because some people are just plain stubborn that they just ignore the information given and blame the system, I am talking based on my experience because some people just criticize not knowing all the information in short some people are just two judgmental What I’ve learned: CONDITIONS OF RESPONSIBILITY ISPs AND CLEARLY HARMFUL OR OFFENSIVE INFORMATION INFORMATION IN GENERAL THE RESPONSIBILITIES INVOLVED Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are the conditions for Responsibility? What are the two major problems of reliability? Who is Anton Vedder? What are the responsibilities involved? What is information in general?

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Chapter 15: Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: In the computer era, the word “virtual” came to refer to things simulated by a computer, like virtual memory, which is memory that is not actually built into a processor but nevertheless functions as such. Later, the scope of the term “virtual” has expanded to include anything that is created or carried by a computer and that mimics a “real” equivalent, like a virtual library and a virtual group meeting. The computer based meaning of “virtual” conforms more to the traditional meaning of “virtual” as “practically but not formally real” than with “unreal. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation, to learn and understand Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation. Review: This topic talks about Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation. My opinion for this is topic extraordinary. The first thing that comes in my mind is that Virtual Reality is like a world that is another to make it thing simple another world and the computer simulation is the law inside the virtual reality. Let’s briefly discussed what and the discovery of virtual reality based from the book - Virtual reality (VR) technology emerged in the 1980s, with the development and marketing of systems consisting of a head-mounted display (HMD) and data suit or data glove attached to a computer. These technologies simulated three-dimensional (3D) environments 43

displayed in surround stereoscopic vision on the head-mounted display. The user could navigate and interact with simulated environments through the data suit and data glove, items that tracked the positions and motions of body parts and allowed the computer to modify its output depending on the recorded positions. Basically to define it is just a Sci-Fi where in you are in a game; you can interact with people or do what ever you want. And this chapter I only discussed the main topic I didn’t discussed the dark side of Virtual Reality for example Virtual Pornography and Scamming. What I’ve learned: BACKGROUND: THE TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Virtual Reality Computer Simulation Applications The Distinction between the Virtual and the Real Evaluating the Virtual as a Substitute for the Real

REPRESENTATION AND SIMULATION: ETHICAL ISSUES Misrepresentations, Biased Representations, and Indecent Representations Virtual Child Pornography Depiction of Real Persons BEHAVIOR IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS: ETHICAL ISSUES Avatars, Agency, and Identity Behavior in Single-User VR VIRTUAL REALITY, SIMULATION, AND PROFESSIONAL ETHICS Computer Games and Values Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Virtual Reality What is Computer Simulation? Who is Philip Brey? Virtual Child Pornography What are the Computer Games and Values?

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Chapter 16: Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: In Shannon and Weaver, “Noise” means anything that corrupts information as it moves along a communication channel. More recently, it has been used to refer to the degradation of information, not only during transmission, but also during storage, whether in magnetic memory or in molecules of DNA (Johnson, 1987). What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues learn and understand Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues. Review: This Chapter Talks about Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues. This topic very complex to explain but Ill gives my best to explain it to put it simple. Based on what Antonio Marturano said – that if molecular biology is being misused there will be an effect on people or consequence. Basically in short there is consequence as said. In his own words he said that - The idea of “genetic information” (Fig. 16.1) is that genes containing an amount of information (the so-called TACG amino acids sequence) and able to build a human being up is 45

today a seldom challenged triviality. This idea is fundamental to the so called “Central Dogma” of genetics. The “Central Dogma”, as originally formulated by Crick, is a negative hypothesis, which states that information cannot flow downward from protein to DNA. This really hard to understand but base on my intellect that DNA or are so called genetics are information that is stored but if the technology used to it is bad, the consequence can be very bad. Or some what like that. What I’ve learned: INFORMATION THEORY AND THE NOTION OF GENETIC INFORMATION The Concept of Information The Notion of Genetic Information A SEMANTIC OR A SYNTACTIC THEORY OF GENETIC INFORMATION THE CELL AS COMPUTER MACHINERY ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF GENETIC INFORMATION

Integrative Questions:
1. Who is Antonio Marturano? 2. What is “Central Dogma” of genetics? 3. What was formulated by Crick? 4. What does Genetic Information mean? 5. What did Berlinski contribute?

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Chapter 17: The Ethics of Cyber Conflict Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about The Ethics of Cyber Conflict, learn and understand The Ethics of Cyber Conflict Ethical Issues. Review: This Topic talks about The Ethics of Cyber Conflict. Mainly there are three topics cyber warfare at the state level, hacktivism conducted by non-state actors, and active response. If you have watch die hard 3.0 you will know the consequence of this cyber terrorism and etc. lets start with cyber warfare at the state level, people might say that this treat is minimal that no will get hurt but cyber warfare at the state level is really a bad things because it would attack you physically but will attack you internally just like a virus because it’s a crisis not only you but the whole nation will suffer. They would drop bombs that will kill thousands but the catch is all the people in your country or the world will suffer. The second topic is hacktivism, let me discuss “Hack back” is a form of active response that uses hacking to counter a 47

cyber attack. Basically it the opposite of hack back is hacktivism. There are two principal two track hacking. The first involves using invasive tracebacks in order to locate the source of an attack. The second involves striking back at an attacking machine in order to shut it down or at least cause it to stop attacking.

What I’ve learned:
CYBER WARFARE AT THE STATE LEVEL Jus ad Bellum—The Law of Conflict Management Jus in Bello—the Law of War CYBER ATTACKS BY NONSTATE ACTORS Just Cause for Hacktivism Conduct of Hacktivism Other Ethical Frameworks for Hacktivism ACTIVE RESPONSE AND HACK BACK Hack Back and Force Conduct of Hack Back

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is CYBER WARFARE? What is hacktivism? What is Cyber terrorism? What are the two principles of Back Hack? What is Jus in Bello?

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Chapter 18: A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment—A SoDIS Inspection Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: During this phase the Positive Modification Form is revisited to tidy up the positive suggestions before turning the document over to management for further review. The results of each inspection are used to modify the inspection process details for subsequent inspections. The addition of identified concerns to the inspection model for a particular sector, project, or context is consistent with and supports a continuous process improvement strategy such as the CMM or CMMI (Paulk, 1995). What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment—A SoDIS Inspection, learn and understand A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment—A SoDIS Inspection Review: This Chapter talks about A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment—A SoDIS Inspection. My own principle is we all have a choice but sometimes ironically the choice chooses for us. This topic talks about developing SoDIS. Let me define SoDIS - Software 49

Development Impact Statement. It was developed because like an environmental impact statement, is used to identify potential negative impacts of a proposed system and specify actions that will mediate those impacts a SoDIS is intended to assess impacts arising from both the software development process and the more general obligations to various stakeholders. What I’ve learned: EVOLVING PRACTICES FOR RISK ASSESSMENT Limitations of the Generic Standards Ethical Risks SODIS AUDIT PROCESS Software Development Impact Statemen Stakeholder Identification SoDIS Stakeholders Identification Identification of Tasks or Requirements Identify Potential Ethical Issues RESEARCH PROJECT The Inspection Process

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is SoDIS? What is Risk Assessment? Who is Don Gotterbarn? How do you identify a stake holder? How do you process SoDIS Audit?

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Chapter 19: Regulation and Governance of the Internet Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: “Never before had the processing of material flows threatened to exceed, in both volume and speed, the capacity of technology to contain them. For centuries most goods had moved with the speed of draft animals down roadway and canal, weather permitting. This infrastructure, controlled by small organizations of only a few hierarchical levels, supported even national economies. Suddenly—owing to the harnessing of steam power—goods could be moved at the full speed of industrial production, night and day and under virtually any conditions, not only from town to town but across entire continents and around the world.” What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Regulation and Governance of the Internet, learn and understand Regulation and Governance of the Internet. Review: This Chapter talks about Regulation and Governance of the Internet. Obviously we have to know or we have to justify the use of internet. Someone to maintain and govern the internet, to give justice I think; because without regulation it would be chaos and disaster. Out of the internet we have rules and regulation to justify the act. We are lid by the president of our 51

country. Same as the internet someone must govern the internet for things that are happening in the web. What I’ve learned: CONTENT REGULATION EFFECTIVE REGULATION REGULATION: TECHNICAL ISSUES THE CURRENT SITUATION ACROSS BORDERS INTERNET REGULATION: NORMATIVE ISSUES CENSORSHIP REGULATION OF THE INTERNET: MORAL ARGUMENTS REGULATION AND EFFICIENCY REGULATION ACROSS LEGAL JURISDICTIONS

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Content Regulation? What is effective regulation? What is Censorship? Why do we need Governance in the internet? What are the technical issues

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Chapter 20: Information Overload Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: “It is worth noting the terminological anachronism deployed by this group of historians in the application of the rubric of .information overload. To the early modern period. The word information. Itself appears little if at all in the sources to which these historians refer. Indeed, the use of .information. To mean something abstract and quantifiable (rather than particular knowledge) does not appear until the early twentieth century, and the usage .information overload. is even later -Rosenberg What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Information Overload, learn and understand Information Overload Review: This Chapter talks about Information Overload. Let us first define information overload, for me information overload is you have too much info or to much data that you can’t store it 53

anymore but based on the book Information Overload is Exposure to or provision of too much information; a problematic situation or state of mental stress arising from this (June 11, 2007)].. Refers to the state of having too much information to make a decision or remain informed about a topic. Large amounts of historical information to dig through, a high rate of new information being added, contradictions in available information, and a low signal-to-noise ratio make it difficult to identify what information is relevant to the decision. The lack of a method for comparing and processing different kinds of information can also contribute to this effect. [Wikipedia, retrieved (June 11, 2007)]. According to David M. Levy that Information overload, as we have seen, involves more than just the exposure of an agent to excessive amounts of information: that agent must also suffer certain negative effects as a result. Meaning sometimes we have to experience to know things.

What I’ve learned: INFORMATION OVERLOAD More than Information A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PHRASE CAUSES OF INFORMATION OVERLOAD CONSEQUENCES OF INFORMATION OVERLOAD

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. WHAT IS INFORMATION OVERLOAD? What is Information? What is Reality? What is Ever-Present Phenomenon? Who is David M. Levy

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Chapter 21: Email Spam Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: In ethical analysis, there is a three-part division of policies: some that virtually everyone would impartially accept as an ethical public policy (e.g., sending a friendly birthday email to one’s parents), some that virtually nobody would accept as an ethical public policy (e.g., sending a virus in an email that destroys the receiver’s hard disk), and some about which there is disagreement as to whether they should be accepted as ethical public policy (e.g., NFUCBE). What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Email Spam, learn and understand about Email Spam. Review: This Chapter talks about Email Spam. Based on my experience this is very annoying and sometimes it just flooding. I don’t really know how the spam was sent to my email but 55

sometimes the reasons is the organization or group was sent by an unknown member. Basically let’s define Email Spam definition from Wikipedia - also known as junk e-mail, is a subset of spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by e-mail. A common synonym for spam is unsolicited bulk e-mail (UBE). Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that email is unsolicited and sent in bulk. "UCE" refers specifically to unsolicited commercial e-mail. As said by Wikipedia it’s junk mail. This chapter also discusses the kinds of spam more of the content of the spam were in sometimes it may contain junk or useless information to the user and sometimes a virus that affect your computer. Some spam are indorsing their product or people but the dark side of that is sometimes of spam mail that gives information are used for fraud or tricking people. It’s really easy to identify a spam but people who are not IT oriented can be easily fooled. What I’ve learned: A SHORT HISTORY OF THE TERM ‘‘SPAM’’ Intent of the Sender Consequences to the Receiver Consent of the Receiver Relationship between the Sender and the Receiver Number of Identical Emails Sent Illegality ENVISIONING THE SPAM SPACE: SPECIFIC EMAILS EXHIBIT COMBINATIONS OF CHARACTERISTICS Deceptive Emails Meant to Defraud Are Condemned, Spam or Not Emails Between Well-Meaning Friends Are Probably Not Spam THE ETHICS OF ANTISPAM MEASURES The Ethics of Doing Nothing Require Authentication Before Email Is Delivered Changing the Economics of Email Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Spam? What are the content of Spam? Who is Keith W. Miller? Why do people sent Spam? What the intent of the sender of spam email?

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Chapter 22: The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: A particularly important form of non infringing plagiarism concerns the use of ideas when there is no copy of the form of expression. Intrinsic to the theory of copyright law is the claim that copyrights may not impede the free expression of ideas that, in the United States anyway, are seen as central to an extremely important right to “free speech.” To take a very recent example, the author of the popular novel The Da Vinci Code was sued under copyright law for taking without authorization the plot idea that Jesus Christ fathered children by Mary Magdalene. But to claim authority to authorize use of this “idea” would restrict that free discussion of the idea that is seen as a central value of free society. Discussion of this idea should not be a copyright infringement. But it might be scholarly plagiarism all the same. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If, learn and understand about The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If. Review: 57

This chapter talks about The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If. Some people confuse Plagiarism to Copyright Infringement. They are not the same. Let me first give definition to the two so we can understand it well. This definition is from wikipedia - Plagiarism is the use or close imitation of the language and ideas of another author and representation of them as one's own original work. While Copy Right Infringement is based from Wikipedia again Copyright infringement (or copyright violation) is the unauthorized use of material that is covered by copyright law, in a manner that violates one of the copyright owner's exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works. Basically they two different things, because Plegarism based on the definition is saying that someone idea or stuff is yours that stealing but copyright infringement is unauthorized use of the material basically it’s telling us improper use without the author or creators consent is Copyright infringement but to prove if it’s being infringe there is check list to prove if it’s violate the copyright law. What I’ve learned: THE CONCEPT OF PLAGIARISM LACK OF AUTHORIZATION—ECONOMIC FOUNDATIONS LACK OF AUTHORIZATION—NATURAL OR MORAL RIGHTS LACK OF ACCREDITATION—NONINFRINGING PLAGIARISM A PERSONAL VIEW OF THE MATTER LITERATURE REVIEW Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Plagiarism? What is Copyright Infringement? Differentiate Plagiarism and Copyright Infringement? Why do people plagiarize? What could be author’s view in this matter?

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Chapter 23: Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: all the goods of the Information Age—all of the expressions once contained in books or film strips or newsletters—will exist as thought or something very much like thought: voltage conditions darting around the Net at the speed of light, in conditions that one might behold in effect, as glowing pixels or transmitted sounds, but never touch or claim to “own” in the old sense of the word. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing learn and understand about Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing Review: These Chapter talks about Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing. A question that hit us all would you buy a branded stuff or download it for free 59

basically almost everyone will say get I want it for free. Basically the big thing in this topic is that some of the stuff from companies or individuals is being downloaded for free or being sold to society without the knowledge of the creator or getting any profit from it. I first thought of this issue in my PROGAP class that the evil from this is not the vendor or the application but the people who are purchasing the product and continues use of it. Some people might say I’m not stealing I’m just file sharing technically they are both different things. Let me give the definition of File sharing so we can understand it from wikipedia - File sharing is a method of distributing electronically stored information such as computer programs and digital media. File sharing can be implemented in a variety of storage and distribution models. Current common models are the centralized server-based approach and the distributed peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. Basically file sharing is sharing of file to make it simple. They say it’s unethical to download or to file share without the creators are or the author’s permission but you couldn’t blame the people because all are tempted. What I’ve learned: PEER-TO-PEER NETWORKS SHARING OR THEFT? SECONDARY LIABILITY MGM V. GROKSTER: A BRIEF HISTORY MORAL CONSIDERATIONS

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is File Sharing? What are Peer to Peer networks? What is an intellectual property? Who is GROKSTER What are the legal challenges of online file sharing?

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Chapter 24: Censorship and Access to Expression Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: Freedom of speech, thus, includes the liberty to express one’s point of view to others and the liberty to receive any such expressions. To censor is to interfere with this liberty by either suppressing such expressions or preventing the reception of such expressions. In short, a censor wishes to prevent a willing speaker from speaking to a willing hearer. To censor is to interfere in an act of communication between consenting individuals. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Censorship and Access to Expression learn and understand about Censorship and Access to Expression Review: This Chapter talks about Censorship and Access to Expression. Basically our main topic is Censorship. Let me first define Censorship - restrict or limit access to an expression, portion of an expression, or category of expression, which has been made public by its author, 61

based on the belief that it will be a bad thing if people access the content of that expression. Basically Censorship is blocking or preventing access. This is known from private companies and people. For example blocking of site are of pornography or somewhat related and games at our school. Depends on the campus and relation but still censoring, for me some things are needed to be censored but sometimes people tend to over react that they censored almost all. They should only censor stuff that is relevant to the issue of the company or people. What I’ve learned: THE INTEREST IN ACCESS TO EXPRESSION DEFINING CENSORSHIP TYPES OF HARM AND ARGUMENTS AGAINST CENSORSHIP Inherently Harmful Access Instrumentally Harmful Access

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Censorship? Why do we need Censorship? What are the harms to Censorship? Who is Kay Mathiesen? What is an Instrumentally Harmful Access?

Chapter 25: The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: While statistical sampling of large populations remains an a important approach toward understanding some sorts of research questions, there are problematic aspects in all the studies reported under this banner. In the detailed critique below, I outline the critique in the form of a set of critical elements. The first two, viz. the question of how appropriate it is to survey a student audience and the perennial concern of quantitative versus qualitative research, are research issues that must be addressed by any researcher of business and management topics. They are not “gendered” issues as such, although I do argue that they reinforce problematic gender stereotypes What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics, learn and understand about The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics Review: 62

This Chapter talks about The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics. Wow this topic full of feminist I guess there is still discrimination among women and men. Basically this topic is expressing that their should be a women point of view to computer ethics that may give break through or make difference to what information we have. I think this is just a way to balance between men and women, basically some people as I’ve said discriminating women that men are better stuff and etc. What I’ve learned: FEMINIST ETHICS GENDER AND COMPUTER ETHICS—A MALE–FEMALE BINARY? GENDER AND COMPUTER ETHICS STUDIES Student Population Quantitative Versus Qualitative Research Methodologies What is Ethical Behavior? The Undertheorizing of Gender and Ethics WOMEN IN COMPUTING—AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH GENDER AND COMPUTER ETHICS—CYBERSTALKING AND HACKING Are Hacker Communities Egalitarian? WHAT MIGHT ‘‘FEMINIST COMPUTER ETHICS’’ OFFER FEMINIST ETHICS?

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Define Feminist Ethics? What is Ethical Behavior? Are Hacker Communities Egalitarian? Who is Alison Adam? What is cyber stalking?

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Chapter 26: The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: These studies show that efforts to bridge the digital divide will not succeed unless people are properly educated about what these technologies can accomplish economically, and people must also want to produce those various results. It is important not to dramatically change the quality and content of cultural attitudes, but at the same time people in absolute poverty should expect to change their attitudes if they are to fully alleviate the conditions that perpetuate their misery What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future, learn and understand about The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future Review: This Chapter talks about The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future. Topic more one wealth and poverty, if you read the book called Bottom of the pyramid you will truly 64

understand this chapter, because some people say that the lower class has no buying power that they tend to take them lightly because they are poor. But of you read the book bottom of the pyramid you will say the higher class has more buying power but their population is very low rather than the lower class their population is higher. For example (this example is from my professor) the higher class has a population of 500 and the lower class has 3000 population. If your going to sell jewelry that is the price of thousands a few will only buy because they will be saying I’m in the higher class. But if you sell to the lower class they will say it’s expensive but if you sell a product that is at the same quality and in a lower price you would sell more. If you do the math on the pricing of product for example the price of the lower class product is only 500 you will see that the profit is more in lower class target. It goes to show that don’t treat them lowery we all know that higher class people can gain more but if you treat them with respect and don’t underestimate them you will see their power. What I’ve learned: THE BIDIRECTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ABSOLUTE POVERTY AND THE DIGITAL AND INFORMATION DIVIDES THE MORAL BASIS FOR THE IDEA THAT THE VARIOUS DIGITAL DIVIDES SHOULD BE ELIMINATED EMPIRICAL SKEPTICISM ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIGITAL DIVIDES AND ABSOLUTE POVERTY Meanings Empirical Studies Illustrating Perceived Failures Bridges and Questions Integrative Questions: 1. Who is MARIA CANELLOPOULOU-BOTTIS? 2. Who is KENNETH EINAR HIMMA? 3. What is THE MORAL BASIS FOR THE IDEA THAT THE VARIOUS DIGITAL DIVIDES SHOULD BE ELIMINATED? 4. What is UNESCO? 5. What is EMPIRICAL SKEPTICISM ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIGITAL DIVIDES AND ABSOLUTE POVERTY?

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Chapter 27: Intercultural Information Ethics Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1235315924&sr=8-1 Quote: Buddhism, for instance, experiences the world in all its transitoriness in a mood of sadness and happiness, being also deeply moved by suffering. This mood “opens” the world in a specific way. According to Baier, there is something common to all human beings in the basic or deep moods, but at the same time there are specific moods at the beginning of human cultures, such as astonishment (thaumazein) in the Greek experience of the world. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Intercultural Information Ethics, learn and understand about Intercultural Information Ethics Review: This chapter talks about Intercultural Information Ethics. Let us define IIE that is Intercultural Information Ethics according to Capurro is can be defined in a narrow or in a broad sense. This is more of a summarization of the chapter were in connecting all the 66

issues. Also ICT that is information and communication technology which is define from wikipedia is - is an umbrella term that includes all technologies for the manipulation and communication of information. The term is sometimes used in preference to Information Technology (IT), particularly in two communities: education and government. In the common usage it is often assumed that ICT is synonymous with IT; ICT in fact encompasses any medium to record information (magnetic disk/tape, optical disks (CD/DVD), flash memory etc. and arguably also paper records); technology for broadcasting information - radio, television; and technology for communicating through voice and sound or images - microphone, camera, loudspeaker, telephone to cellular phones. What I’ve learned: THE FOUNDATIONAL DEBATE On the Sources of Morality On the Foundation of IIE Toru Nishigaki Terrell Ward Bynum Bernd Frohmann Lorenzo Magnani Thomas Herdin, Wolfgang Hofkirchner, and Ursula Maier- Rabler Barbara Paterson

THE IMPACT OF ICT ON LOCAL CULTURES FROM AN IIE PERSPECTIVE Asia and the Pacific Intellectual Property Integrative Questions: 1. Who is Rafael Capurro? 2. What is intercultural information ethics? 3. What is computer ethics: philosophical enquiry or cepe? 4. Who is Rafael Capurro? 5. Who is Charles Ess?

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Cyber Ethics
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Chapter: Ethics and the Information Revolution Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Once this technology is in place, there will be rapid expansions of Global Cyberbusiness. Nations with a technological infrastructure is already in place will enjoy rapid economic growth, while the rest of the world lags behind. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Ethics and the Information Revolution, learn and understand Ethics and the Information Revolution Review Information in fundamentally social and ethical seeping into life unnoticed because of its flexibility and inexpensiveness. Computer is a universal tool. No peripherals for distant countries. MIT professor Norbert Wiener was the founder of computer ethics. His ethics was way ahead of its time and was ignored for decades Donn Parker was the first to find out the 69

illegal usage of computers by many. Joseph Weizenbaum inspired many thinkers and projects related to computer ethics around the world. Terrell Ward Bynum planned an international conference on computer ethics, and this conference attracted many that it generated monographs, video programs, and curriculum material that are now being used by many universities and campuses around the world. Walter Maner believed that computers created new moral problems, but Johnson own point of view was that computers gave a whole new twist to ethical issues that were already well known. Donald Gutterbarn viewed computer ethics as a standard of practice and codes of conduct of computing professionals. The social problem that computers generate is unemployment, but information technology should create more jobs then it eliminates. Computer security is the topic of concern in the field of computer ethics. The owning of a patent in the computer algorithm has becomes an issue, patents effectively remove parts of mathematics from the public domain and cripple science. ACM and IEEE have joined together to make a set of guidelines in computer ethics for colleges around the world. Global issues arise and become debated about how people communicate around the world. How can cyberspace reach the poor, and lessen the gap between the rich and the poor. Access to anything including education can now be available world wide. Computer ethics will evolve into a system of global ethics applicable around the world in every culture. At the dawn of the 21st century people will be faced with two different views on ethical relevance of computer technologies which came form Wiener Manner Gorniak and Deborah Johnson

What I learned:
The information revolution Information technology and human values Computer Ethics: some historical milestones Redefining the field of computer ethics Some topics in Computer Ethics Global information ethics The future of Computer Ethics

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is computer ethic? What will the world be without ethics? How can computer make our life easier? What is ACM? What is IEEE?

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Chapter: Ethics On-Line Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: A copied program or copied data set is perfectly usable, and the reproduction can be such that there is no evidence that copying has been done; that is, the person who created or owns the information has no reason to believe it has been copied What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Ethics On-Line learn and understand Ethics On-Line Review This part of the chapter talks about Ethics On-Line. Visions of online communication are so many yet inevitable, they are visions of a self-filling prophecies that can never become a 71

reality, Nation and Global infrastructure as a global as a triumphant in global economic competition. The only problem with on-line communication is the way people behave with it, their way of using it. Because of such behavior our knowledge on how to secure our system to such attacks like viruses, whether it is tracing or detecting transactions has improved. The image of computer technology can become may be decided upon our own actions off-line, because this will serve the backbone of our actions on-line. Not to eliminate anonymity but to restrict it to prevent other wrongful actions from being done. The difference between communication off-line and on-line is the reach of the scope doing on-line communication and the difference in the feel of on-line communication compared to off-line. When we hold individuals legally liable for their own actions when using powerful technologies, we also expect them to take greater precautions on their actions. Anonymity is much favored on-line because the fact that seeing a person face-to-face will be the ultimate test off0line it is not available online, and the fact that on-line an individual is given a generic user ID this cause the individual to make more efforts in establishing his or her own identity. Problems of integrity are also the cause of anonymity because you can easily steal someone else’s words and make it look like your own. The moment you create your own program for example and the moment you post it on-line you will have no idea on whether your program has been copied when it was it was copied, and who copied I, there will be no evidence on such things. The moral implications of reproductively goes counter to our traditional notions of property and personal privacy, because the possibility of recording and observing the privacy of action in the electronic network are no long irretrievable, no much like in the real world action are performed and then suddenly gone. Anonymity brings fair treatment to races, gender and in physical appearance. It is bad to the affect it has, making stealing, and other illegal acts seems far harder to catch. That sources you get information form and the sources you trust are completely different and it is hard to develop a history of experience with the source. Expectations diminish trust to one another. But we can fix these expectations when we learn to understand how these expectations are made and why they are formed. It will be disturbing to take into conclusion that we must give up trust in on-line communication. How about the benefits of on-line communication, do we also have to diminish these benefits as well? It will be a god lesson to just be precautious of some of the actions we make on-line and not to trust anyone on-line whom we do not really know. Individual must be informed on what to expect when they enter into an on-line environment, they must be informed what they are getting into before they enter. Rules must be set and observed by everyone, and instructions on what to do and how to do it must also be followed. What I learned: Special Characteristics of Communication in Networks Scope Anonymity Reproducibility Anonymity Diminished trust Variety and Consent

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Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the difference in behavior on-line and offline? What is the cause of anonymity on-line? What are the important factors of scope in –line communication? How can trust be built? What is diminished trust?

Chapter: Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in Computer Ethics Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Computers can be manipulated syntactically and semantically. Syntactically, a computer’s performance can be changed through alterations in this program. And semantically that states of a computer may represent anything one choose, from the sales of a stock market to the trajectory of a spacecraft. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in Computer Ethics, learn and understand Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in Computer Ethics 73

Review This part of the chapter talks about Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in Computer Ethics. If ethics is the key to our guide for a better world in which we much rely now a days computer and it has become necessary venues for routine communication James Moor may have a point about the positions he disagreed on the nature of computer ethics both routine ethics and cultural revolution makes computer ethics both trivial and impossible to implement. Because of the computers capabilities of improving overall performance, the gathering of process information becomes a crucial ingredient in performing manual activities. True enough that in the age of computer we all live in a different world. Once data has entered into a computer it can be sorted, search and accessed in extraordinary easy ways and with least practical amounts of time. The power of information enrichment is so important in virtual world that information must copyrighted before it is delivered into the computer world because it can be improperly access, used, and manipulated in such ways that people who were the original creators and the original owners are not recognized and are their ownership of such object have been pre-owned by someone else. I may have this notion that computer ethics is all about ethics being applies to computers, but it is rather special in the sense that considerable interpretation must be first made before appropriate policies can be formulated and justified, with a number of evolving situations which are difficult to conceptualize clearly and find justified ethical policies. It will depend on the subject matter at hand to be discussed. It may be true that because of the difficulties and shortcoming of Routine Ethics and Cultural Relativism people will surely have disagreements in their view of ethical judgments. Reasoning with relative values seems impossible. Different values and different judgment are sometimes nonstop debatable issues that people have different opinions and views about different things, it all depends on how one sees and believes on a particular thing. True enough the morality off letting everyone’s voice be heard over the internet is being discriminated by the algorithms of search engines by being design by computer professionals in ranking that are based on popularity and largeness of sties. Why can’t people just advertise or put into public on how to implement or do computer related practices so that many people using computers will be familiar with some of the practices. Technologies have the same kind of structural effects as the other elements of social structure. What helps define or regulate patterns of human interaction can also be identified in technological artifacts because technological artifacts can also be found in one of the elements of social structure. Core values are just standards set so that we may have different policies to evaluate our own basis on different scenarios. Basically what we do and how we ran things are the outcomes of what computer technology will have on the affect of our future. Because computers are really dumb, it is only us humans that create computers and if we do not set standard of ethical policies to follow the uses of computers, the harm technology may also bounce back to us. What I learned: Ethics in the global village Logical malleability and informational enrichment The special nature of computer ethics 74

Reasons within relative frameworks Core values Responsibility, resolution, and residue Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the relevance of information to implement computerized technologies? Why is computer logically malleability? How do you escape the realm of pure facts? What is the importance of core value? Enumerate the possible policies for a Website.

Chapter: Disclosive Computer Ethics Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Once this technology is in place, there will be a rapid expansions of Global Cyberbusiness. Nations with a technological infrastructure is already in place will enjoy rapid economic growth, while the rest of the world lags behind. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Disclosive Computer Ethicslearn and understand Disclosive Computer Ethics Review 75

This part of the chapter talks about Disclosive Computer Ethics. Standard model is being adopted in applied ethics as a way to clarify and evaluate morally conservative practices through an application and defense of moral principle. The truth about computer technology is the notion that technologies themselves are worthy objects of moral analysis. The information capabilities of computer systems constitute more to their capabilities of shaping the society rather then as a function on background technologies. More precise moral evaluation can be after a disclosive analysis has been made rather then the opposite way around. Disclosive analysis are like fishing nets they may bring up items that one was looking for as well as items that are of no interest. The unjust view of a computer system is favoring only one side and ignoring the side of the other. Justice is all about the equal distribution of primary social goods in the society because these are essential for individuals to carrying out their life plans. Policy recommendation is done through applying distributive justice to argue whether resulting inequalities are indeed unjust, and the realization of the fact that your life in fulfilling and meaningful is the reason why the definition of individual autonomy is the ability to construct one’s own goals and values. The control and ownership of information has become an important source of political power in society, but the exercise of decision making in which every member has the opportunity to exert influence over the entire society. New computer technology may yield new values as well as require the reconsideration of old values. New dilemmas may also be brought up because of conflicting values that suddenly clash when the new setting and practices are brought. Thus it is part of the computer ethics to further develop and modify the existing moral theory when existing theories of are insufficient when new demands are generated by new practices in the world of computer technology. Moral deliberation takes place in the level of application. Social science is often needed for the analysis of the way which the function of the system is dependent on human activities. Moral theory is being applies by philosophers weighing moral principles against moral judgments philosophers engage in this field must have a solid gasp of the social, legal, and technical aspects of the technology or practices in which they are to pas moral judgment because the information must be processed in a task largely of no philosophical skill. Disclosive computer ethic focuses more on multi-level and interdisciplinary and focuses of four keys which are justice, privacy, autonomy, and democracy. What I learned: Limitations of mainstream computer ethics Hidden morality and disclosive computer ethics Key values as departure points for analysis Justice Autonomy Democracy Privacy The need for multi-level interdisciplinary research Integrative Questions: 76

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is justice? What is Disclosive ethic? How do you define core values? Can values be morally wrong or right? How is standard model applied?

Chapter: Gender and Computer Ethics Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: What is often marginalized in the discussion, or left out entirely, is the moral role of the technology that is being used. That is, the design features of computer systems and software are often taken as a given in computer ethics. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Gender and Computer Ethics, learn and understand Gender and Computer Ethics Review 77

This part of the chapter talks about Gender and Computer Ethics. The study of this paper is basically the balance between statistically based empirical research and a more substantial theoretical understanding of computer and in gender. The author concludes that the best way to look for theoretical substances is applying feminist theory in the gender based theory which has long been over due for more substantial theorizing. The combination of feminist ethics and empirical studies will emphasize moving of gender and ethics onward from statistical studies of men’s and women’s ethical decisions towards more substantially theorized studies of areas in computer ethics that have yet been largely unexplored. Women in computing have been criticized in the past for adopting a traditional, liberal position that characterizes the gender and computing problem in terms of educating, socializing, and persuading women. Rather then to challenge the subject matter the liberal argument in leaving the organization of computing unchallenged does little to alleviate women’s position in relation to computing education and work. I disagree with his ethical problem that women are not taking up opportunities being offered to them. But numbers of women at all level of computing remain low; there must be a reason behind this why women are being excluded form payment in well-paid and interesting careers. Arriving at different cultures from different countries there is a major difference between male and female business managers in considering ethical business decisions. Based on other studies between the comparison on men and women it showed that appear more ethical than men, however the author made a hypothesis that men tended to behave of a dubious ethical nature more acceptable than women do. The aim of Khazanchi was to understand whether gender differences influence the degree to which individual’s recognize unethical conduct in the use and development of information technology. During the course of the survey the study showed that women outperformed the men in identifying unethical actions across all scenarios given. Women also seem to be more considerable toward the feelings of others. Form a mangers point of view women are more likely to affect by passive deterrents and men may be influence more likely through statements on what is legal. A hidden power of relationship variable that need to be point out to be much more aware of power relationships in computer ethics, such as the relationship between the student and the teacher relationship. Women’s ability to resist unethical behavior is not really absolute because again no body is perfect. Gilligan is well known for her work on feminist theory. True enough that women have different view and expectations regarding computer privacy and other traditional computer ethnic problems. Feminist ethics form the challenge to main stream ethics to develop a new ethics with which to make normative judgments on ethical problems from a wide range of domain. What I learned: Gender and Computer Ethics – Barriers and Pipelines Gender and Computer Ethics – Men’s and Women’s Moral Decision Making Critique of Gender and Computer Ethics Studies Student Population Qualitative vs Qualitative Methodology Decision vs Ethical Processes Lack of Theory Plea for Feminisy Ethics 78

Integrative Questions: 1. Are women more dominant than men in term of ethical views? 2. How are women an asset to the management of businesses? 3. What are the different forms of surveys conducted to students based on gender analysis? 4. Who is known for her famous work in Feminist theories? 5. How are women different from men when it comes to the goodness of the heart?

Chapter: Is the Global Information Infrastructure a Democratic Technology? Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Mainstream computer ethics focuses on the morality of practice, particularly on the use of computer technology. What is often marginalized in the discussion, or left out entirely, is the moral role of the technology that is being used. That is, the design features of computer systems and software are often taken as a given in computer ethics. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Is the Global Information Infrastructure a Democratic Technology?, learn and understand Is the Global Information Infrastructure a Democratic Technology? 79

Review This part of the chapter talks about is the Global Information Infrastructure a Democratic Technology? The GII is said to create electronic democracy to facilitate and enhance democratic processes. Technology containing favors or facilitates democracy is also the same as saying values are embedded in technology. Democracy is a value in the sense claims made by individuals’ states that there is a strong link between the technology and patterns of behavior associated with democracy and these are considered desirable traits. GII transforms many aspect of the infrastructure of our daily lives. The new medium has special characteristics that affect social value I which our bodies live in the world that is different I terms of physical and geographic aspects. Scholars believe that technologies did not embody values but rather values come into play only if and when technologies are used, a good example is guns, they don’t kill but people do! Scholars of STS accept that technologies influence the direction and content of science socially making them value-laden. By the study of science and technology two tenets are formed first technologies shapes social patterns, and second, technology is shaped by its social context. Expecting GII to carry values with whether to shape, enhance or diminish values this show that we should accept GII has been shaped by social values. Two distinctions about the properties of technology that Winner makes between intractable properties and flexible properties, the second distinction is the relationship between properties of the technology and the social relationship necessitated by the properties. Many who claim that GII is democratic seem to have in mind that it facilitates unmediated communication between individuals but GII is also said to be intractable democratic because telecommunication lines connect every individual to every individual in the world. The social context may have little to do with explicit purpose or use of technology but the values I technology con only be understood by understanding the social context of technology. An understanding on the values associated with democracy is going back to the recent cultures of hackers, where in early history of computers hacker were not viewed as criminals but rather computer enthusiast who were mainly concern in helping each other out figuring how to do things with computers, improving with on each others programs with no interest in who owns what or what credit would be assigned to who. I disagree with who ever does not know how computers work, will still have the chance to catch up, it just like a baby not knowing anything the moment it was born, later as the child grows up he or she learns things more and more and may even reach to the extent that they know more about something than any of us do not know off. What I learned: Technology and Values Values Embedded in Technologies The moral metaphysical meaning of embedded values The support meaning of embedded values The material meaning of embedded values Values Embedded in the Global Information Infrastructure The moral/metaphysicall meaning of embedded values The support meaning of embedded The material menaing of embedded values 80

Democracy as the Starting Place: Power and Insularity Power to the Many Joint Deliberation Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is democracy? What does it mean to say that technology carries a value? What does it mean to say that values are embedded in technology? Is GII compatible both with mediated or unmediated communication? Do artifacts have politics?

Chapter: Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and Theories to IT Contexts: Some Key Problems and Challenges Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Almost invariably, these rules were derived from some supposed “ethically perfect world.” But ideal rules may workout very differently in (non-ideal) practice. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and Theories to IT Contexts: Some Key Problems and Challenges, learn and understand the Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and Theories to IT Contexts: Some Key Problems and Challenges Review 81

This part of the chapter talks about is the Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and Theories to IT Contexts: Some Key Problems and Challenges. The notion of social issues in computing has become the trend when it comes to employing the word computer ethics. But the confusion on remarking social issues in computing is by no means all ethical in character. The dilemma in social context is the different approaches of it according to the author the role of expert advisers should behave ethically. There is already certain ambivalence in the use of the word ethics, and sometime choices like individual, collective, or institutional are more or less excluded, and are left to a field labeled like moral philosophy. Some other disturbing issues concerning the demarcation of computer ethics are jus merely political and not ethical or eve moral in the broad sense. Prior regarding the issue of software property rights under the banner in a quasi self-evident manner, one is inserting a strong assumption without any form of proof. Moral concepts can at most be invoked in arguing for participative decision making. Privacy turn out to be a not so debatable “core space” that can be kept sacrosanct under any possible circumstances; it is always weighting of the various interest of others. Concerning of some issues is just letting sociological considerations enter the ethical discourse. Narrative forms as an indispensable mode are the primary source for questions concerning IT. The ironic is taking into account the complexity of processes generating and succeeding computer design can be stopped and unethical desirable consequences. A down-to-earth approach is the use of “negative universalization by Wellner, in this line of thought we can conceive that ethical discourse as a discourse for identifying what is definitely ethically bad, bases upon what are suppose to be definitely unacceptable forms of inequality.

What I learned: Untangling terminological confusion: the demarcation of “computer ethics” Connecting ethics and social context Computer ethics and role of experts Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are moral Choices? How does individual choice be a concern in computer ethics? Is it ethical to break the law? Does IT propose specific ethical problems? What is discourse ethics?

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Chapter: Just Consequentialism and Computing Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: “Don’t steal computer chips” is another policy with more obvious ethical content. Even when policies are the policies of others, they can help us to regulate our lives. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Just Consequentialism and Computing, learn and understand Just Consequentialism and Computing Review This part of the chapter talks about the Just Consequentialism and Computing. Consequetialism emphasizes consequences of policies within the constraints of justice making 83

it a practical and theoretically sound approach on ethical problems of computer and information ethics. Basically the job of a computer ethics is to identify policy needs, clarify related conceptual confusions, formulate appropriate new policies, and justify them ethically. Evaluating polices and their ethical differences depending on the use should be our main concern. Every action may be considered as an instance of policy. Conflicting descriptions form each and every one makes an incompatible description of certain presuppose object or being that is being described. Theories arise from the conflicting descriptions made by each one. Humans need ability, security, knowledge freedom, opportunity, and resources in odder to accomplish their projects. The protection of fundamental human rights should guide us in shaping ethical policies for using computer technology. The burden of justification comes in when another human is harming another human being. It is unjust for some one to use a king of policy which he or she would not allow others to use, thus justice must require impartially toward the kinds of policies we allow. A rational person making a policy and allowing others to follow it as well means he or she accepts that policy, and a rational being would not harm you unless you harm them first. Whether the policy consists of honesty towards the problem that may be encountering during the process, it is still a good policy. The blindfold of justice allowing weights to the benefits and harms, but by removing all knowledge of who will benefit and be harmed by one’s choice, by applying the blindfold of justice to computer ethics this will provide constraints on consequetialism and this will lead to an assessment on the merits of various policies using consequentialist considerations and being able to select goods ones from those that are just. Making computer policies that avoid unjustifiable harm to others should the main goal when developing or selecting a good policy. Setting the right policy is just as hard as making the right decision in which everyone will agree to your own decision.

What I learned: Consequentialism constrained by justice The good as the enemy of the just Computing in uncharted waters Integrative Questions: What is should we watch out when constructing ethical computing policies? What is a policy? How do we implement a right policy? Is there an approach to justice that will allow us to resolve conflicts of actions or policy when causing harm seems unavoidable? 5. If a policy was publicly allowed what are the consequences of it? 1. 2. 3. 4.

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Chapter: The Internet as Public Space: Concepts, Issues, and Implications in Public Policy Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Naturally, since the internet is part of the national and global telecommunications infrastructure, many tend to classify the internet’s services into traditional media types. One of the earlier voices in this debate (Camp and Riley, 1996) argues, however, that this classification hardly works well. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about The Internet as Public Space: Concepts, Issues, and Implications in Public Policy, learn and understand The Internet as Public Space: Concepts, Issues, and Implications in Public Policy Review 85

This part of the chapter talks about The Internet as Public Space: Concepts, Issues, and Implications in Public Policy. Internet can be anywhere at anytime yet the very nature of its ubiquity hinders some of the rights of every individual or organization. Internet is like having no walls around you can have different abilities, even having the ability to be at two places at once. The information that is broadcast is centrally originated, one to many, and therefore subject to tight control and stringent liability. Low volume types of carrier are long gone already considering almost everyone is using the internet and that we are in a global world of cyber space. The internet is more like a physical space unlike the distinctions of a media is that functions do not follow form. The internet is like being in a public place but you have your physical space, but at the same tie adhering with the rules of that place. You are in a public place but at the same time in a private place. With all the information coming right at your hands how do you know which one is the right information and which one is fraud information. Laws have bee implemented by the usage of internets around the world, and still may were also opposed. The issue of ownership of information has been discussed with the public interest in mind. I would definitely agree that over reliance on the use of technologies such as internet threatens the very essence of teaching. It is rally different once you hear some one teaching you and you are face to face with that person. There is still doubt on the minds of many. The issue of certification becomes crucial, but issues of content control versus the freedom of access are not crucial at the level of universities. However the benefits are cross-culture and multi-language is available in the internet. Vast amount of data may be available but as a human being with no knowledge on medicine are you really hundred percent sure that you are doing the right thing in terms of curing your own sickness. But with the access of vast information across the world treatments can be made and preventable actions can be taken. The internet being brought into school is also like bringing advertisement into school at the same time. The definition of public spaces and public roles are a critical step in re-defining civil liberties and other forms of freedom. Hiding valuable assets and calling them to be secure is absurd when using the spatial model. The continuum possible with the spatial model would provide greater flexibility with respect to privacy than the four discrete points of media spectrum. The spatial metaphor will allow all the possible options to address without confusion and to give meaning to the meaningless. What I learned: The internet is more than multi-media Digital characteristics of a public space Uses of Internet as public space: Opportunities and Barriers Universities Hospitals International Marketplaces Schools The digital stump The marketplace Implications in Public Policy Governance of internet use Impact on social capital and society leadership 86

Impact on social well-being Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is information agora? What is simultaneity? What do you mean by saying the internet is a public space? How is the internet a public domain? is the internet providing a suitable space for the average citizen to more actively participate in public affairs?

Chapter: The Laws of Cyberspace Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: When the university was designing its net, the technicians asked the provost whether anonymous communication should be permitted. The provost, citing a principle that the rules regulating speech at the university would be as protective of the free speech as the first amendment, said yes. One would have the right to communicate at the university anonymously, because the first amendment to the constitution would guarantee the same right vis-a-vis the government. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about The Laws of Cyberspace, learn and understand The Laws of Cyberspace 87

Review This part of the chapter talks about The Laws of Cyberspace Our world as he author states has four sorts of constraints first the law in which is the prominent of the regulations, second social norms which guides our behavior. Third, is the market which regulates the price and sets opportunities through the ranges it regulates, and finally the fourth constraint which some might call nature, but the authors calls it architecture, which limits our boundaries in which we live in and not seeing the other part of the wall, it constraints our ability of knowing what is on the other side. The words of James Boyle are the exact description of the cyber space, you can’t live without it, but the moment you’ve got it, you can’t live long with it. It is like you are caught in its addiction of being free from the control of real space sovereigns, yet you can not control the behavior in it. Different places have different codes of conduct which you can abide by or must abide by. We are subject to the code and it is not an option whether we choose not to follow it. All other forms of regulation in real space depend of the most important constraint the architecture. There is still a critical difference between cyberspace and the real space, when we tend to follow laws of the real space and apply them to cyberspace. The only information that the architecture of cyberspace lacks is the knowing of whom you are dealing with, and because of anonymity being the default in cyberspace law and regulations are practically hard to apply. The net it self is as independent as it is. Each choice one makes form the architecture that enables political values is considered political as well. Constitutional values should guide us in our design. We should also consider other forces that regulate our lives and not just the four forces of laws. If and when indirection is possible in cyberspace, the people will offer little protection against the government’s regulations of business. With the power of encryption to authenticate the identity of a person government’s can recreate the power to control and the power to regulate.

What I learned: The laws present and open in “cyberspace” Integrative Questions: 1. What are internal passports? 2. What is an example of the behavior of a social norm? 3. What are codes? How are they the same from the four constraints in which we have in our real world? 4. What are the political consequences of the change of the architecture in cyberspace form freedom to control? 5. What is computing sovereigns?

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Chapter: Of Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: The task of identifying the alternative rule-makers for purposes of normative comparison is made even more difficult than this because cyberspace, having emerged from decentralized disorder – from the primordial ooze of the internet engineering task force – many well create conditions that the favour the growth of powerful centralizing forces. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Of Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace, learn and understand Of Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace 89

Review This balckholed of the RBL is not that accurate when checking the senders’ numeric internet address against the list of blackholed internet address. Email has become an indispensable form of communication. The email is becoming an incalculable commercial and non-commercial importance for a substantial and ever-growing segment of the world community. The value of the email is being undermined by a barrage of unwanted and unsolicited communications. This topic about the email is an interesting topic about whether the RBL is the solution. The MAPS proposed a norm about open mail relay systems which they considered unacceptable. The sanction that MAPS proposed is the Ur-Sanction of informal social control process: Shunning and they will be the one’s to help you provide a means to accomplish this sanction. After the cooperative agreement was due to expire, the Commerce Department made a decision before walking away due to the expiration, it took steps in ensuring the stability of the internet. Which it created a non-profit organization called the Internet stakeholders. Shortly, thereafter the system was placed in the hands of a single governmentauthorized entity known as Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers the have over all responsibility in setting the rule. Efficiency justification rest on the hands of repeated trial and error and the pull and tug of competing rules and counter rules, and other ways to find solutions to complex problems, it is therefore obliterate the distinction between the normative and descriptive aspects of the internet. The word better is always an alternative in cyberspace, because the condition in cyberspace makes it difficult to specify alternative processes. Cyberspace makes it even more difficult to identify the alternative rules-makers for purpose of normative comparison. It is impossible to see the rules of spamming and its variants could produce, these rules cannot be laid side by side for the purpose of analysis, deliberation, and debate. The fear of the possibility that the domain name system would lead to a policy-making catastrophe of significant proportions would be possible, left no one trying to do something about it. We may never know which problems to fix and how to finding these problems in the internet but we should keep in mind that there are problems that are best solved that may sometimes be worth bearing. What I learned: The incident The explanation The question The debate Integrative Questions 1. What does The RBL does? 2. What does the MAPS does? 3. Is the RBL a means of solving the problem like the proliferation of unsolicited mass email operations? 4. How would we solve the seemingly impossible facing anyone trying to construct that global network? 90

5. What is ICANN stands for?

Chapter: Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning? Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: It does not result in the automatic blocking of speech by an entity other than the speaker or reader before the speech has ever been viewed. Thus, the very nature of the internet reveals why more speech is always a better solution than censorship for dealing with speech that someone may find objectionable. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning? Learn and understand Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning? Review 91

The court said the online speech deserves the same protection as to books and other printed matters. It may be sooner than we think that we may have a “family friendly” internet rather than a free speech and democratic cyberspace. It will be unfair to block speeches that are unrated and yet they do not have harsh words that would require parental guidance at any word that is being said or read. If it is in the nature of the internet and the quality of speech on the internet that entitles it tot have the same free speech protections as the same as the books, magazines, and casual conversations. Being able to have casual conversations with no censoring makes the internet the most participatory form of mass speech yet developed. Will the freedom of us users of our own computer be also limited? Rating your own speech on the internet is like also rating your own speech hen you are just having a casual conversation with your friend somewhere; in the neighborhood or in your house. Food labels compared to internet ratings are very different. Rating someone’s own creativity is just like judging someone’s work. You want to say something that you think would help another person on the net but you cannot help that person because you conversation would be rated. What would to the possibility of communication around the world if speeches are being rated. What I learned: cyberspace burning Free speech online: a victory under siege Rethinking the rush to rate Recommendations and principles Six reasons why self-rating schemes are wrong for internet third-party rating The problems with user-based blocking software at home Blocking software should not be used by public libraries Internet rating systems Integrative Questions 1. What alarmed the ACLU and the other cyber-liberty communities? 2. Is the internet like televisions and should be rated and censored? 3. What is the difference between the role of the government and the role of the judge in free speech for the internet? 4. Will other controversial matters become unavailable in the internet soon? How? 5. What is the nature of the internet?

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Chapter: Filtering the Internet in the USA: free Speech Denied? Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Browsers and search engines could then be programmed to return or access sites and newsgroups that satisfy a preset profile. The dangers associated with self-rating schemes will be discussed later in this paper. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Filtering the Internet in the USA: free Speech Denied? Learn and understand Filtering the Internet in the USA: free Speech Denied? Review 93

Different programs of rating have different type of dimensions which they rate for example the RSACi rates includes violence, nudity, sex, and language. Users should have options on whether they want to enter the site or not. If it is true that only some will rate the content then will the governments and other agencies know about whether this site Is harmful or not. Makers of filtering internet products claim that information is proprietary and its disclosure should provide a roadmap to objectionable material. What if blocking images and some disturbing ideas won’t be able to control by some parents because their some hackers in the world that are very good at hacking or tampering file which are not theirs. Libraries serve the commitment to be an open and free inquiry to the public. Why would you filter internet in one’s home when that serves as the right for one’s property and freedom, there are laws that must be taken into consideration before filtering or blocking one own home. The separation of adults and children regarding the use of the internet might be a good idea. Training users with the use of the internet and what they can get form the perils of the internet. Filtering and blocking software’s should be able to be turned off and on at anytime. What I learned: Definitions Examples of Problems with blocking and filtering programs Mainstream Loudoun Librarians and filtering programs Discussion and analysis

Integrative Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What was Judge Leonie Brinkema’s opinion on the U.S. District Court? What are examples of filtering and blocking programs? What did NCLIS proposed? What is the danger of self-rating? Is there any other way to help children form accessing harmful sceneries in the internet beside filtering and blocking programs?

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Chapter: Censorship, the Internet, and the Child Pornography Law of 1996: A Critique Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: IT should be clear; however, that in the age of the internet, the problem of child pornography, like so many others arising in a visual medium, must be construed among the most basic of the harms we should seek to prevent. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Censorship, the Internet, and the Child Pornography Law of 1996: A Critique, Learn and Censorship, the Internet, and the Child Pornography Law of 1996: A Critique Review 95

An amended law would provide privacy protections to all identifiable individuals, adults and minors, by requiring the consent of depicted individuals before any image involving nudity could be posted to any newsgroup. The judgment as to whether an image depicting an identifiable individual is or is not of a prurient nature would ultimately reside with the depicted person. Again, where more than one identifiable individual is depicted, the judgment by any one individual that the image is prurient would be sufficient to prohibit publication of the image. Here it may be argued that there would be no issue of requiring the consent of minors, or more appropriately, of their legal guardians, since prurient images of them remain illegal; however, since not all photographs of minors involving nudity or prurient, the provision requiring consent would guard against violations of privacy of a sort closely related to that involved in the nonconsensual publication of prurient images. These features of an amended law represent only a few of the elements of a more comprehensive and more just approach to dealing with the problems represented by child pornography and, more generally, by the prurient. Naturally, the features are not without problems, and a great deal of work remains to be done. It should be clear, however, in the age if the Internet, the problem of child pornography, like so many other arising in a visual medium, must be construed to involve violations of privacy; indeed, such violations should be counted among the most basic of the harms we should seek to prevent. What I learned: Definitions Scope Child pornography prevention act Argument 1: CPPA Violates the First Amendment Argument 2: CPPA’s protective are inadequate Argument 3: CPPA can harm our children

Integrative Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is CPA? What does prurient material mean? What was the bill the Frank, H. R. H. John McCail passed? What is the requirement of the Bill “Safe School Internet Act”? What is Child Pornography?

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Chapter: PICS: Internet Access Controls Without Censorship Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: A third possibility is to perform the operation somewhere in the network, for example at a proxy server used in a combination with a firewall. Each alternative affects efficiency, ease of use, and security. For example, a browser could include nice interface features such as graying out blocked links., but it would be fairly easy for a child to install a different browser and bypass the selective blocking. The network implementation may be the most secure, but could create a performance bottleneck if not implemented carefully.\

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What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about PICS: Internet Access Controls Without Censorship, Learn and Understand PICS: Internet Access Controls Without Censorship Review: This part of the chapter talks about PICS: Internet Access Controls Without Censorship. This is the issue to prevent children to buy pornographic material and I think it can’t be stop because the vendors of the product in the physical world it would be sell for a living in the web. The selling of pornographic material is just a click a way. The government is trying to prevent it my opinion on this all hope is gone because it’s not going to change the fact that it’s click a way. For example when you go two a porn site they would just ask you if your under 18 but no that stupid that they would lie because no one is looking. The reason as to why the government does not want the child to see a pornographic material is because the government does not want that the minor to engage in sexual conduct. Also they have discussed the CPPA which an act to prevent the given topic but again it’s really not taken seriously because the act the children is on their own and they might orient the children about this but it’s still the act of the child What I learned: Definition of PICS The labelling vocabulary Granularity Creation of labels Coverage Revenue generation Collaborative labelling Online journals Labelling vocabularies Privacy vocabularies Reputation vocabularies

Integrative Questions 1. What is PICS? 2. What are the specifications of PICS? 3. How do you make the internet better? 4. How would you know that the amended law is effective? 5. What should the government do?

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Chapter: Internet Service Providers and Defamation: New Standards of Liability Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Indeed, according to HGP researcher John Sulston: “The Human Genome Project and Celera were not working toward a common goal, since only the former generated a public sequence. Like everyone else, Celera had free access to all our assembled sequence. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Internet Service Providers and Defamation: New Standards of Liability, Learn and Understand Internet Service Providers and Defamation: New Standards of Liability 99

Review This part of the chapter talsk about Internet Service Providers and Defamation: New Standards of Liability. We have sought to demonstrate here that policies and governing defamation liability on the internet needs substantial revision. The prevailing interpretation of the Communication Decency Act, which provides absolute immunity for ISP's, is mistaken and dangerous. Also, those calling for the abolition of libel laws in cyber-space have not taken into account that not all publishers or speakers there operate from the same level playing field. Hence, given the continued relevance of libel law and the need to assign liability, we have sought to articulate a more tenable standard of moral accountability for ISP's. While ISP's do not cause defamation, they provide an occasion or forum for it, and herein lies the potential for their vicarious liability. But accountability must be grounded in capability: An agent should only be held accountable for failing to perform X if it has the power to do X. Technical and economic factors make it virtually impossible for ISP's to take preventive measures that detect or filter out defamatory messages. Thus, we cannot hold ISP's responsible for preventing defamation unless they are indeed acting like publishers and exercising editorial control. We can, however, hold the accountable for failing to take certain actions once they are informed that a victim has been defamed. These steps include prompt removal of the defamatory remarks, the issuance of a retraction on behalf of the victim, and the initiation of a good faith effort to track down the originator so that the defamation does not reoccur. None of these actions are especially burdensome, economically unfeasible, or inconsistent with an ISP's capabilities. This standard of accountability is a reasonable middle ground between the extremes of strict liability and immunity from all liability. It can therefore serve as a foundation for developing a more sensible regulatory approach to the matter of ISP liability.

What I learned: Legal Definitions and standards Internet service providers and legal defamation Legal precedents for ISP liability Cyberspace alter the need for libel laws Moral perspective Integrative Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is ISP? Why should we not put all the balme on ISP? What are the neccessary steps we can take to acount the failure otehr than ISP? What is good faith? What is liability? 100

Chapter: Digital Millennium Copyright Act Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote A statement under penalty of perjury that the subscriber has a good faith belief that the material was removed or disabled as a result of mistake or misidentification of the material to be removed or disabled. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Learn and Understand Digital Millennium Copyright Act 101

Review This part of the chapter talks about Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Identification of the material that has been removed or to which access has been disabled and the location at which the material appeared before it was removed or access to it was disabled. A statement under penalty of perjury that the subscriber has a good faith belief that the material was removed or disabled as a result of mistake or misidentification of the material to be removed or disabled. The subscriber’s name, address, and telephone number, and a statement that the subscriber consents to the jurisdiction of federal district court for the juridical district in which the address is located, or if the subscriber’s address is outside of the united states, for any juridical district in which the service provider may be found, and that the subscriber will accept service of process from the person who provided notification under subsection or an agent of such person. I don’t really know how this will eventually be better but one thing I am sure of is that this digital millennium copyright act will be helpful to both users and developers because it protects both parties by enabling copyright before use. Believe it or not, it is necessary to cite your source. I know only few of us heard about getting in trouble for it but it really is a big deal because one time, I have a classmate that, well, plagiarized his work but he was able to get away with it. It might be an encouraging situation to some but it really is insulting to others who do not plagiarize or at least to some who actually accredit their source because it is their work and they have to be acknowledged if you are planning to use their idea or content. What I learned: Public Law 105-304 Sec. 103 Copyright Protection Systems and Copyright Management Sec. 1201 Circumvention of copyright protection systems Violations regarding circumvention of technical measures Sec. 1202 Integrity of Copyright management information Online Copyright infringement liability limitation Limitations on liability for copyright infringement Limitations on liability relating to material online System Caching Information location tools Limitation on liability of non-profit education institutions Conditions for eligibility 102

Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the title of section 103? What is the title of section 1201? What is the title of section 1202? Explain the limitations on liability for copyright infringement. Explain the limitations on liability relating to material online.

Chapter: Note on the DeCSS Trial Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good, Learn and Understand Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good
Review In the fast-passed world of cyber law the first summer of the new millennium will be remembered for two controversial cases. The first is the well publicized dispute involving web sites such as Napster

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and Gnutella which allow users to swap MP3 music files. The music industry has sought an injunction to prevent Napster, since the subject matter probably seemed more arcane to the general public. Both cases have the potential to shape the precarious landscape of intellectual property law but the effects of the DeCSS case. It is for a fact that people want quality in a cheap price, which is how economics work. Sell it in the lowest price possible and you will get as many buyers as you can because that way, you can earn profit. Let’s keep this one a secret but I know a place, a magical place, where DVDs roam free and buyers walk through the garden of piracy without any care of it violating a major rule. I made it sound like a fairy tale but you know what is really going on in the world right now? We are surrounded by piracy because people like it cheap and piracy is cheap which is why it is so hard to contain it in a jar. Piracy is all over the internet and the fact that it is makes it more invincible to defeat because it is in the internet and that is a powerful place for something so in demand. Frankly, I don’t really think that there can be something to stop the massive growth of piracy online because everyone feeds the monster a little at a time so if there is something to stop this madness, I think now is the right time to implement it. I am not saying that piracy is a good resource; I am just implying that it is a massive tumor that continues to grow online that allows people to become more and more aware of it which is why if it has to be stopped, which I know it should be as soon as possible, it should happen now so that the damage to those affected industries will be minimal.

What I learned: Technical background The lawsuit The outcome

Integrative Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Explain the technical background of the DeCSS Trial. Explain the lawsuit in the trial. What might be the outcome of the trial? What is the actual outcome of the trial? What is the DeCSS trial?

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Chapter: A Politics of Intellect Property: Environmentalism For the Net? Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Small surprise then that we did not preserve it very well. I have argued that the same is true about the public domain. The fundamental aporia in the economic analysis of information issues, the source-blindness of an “original author” – centered model or property rights, and the political blindness to the importance of the public domain disappear, first in concept and then, increasingly, as a reality. 105

What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about A Politics of Intellect Property: Environmentalism for the Net? Learn and Understand A Politics of Intellect Property: Environmentalism For the Net? Review This part of the chapter talksa about A Politics of Intellect Property: Environmentalism For the Net? Apart from the normal presumption in favor of informed democratic participation in the formation of entire property regimes, it is argued that there are particular reasons why this comparative political vacuum is particularly unfortunate. Drawing on some prior work, it is claimed that our intellectual property discourse has structural tendencies towards overprotection, rather than under-protection. To combat that tendency, as well as to prevent the formation and rigidification of a set of rules crafted by and for the largest stakeholders, it is argued that we need a politics of intellectual property. Using the environmental movement as an analogy, I pointed out that a successful political movement needed both a set of analytical tools and coalition built around the more general interests those tools revealed. Welfare economics and the idea of ecology showed that “the environment” literally disappeared as a concept in the analytical structure of private property claims, simplistic “cause and effect” science, and markets that do not force the internalization of negative externalities. Similarly, it is claimed that the “public domain” is disappearing, both conceptually and literally, in an IP system built around the interests of the current stakeholders, and the notion of the original author, around an overdeterministic practice of economic analysis and around a “free-speech” community that is under-sensitation to the dangers of private censorship. In one very real sense, the environmental movement invented the environment so that farmers, consumers, hunters, and birdwatchers could all discover themselves as environmentalists. Perhaps we need to invent the public domain in order to call into being the coalition that might protect it. What I learned: Policies of intellectual property The environment movement Welfare economics The disappearance of the public domain The environment movement Integrative Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. How will on political movement be successful? What is welfare economics? What is the environment? What are the dangers of private censorship? What is the environment movement? 106

Chapter: Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: If I claim a plot of land as my property, I am saying I can control who has access to that land and what they do there. I can build a fence around it, rent it out, or drill it for oil on it. If a car is my property, I get the keys to it. I can exclude others from using it and use it myself for whatever I want, as long as I do not threaten the lives or property of others.

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What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good, Learn and Understand Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good Review This part of the chapter talks about Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good. Producers of information who wants to maximize their control over its issue, and therefore their ability to profit from it, find intellectual property very attractive concept because it focuses primarily on the producers and their claims of ownership. These claims are not valid. As we saw there are some convincing justifications for them, but incomplete. To get a more adequate perspective, we need to step back and ask about the significance and purpose of this information. When we do this, we gain a very important insight that tends to be lost when we only think in terms of rights and property. That is that information is about communication; it is meant to be shared. Ethical policies for the use and distribution of information must take into account the social nature of information, even as they recognize the legitimate claims of the producers, it is in this balance, Aristotle's median, that virtue is found. Admittedly this approach does not lead to any startingly new conclusions. In a sense it just tells us what we already know. That is, intellectual property claims can only go so far. They must be balanced against the common good. Moreover there are different types of intellectual property and they must be treated differently. But the theory’s consistency with sound common sense is its virtue. The ultimate standard for ethics is the collective moral wisdom of the community. If a system gives us the same conclusions as the best minds in our society, it is probably a pretty good system. That is more than can be said for some of the more extreme proposals that have been advanced in the name of intellectual property. What I learned: Conflicts over intellectual property: Five Cases Philosophical justification for intellectual property A more balanced view of the common good Integrative Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Helegian? What is labor theory? What is intellectual property? What is Lockean Justification? Who is Justin Hughes?

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Chapter: Is Copyright Ethical? An Examination of the Theories, Laws, and Practices Regarding the Private Ownership of Intellectual Work in the United States Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Generally the copying of messages in transit is automatic and transparent. The copy is made by the software as a routine part of the transmission and deleted when the transaction is complete 109

What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about “Is Copyright Ethical? An Examination of the Theories, Laws, and Practices Regarding the Private Ownership of Intellectual Work in the United States”, learns and understands “Is Copyright Ethical? An Examination of the Theories, Laws, and Practices Regarding the Private Ownership of Intellectual Work in the United States Review: This part of the chapter talks about “Is Copyright Ethical? An Examination of the Theories, Laws, and Practices Regarding the Private Ownership of Intellectual Work in the United States”, the issue here is copyright ethical that the law of copyright infringement but before we talk about that we should discussed that the law is based on United States and I think our law from the Philippines is based on that law of the US. This issue about copyright is making really a big impact due to some are pirating products from companies for example Microsoft and also some other who are stealing authority or so called copyright infringement. I think piracy cannot be controlled because it’s to much well practice for example video and music is being pirated and many or consuming this products because it’s cheaper than the original and somewhat same quality. Mainly this issue says that these things should be free for the public and if you think this is true, big companies are un ethical because their charging fee for their product that should be free but in the other hand if they do this they will loose profit but I know of a company who gives their product for free for example java they give their product for free but they charge for the services. Basically the point is copyright law is important to recognize the creators. What I’ve learned: The rights The origins of those rights Property rights Theories of intellectual property and copyright History of copyright in the United States Limitations of copyright Ethical manner of copyright Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Is Copyright Ethical? What is Copyright? What is the extent of copyright? What is the first copyright law in the US? State the history of copyright in the US.

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Chapter: On the Web, Plagiarism Matters More Than Copyright Piracy Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: well and earns profits for its publisher, even through the industry makes few attempts to claim on its websites. Projection on the merging industry of electronic book publication also

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provides evidence on the web-based publication does not need the same level of copy right protections against piracy as does hard-copy publication What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about On the Web, Plagiarism Matters More Than Copyright Piracy, learns and understands On the Web, Plagiarism Matters More Than Copyright Piracy Review: This part of the chapter talks about “On the web, Plagiarism matters more than copyright privacy. Basically for I think this two are almost the same and deeply related because their nature is the same the difference is getting profit from the product and saying that you’re the owner of the product. To be more specific here the definition from Wikidepia “Plagiarism is the use or close imitation of the language and ideas of another author and representation of them as one's own original work.” While Copyright Piracy is based again from “Copyright infringement (or copyright violation) is the unauthorized use of material that is covered by copyright law, in a manner that violates one of the copyright owner's exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works.” Basically what I said is just the summarization. What I’ve learned: Plagiarism Piracy Harm in Plagiarism Harm in Piracy Use of copyright Mix of both concepts Integrative Questions: 1. What is plagiarism? 2. What is piracy? 3. How does plagiarism and privacy differ from each other? 4. How does plagiarism and privacy similar from each other? 5. What is the use of copyright?

Chapter: An Ethical Evaluation of Web Site Linking Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1

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Quote: Even if a website is a form of intellectual property, what does it mean to say that one owns this property? What is included in the bundle of rights that belong to a web author? We cannot assume that justice because someone property claim on the web site that any deep linking activities involving the morally forbidden. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about An Ethical Evaluation of Web Site Linking, learns and understands An Ethical Evaluation of Web Site Linking Review: This part of the chapter talks An Ethical Evaluation of Web Site Linking. Basically saving that part and going directly to the site which is said to be bad and harmful because you would not fully view the content. For me this is just a wise browsing because you would save it save us time on doing this and being more direct. This topic I think should be taken seriously because it’s the users ease to be able to maximize the use of the internet but other people are on a rush so therefore I say it’s wise doing this. If this is bad then why do we have an application on our computer called favourites where in we save the page which is website linking. What I’ve learned: The technical aspects of website linking Two case studies The ticketmaster vs Microsoft Case Maria’s online art gallery Websites as intellectual property Utilitarianism Labor-desert theory Personality theory Revisited deep linking Respecting the common good Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is deep linking? What is website linking? Explain the harm of deep linking. What is personal theory? What is Labor-desert theory? Chapter: The Cathedral and the Bazaar Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 113

Quote: and so I inherited pop client. Just importantly, I inherited popclient’s web base. Users are wonderful things to have, and not just because to demonstrate that you’re serving your need, that you’ve done something right. Properly cultivatedm they can become co-developers What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about The Cathedral and the Bazaar, learns and understands The Cathedral and the Bazaar Review: This part of the chapter talks The Cathedral and the Bazaar. I have read this before from my previous subject. This talks about open source. This topic mainly talks about the history of Linux. If u watch the movie pirates of Silicon Valley where in bill gates stole company secrets this is it. It also talks about that without the contribution of Linux our technology would not be close today. They have major contribution like the open source development method and etc. lets give the definition of open source just to be clear based on Wikipedia “Open source is an approach to design, development, and distribution offering practical accessibility to a product's source (goods and knowledge). Some consider open source as one of various possible design approaches, while others consider it a critical strategic element of their operations. Before open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of phrases to describe the concept; the term open source gained popularity with the rise of the Internet, which provided access to diverse production models, communication paths, and interactive communities.”. Basically it’s for all. What I’ve learned: The cathedral and the bazaar Characteristics of a good programmer Importance of having users Releasing early and releasing often Integrative Questions: 1. What is the “cathedral” mean? 2. What is the “bazaar” mean? 3. What do the author mean of hacker? 4. What is a fetchmail? 5. Why is it really important to have users?

Chapter: Towards A Theory of Piracy for the Information Age Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: 114

http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: A control/restricted privacy access conception of privacy has the advantage that polices for privacy can be fined. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Towards A Theory of Piracy for the Information Age, learns and understands Towards A Theory of Piracy for the Information Age Review: This part of the chapter talks Towards a Theory of Piracy for the Information Age. Again this topic main issue is about privacy and piracy. Again we have many technologies because of that many people are claiming that they have created this and that. We take fore granted the internet because it’s easy to use but sometimes we don’t recognize the user we just tend to copy and past and be on our way. We forget to acknowledge and site the one who really created it. There are two standard ways of privacy. First are instrumental values which mean that it leads to something that is good. While, intrinsic value means that it is good in them. Privacy is associated with instrumental value because with the internet that is public, we are able to know certain information. It sort of we trust because everybody is using it so basically I agree in this term. The main thought oh this chapter is does not harm you directly. Meaning use of the information but on your own use and doing define what your privacy will be. What I’ve learned: The definition of Greased Data Grounding Piracy The nature of piracy Setting and adjusting policies for private situations Publicity principle The rules and conditions of governing private situations Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the publicity principle? What is the adjustment principle? What is the definition of greased data? What are the policies for private situations? What is the definition of privacy of Charles Fried? Chapter: The Structure of Rights in Directive 95/46/EC on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data and the free Movement of Such Data Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: 115

http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: The restricted access view is clearly relevant, because the questions of restricted informational access are quite central in the Directive. In particular, the restrictions on the processing of sensitive data are concerned with restricting access to the individual. There are, however, many norms in the directive pertaining to data protection that are not adequately described as restricting access to individuals. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about The Structure Directive 95/46/EC on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing Data and the free Movement of Such Data, Learn and Understand The Structure Directive 95/46/EC on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing Data and the free Movement of Such Data Review: This part of the chapter talks about The Structure of Rights in Directive 95/46/EC on the Protection of Individuals with Regard to the Processing of Personal Data and the free Movement of Such Data. The directive has several layers of provision: The data quality should have a connection with the purpose of collection; it should also be accurate and up to date. The data should be legitimate; the subject of the data should give his consent with regards to the information shared. The sensitivity of data is also put into consideration. Personal data which falls to the special categories of dare including the race, origin, religion, politics, health and sex, which can be harmful to the subject’s interest one are not permitted, unless a consent is given. Personal data are used for different purposes. It should not be processed if the subject does not expect the date collection to take place. Privacy is restricted access, it is a limitation of how individuals can access other people and that the spread of information can contribute to a loss of privacy and security. What I learned: Introduction to the structure The directive on the question of further processing of personal data Data quality Legitimate purposes Sensitive data The right to be informed Data subject’s right to access and to object The reprocessing of personal data Using personal data for a different purpose Data protection and the philosophy of privacy Privacy as restricted access Privacy as control Channels for the flow of personal information 116 of of of of Rights in Personal Rights in Personal

Relationship between privacy and data protection in the directive Channels for the flow of personal information Data protection and the protection of privacy The directive and the protection of channels Integrative Questions: 1. What is the relationship between privacy and data protection? 2. What do you mean by protection of channels? 3. What are the three aspects of privacy? 4. Is giving out personal information applicable in the Philippines? 5. What are the hindrances or problems that would happen if this giving out personal information would be implemented?

Chapter: Privacy Protection, Control of Information, and Privacy-Enhancing Technologies Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: 117

http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: This tripartite structure of the theory of privacy is important to keep in mind that because each part of the theory performs a different function. To give an account of one if the parts is not to give an account of the others. The concept of privacy itself is best defined in terms of restricted access, not control. Privacy is fundamentally about protection from intrusion and information gathering by others. Individual control of personal information, on the other hand, is part of the justification of privacy and plays a role in the management of privacy. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Privacy Protection, Control of Information, and Privacy-Enhancing Technologies, Learn and Understand Privacy Protection, Control of Information, and Privacy-Enhancing Technologies Review: This chapter talks about Privacy Protection, Control of Information, and PrivacyEnhancing Technologies. Mainly two main issues all the criticisms about the control of information as to the issues about the privacy protection concerned. Second part discusses the privacy enhancing technology that would control the personal information, if it is effective in ensuring that our personal information will be secured in that software. Privacy is the big woop in this topic that it says that we need privacy we like it or not. It talks about how to improve privacy and maximize. But the problem is our network is to be that sometimes some just hack in and destroy the privacy that why the topic gives tips on how to strengthen your privacy and issues about it. What I learned: The theory of privacy Normative privacy and the restricted access theory The use control in the justification and management of privacy Privacy-enhancing technologies PETs PETs and the role of individual choice in controlling personal information PETs and the principle of informed consent PET owners beware

Integrative Questions: 118

1. What is PETs? 2. Why is it appealing? 3. Explain the theory of privacy. 4. What is descriptive privacy? 5. How would you differ normative privacy and descriptive privacy?

Chapter: Toward an Approach to Privacy in Public: Challenges of Information Technology Library Reference Number: N/A 119

Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: It was to be compiled from information already. “Out there” and would use no intrusive in bedrooms. Information was to be harvested from public records and from records of transactions that individuals carried out in the public arena and made no efforts to hide What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Toward an Approach to Privacy in Public: Challenges of Information Technology Learn and Understand toward an Approach to Privacy in Public: Challenges of Information Technology Review: This part of the chapter talks about Toward an Approach to Privacy in Public: Challenges of Information Technology. It discusses the scope of privacy that we don’t know how to scale it a perspective. We all know that people need privacy but sometimes to what level that does privacy goes. There are two misleading assumptions about privacy. One is there is a realm of public information about persons to which no privacy norms apply. This are the things that are known or given information about the person. Second is an aggregation of information does not violate privacy if its parts, taken individually do not. It’s not our problem because we have to know what is happening with our circle of friends that we have to know the information for example would you be friend a person you known has a blood lust for killing you will think about it but the answer sometimes is always no. Sometimes information is a must What I learned: Privacy The personal Realm Violating privacy in public – the case of Lotus Marketplace: Households Two misleading Assumptions Erroneous Assumption1 Erroneous assumption 2 Implications for a theory of privacy Integrative Questions: 1. What is privacy? 2. What do you mean by personal realm? 3. Explain the first erroneous assumption. 4. What does this chapter highlights? 5. What the biggest challenge in the information technology?

Chapter: KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness Library Reference Number: N/A 120

Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: It should be observed that group profiles may occasionally be incompatible with respect to individual’s privacy and rules and regulations regarding the protection of personal data, as it is commonly conceived of. For instance, distributive profiles may sometimes be rightfully thought of as infringement of individual privacy when the individuals involved can easily be identified through a combination with other information available to the recipient or through spontaneous recognition. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness, Learn and Understand KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness Review: This part of the chapter talks about KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness. This chapter is about knowledge in discovery in database, privacy individuality and fairness. Through KDD, relevant information from data is gathered. The KDD process includes the collection, enriching, checking, coding, analyzing and interpretation of the data. Personal date is discussed as gathered information about the person. Which is protected by the law, The data that should be gathered must be accurate that prevent mishaps like for example you have an allergy that trigger a violent disease the doctors must know the information about you so they will know how to cure if not you will surely die. The subject must give consent for the data processing. The date subject has the right to his personal data; he has the right to know the information relating to the data. There is a consequence on privacy conceptions. It makes it hard to label the problem areas of using personal data of applying it to group profile and it also makes it different to take in the intensity of these problems. What I learned: Definition of KDD Personal data Law Ethics Social consequences Categorial privacy Solutions Closing remarks Acknowledgements

Integrative Questions: 121

1. What is KDD? 2. What is distributive justice? 3. What do ethics mean? 4. Define categorial privacy. 5. Enumerate the solutions stated in this chapter.

Chapter: Data Mining and Privacy 122

Library Reference Number: N/A Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Devised by computer scientist David Chaum, these techniques prevent the dossier society in which computers could be used to infer individuals’ life styles, habits, whereabouts, and associations from data collected in ordinary consumer transactions can have a chilling effect causing the people to alter their observable activities. What I expect to learn: What to know and gain knowledge about Data Mining and Privacy, Learn and Understand Data Mining and Privacy Review: This part of the chapter talks about Data Mining and Privacy. Basically again like the previous chapter it talks about privacy but emphasizes on data mining. This brief definition of data mining from Wikipedia to have a clear idea “Data mining is the process of extracting hidden patterns from large amounts of data. As more data is gathered, with the amount of data doubling every three years, data mining is becoming an increasingly important tool to transform this data into information. It is commonly used in a wide range of profiling practices, such as marketing, surveillance, fraud detection and scientific discover” Basically like it’s said hidden pattern of data and extracting large amount of data. Some workers worry that their personal information will be given out by the companies. I believed that it would be unethical if that would happen. But I don’t think that companies would give out such important information of their workers since they would also be affected if they will try to do it.. This chapter also suggests the government to separate privacy and data mining since there is conflicts if those two terms will be put together. What I learned: Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining The issue Analysis of the issue Issues in the first case as well as the second case Categories in pre-existing data Cluster data by mapping

Integrative Questions: 123

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is data mining? What is data warehouse? What is the first case study of this chapter? How do you analyze an issue? What are the categories of pre-existing data?

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Chapter: Workplace Surveillance, privacy and distributive justice Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: In each individual case, different tactics will be used by the different parties to secure interest. Review: At this time, most of the employers prefer to have surveillance camera on their employee’s office. This is because they want to see if their employees were doing things behind their back for them or doing their responsibilities rights it’s just for their security but what about these who worked for them? They will feel that they are untrust worthy to be left without surveillance. For me surveillance camera is fair enough if your employer sees something wrong about your performance, he will say it, as an employee you have to improve, so that the next time your employer will do the workplace surveillance he will see that you improved since the employee is working in ones company. Privacy here is not that necessary. As the quote says” In each individual case, different tactics will be used by the different parties to secure their interest not only the interest of the employer but also the employee. I have read that “there is also accumulating evidence that surveillance of individual leads to stress a last a sense of dignity and a general environment of mistrust. Why? Because most employer doesn’t know how to talk to people. Yes! Employers you should treat your employee’s the way you treat yourself. You sometimes or should I say most of the time shouting at them employer should treat their employees well and employees should do their very best for the company. What I’ve learned: Definition of surveillance in the workspace Definition of privacy and justice Resisting workplace surveillance Privacy as a matter of justice Privacy, surveillance, and distributive justice From individual perspective From the perspective of the collective Self-interested individuals Conclusion Some implications

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Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is surveillance? Why do we need workplace surveillance? What is the disadvantage of having surveillance camera? Is surveillance camera ethical or unethical? What does this author mean of surveillance camera?

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Chapter: Privacy and Varieties of Informational Wrongdoing Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: A person doesn’t stop from learning. They always have necessities? Always not contented and has a never ending needs. Once it’s not yet found they will search for it. Once they found it all they will still want more and more they abused it without realizing the side effects. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Privacy and Varieties of Informational Wrongdoing, learn and understand Privacy and Varieties of Informational Wrongdoing

Reviews: All the things that are to much be not good how the information inequality stops while there would are people who welcome the benefits that information technology give them in exchange for he use of their personal data? So this is also the reason why people here in the Philippines exchange their presidential votes for two cans of sardines, three pillow of rice and a pack of noodles. In addition to that, government is encouraging establishments to use panoptic technology such as surveillance camera, and data mining techniques because it is for the public good. I agree to what the government is doing. They always think of the group of people who will be benefited and not by individual. I know it is tough to think of such things but it is really just a matter of thinking a smart way of approaching such problems. I can name more than ten informational wrongdoing that have been happening online in a consistent basis What I’ve learned: Definition of Privacy The different varieties of informational wrongdoing Panoptic technologies and the public good Information-based harm Informational inequality Informational injustice Spheres of access Encroachment on moral autonomy Integrative Questions: 1. What is privacy? 2. How can you categorize an action to be a “wrongdoing”? 3. What is informational inequality? 4. What is informational injustice? 5. What does the government encourage the establishments to do? 127

Chapter: Security in Cyberspace Library Reference: Not Applicable
Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Stories about criminal activities involving computers have been highly publicized since the 1970 & 1980, and much has been written about the “hacker culture” What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Security in Cyberspace, learn and understand Security in Cyberspace. Review: There are so many benefits we can get from computers internet. As a student, I can say that I am lucky to live in computer age. Chatting with friends, listening to music, watching video clips, playing on line games that are some of the reason I thank those inventors for this amazing thing. Every person has their own mind. They are free to do what they want but abusing the cyberspace is not good to those person who is in the right age, what more to children? So I guess it’s necessary to have security in cyberspace. For their children’s it should be their parents also for all. It might be broad to say that everyone needs security but it is true that we need it for protection against the pending harm. What I’ve learned: Prevention is better than cure. I cab say this because like illness once it is active, it’s not that easy to cure. But if you prevent to have illness you don’t have to cure at all. It is like the crime, abuse and terrorism in cyberspace. Most of the people in the world used computers. Some are ill and the worst thing is they choose not to cure their sickness. Integrative Questions: 1. What is security? 2. What is Cyberspace? 3. What is Cyber Terrorism? 4. Who does Cyber Terrorism Prevented? 5. Why do people choose to harm other people?

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Chapter: Defining the Boundaries of Computer Crime: Piracy, Break-Ins, and Sabotage in Cyberspace Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Considering out analysis thus far, one might be inclined to infer that there are no legitimate grounds for having separate category of computer crime. But would such an interface be justified at this point? Putting aside that question for a moment. One still might ask what practical purpose would be served in our framing such a category of crime. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about defining the Boundaries of Computer Crime: Piracy, Break-Ins, and Sabotage in Cyberspace, learn and understand Defining the Boundaries of Computer Crime: Piracy, Break-Ins, and Sabotage in Cyberspace. Review: This part of the chapter talks about defining the Boundaries of Computer Crime: Piracy, Break-Ins, and Sabotage in Cyberspace. There are three types of crime first of is software piracy which is making profit out of people work without permission for example are the movies, DVD, and other vend able product. My reaction to this it’s can’t be stop because it’s cheaper and easier to get rather than the original that is expensive. Second is what they call electronic break ins. This is more of violating the privacy of the owner or the companies secrets because programmers will hack the system or companies to get private information. Third is what they call computer sabotage. This is the most common encounter when I was a newbie because I tend to go to sites and try out everything not knowing there are viruses that will destroy your computer. This purpose is they are having the anti virus that they sell it to you or sometimes they just want to have reckoning. What I’ve learned: Boundaries of Computer Crime Definition of a Computer crime The need to know these computer crimes Legal categories of computer crime Moral categories of computer crime Informational/descriptive categories of computer crime Computer crime as a descriptive category of crime Establishing clear and coherent criteria Applying the definition to some specific cases The three types of computer crime: Piracy Break-ins Sabotage 129

Integrative Questions: 1. What is Piracy? 2. What is Brea-ins? 3. What is Sabotage? 4. What is a computer crime? 5. Among the three, which do you find unethical and ethical?

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Chapter: Defining the Boundaries of Computer Crime: Piracy, Break-Ins, and Sabotage in Cyberspace Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: we strongly appase any attempt to use the power of hacking to threaten or disprog the information infrastructure of any country fir any reason declaring “was” this has nothing to do with hacktivism or the hacker ethics and is nothing a hacker can be proud of. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge Terrorism or Civil Disobedience: Toward a Hacktivist Ethic, learn and understand Terrorism or Civil Disobedience: Toward a Hacktivist Ethic. Review: the law does not support the damaging of other nations computer, networks or system in any way. Nor will the law use their skills, abilities or connections to take any actions against the system, network or computers in china or iraq which may damage or make their own way of operation. Intellectual property is not a tangible material entity. It is nothing more that a violation volt patern of electros arrayed in pattern of open and closed gates to form intelligible numerical or textual sysmbols. Information documents and data aside inside computers is a form that can be stolen ever being removed, indeed without ever being touch by a would be theft or depriving owner from still using and profiting of the property. What I’ve learned: I’ve learned that hacktivism in its infacy but given the ubiquity and democratising possibility of the internet, we will certainly bear witness to the movement growing pairs and increasing maturity, one thing is sure hovewer incidents of cyber hactivism are on the rise and will continue to be the rise in the real future. 1. What is a Hacktivist? 2. What is a Hacktivist ethic? 3. What do you mean by electronic civil disobedience? 4. Is hacktivism ethical or unethical? 5. What is ECD mean?

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Chapter: Web Security and Privacy: An American Perspective Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses papers and effect and effect against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated and so warrants shall issue, but upon probable supported by death or affirmation particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be sized. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Web Security and Privacy: An American Perspective, learn and understand Web Security and Privacy: An American Perspective. Review: The privacy implications are that people on their surveillance are not likely to express views an go to assemblies or religious meeting with which the agencies of surveillance are likely to disagree, the freedom to read is the freedom to read without fear of surveillance the court has ruled that the right to privacy covers memberships and personal associations confirming the rights of member to pursue their lawful private interest privately and to associate freely with others. What I’ve learned: There are pracy promises of information technology. Many of the conflits between data availability and privacy can be resolved. Access Control List Definition of security Definition of integrity Availability Private key encryption A replay attack Simple replay attacks fall with public key cryptography Browsing information Provided technical services Browser client connects Definition of the following: ISP IP DNS Web proxy Legal Issues and Societal Implications Web activities 132

Integrative Questions: 1. What does ISP mean? 2. What does IP mean? 3. What does DNS mean? 4. What is Web Proxy? 5. What is the Web Activities Mentioned?

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Chapter: The Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: the natural meaning of anonymity as many be reflected in ordinary usage or a dictionary definition is of remaining nameless that is to say conducting oneself without revealing one’s name. We easily may be able to identify him without throwing his name although in the past most dared and effective way of getting at a person was through his offer name. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about The Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age, learn and understand The Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age. Review: In the computerized world with the system of information that we currently have in place namelessness by itself is no larger sufficient for protecting what is at stake in anonymity. If it is true as I have suggested that one can gain access to a person through bits or constellation of bits of information then protecting anonymity today amounts to more than merely withholding a name it meant withholding the information of constellation of information it now takes target at or get to a person. Anonymity is defined as hiding one true identity. What I’ve learned: We must think not only of how a person can prevent his/her name from being developed. But how a person can prevent all the crucial bits of information from being divulged. Especially the bits of information that when divulged would enables access to him or her. Brief definition of anonymity Data-flow Information registration Gatekeepers Analysis after admission Methods Anonymity of sender First encryption with a public and secure key Double encryption twice applied Encryption procedure with an anonymity sender Integrative Questions: 1. What is Data-flow? 2. Who are the gatekeepers? 3. What is anonymity? 4. Is it really necessary to analyze after admission? 5. Explain the encryption procedure with an anonymity sender. 134

Chapter: Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: So we are stuck with a riddle” How can a biometric identifier be both identifying and not saying anything particular about you? I think the key to this riddle may be found in the idea that meaning is not something intrinsic, but, following determined by use. Following this kind of reasoning, we should perhaps not expect to be able to determine any intrinsic meaning of biometric data, or the biometric body in general, but investigate quite specifically what uses and practices biometrics will become part of. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity learn and understand Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity. Review: Biometrics is often described as the next big thing in information technology since the revolution in IT with all its new forms of communication has change so many aspects of social and economic life in western countries the new level of complexity call forth a need for new ways of maintaining order and providing security. major buyers of biometrics technology can be found in the private sectors particularly among corporation with high security interest and a limited access areas alike banks and nuclear power plants but important impetus comes from government and government related department and services. Catering to client populations of thousands of termillitars of people. What I’ve learned: I learned that there are some question in what sense “ identity” is at stakes in biometric identification techniques. There are some indications that these techniques actively involve every narrow concepts of identity which may not be very significant from a social theoretical or philosophical perspective. Use of biometrics ATMs Identifying biometric identity Virtual identities Questioning the biometric body

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Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is a biometric? How can a biometric identify our identity? What is the reason behind double decryption? Compare emails before and now. What is the process of double decryption?

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Chapter: Ethical Considerations for the Information Professions Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: Ethics will continue to be put through new tests as technologies race ahead of many social and cultural conventions and norms. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Ethical Considerations for the Information Professions, learn and understand Ethical Considerations for the Information Professions Review: This chapter talks about ethical considerations for the professional people. I believed that this chapter is very significant because this talks about the reason why there is a need to have code of ethics. In class, I learned that there are many code of ethics. This is maybe the main reason why it is important. Many businesses nowadays have seen the importance of having code of ethics and they really implement code of ethics in their business. What is code of ethics? Code of ethics is to give us a guide to be professional and especially to act as professional. There is a need for this in order to remind the professional people to act as professional. There is a big difference to act as a professional and a professional because sometimes there are professional people, but the important thing for them is money or to earn money. What I’ve learned: Philosophical foundations Major issues Flagrant quantitative imbalance Inequality in information resources De facto hegemony Lack of information in developing countries Survival of the colonial era Code of ethics Issue definition and evaluation Action/Inaction Evaluation and implementation

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Integrative Questions: 1. What are the ethical considerations for the information profession? 2. Explain the flagrant quantitative imbalance. 3. What is Robert McChesney view? 4. Give some code of ethics. 5. What are the different phases of ethical considerations?

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Chapter: Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved! Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved! Learn and understand Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved! Review: This part of the chapter talks about Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved! The rules and essential guidelines. For the appropriate use of lousiness computers are awareness by senior management of the actual. And potential uses of company computer system is just as important as knowledge of any others activity. The purpose of a business computer system (and/or application) should be made specific before it is installed. There should never be unofficial changes in this use. Should changes be later considered essential discussion and formal agreement are necessary and approval should not be considered automatic? All use of company computer system should be within these specified rules and guidelines. It is important that development of company rules is not merely a pape exercise staff should be trained in both policy and implementation. What I’ve learned: I’ve learned computers and computer software develop very rapidly indeed. What is science fiction today could be practicable tomorrow and maybe common practice the day after, managers responsible for computers systems need to e aware not only of the current situation. Of the potential future. IEEE-CS/ACM Joint task force on software engineering ethics professional practices The short version of the software engineering ethics Public Client Employer Product Judgment Management Profession Colleagues self The full version The applied principles 139

Integrative Questions: 1. What does IEEE-CS stands for? 2. What does ACM stands for? 3. What is Robert McChesney view? 4. Give some code of ethics. 5. What are the different phases of ethical considerations?

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Chapter: No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are Worse than None at All Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: any moral code whether in computing or elsewhere can be turned to by someone feeling pressure to find a relatively easy way out of a morally thickly situation, thus they any moral code could be looked at in the hope that it will provide an excuse for potential immoral acts. It is profitable or we can say good to have moral ethics, or ethical codes `but there are disadvantages of this. For example giving a code of ethics that is not complete gives some people groups of organization chance to do the things that is not written in the code of ethics without violating any form of moral act. There are playing with the law, just like some of our attorneys here in the Philippines they are finagling out what is not written in the law and taking that against their and advantages to themselves. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All, Learn and understand No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All Review: I think all the computer companies and all of these who have a connection in the computer word, should be unite there selves to form a complete code of ethics by this collaboration, they are strengthening the code and putting enough power to it . If this will be possible this code of ethics will have its weapon to punish violators and the future of the computer realm orders to every aspect. What I’ve learned: I’ve discover that we do not have a complete code of ethics in the computer industry some of the untackle issues are the possible danger to life a weapon system and whether it might be increased or reduced by a new system being developed Definition of PAPA Weapons or the question of whether the technology for use in weapons systems ought to be developed Environmental impact of these systems Teleworking Telecommuting Protecting the weak against the strong Importance of the PAPA issues The pressures to look for loopholes on codes Incomplete moral codes Complete moral codes 141

Avoiding accidental incomplete moral codes Integrative Questions: 1. What do you mean by PAPA? 2. Define teleworking. 3. Define telecommuting. 4. What are the strong and weak points? 5. Why it is that incomplete code of ethics are worse than none at all?

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Chapter: Subsumption Ethics Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: American common law subsumes juridical decisions, and a half dryer subsumes an electric motor. Subsumption in computers is different because there is so much more subsumption going on than in simple machines. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All, Learn and understand No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All Review: This part of the chapter talks about Subsumption Ethics. This chapter talks about subsumption ethics. Subsumption ethics means the process in which the decision will be operated by a machine that would make a decision as to run or to stop it. The difference of computers and human is that we can make decisions. Computers would only do what the users wants him to do. We, humans can choose what is best for us. This chapter suggest that because we are human, we should do the right action and not the wrong action. The issue is more of a man vs machine like the terminator. What I learned: Subsumption ethics Systems Development Organizational policy drives IT development Axious of Subsumption ethics Four axioms Ethical Framework Philosophical frameworks applied to subsumption ethics Unnecessary complexity to common C programmers Popclient becomes fetchmail Fetchmail grows up Few more lessons from fetchmail Necessary preconditions for the bazaar style The social context of open-source software On management and the maginot line

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Integrative Questions: 1. What is subsumption ethics? 2. What is systems development? 3. What are the axioms of subsumption ethics? 4. Can you give examples of subsumption ethics? 5. How does subsumption ethics works?

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Chapter: Ethical Issues in Business Computing Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: all companies of what ever size should be consider their use of computer system. We should be adopting the words new technologies. The world of offers machine and gadgets to help us to run more efficiently our business it’s up to us to accept it. What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about Ethical Issues in Business Computing, Learn and understand Ethical Issues in Business Computing Review: I’ve heard computers and computers software develop very rapidly indeed. What is science fiction today could be predictable tomorrow and my be common practice the day after, managers responsible for computer system need to be aware not only of the current situation, but of future potentials. First is the nature of data. This means what the data is and what it can give to me as a person. Second is category. This means the data is in what category. The questions that will be raised here is “Can I access this kind of data?” The main role of computers in business is to solve the problems of the business. I agree to it since we should use its functionality in order to achieve our goal. What I’ve learned: Scope of business computing Business computing itself Size issues Level one Level Two Level Three Level four The tasks of business computing Data considerations Awareness by stakeholders and users Integrative Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is business computing? What is the purpose of a business computing system? What are the penalties for computer misuse? Give examples in level two business. Give examples in level three business. 145

Chapter: The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting The Virtues Library Reference: Not Applicable Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238853343&sr=8-1 Quote: ethical responsibility begins by taking the ethical points of view, we must respect others and their core values if we can avoid policies that result in significant harm to others that would be a good beginning toward responsible ethical behaviour. Awareness to others is the key to this role putting aside your selfish desire and putting your feet in other shoes is very important to the moral ethics What I expect to learn: to gain knowledge about The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting the Virtues, Learn and understand The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting the Virtues Review: Western society is confronted with moral and ethical problems on a daily basis tabloids, soap operas and scandals screams about breaches of ethical, lying ,immoral behaviour etc. that bounce seriousness’ of the front page information technology, we are faced with a myriad if ethical problems generated by computer mediated action, invasions of privacy using the internet for pornography, and illegal to information and system have become as news worthy as the sex scandals and more far-reaching the response these issues at least in the united states has been to try to pass laws to stop the abuse, as we have seen these attempts at regulation are seriously disputed by those who values the freedom associated with the global information infrastructure and are hacked around by those with technological expertise. The reality of computers technology is that sooner or later we will all become practitioners from within on many different levels , we therefore need infrastructure of information and communication technology, use should through moral agency does not negate serious attention to action nor concern for objects in the information infrastructure rather it adds one more dimension to a complex field and approaches computers ethics as the integrative, global field that it is. What I’ve learned: Ethics Morality Character forming vs. Action guiding theories Need for contemporary moral theory Revisiting the virtues Core vales Practitioner from within Imagination and narrative genre

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Integrative Questions: 1. Enumerate the core values and explain each. 2. What do you mean by revisiting the virtues? 3. What virtues are mentioned? 4. What are their similarities? 5. What do you learn from this chapter?

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