00 io
iOO i(0






to the

LIBRARY of the



Estate of the late
A. S. P.




of the
of English


University College








Digitized by tine Internet Arcinive



funding from

University of Toronto





10 8 8^ . references original will therefore be found to pages of the extract edition . book which are not included in the present these are not important. by Edmund Venables (Second Edition. etc.NOTE The present edition is of Part I of The PilgriirCs Progress edition of taken without change from the complete The Pilgrim''s Progress. revised by Occasional Mabel Peacock. 1900. Qd.). price 3*. and if the complete is not available for reference they may be ignored. Gi-ace Abounding.

and was buried in the chancel. The original form of the name of Elstow was Ellen-stow. dwelling-place or habitation. niece to William the Conqueror.BUNYANS MEETING-HOUSE. live quietly close to their old home in the of The register of the united parishes Peter Dunstaple in that town contains the entry of the burial of four of them. or abbey. brother to the Earl of Mary and St. founded in 1078 Elstow was the seat of a Beneby Judith. and several of them continued to town of Bedford. St. by whom a mansion was erected early ^ in the seventeenth century. Emperor Constantine. The monastic property passed to Sir Humphrey Ratcliffe. forms an . He Sussex. SOUTHWARK BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION. who made the convent his place of residence. a in many local names. Helen. From the died there in 1566. which element The Anglo-Saxon siow. Earl of Huntingdon. and widow of Waltheof. continued to rank among the most wealthy of similar foundations till the Dissolution. and Elstow nunnery. 26. under whose patronage the village was originally placed. The abbey was surrendered to the crown Aug. dictine nunnery. rather birthplace of John Bunyan was Elstow. the The stoiu'^ the mother of the or place of St. one of our few early British saints. The sisters had pensions granted to them out of the estates. 1540. a small village more than a mile to the south of the town of Bedford. Ratcliffes the property passed to the Hillersdens.

§§ 33j 34)} is a massive detached structure strongly buttressed. The is seat assigned by long-standing tradition to John an old open oaken bench in the north aisle. all The ' ' steeple-door it. all worn and broken with the hobnailed boots of generations of church. and polished by the hands of the thousands of visitors yearly attracted to this little village by the fame of the tinker of Elstow. Tradition says that the fourth bell is the one he was accustomed to ring. vaulted from a central pillar.' the scene of Bunyan's bell-ringing exploits. The tower. ringers. As the seat now faces south instead of east. as daughters. it must have been moved from its original position. the then parson of Elstow. happily remains undisturbed. The pulpit. but originally stood in the north aisle. which may have been the chapter-house. The church. It is of late Perpendicular work. The rough flagged floor. partly Early English. as that from which the sermon was preached by Christopher Hall. in which we may conclude that John Bunyan was learn from the parish registers his two beloved blind child) (July 20. Attached to the south-west corner is a beautiful little apartment of the fourteenth century. built after the destruction of the central tower and choir of the monastic The five bells that hang in it are the same in which Bunyan so much delighted. and an Early English clerestory. .VI BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION must have been a grand new house in Bunyan's early days. facing the pulpit. which is only the nave of the abbey church. 1650) and Elizabeth (April 14. 1654) certainly were. facing the entrance himself baptized. as well as of the fierce ' ' Bunyan struggles of conscience so graphically described {Grace Abounding. The octagonal font. ' is ' in if respects the same ' as when he used ' to stand in safely hoping a bell should walls.' fall he could little which show as behind the thick tendency to ruin as in Bunyan's slip out days. stands at the west door. The ivy-clad ruins form a picturesque feature on the south side of the church. with five wellproportioned arches. we Mary (his door. standing twenty-one feet from the church at its north-west corner. or 'steeple-house. is a building of unusual loftiness and dignity. so intimately connected with Bunyan's history. must be looked on with no common interest. partly rude Norman. of a pentagonal form. which first awoke Bunyan's slumbering conscience.

by John Brown. The cottage where Bunyan was born. very little altered either in its character or surroundings from the time when John Bunyan was the ringleader of all the youth of the place in the dances on the sward. is still standing. of that rank. 1885. Still. a year remarkable in English history for the Petition of Right. His father was a tinker (' a mender of pots and kettles.' in his own words. 8. must be much the same * * On the green may still as in the days of the Commonwealth.' writes Charles Doe). that Bunyan was of gypsy descent. it is of long-standing there. as we know from contemporary literature^.' Few villages are so little modernized as Elstow. a wide expanse of turf. tapestried with roses and honeysuckles. John Bunyan was born in the year 1628. when Elstow was a more important place than now.' or brazier. B.. Times. 297. and where his children were born. wills. or moot-hall. served as a market-house. tipcat. and at the upper end is a quaint old brick and timber building.' and the other sports which his morbid conscience afterwards regarded as ungodly practices. that at one time the Bunyans were a yeoman family of good position. but modem repairs have robbed it of all its picturesqueness. Dr. his calling was low and disreputable.' and the assassination of the Duke of Buckingham.' Although the surname of Bunyan has now almost died out in Bedfordshire.BUNYAN'S BIRTHPLACE vii The church stands on the south side of the village green. Brown has proved from the evidence of assize-rolls.A.' for he had a settled home at Elstow. if its site was ever accurately known. . This effectually dispels the idea alluded to with favour by Sir Walter Scott. which in former days. with well-carved corner-posts and spars supporting the jutting upper-storey. gabled porches and peaked dormers. That occupied by him after his first marriage. and other historical documents. and Work. 1. or what we should now call a ' whitesmith. manorial court -rolls. John Btmyan : His * * Life. has long since passed away. and was at one time very common 2. to establish which a good deal of misdirected learning ' ' ' ' See note referring to p. In the large upper room the village dancers held their revels when the cold of winter drove them in from the green. The old half-timbered cottages with overhanging storeys. be seen the stump of the ancient market cross. that is the meanest and most despised in the land.

Bunyon. However. many different forms in those days of unsettled orthography and phonetic spelling. where he grew up what Coleridge calls has * 'a bitter blackguard'. at a later period of his life.^ 313There is not a shadow of evidence that he was ever 317). which . as exhibited in the margin of the copy of Fox's Acts and Monuments. is a vile scrawl. Poor as his parents were they did not neglect to send their son John to school. so that he became celebrated as shocking those who were by no means a town-swearer spotless themselves with the abundance and vehemence of his But the offences of which he speaks with the deepest oaths.' he writes.' language in which he laments his youthful misdeeds has led to a very mistaken estimate of his character. ' . become universally accepted. He acknowledges to a habit of profane swearing. that he was entirely guiltless of sins of impurity (G. having. The last form. on a par with the badness of the spelling and His boyhood was spent in the rudeness of his doggrel rhymes. Bunion. and indulged in without restraint till after his marriage. In the parish register of Elstow we find Bonion. and that little he confesses with shame he soon lost. and Bunyan.' It is certain from his own solemn declaration when. ' . of the tinker. Southey was the first to demolish. but few equals even when a child ' for cursing. his native village.VllI BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION and research has been employed. Bunyan himself spelt it in several different ways. which. which was his companion in prison. handed on from one writer to another until it became almost a matter The wickedness of faith. and it * ' is taking the language of self-accusation too literally to pro- nounce of John Bunyan that he was at any time depraved. charges of immorality were brought against him. he learnt but little. is certainly the least frequent. The unmeasured lying. acquired when a child. drunk in his life. Bunyan's inquiry of his father whether he was descended from the Israelites or no {G.' His handwriting. is entirely beside the mark for there is no reason to suppose that he could have had any acquaintance with the strange hallucination that the gypsies are to be regarded as the repreThe name Bunyan appeared in sentatives of the ten lost tribes. has been greatly overcharged. Bonyon. § i8). and blaspheming the name of God. A. almost utterly. A. according to his ' ' own confession. swearing.

and helped to shape his mind. The thought of the Day of Judgement and the doom of the ungodly crushed In the midst of his games and pastimes with other his spirit. But it was only a passing shadow. however. Mr. and the youthful pleasures to which he gave himself up unrestrainedly quickly cut off all remembrance of them as if they had never been. They. and the apprehension of devils and wicked spirits coming to carry him off which made his bed a place of terrors. which was naturally one of powerful imagination and vivid susceptibility. Bunyan would often mention. left their mark. ' ' ' ' — — — — him which. in Coleridge's words. After a while his feverish dreams left him. . near being stung to death by an adder'. sports and pastimes. the ringleader at wake or merrymaking. boys 'vain companions' his morbid feehngs led him to call them the recollection of these nightly horrors threw a cloud over his merriment. The preservation of his life more than once under circumstances of imminent danger 'judgements mixed with mercy' deepened the undercurrent of as he afterwards termed them Twice he fell into the water and hardly religious feeling. however. for the task which has made him famous. as he mistakenly thought. % 12 and note. but nine or ten years old he was racked with convictions of sin and haunted with religious terrors. crimes ballad-reading. daring young fellow. A. At another time his reckless daring brought him. known only to himself.' says his anonymous biographer. but never without thanksgiving to God was the one incident preserved to us from his life as a soldier. that was a merit rather than a crime. While still a child. According to the standard of the Book of Sports. escaped drowning. to curse his own or his companions' eyes on slight or no provocation. IX of dancing.' from his earliest years his inner life. ready. had been of a very different complexion. But while to the ordinary observer Bunyan would only be known as a gay. But that which made the greatest impression upon ' ' ' and an eagerness for all kinds of True they were practised on the Sunday.— CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH self-condemnation were the very venial bell-ringing. He specially mentions the fearful dreams and dreadful visions which scared and affrighted him in his childhood. ' ' ' — * G. and fond of a row.

lasted about three years. On March 22. Book of the Bunyaii Festival. he was shot in the We wish head with a musket bullet and died' (G. i. 168. A second volume of the work by the same author. His presence at Newport on May 27. he had told us more. one of the company desired to go in my room to which when I consented he took my place. renders the theory that he was at the siege of Leicester impossible. 4-7. 1732. § 13). and proves that it is most improbable that a levy from Bedford should have served at Leicester. plete obscurity. contains an account of the various branches of the Cockayne family. 1647.X It is BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION best told in his own words—' When I was a soldier it. circulation in 1869 at Congleton. . 1645. ed. Facsimiles of the muster-rolls containing Bunyan's name are given in The Presbyterian for March 3. According to Mr. as has been shown by Dr. printed for private p. Atkinson. 501. Atkinson. he appears in the list of Major Boulton's company. especially ^ on the Royalist side '^. pp. Memorials. An examination of the military history of the campaign. or.' in the company commanded by Colonel Richard Cockayne. 193. 1646 (vol. a centinel. 1898. Ordinances. and Declarations. A Collection of Orders. In the absence of definite information fancy has taken the place of fact. p. and even the cause for which he took up arms. "^ ' military service. A. are left in comothers were to go to such a place to besiege drawn out when I . vol. The name of the besieged place. as he stood sentinel. A. appears to have been a Bedfordshire man of some note. Cockayne. E. E. ed. Brown \ leads to a very different conclusion. Bunyan was still a member of one of the companies ^^^ belonging to the Newport garrison as late as June 17. ii). Colonel Richard Cockayne. John Banyan's name appears in these lists. G. and a historical fabric has been built on a very sandy foundation. therefore. I with But was just ready to go. 1853. under whom Bunyan served. of the Public Record Office. discovered there a volume containing the muster-rolls of the parliamentary garrison of Newport Pagnell. as it was then termed. 1645. he was a private. See Ed. and he was regularly mustered in Major Boulton's company up to May 27. and coming to the siege. Leicester being the only town of the siege of which we have any certain evidence at this time suggested that it might have been the place referred to by Bunyan. In 1896 Mr. On November 30. 1645. p. Whitelock. A book entitled Cockayne Memoranda. appeared in 1873. 1644. Husband.

what are they ? a dead letter. give me some book that teaches curious arts. he might as well have his fill of pleasure first. p. like his own Hopeful. and that if he was to be eternally lost.' as poor as owlets. and concluding that his condemnation was already sealed. .' and 'sermon sick. i. His marriage was a most imprudent one in all respects but one. as and produced some external reformation. * Sighs from Hell. He had nothing. before his wife's loving influence had won him to more serious thoughts.' and who — ' ' — ' brought to her new home two pious books. soon dispelled his gloom.' The date of this.' as he expresses it elsewhere.' But though not seeking it he had the good fortune to light on a wife whose 'father while he lived was counted godly. George on horseback.' thought I. or Be-vis of Southampton ' * . and he went out as before to play with the young men of Elstow on the village green. he returned desperately in his heart. and his wife was as illas poor as poor might provided with worldly goods as himself without so be. vol. as well as the fruits of a religious training.' to adopt his own image much household stuff as a dish or spoon between them. on the ' ' . The Scriptures. a news book. but it seems to have been at the end of 1648 or the beginning of 1649. Such books would be entirely new reading to John Bunyan. and perhaps a good glass of ale. and dition into a XI Bunyan's military career was over he soon returned presently afterwards changed his con' married state. 501. a little ink and paper of three or four shillings price. Works. that tells of old fables ^' These books which Bunyan and his young wife read together over the fireside awoke the slumbering sense of religion sin of Sabbath-breaking. is not known. his first marriage. he had found religious books distasteful. or keep and thought he saw a threatening Face his sins and go to hell frowning down on him from the clouds. 1767. when he was not much more than twenty years of age. A sermon he imagined. Give me a ballad.MILITARY CAREER: MARRIAGE When to his native village. sent him home conscience stricken. Yet in the midst of his game of tipcat or sly he seemed to hear a voice from heaven asking him whether he would leave his sins and go to heaven. 'sermon smitten. he 'shut his eyes against the light' and smothered the reproaching voice. Like most young fellows of his temperament. But his Sunday's dinner. aimed. But. ed. expressly at him.

John Gifford. sitting at a ' ' * G.' that he hung ' ' ' ' . A. compelled him to forego even that compromise.' writes Lord Macaulay. from being one of the most debauched of the Royalist officers. showed him that he was still a stranger to vital religion. he still went to look on at the ringers until the fear that if he per- and all belonging to it. who. till one day as he was standing at a neighbour's shop window. looking with the utmost reverence on the Church ' priest. It was a full year before he could quite leave that (G. Soon after this the company of a poor godly neighbour led him to the study of the Bible. his conscience what fall the tower itself would §§ 33-35). He was constant in attendance at prayers and sermons. he then and there gave up the evil habit (G. A. % "J"] and note. which gained him great peace of conscience and supreme self-satisfaction.' sisted in sanctioning condemned. A. and playing the the madman ' ' after his wonted manner. else. clerk. Dancing was still harder to give up. This despair and recklessness lasted with him about a month or more. the conversation of he overheard one day at Bedford door in the sun and talking of the things of God. though a very loose and ungodly the ugliest fellow for swear- wretch. Paul's Epistles and 'such like scriptures he could not away with. had become minister of a Nonconformist Church at Bedford \ He himself had been a brisk talker in the matters of religion. They were members of the congregation of I\Ir. ' ' in the service. the historical parts of which he perused with much interest. he soon became a strict Phari* a poor painted hypocrite see he calls himself. §§ 20-24).Xll BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION to his sport again (G. But with a few poor all his sacrifices. St. such as he afterwards drew women whom when engaged in his tinker's craft. service. woman of the house. In outward things. A. §§ 26-28). cursing and swearing. a bell or on his head. Bell-ringing was one of the hardest to relinquish. though not without severe struggles. vestment. and what His favourite amusements were one after another given up.' This Bible reading forwarded the reformation of life already begun. and though he still thought himself beyond hope of salvation.' rebuked ing that him so severely as down his head with shame. and after he had renounced it. and joined devoutly ever she heard. .

He became the victim of his own ingenuity in self-torment. what then (§ 59). His mind lay fixed on eternity like a Horse-leech at the vein. and such appearance of grace.' and to the dry places Be ye puddles.' and to stake his hope of salvation on the issue (§ 51). to say to the puddles Be dry. and the temptation came strong upon him as he was going along the muddy road between Elstow and Bedford. He was pursued by a hideous temptation to ' ' . and when he would have given a thousand pounds for a tear could not shed one (§ 105). while he was shivering in the dark and cold on the other. ' How He ? ' might as well leave off and strive no further Few of his vividness. and was read with new eyes but through his ignorance. spoken with 'such pleasantness. religious experiences were the cause of more lasting trouble to him than a dream which he describes with much and which gives us a kind of prevision of the Pilgrim's In this he saw some enjoying themselves in the sunProgress. He wished himself a dog or a toad which had no soul to perish (§ 104). Stranger fantasies still assailed him. Might not the Turks have as good ground for thinking Mahomet their Saviour as the Christians had for Jesus Christ ? What if all we believed in should be but " a think-so too ? " (§ 97). to a bull. A.' The Bible became 'precious' to him. with only a small gap in it which he had the greatest difficulty in struggling through (§ 53). shine on one side of a high mountain. At another time he was harassed with the ' . or even to Satan himself (§ 108). and could not stay away (G. The test would be his ability to work miracles. At one time the stress laid on faith as the essential requisite for salvation awoke a restless longing to determine whether he had faith or no. and shut out from them by a high wall. the wild coinage of his own brain. and the want of wise spiritual guidance. All thought their own religion true. to the bushes.' opened 'a to new him to which he had been altogether a stranger. Religion became all in all to him. ' ' insoluble questions about predestination could he tell if he was elected ? and if not.RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCES from the world ' xiii life in his own ' Talkative.' Their words. He went again and again into their company. to a broom. which went near to unsettle his intellect. He had hard work to hinder himself from praying to everything about him. § 37). and election. he was led by a misinterpretation of its words into strange fantasies.

and that with transient. at work. and to commit the unpardonable sin (§ 103). He was past all recovery. for it seemed written out of his own heart. and a good but not over-wise man whom he consulted on his sad case told him he verily believed he had' (§ 180). did but turn it over. at table. and scrupuhis burden. and the pain was so violent that it seemed as if his breast-bone would have split asunder. day and night. His digestion became disordered. 'let Him go if He will' (§§ 135-140). he let the fatal words slip from him. But the joy and peace were but * The tempter came on him again. his birthright like Esau There was no longer any place for repentance.' and awoke a burning love for his Saviour (§ 129). a more grievous and dreadful temptation than before. Bunyan was a member of Gilford's little congreBut the teaching he received was ill adapted to lessen Its principle was constant introspection. and his agonies were the more terrible as being inflicted on his soul rather than on in his body. This instead of leading the mind off from self to the Saviour. burden. horror of great darkness broken by intermittent gleams of All this time gation. Wherever he was. utterly worn out by the for some earthly good. His overwrought fancy suggested that God had set a mark on him as on Cain. As a skilful self-tormentor Bunyan rivalled the most rigid ascetics. as he lay on his bed. This to his diseased imagination sealed his doom. the midst like Judas (§ 164). in bed. The perusal of a copy of Luther's Comment on the Galatians which so old that it was ready to fall to pieces if he fell into his hands.' This crisis of his spiritual disease came in an almost irresistible impulse to give up his Saviour and all share in his redemption. lous weighing of every word and deed and even of every thought. and bound over to eternal punishment. whatever he was doing. At last he believed he had committed it. He would wind and twist and shrink under his stant trembling. torturing suggestions of his mind.XIV BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION blaspheme God and Christ and the Holy Spirit. He had sold he had betrayed his Lord like Judas. It is not to be wondered at that his health gave way in such His sturdy frame was seized with a cona lengthened struggle.' proved a balm for his wounded conscience. ' ' . and that he was about to burst ' ' * ' . a voice would sound in his ears bidding him sell Christ' At length.

. and Charity. do not commence till 1656. as if joy did make them speak. sister Munnes. Bunyan. fearing lest yet all was not right..' the words thy righteousness is in heaven fell upon his soul 'methought.' He At the end of this period allowed himself to believe . not lasting. climbed the DifKculty and passed the Lions. hot and cold fits alternating with fearful suddenness * as Esau . according to Dr. beat him down. ' ' — ' The earliest records of this church. six years after its formation. and he went on his way rejoicing. by Mr. he hath given me rest by his sorrow and life by ' ' ' ' ' ' ' his death' (§ 230). Christ raised him the clouds gradually dispersed. for the thunder was gone past. He does not mention this himself. I saw with the eyes of my soul Jesus Christ at God's right hand.' had first opened his eyes to his hill — . and three years after the date given by Charles Doe for his baptism. but it is stated by Doe to have been performed publicly. up. There was my righteousness.' he says. known in their own little Bedford world whose as sister Bosworth. continued more than two This period was one continued spiritual ague years and a-half. Like his own Christian when delivered from his burden at the foot of the cross he gave three leaps for joy. that he had not committed the unpardonable sin that he was not quite a castaway. spiritual ignorance (§ 253). 'comparing spiritual things with spiritual. He was loosed from his affliction. in 1653. And when one day. Prudence. the prototype of his Evangelist. but like to Peter's sheet of a sudden caught up to heaven again' (§ 113). in the field. how the different portions bore on and explained one another. to which belonged the poor women the Piety.' and cried with a merry heart. He was also admitted to the Holy Communion. the * Bedford river where he had once escaped drowning. and formally united himself to the little congregation under Mr.' 'And now remained only the hinder part of the tempest. GifFord. This ordinance was at first a source of much com' . GifFord in the river Ouse. having now found peace and comfort. and sister Fenne pleasant words on the things of God as they sat in the sun. Brown. of his immortal narrative. carefully noting He began to read his Bible as a whole. only some drops did still remain (§ 228).' Then his chains fell off in very deed. JOINS GIFFORD'S CONGREGATION heavenly ' XV light. entered the House Beautiful. His temptations fled away.

' in those that a working tinker which are undoubtedly his. as Southey The year has said. xxx).XVI BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION and upon him. tolerant. and there are about a dozen references to him in the church books up to his imprisonment in 1660. incumbents of parishes.* In 1656 holy Mr. It was not long before Bunyan was proposed as a deacon of the little brotherhood. Brown states that there Progress. and the rest of the Councell of the Army. appended to a memorial existing among the Milton papers. . and this stands The difference of the handwriting in this signature and the fourteenth. and Bunyan's powers as a preacher were formally in 1657 an entry in the church-book records ' In the same year we find the name. to which body these MSS. iii. ' a wise. vol. renders of the author of the Filg7-i??i's very improbable that it is the name Dr. and as he gained fort to him. lea\'ing behind him an exhortation to his congregation to mutual charity and forbearance. belong. threatened Bunyan's life routed his forces and carried him through what constitution at one time he anticipated would prove a fatal illness (§ 255). Bruce. was only by force he could keep himself from blaspheming the Sacrament and cursing his fellow-communicants (§ 253) ^ His name occurs in the first extant list of members of Mr. together with the improbability who had so recently joined the Church should sufficient consideration to have gained ture warrant his affixing his signa- among magistrates. About this time Captain Consumption' who killed Mr. courage and acceptance 'in a more publick way. There are thirty-six names. it and other persons of substance and position. would have been more likely to have signed document. John Bunyan. from the people of Bedford to the Lord Generall Cromwell. Though accepted by Mr. were this at least three who from social position other John Banyans living in Bedford in 1653. faith prevailed.' recommending two gentlemen to form part of his intended Council after he had dissolved the Long Parliament (Offer's Life. the eminent Treasurer of the Society of Antiquaries. and truly Christian spirit. p. Gifford died. * ' . Badman (one of his most powerfully drawn but his naturally robust characters). The tempter took advantage of his bodily weakness to attack him but after considerable alternation of with his former doubts hope and fear. but before long his old temptation returned it * ' ' . 'all ancient and grave Christians'. and he began to exercise his gift of exhortation first privately. this signature was regarded with grave doubt by Mr. GifFord's little community.' after his death recognized. breathing. Works. Offor.

8.' some. in spite of their protestations of loyalty and disavowal of the principles of the Fifth Monarchy. 'after solemn prayer and fasting'.BUNYAN INDICTED that ' XVII * brother Bunyan being taken off by the preaching of the Gospel another member was made deacon in his room. but as Southey writes. Bunyan was regularly set apart as a preacher of the Word. He still continued to work at his soon became famous as by hundreds from all parts to hear him. and exhorting market-folks to repentance and amendment of life. though upon sundry and divers accounts. ' The simple truth is. but only liberty for a certain recognized section. to say nothing of the Roman Catholics and Episcopalians.' and in assizes at Eaton. How Bunyan came to escape we do not know. and people flocked ' He . and of which we should have remained in ignorance but intolerant treatment of ' ' . unmolested. But we hear no more of the indictment. p.' But he was not permitted to preach tinkering craft for a livelihood. all parties were agreed in the one Catholic opinion that certain doctrines were not the only point of difference between them was to be tolerated what those doctrines were. But Brown observes. b . Even the holy and peaceful Philip Henry was presented in the September of this year at the Flint assizes.' writes ]\Ir. 1658 an indictment was preferred against him at the It will be borne in mind that this took place before the Restoration. as Dr. religious liberty had not come to mean liberty all round. Southey. insecurity in the public Venner's insurrection in 1657 awoke a feeling of mind and aggravated the prejudice against Baptists and Quakers. when Cromwell was * still Protector^. 'the doctors and priests of the county did open wide against him. * to marvel. ' ' £ook of the Bunyan Festival. as to itinerate through the villages round about. after the ritual of the Nonconformists. which indeed he does not mention. In Bunyan's own county Quakeresses were sentenced to be whipped and sent to Bridewell for reproving a parish priest.' and how far intolerance might be carried.' clear That there was much prosecution during the Protectorate is from the history of the Quakers. not however so much~for Bedford itself. and some perhaps to mock some also to listen and to be touched with a conviction that they needed a Saviour. perhaps well deserving of it. a preacher.

together with those of thousands of preachers as earnest and as popular as he was. and the purity. the 'government rendered suspicious by the constant sense of danger was led as much by fear as by resentment to severities which are explained : ' by the necessities of self-defence. Copner show. Early in May. calling not on men only but on angels to prove him guilty if they could (G. a highwayman. The public mind was in a very unquiet state. As we have seen. to which reference has already been made. Charles II was proclaimed king. Slanders of the blackest dye were circulated with regard to his moral character it was rumoured up and down that he was a witch. in this respect. agitated by the wild schemes of political and religious enthusiasts. as the extracts from his works given by Mr. of his whole life.' and lived a life of gross immorality. In such times we cannot be surprised that. a Jesuit. put a weapon in the hands .' that he had 'two wives at once. in which. and set up their own chimerical fabric. in the most solemn manner. Before Charles' landing at Dover the Episcopalians in Wales had been very busy in manifesting their orthodox zeal by the persecution of Quakers and Nonconformists. and on the 2 9tK of that month he entered London amid the universal acclamations of all classes of his subjects.XVUl BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION for the entry in the church-book appointing a day of prayer with reference to that and other urgent matters. who were plotting to destroy the whole existing framework both of Church and State.' The acts of relentless severity which still stood unrepealed on the Statute Book. he declares his absolute innocence as regards sins of licentiousness. §§ 313-317). These calumnious charges called forth that vehement vindication of himself. as a preacher aroused other Bunyan's celebrity enemies besides those set in motion by the law. but for which his name would have passed away and been forgotten. We approach now the great crisis in Bunyan's life. Bunyan had many enemies. was an eminently loyal man. and few would rejoice more heartily at this event which he was to be one of the first to suffer by. as Southey has said. Offor and Mr. enforcing conformity with the established Church. In the May or June of that year stories are told of sectaries being haled out of their beds to prison. and brought in chains to the quarter sessions.J. 1660. Already distant mutterings of the storm of per' secution had been heard. Bunyan.

Church of (lie Restoration. who seems to have been really desirous to release him. 135. INIr. He was given over to the constable.IN BEDFORD GAOL of the party in power they were not slow to use. 4. . 1660. useless to lead him to promise to forego preaching. : ' ' ' ' ' ' — ' — ' ^ ' Church of the Restoration. on November 12. required all persons to resort to church every Sunday and holiday. generally remembered. Those who after conviction would not submit were to abjure the fealm. and Bunyan was warned of his danger. a hamlet of the village of Harlington about thirteen miles south of Bedford. 138. re-enacted with all rigour 16 Charles II. c. and an obstinate offender for twelve months had to be bound to good behaviour Church by two sureties in ^200 each. on fine of \s. i made the fine . ' xix It is not Stoughton\ * that long before the Uniformity. pp. an old enemy to the truth. See also 3 Jacob. 4 (1664). for each offence and its censure. 35 Eliz. Eliz. till he conformed. c. his friends advised it make an ill savour in the country and discourage lest he should the weaker brethren ^ The justice before whom he was taken. reviled by one Dr. and might have escaped if he had chosen some of but he had no mind to play the coward.''s arrival. foil. was compelled to make out his mittimus and commit him While his mittimus' was preparing he was to the county gaol. and Five Mile Acts were passed John Bunyan was cast into Bedford Gaol ^' Under these Acts. The intention to arrest him had oozed out. Conventicle. earnestly seconded by his household. finding all his endeavours.' writes Dr. c. 23 Eliz. 29 Eliz. 401 b 2 . i. 21 Jacob. * because I was a tinker and comparing him to those who made long prayers that they might devour widows' houses. and in his custody returned to six . i The old Statute Law of the Realm. Refusal to abjure was felony without benefit of clergy. Relation of Bunyaiis Imprisonment. 4 . in default of paying these fines. Lindale. ^ \. 2. i made frequenting conventicles punishable by imprisonment. within months of the kini. vol. and he was arrested for preaching in a private house at Samsell.C2o a month. Francis Wingate.' Avho sarcastically reminded him of Alexander the coppersmith who much troubled the apostles ' aiming 'tis like at me.Stoughton. c. p.' says Bunyan.' But Bunyan was a match for him and paid him back in his own coin. 6 empowered the Queen by process out of the Exchequer to seize the goods and two parts of the real property of such offenders. a warrant was issued against Bunyan.

and Bunyan was indicted as a person who devilishly and perniciously abstained from coming to church to hear divine service. especially after he had gained the favour of his gaoler. occupying the angle between High Street and Silver Street ^ Prisons at the best were foul. and the ninth note on the Relation.' ' God's comfort it in his poor was long taken for granted that Bunyan's place of confinement was the town gaol. dark. and one who visited Bunyan during his confinement speaks of Bedford gaol as an uncomfortable and close prison but his own narrative contains no complaint of it. and was committed to the prison which. who at a later time was ready to imperil himself to grant indulgence to his notable prisoner. and we may reasonably believe that his condition was by no means so wretched as many of his biographers represent.' The county prison. was chairman of the sessions. ar\d declared * ' ' : ' * See woodcut of the bridge-gaol heading A Relation of the Imprisonment of Mr. John Bunyan. carrying soul. some seven weeks after his committal the quarter sessions were held. which. This idea. now pulled down. on which much sensational writing has been expended. James Wyatt to be a baseless fancy.XX BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION his native village of Bedford. An attempt to procure Bunyan's release by his obtaining sureties having failed. But he confessed the indictment. and was a common upholder of unla\\lul meetings and conventicles to the great disturbance and distraction of all good subjects. . Under such a man the issue was predetermined even had there been any question of Bunyan's guilt. was to be his enforced home for the next twelve years.' The brutal and blustering Keeling. who afterwards by his base subserviency to an infamous government climbed to the Chief Justice's seat. to which the county justices' warrant must have committed him. and piling contumely on his persecutors. with perhaps a brief interval in 1666. The bridge-gaol was a corporation lock-up-house. stood so picturesquely on one of the piers of the many-arched bridge over the Ouse. probably passing through Elstow on the way. was a much larger and less wretched place ot incarceration. as old drawings show us. miserable places in those days. obstinate and widespread error By an conjured up wilh the view of exaggerating the severity of Bunyan's sufferings during his by no means harsh imprisonment. has been satisfactorily proved by I\Ir.

and full of a peace no man could take from him. she had joined her lot with his and become a second parent to his five little motherless children. Elizabeth.IMPRISONMENT his resolve to repeat his : SECOND MARRIAGE XXI crime the first moment opportunity was Sentence therefore was passed on him. 1661) by the desire of the magistrates to see if he could induce him to conform. which seem to have been very kindly made. and the usual proclamation which allowed persons to sue out a pardon for twelve months from that day had the effect of suspending the execution of his sentence of banishment. one of them a blind girl. worthy to be the helpmate of such a man. thinking 'what a sad account such poor creatures would have to give hereafter. the special object of her father's love. he left him with Banyan's thanks for his civil and meek discoursing with him. be banished the realm' in modern language 'transported' and if he ventured to return without royal licence he must stretch by the neck for it. and with dauntless courage made her way to the House of Lords. Cobb. April 13.' than of anger at their hardheartedness How long before Bunyan's first wife had against her husband. were vain. with ' abashed face and trembling heart. that he should be imprisoned three months longer.' Back therefore he was had with a heart sweetly refreshed * both during his examination and on his return to prison. His narrative is provokingly sparing of died we do not know. indeed in the then state of the law his judges had no choice in the matter. went to him (April 3. a truly noblehearted Christian woman. on the failure of her mediation. except those which concern his own spiritual experiences but we may gather from her account that somewhere about a year before his first apprehension in November. Three months elapsed. and after giving Bunyan some very sensible counsel that he was in no state of mind to listen to. and if at the end of that time he persisted in his contumacy. Charles II's coronation took place. 1660. facts and dates. The agent employed by Bunyan to avail himself of the royal clemency was his second wife. but withal a true woman. as fearless as her husband in the pursuit of the right. . Eager for her husband's release she travelled up to London. But his attempts. ' — — ' ' ' .' Ten days after this interview. where she presented her given him. one Mr. and then the clerk of the peace.' fuller of compassion for the justices. and a prayer that they might meet in heaven.

at her husband's instance. or get a the last course being the cheapest. in August.XXll petition to BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION one of the peers whom she calls Lord Barkwood. Elizabeth Bunyan. when the assizes came round and the judges visited Bedford. like Joseph before him. treated him rather like ' ' . and he was forbidden even *to look out at the door. his earnest desire to be allowed to appear before the judges and plead a prisoner at large ' . he had writ of error .' and his well-meant indulgence was nearly costing his gaoler his place. and employed on the business of the congregation. suffered him to go where he pleased.' What perhaps rendered him less eager to take the suggested remedies was. Not baffled by previous failures. thinking himself in conscience bound to preach in defiance of the law. The interview. ended in Sir Matthew expressing real compassion for her sad case. that he even went to see Christians at London. either because they required money which was not forthcoming. he was charged with having for his object to plot and raise divisions. three times presented a petition to them that he might be heard. but cannot now identify. His liberty was therefore seriously abridged. or. showed her petition to other peers. inhibited.' He was passed by at the following assizes. He treated her kindly. the excellent Sir Matthew Hale being the most conspicuous among them. and when they were again held in the March of 1662. would soon have made his case worse than it then was. and that she must whom we either apply herself to the king or sue out his pardon. but mildly telling her he was sorry he could do her no good. to have ' 'found favour in the eyes of the keeper of the prison. for what her husband had said was taken for a conviction. that. and an indictment for breach of trust. No steps seem been taken to carry out either of these expedients. So far did this temporary liberty extend. The church-book shows that during this very year he was occasionally present at the church-meetings.' This coming to the ears of those in authority. Nor was his preaching. because it is certain that Bunyan. and return when he thought proper. which took place in the large chamber of the old Swan Inn. but gave her small encouragement. which Southey sensibly remarks is quite probable. which was the very cause of his imprisonment. and his case taken impartially into consideration. and make insurrections. at the Bridge-foot.' ' who and confident that he was not a man to abuse his trust.

'For four years and a half after the passing of the Conventicle Act (in 1664) there is a gap. and his greatest opposers. without clergy. The gaols were crammed with men of piety and education. Doe tells us that before his final deliverance he was released and apprehended again. 000 Quakers alone suftered imprisonment. till his release by order of the Privy Council. and deepened the feeling of despair in the Nonconformist body. In 1 66 1 the re-enactment of the Act of Uniformity. become one of This failure effectually closed the him. The 'ConAct' of 1664. and. as already stated. completed the code of persecution. about one fifth of the parochial ' ' prison doors on ' ' from their charges as Nonconformists. Cobb. and the clerk of the peace. the year of the fire in London but he was speedily apprehended again on the old charge and put into the same gaol. sick and healthy. The seven years that followed his incarceration were 1672. were shut up with the vilest miscreants. driven venticle ' — — . Upwards of 8. with a short interval. demanding an unfeigned assent and consent to everything contained in the Book of Common Prayer. But there is some doubt as to the perfect accuracy of these statements. while the old and young. 'the Struggler' Bunyan obtained his release in 1666. had dealt a heavy blow at the Puritans. black Bartholomew's day saw nearly two thousand rectors and vicars. and the Five Mile Act' of 1665. and those who were fortunate enough to escape prison meditated a flight to the Low Countries or to America. Sixty Nonconformists were at one time incarcerated in Bedford gaol for attending a religious meeting. The straitness of Bunyan's imprisonment may be seen from the fact that during all that time his name is not once mentioned in the church book. for the next twelve years. his last imprisonment lasting only six months. The next year.CONTINUED IMPRISONMENT his XXIU own cause was effectually thwarted by the unfriendly influence of the county magistrates by whom he had been committed. . years of deep darkness and trouble to all Nonconformists. among whom were two ministers. May 17. These records are indeed very fragmentary till 1668. who. he remained an inmate of Bedford gaol. England seemed no longer a home for them. Mr. According to his earliest biographer his friend Charles Doe. had turned bitterly against him. having failed to induce him to conform. some of whom perished of disease and wretchedness.

when it came to the point. his ' down house on the head of ' ' * ' . they expected that. .' He was also at one time. something should be spoken out of the Word for our mutual edification. and even to preach in the adjoining a single entry.' greatly troubled by the thought that his imprisonment might end at the gallows. I must do it. myself.' writes his anonymous biographer. busied. Being precluded by his imprisonment from carrying on his tinker's craft for the support of his family. He studied indefatigably the few books which he possessed. His two chief companions were the Bible and ¥ ox's Acts and Monuments.' — The Holy City.' * * and yet the best that ever At length Bunyan began to Upon a certain fixed day. many hundred gross of which he While his hands were thus made and sold to the hawkers. and sometimes under cruel and oppressive gaolers. there were threescore dissenters imprisoned with him.' not so much that he dreaded death.' ' The separation from his wife and children was a continually his loving heart.' says his anonymous biographer. the twelve years spent by Bunyan in gaol must have been a dreary and painful time. renewed sorrow to pulling He seemed his wife like a man and children. it being my turn to speak. he had often employment for his mind and his lips.' 1668. ' when making him I a visit in prison. empty.XXIV BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION On August 30. Bunyan's name appears occurrence Before his final deliverance the extreme till his release in 1672.' writes Lord Macaulay. barren. rigour of his incarceration was relaxed. I must do it. and he was allowed to steal out and visit his family. and of frequent villages under the cover of night. according to our custom. But though his imprisonment was not so severe. when but a young prisoner. being together with my brethren in our I felt prison chamber.' He gave religious instruction to his fellow captives at one time. the least saw. is again in the church records. spiritless.' and he formed from among these a little flock of which he was himself the pastor^. as that he feared his apparent cowardice. nor his prison so wretched as some word-painters have depicted it. Many owe of the Baptist contheir origin to these gregations in Bedfordshire are said to midnight preachings. consisting only of two books. he betook himself to making long tagged laces. and yet he said. might do discredit to the cause of religion. or A'ew Jerusalem ^ 1665. ' ' ' I surveyed his library.

beneath the dignity of a minister of the Gospel. and the sale became enormous. Green remarks. .' * '^ Literary Remains. whom among railing termed *a ^ Grace unfolded. exposed and condemned heresies without mercy. iii. and he was so light. 614. feiv sighs from Hell. Of the substantial called for. that the language most popular allegory in the English The same year a second edition appeared with additions. in his twenty-eighth year. he had given his first work to the world under the title of Some Gospel Truths opened according to the Scriptures. 391. In both the author calls himself that ' poor and contemptible creature. in which. including Mr. followed one another in quick succession. in the ceaseless activity of which. meditations. Short History. p.' This was followed the next year with a Vindication of Gospel Truths. and after his enlargement. succeeded in the May of the following year by The doctrine of the Law and gate. Worldly Wiseman. Byends' friends. and other of the most characteristic creations. that after its completion Bunyan kept the Pilgrim locked up in his desk for several years. says Mr. and as ' which is characterized by Coleridge Theologiae E-vangelicae first incomparably the best Summa ever produced by a writer not part of the 'Pilgrim's Progress from miraculously inspired. tracts.' During his imprisonment. The one work of real genius of which he was the author was slow to see the His own estimation of it was so low.SUNYAN'S WRITINGS write the wonderful XXV work which has ^ made him immortal.' the this 'World to that ivhich is to come. who perished afterwards in New' other not very conciliatory epithets Bunyan Rabshakeh. John Bunyan of Bedford. Edition after edition was It at once caught the popular taste. six years after his release from prison. as Mr.' In the September of 1658 he published a tract under the terrible title which prepares us for the nature of its contents. he attacked the follies of the time. vol. he found compensation for the narrow bounds of his prison ^ In 1656. p.' This was far from being the earliest product of his pen. in which he defended himself against the violent onslaught of Edward Burrough the Quaker. fearful of its being regarded as a light and trifling work. edition of the stole silently into the world. delivered under the similitude of a Dream. poetry. It was not first ' till 1678. or what he wished to pass for such. controversial treatises. Offor.

and to convict him of secret plagiarism. as has been shown in the notes of the present edition too remarkable. Bunyan had indeed. and if ever there was a man who would have scorned a falsehood. and in quite such abundance. for of English literature he knew nothing. The complete originality of the Pilgrim is plainly asserted by the author himself. But even as IMr. if there were any probability that an itinerant tinker should have fallen in with such works. 'no suspicion that he was producing a masterpiece. War. to be quite accidental so excellent a critic as — — that any deliberate imitation as a notion by a detailed examination of the respective passages. It is perfectly true that the same allegory had often been treated before Bunyan so frequently indeed. would be INIacaulay speaks of Lord may be easily confuted . Every attempt to rob Bunyan of the merit of originality in the conception and execution of his design. and to draw from it new treasures quite such ease. and some of the most striking passages of the Pilgrim'' s Progress. but yet with success which left all comIn 1684 appeared the Second Part of the petition far behind. if the Pilgrim's Progress did not exist. He continued to work the goldfield which he had disnot indeed with covered. that pages could be filled. that man was John Bunyan. which. as when the precious soil was still virgin. with notices of such works. Knavish booksellers put forth volumes of trash under his name. as Lord Macaulay remarks.' It had been preceded in 1682 by the i/o/y Pilgrim'' s Progress. some only existing in French or Dutch. found both those who counterfeited him and those who slandered him. Offor has done. He could not guess what place his allegory would occupy in English literature. and envious scribblers maintained it to be impossible that the poor ignorant tinker should He took the best way to conreally be the author of the book. between portions of Spenser's Faery Queen. originality of this : the resemblance between them and his immortal allegory is far too general and vague to warrant the hypothesis that Bunyan Remarkable as is the similarity had borrowed from them. many have thought.XXVI BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION book there can be no reasonable doubt. has utterly broken down. or revolted at the bare idea of passing off the coinage of another man's brains as his own. ' . and done little but prove the entire want of critical discernment in its originators.

by which he bound himself to declare himself a Roman Catholic. Bunyan finally left Bedford His pardon under the Great Seal bears date the The documents which rewarded 1 3th of September of that year. and 'giving himself up to serve Christ and His Church in that charge. Its immediate popularity caused impressions to be called for in that year. who on the 21st of the preceding January had been called to the pastorate of the Baptist church at Bedford. had something. * Ministers returned. 'with one of the worst acts of one of the worst governments that England has ever seen.' writes Mr. Nor could the other part of the treaty be safely carried out at once. Offor's patient researches in the State Paper Office and elsewhere prove that the Quakers were mainly instrumental in throwing open the prison doors to those ^\ho were suffering for the sake of religion in the various gaols of the kingdom. after years of banishment. — ' reopened. the late Mr.' More than three thousand licences to preach were granted. one of the first of which.' first XXVll Grace Abounding was six published in 1666. the "Den" where . received of the elders the right hand of fellowship. and that Charles' gratitude to John Groves.' that of the Cabal. was granted to Bunyan. Charles had just concluded the base Treaty of Dover. to their houses and their flocks. But the main cause lies deeper. The announcement of his conversion it was found convenient to defer.RELEASED FROM GAOL the best allegory that ever was written. he suspended all penal statutes against Nonconformists and recusants the former being introduced the better to cloak his real design. in which he escaped to France after the battle of Worcester. But as a first step toward it. to do with this act of royal clemency. Green.' The place in which Bunyan was licensed to preach was the house. chapels were After twelve years' imprisonment. by an unconstitutional exercise of his prerogative. and to set up the Popish religion in England. Bunyan left his prison at he had been visited with his marvellous dream. dated May 9. as Macaulay says. the gaols were emptied. and the determined advocacy of George Whitehead the Quaker still more. whose goods had been seized a Bedford. gaol in 1672. or more probably a barn on the premises. Toleration was thus at last secured. of Josiah Roughead. a man of substance at Bedford. the quaker mate of Tattersall's fisher-boat. and is connected. 1672.

Barlow. p. * Ay. the law was not generally pressed. in the coldest winter weather. Brown in the Record Office contains a list of six-and-twenty such applications. Charles II having heard that Dr. 17. where he is said to have made stated circuits. subsist to the present day. A document discovered by Dr. and must be regarded as one of the pleasing fictions of history. 1675. June 27.' says Southey. and the Test Act was passed the next year. is contradicted by dates. authenticates itself. and they were treated with much less severity than ' before. This Declaration of Indulgence was short-lived.' says Dr. Owen greatly * Book of the Bunyan Festival. and in many of the villages first Almost Bunyan's act after his liberation the Government for licences for preachers round. which has perhaps needlessly been called in question. . and before daylight in the morning. The story that Bunyan owed his liberation to the kind offices of Dr. It was withdrawn. which.XXVlll BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION fine few months before to pay a inflicted for nonconformity. was to apply to and preaching-places in Bedfordshire and the neighbouring counties under the Declaration of Indulgence. The first. some of which. 1673.' is that one day when he had preached with peculiar warmth and enlargement. Owen. Bunyan's pastoral superintendence extended beyond the surrounding district to other parts of England. in which diocese Bedford then was.' The other.' one of his friends remarked what a sweet sermon he had for delivered. an enormous concourse assembled to listen to him. Stoughton. though told with much particularity in the Life of Dr. 'you have no need to tell me that the Devil whispered it to me before I was well out of the pulpit. London. Two anecdotes are on record with regard to Bunyan's preaching.' said he. we he preached in are told. < ' When ' ' ' . which he seems to have done at stated intervals. 'this altered the legal position of Nonconformists much for the worse. states that. Barlow not having succeeded to his see until three years later. if but one day's notice was given of his coming. Bishop of Lincoln. But though. the sixth of which is for 'John Bunyon for Josias Roughead's house in his Orchard at Bedford \' While he made Bedford his chief care. He was the means of establishing Baptist congregations at Gamlingay.

and this period of peril to his liberty was followed by one of still greater danger to his honesty and consistency of purpose. Cuthbert's town of Bedford. Stoughton ^. 555.' he replied. In this uncertainty. turned. But Bunyan saw through James' device. note.' May it please your Majesty. The persecution. to the Nonconformists. as one who was prepared to do his utmost to return those who would vote for the repeal of all tests and penal laws touching religion. dated Dec. and with a heavy heart saw James II. Scarcely a single Dissenting Minister of any eminence remained un- was by no means unlikely that Bunyan might be occupy his old quarters in Bedford gaol. by a deed of gift.' Bunyan survived Charles II. The danger he foresaw for the Nonconformists was made more real by Monlearning for that tinker's mouth's rebellion in 1685.' he made over to his wife * Elizabeth all his worldly possessions. as his brother had done before him. ii. Brazier. and it called again to describes himself as in the John Bunyan of the parish of St. and many were driven into exile. quoted by Dr. 16S5. and utterly refused to hold any communication with the member ' Church of the Restoration. not on religious but political grounds. an avowed Papist. The snare was craftily baited with a Declaration of Indulgence. A paper in the Bodleian.UNDER JAMES THE SECOND man such XXIX admired Bunyan's preaching. mount the throne. and there is a tradition that he sometimes visited that town disguised as a wagoner with a long M'hip in his hand to avoid detection. James. shows that Bunyan was deemed a man of sufficient importance to be consulted as to the choice of members of Parliament for Bedford. . Quieter times succeeded. ' I would gladly give up all my * power of preaching. vol. raged with still greater fury. The gaols were filled. which had much increased in violence during the last three years of Charles' reign. fearing lest if he were sent to prison as a felon his little property might all be forfeited and his wife and children left destitute. 23. His frequent journeys to exhort other Baptist congregations exposed him to danger of apprehension. asked in surprise 'how a learned as he could sit and listen to an illiterate tinker. in which he molested. despairing of using the Tories and Church party as his tools. p. Reading was one of the places where he was best known.

Sarah. to disinherit his son. the Pilgrim's earthly Progress ended. Desirous to reconcile them Bunyan rode on horseback to Reading. Mary. His last earthly work was to revise the proof activity. Holborn Bridge. and though in the spring he had suffered from the 'sweating sickness. Four months after the acquittal of the seven bishops. The young man besought Bunyan's mediation. real or supposed. and he was bidden to cross the dark river which has no bridge. where the father lived. A true sturdy Englishman. George Cokayn of Cople. on some offence. He reached the house of his friend John Strudwick ('grocer and chandler at the sign of the Star. and his sons Thomas and Joseph. of which he died August 31. His death was brought about by a work of true Christian love. minister of the church in Red Cross Street. also died before her father. By in his first wife Bunyan had five children.' as we learn from a still existing billhead with a picture of the four-storied gabled house) drenched to the skin.' he published six considerable volumes. sheets of the earlier part of a short treatise entitled The Acceptable which was carried through the press after his decease by Rev.XXX BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION of the Court commissioned to secure his aid. Thomas became a preacher. The father of a young man in whom he took an interest had resolved. On his return he had to ride through heavy rain. One daughter. aged sixty years. Elizabeth. Lord Mayor of London. born in 1650. He was buried in Mr. the Sacrifice. who was unspeakably precious to him. His blind child. and left twelve more in manuscript ready for the press. Strudwick's vault in the Nonconformist Campo Santo. died in childhood before the . He was called away in the very midst of his religious and when the once despised tinker had approached the That year he was chaplain to Sir John Shorter. A fever ensued. his old Bedfordshire friend the burial-ground in Bunhill Fields. he with Baxter and Howe 'refused an Indulgence which could only be purchased by the violent overthrow of the law. survived him. nearest to worldly honour. and we are told was held in good 1654.' Bunyan did not live to see the Revolution. born commencement of his imprisonment. and appointed a day of fasting and prayer for the danger that again menaced their civil and religious liberties. and pleaded the offender's cause so effectually that he obtained a promise of forgiveness. 1688.

neither did he spare her. Dost thou see a soul that has the image of God in him? Love him. it has become 'one of the few books which act as a religious bond to the whole of English Christendom. and his detestation on the whole is reserved for that which all good men detest. not the angry in dealing ' controversialist. The Church had not spared him. Much And of Bunyan's literary activity was spent in controversy.CONTROVERSY repute as a gifts.' By the catholic spirit which breathes through his immortal work.' writes ' no compromise in his words. Love one another and do good for one another. XXXI man of piety and discretion. I of Anabaptist. a Christian but as for . Dean ' . as Dean Stanley has said. And it is this freedom from the trammels of sect and dogma which has given the Pilgrim's Progress its universal popularity. but of no remarkable \vife His heroic Elizabeth died four years after him. I would be. He wrote very bitterly of the Quakers. those factious titles and the like. in 1692. the Roman Catholics. but from hell or Babylon. no faltering in his convictions but his love and admiration are reserved on the whole for that which all good men love. the Ranters.' This peculiar glory is what above all things Bunyan would have desired ' for his little book. even more than by its homely vigorous style. its graphic power Stanley.' But we should be very wrong if we regarded Bunyan as a mere polemic.' There is. the Church of England. . Independent. the Christian.' It was this universal charity that he expressed in his last sermon. In it we have Bunyan's best self. One of his latest and most impressive warnings to his adherents was not to touch the Common Prayer. And thus. No one ever had less of the narrowsectarian spirit of the controversialist. This man and I must go to heaven one day. far as he must have been from conceiving the possibility of * it. as I hope I am. conclude that they come neither from Jerusalem ' nor from Antioch. Presbyterian. His language towards those whom he looked on as the perverters of the truth was vehement and downright. love him. with his opponents he did not employ honeyed words or measured phrases.' he says. which thinks more of the infinitely small points on which Christians differ than of the infinitely great truths on which they are agreed. External differences were nothing where there was true Christian faith.

simplest and homeliest English that has ever been used by any peasant. Short History of the English People. pp. .' recommended by Lord Macaulay as 'an invaluwho Its is able study to every person wishes to gain a wide command we except over the English language. ^ Dean Some — ' Literature of Europe. i.' He contain a single ' . ' ' great English writer.' writes Mr. By is evident.' as Bunyan calls them. that would puzzle the rudest remarks that there are whole pages which do not word of more than two syllables. going straight to the point in the fewest and simplest words. picturesque. now remains to speak great of Bunyan as a writer. and of the literary character of the book that has made his name immortal.' which make Bunyan 'became the teacher not of but of the universal Church ^. The book stands unrivalled as a model of our English speech.' ' ' insight into character. p. In no book. There not an expression. and that thus there is no book which shows so well how rich the old unpolluted English is in its proper wealth. 51-3. always forcible.' And the reason of this excellence Bunyan's English was the English of the Bible.XXXll its BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION touches of nature.' John any particular It sect. plain but never vulgar. always intelligible. the homeliness.' writes Bunyan's style is He is 'powerful and Mr. of its vernacular. do we see more clearly the new imaginative force which had been given to the common life Its English is the of Englishmen by their study of the Bible. 305. its the whole world kin. 'from his concise simplicity. adopted its images. Few were ever such complete masters of their sweet mother tongue. 614. To ^ pass from the style of the Pilgrim's Progress to the form Stanley's Address: Book of the Bunyan Festival. full of metaphor but never * The obscure. Hallam'. in the in the marginal notes verses appended to the Holy War. charm of the Pilgrim's Progress is the purity. spoke its words. p. the vocabulary is the vocabulary of if common people. vol.' in its native vigour. but it is the English of the Bible. as Bunyan -. a few technical terms of theology. constant perusal his mind was thoroughly steeped in Holy Scripture he thought its thoughts. of the choicest examples of Bunyan's racy vernacular appear those * windows. Green *. to cast light upon the text. and how little it has been improved by all that it has borrowed.

This. is also the secret of its life.THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS Some have questioned XXX 111 as a religious how best to describe it. and if regarded simply on the ground of allegorical allegory or a religious novel.' As * * the parent of biographic fiction it is that Bunyan has charmed the world. 588. but as the novelist of unique genius. and to make abstractions objects of terror. but no other allegorist has ever been able to touch the heart. C . Macaulay has said. the Pilgrim's Progress is the first English novel. Although intensely religious in purpose. which is the secret of its literary perfection. the first indeed in The claim to be the point of time of all English novelists. really pertains to Bunyan. pity.' with the reserve that it is power of representation which is his distinguishing excellence. Other allegorists have shown great ingenuity. character. if not superiors. and as story it surpasses nearly all allegories and stories which have ever been written. Bunyan is as decidedly the first of allegorists as Demosthenes is the first of orators. father of English romance. ' propriety and unity of aim. not so much as the rehgious allegorist. some rivals. But it is probably on its merits as a story Lord that its universal interest and its lasting vitality rests. not in invention. and of love. that 'his ' considerable. and interest. vol.' writes Dr. and that with a continually growing appreciation. Such discussions are fruitAnd both as allegory less.* He makes us see what he describes because he had seen it him* Literature of Europe. As an allegory it had many predecessors.' But we may question whether if this had been its only claim to endurance the Pilgrim'' s Progress would have survived so long. ductive rather than creative. which has sometimes been preferred for Defoe. Bunyan's genius was reproIts force lay in vivid description. and we which gives it its doubt not will continue to live. p. and on which ground its claim to transcendent excellence chiefly rests. iii. That unique position is the human interest and dramatic power which belongs to it as a biographic fiction. Allon. it has been remarked. inventive faculty his is Even if we concede it is to Mr. Bunyan lives. Hallam '. Defoe may claim the parentage of a species. It is both the one and the other. or Shakespeare the first of dramatists. But with all its consummate power. but Bunyan is the creator of the genus.

and each with their individual traits of manner and language. Gifford's church. and this has made his imagination appear members of Mr.' writes Kingsley. He could have given a personal name to every one. they are not mere pale shadows. The scenery and surroundings of his allegory. Literature of Europe. are also such as he had grown up amidst in his native county. 'We iii. and to some extent exaggerated types of some leading vice or virtue.' Bunyan was a man of keen perception. he has no natural images beyond the pastures and brooks. but may be sure that beings of flesh and blood like ourselves. All his nobler imagery is taken from ScripThere is scarcely a circumstance or metaphor in the ture Old Testament which does not find a place bodily and literally in the Pilgrim's Progress. p. like the characters in most allegories. . and described what he saw with a homely graphic power but whenever he had to draw on his own resources his pictures are frigid and formal. Born and bred. Bold personifications as they are. not mere lay-figures named and ticketed there is not one we can think of as the creation of his own mind. They are English men and women of his own time.' are such as he had witnessed around him in the And it is this which breathes was not evolving a shadowy career out of a dead abstraction of what might his own inner consciousness be or ought to be but pourtraying what he had himself known and felt. His mind was probably insensible to the higher types of beauty and grandeur in nature. and we could do the same — We to many. Dean Stanley ' says most truly. He had seen and known every one of them. the town and country houses he saw about him. vol. He — — * ' . except when borrowed from the great repertory of the Bible.XXXIV self. which stamp them as living persons. The varied experiences of Christiana and her children. as well as he Hallam. they were all well known in Bunyan's own circle. her sweet companion 'young IMercy. or had seen in his tinker's wanderings. ' . more creative than it really is ^' We notice also this superiority of the descriptive to the creative faculty in the dramatis persoyiae of his book. in the monotonous midland. With all their dis- tinctness—no two alike. 588. life into every line. BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION history of the Pilgrim is The his own history.



have met with Mr, Byends and INIr. Facing-both-ways, and Mr. Talkative. Some of us perhaps have seen Mr. Nogood and Mr. Liveloose, Mr. HateUght, and Mr, Implacable. All of us
have at times been like Mr. Ready-to-Halt, Mr. Feeblemind and Faintheart, Noheart, and Slowpace, Shortwind, and the young woman whose name was Dull.' The descriptive touches of person and bearing, in which Bunyan




these characters



real to us.


can see poor Feeblemind, with his whitely look, the cast in his eye,' and his trembling speech, and Madam Bubble, ' tall and of a swarthy complexion,' and Littlefaith, *as white as a clout' when
the thieves were on him, and
crutches, and

Ready-to-Halt coming along on





standing to

call passers


come and see.' It is this intimate knowledge of human life and human nature that gives Bunyan his great power to rivet and to charm. But it is human life and human nature in their ordinary every-day guise. Of those complexities and contradictions of the human heart which we arc now so fond of trying to unravel,' They were probably as Kingsley says, he takes very little note.

too subtle for his apprehension.

Bunyan's genius in indicating character and his mother-tongue are nowhere more apparent than



the happily

chosen designations given to his personages and their dwellingplaces.

The name
and of

of the


himself, of his parents, of his
in a



him before us

few masterly

they only appear incidentally in the narrative, quitting the stage as soon as they have been brought upon it, the features of each are so marked that they leave an indelible
forget * Temporary, who dwelt in Honesty, next door to one Turnback or * Talkative, the son of one Saywell, who dwelt in Prating Row or Beelzebub's friend Sir Having Greedy,' and Turnaway, that dwelt in the town of Apostacy,' and Valiant-for-theTruth, born in Darkland, where his father and mother still were ? But Bunyan's masterpiece in characteristic nomenclature is Mr, Byends, with his relatives and associates. If he had not spoken a word we should have known all about the man that came from the town of Fairspeech, the Parson of which, Mr. Twotongues, was his mother's own brother by fathers' side,'






two miles

off of







c 2




who claimed kindred with 'my Lord Turnabout, my Lord Timeservcr, Mr. Smoothman and Mr. Anything,' and went to

school at one Mr. Gripeman's of Lovegain, a market-town in the

county of Coveting,' and had


as his schoolfellows,

Hold-the-world, Moneylove and and whose wife was * my Lady

Feigning's daughter,' and his grandfather a waterman looking one way and rowing another.' A man of such antecedents we are sure would be zealous for religion when he went in his silver slippers, when the sun shines and the people applaud him,' and would be equally ready to go and dig with Demas in his never be seen in the silver-mine underneath Hill Lucre, and



It would be a thankless office to point out the imperfections which attach to the Pilgrim's Progress, as to all human compositions. We may acquiesce in the soundness of Hallam's judgement, that in the conduct of the romance no rigorous attention to the conduct of the allegory seems to have been preserved that it is difficult to say why certain events occur where they do Vanity Fair and the Gave of the two Giants might for that anything we see have been placed elsewhere.' We may not be


insensible to circumstantial incongruities

— for

instance Faithful's

being carried up to the Heavenly City in the middle of the pilgrimage without crossing the River of Death, and Hopeful's
joining Christian


on, having never passed through the

may Wicket-gate, or lost his burden at the foot of the Cross. see a want of exact correspondence between the First and Second


— that

that which



considerable building with a
that the 'Shepherds' tents

mere wicket-gate in the one is a 'summer parlour' in the other on the 'Delectable Mountains have

given place to a

Looking Glass,' and a store of jewels; we may wonder at the change in the aspect and the town of Vanity, where Christiana and her family settle down comfortably, enjoying the society of the good people of the place, and the sons marry and have children. We may be offended at the want of keeping which in the course of a



with a





and a


supposed journey converts Christiana's sweet babes, who are terrified at the dog at the Wicket-gate, and plash the boughs for the plums, and cry at having to cHmb the hill; whose faces are ' who are catechized and called stroked by the Interpreter
' '
' ;




good boys' by Prudence who sup on bread crumbled into milii,' and are put to bed by Mercy into young men and strong,' able to go out and fight with a giant and give a hand to the destruction of Doubting Castle, and becoming husbands and We may not be insensible to some grave theological fathers.

basins of


deficiencies, the slight recognition of the value of corporate union,

and of the Church as a living society the scanty allusions to the Lord's Supper as a means of grace, and the entire ignoring of the Sacrament of Baptism and above all the omission, save once, of
; ;

But these are but sunbeam, defects inseparable from every work of native genius, which we could ill afford to exchange for the tame accuracy of the schools. If you were to polish it,' writes Coleridge, 'you would destroy at once the reality of the vision.'
in the

reference to the work of the Holy Ghost.


text of the Pilgrim's Progress in the present reprint


in all essential points, that of

the second edition of the First

Part, and of the


edition of the

Second Part, published

respectively in 1678 and 1684.

was believed that no single copy of the was extant. At last one was found in the possession of R. S. Holford, Esq., which has served as the It was first issued in 1847 by the Hanbasis of several reprints. serd Knollys Society, under the careful editorship of Mr. George

For a long time


edition of the First Part



In this painstaking edition the original is exactly followed the orthography, capitals, italics, and punctuation.' The



in the

second edition

— which

include the whole
Diffidence, with

episodes of Mr. Worldly

Wiseman, and of Mrs.

most of that of Byends the touching conversation at the House Beautiful between Charity and Christian with regard to his family, and that of Evangelist with Christian and Faithful as they approach Vanity Fair, the pillar of Lot's wife at the Hill Lucre, the trumpeting and bell-ringing at the Celestial City, and the name of the Hill Difficulty are distinguished by Mr. Offor with inverted commas; and every omission or alteration made by the author during his lifetime is accurately noted. Since the appearance of

this edition,

another with a very carefully corrected text has been issued by Messrs. Macmillan, in the Golden Treasury series, under the editorship of the Rev. H. Bothamley. Two literal reprints have also been published by Mr. Elliot Stock,



first with and the second without the portions added in Bunyan's Second Edition. The editions named will enable fany who desire to do so to

make themselves acquainted with

the Pilgrim's Progress exactly
Literal accuracy

issued from the press in Bunyan's lifetime.

has not been sought for in the present edition. the series of which


object of

not to reproduce archaeological curiosities, but to present some of the chief works of our leading authors in a form which will throw no needless obstacles in the

forms part



fidelity to

of the less advanced students of English literature. Pedantic the original text would have impeded the progress of

the student without any advantage to the philologist. As a rule the spelling of the second edition, which shows a very decided

improvement upon that of the first, has been followed. The first edition, which had been probably printed from Bunyan's own
rude manuscript, written in prison, with some slight corrections from an editor hardly better educated than himself, abounds with orthographical irregularities, which are generally amended in the second edition. It is interesting to notice, as indicating an epoch
our spelling, that 'then' (the constant form in James I's Bible, the present Authorized Version), which appears uniformly in the than in the first edition, has been as uniformly changed into
' '

In the Second Part the orthography of the original edition ot 1684 (reprinted by Mr. Offor from a copy formerly belonging to Mr. Lea Wilson) has been generally followed. The spelling here is usually more correct than in the First Part. There

however, some singular exceptions, among which we may ' farewel,' paradice,' 'thorow' for Hil,' Selfwil,' 'through,' and the use of 'bin' for 'been.' This last is akin to that 'vulgarism of diction,' as Southey terms it, which, generally





altered in the second edition of the First Part, has held



the Second Part, the uniform use of a for have, never marked e.g. ' I thought you would a come in,' 'What as a contraction could you a done to a helped yourself? ' This, which Sir W.

Scott calls 'a sin against orthography rather than grammar,' occurring a hundred times in Shakespeare, has been uniformly In conclusion, it may be said that while religiously preserved. preserving the text unaltered, the rule has been to adopt the

1 3 3. . among the young — in whom it is more calculated to nourish morbid imaginations and a dangerous habit of self-introspection than to forward the quiet growth of the religious life. 1. 19) 'the thoughts for our thoughts (p. 97. ' . Grace Abounding to the Chief of Simiers. 1. In both Bunyan was lawless and capricious. When he ceased to write no one took up the pen. How much we are indebted to this memoir for our knowledge of Bunyan as a man. and it has been discarded without question. 1. 106. The existence of the Pilgrim's Progress would have been an almost insoluble problem to us. and of the circumstances of his life. 21). it is of the highest interest. have been discarded. ' ' ' ' . and have lost almost all clue to his inner history. 'sunshiny' for (p. and the original readings restored. As an autobiography. provoking as are its omissions and scanty its references to any events but such as bore on Bunyan's spiritual life. i). 17). is authorized by the fact that there in scarcely a single instance where some part of the work the modern spelling may not be found. by which Banyan's text has been tampered with. Its value as a work of experimental religion is more is restricted. 1. Of the other work included in this volume. Without it we should have known very little of Bunyan's early life. ' ment from prison and his death. To preserve the old orthography would therefore have been mere pedantry. 120. 1. and as the most notable instance of arbitrary alteration 'Mordecai' for 'Heman' (p. and beyond two or three anecdotes we are absolutely ignorant of all that happened between his enlarge' . I. 2 1) 'duty' for 'day (p. may be estimated by comparing our acquaintance with his earlier and later years. except This course has been fully XXXIX in special characteristic cases. The entirely unauthorized corrections of later editors. Manifest errors have also been corrected without scruple. 169. No good end was to be served in retaining an erroneous usage.' GRACE ABOUNDING more modern orthography. The number especially of those who can read with profit Bunyan's minute and graphic history of his terrible spiritual conflict not large. 'sunshine' (p. 28) * palace for * place 'prize' for 'price' (ib. 1. Such are wizard for 'witch' (p. 8). The same rule has been adopted with regard to capital letters and punctuation. little has to be said. It has a twofold value. 128. biographical and experimental.

It at once became popular. The first editor who prepared the Pilgrim^ s Progress for the press can have been but little above Bunyan himself in education. in the sixth year of his imprisonment. The earliest editions extant show very few of the gross faults of spelling and solecisms in grammar which deform the first issues of that work. unwisely brought them into conformity with the Authorized Version. and abounds like it in choice bits of old English. What Bunyan's literary compositions were before they passed under the hands of the reviser is shown by the marginal notes penned by him on the pages of his Acts and Monuments during his imprisonment. Those only— and their number will always be few who have felt the power of such fierce temptations themselves. Bunyan tells us in his title-page that it was published for the support of the weak and tempted people of God. in his otherwise faithful reprint. and have passed through the same alternations of light and darkness. Others will regard Bunyan's varied experiences as the hallucinations of a disordered' intellect.' where its composition must have whiled away many tedious hours during the early years of his incarceration. The reviser of Grace Abounding must have been a man of greater It may be remarked that the quotations from literary power. racy metaphors. Scripture in this work are given from memory.— xl BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION it will be perfectly unintelligible. and the year of its issue saw several editions learn We 'written by his called for. neither vulgar nor stilted . OfFor. It is written in the same simple nervous English. As a literary work Grace Abounding s is worthy of the author of the Pilgrim Progress. Its editing was far more careful than that of the Pilgrim's Progress twelve years later. Mr.' Those for whom it was intended will ever find in it a message of comfort and strength. of hope and despair. and graphic imagery. ' To some from the title-page that Grace Abounding was own hand in prison. the year of the Great Fire. are capable of fully appreciating it. . It was first published in 1666. In this edition the original form has been restored.

Seized by Joyce. Leicester. ^IP bell-r ingin g . 1646. 1642.] 1653-6. 1648-9. Bu. 1649. 1640. " Jjaptized in the Ouse. publishes terbury'. I raises the standard Nottingham. Joins Mr. April 20. Laud Archbishop of CanHampden's refusal of . Charles I given up by the Scots. 1647. 1633. Treaty of Newport. Milton Lycidas. The Petition of Right. one of the companies belonging to the Newport Pagnell garrison. . of member Purge. Outward reform and execution of Montrose. England. Jan. J'^"c 17. Puritan emigration to New 162S. John Bunyan born at Elstow.CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE 1628. 1650. Battle of Marston Moor. baptized. ^Far}. Battle of Edge1644. Pride's I. The Scotch Covenant. 1647. Gifford. Charles at hill.ShipHampden's trial. 1652-3. John Bunyan a schoo lboy. 1638. bones' Parliament assembles. 1637. Awakened by the talk ""ofthe poor women at Bedford. ' ' Laud beheaded. Introduced to Mr. Cromwell expels Barethe House of Commons. Uuke of Buckingham assassinated by Felton.DyarLSi^^s ^and dancjng. Defeat ^649. Siege of Battle of Naseby. 1653. Battle of Worcester 1653. 13. 165 1. Charles I surrenders to the Scots. [May 13: the Memorial to Cromwell (?). 1644. Long Parliament meets.j. Execution of Charles 1650. IMarries first wife. OUAAVAa^I | mg 1645. November 30. Bunyan still a 1648. money. First child. . Period of mental conflict. Gifford's Church.i638. 1630.. Bunyan servas a centinel in the company commanded by Colonel Richard Cockayne. Laud Bishop of London.

dies. "12. Severe persecution of Quakers and other Nonconformists. but within "^a year imprisoned again. 17. Indulgence. 1667. Five Mile Act. The Test Act. Popish Plot. 1666. Rye House Plot. 1678. withdrawn the same year. Indicte3* fbr'pfeaching at Eaton. March. Great Seal. of the Licensed to Pardon under 13. 1682. Oliver Cromwell 1 Richard Cromwell Lord 165 7/ Begins. 1679. 26. Sept. His daughter Sept. Titus Oates. 1673. Venner's Insurrection. Sept. Cromwell's ment. . April 14. 1656. Royal assent given to Act Barof Uniformity. 1662. Holy nVr published. 1664. 1666^ Bunyan released. May 19. 1658. i66o. 1678. Execution of William Lord Russell. Jan. "Slarch. band's cause unsuccessfully with Sir Matthew Hale and the other judges. Elizabeth bom. May 29. and enters London. 3. 1656. The Humble Petition and Advice. March 15.• - 1672. Apprehended at Committed to Bedford 1661. Fire of London. 1682. Secret treaty mth France. Appointed pastor Church. preach.~T5'ov. Bunyan denied leave to appear at the Assizes and answer to his charge. fr-. 4. Elizabeth Bunyan pleads her hus- April Cobb. . 1670. . 1671. 1661. 21. Interview with 3. Declaration of 1672. New preactt "publicIyT' 658. H*< . Bedford Assizes. Jhe- May 9. Grace Abounding published. T675. Acts against Nonconformists put in force. Declaration of Indulgence. Dec.^e :ond edition the same vear. Charles II lands at Dover. First part oi Pilgrim's Progress published. Oliver tector. . 'Million' & Paradise Lost.. Dispensing Bill fails. Pilgrim's Progress begun. . Milton's Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes.. tholomew ejectment. gaol. Conventicle Act. 1657. April 23. Gifforddies. Coronation of Charles II. First entry of Bunyan's name in the Church-book. 1663. Protector. Samsell. 1683." xlii CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE Cromwell Lord ProParliament meets third Parlia- 1654. Aug. 1662. 1660. Habeas Corpus Act passed. 1665.

-j^Sg- Suffers from sweating sick ness. tried 1684. Second part of PilgrinCs Progress published. xliii Town charters annulled. Test Act dispensed with by Royal authority. 5. Nov. Aug Orange lands at Torbay. 1686. Revoca- tion of Edict of Nantes. Accession 1685. 1688. William of Flight of James. Charles II dies. Deed of gift of his property to his wife. Trial of the Seven Bishops. and condemned. Dies. 1685. Declaration of Indulgence. 16S7. .CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE 1684. Richard Baxter of James II.




1 And Nay they again began multiply. I tiuenty dmvn mo re had to t he in my Cro jwn. I did not understand That I at all should make a little Book In such a mode . Fell suddenly into : in this our I writing of the ay Gospel-Da y. ivhich <when almost done. thought if t hat you bre±d—ss-f(tst Vll put you by yoursel'ves. I : World my Pen and Ink only thought to make nor did I undertake 20 I kneiv not nvhat A 2 . TJ/'Hen at the frst I took my Pen in hand. 5 THE AUTHOR'S APOLOGY FOR HIS BOOK. coals of fire do Like sparks that from I. so I did. set W a n Allego ry About their Jouriiey.. Before I ivas aivare. and eat ou t am about. Thus for to ivrite . the ivay to Glory. I this begun. And thus it (was And Race of Saints. then. The Book that I already Well. lubiclb I This done. but yet I did not think To shoiv to all the In such a mode. UTtLAf K) (V »!</ ur"**--^ i Nay. I had undertook 5 To make another. fly. . lest you at last Should pro've ad infinitum. and 10 hi more than tiventy things.

delight. Offend you I am loth Tet since your Brethren pleased with it be. For. Thus I thought ft to put it to the test. thought Some. : 4 thereby l( THE AUTHORS APOLOGY to it please jind did In this mine my Neighbor no twt own self to gratify.v ivas I in a strait.v I did deny Those that would have it thus. until at last it came to be. Thus 1 Fen to Paper ivith ' ^\j»JI~^ had my thoughts in black and white. and so I penned It doivji . Some love If that thou wilt not read. if non. some love to pick the hone: Tea. I further thought. I: Neither did I but 'vacant seasons spend 25 my Scribble. said. let them die. or them justify f\/\_Xy^ •'VC \ • And Some Some some said. nor did I inten d this.. let it alone the meat. Still as I puU'd. Non. I print ivill . let them li-ve. so the case decided. For having noiv my Method by the end. Hut to di'vert myself in doing From . I said to them. For those vohich <were not for its coming forth. print it . U -j/C-*^^^"'^ John. : . It might do good.y^ H J l/CA-^ ' Ji /J jJi/" ^ shewed them others. For length and breadth the bigness ^j:hich you see. and I. to gratify. ivbtch set make me do amiss. No. that I might see luhether c^i^gy qjjojjJJ condemn them. that I might them better palliate. 50 I did not kno'M but hinder them I ynigbt that ivhich 'would to them be great delight. Of 55 Forbear to judge. who advised for the best. it came . 45 Though others To prove then in that Channel do not run. Since it you are thus divided. quickly _ And 30 35 ^"^. I did too ivith them thus expostulate. others said. others said. see. ivorser thoughts. I would have it done. . luhen I had thus put mine ends together. and did not see the best thing to be done by 40 Which was me: At last I thought. Not so said. some. \V€^^^ M^ell. till you do further see. 60 .

Hooks and Nets. do contain What better is than Gold. Gi'ves praise to both. make him master of ivhat Foivls he please. all ivhich one catitjot name ? His Gun. and tnakes their blessitigs null. But treasures up the Fruit they yield together : Tea. and bell the Foivler seek to catch his H01U doth : He creeps. Noiv my little Book. if they their Silver drops to descend. light. thy and yet not miss good? <ivhy may it not be done ? AJQ^^iL-^tu-^vU^-t Dark Cause Clouds bring Waters. aiid be tickled Or they ivill not be catcht. his Nets. or bright. (That have an inkling of it.) there to look. (Tho* void of all those paintings that It nvith this or the other may make 95 Man to take. Angles. so. Tou 'To see the luays the Fisherman doth take . Nor Snare. by yielding Crops. but empty notions divell. Tet Fish there be. 75 that neither Hook. 70 She spues out both. nor Line. and Whistle to catch this. he stands . catch the Fish ivhat Engins doth he make ? Behold hoiu he ingageth all his Wits. nor Net. stile as this ? In such a method end. ivhen the bright bring none u_^ 65 4 r^// - Yea. in If that a Pearl may And may be found too in a loads-head an Oystershell d-vjell. nvhat e're you do. he must Pipe.) Is not luithout those things that do excel What do in brave. and carpeth not at either. so commixes both. Also his Snares. Yet if he does that Bird he ivill miss. they suit Her ivell. . By divers means. thine They must be grop^t for. 80 Game. FOR HIS BOOK. Yet there's none of these 85 /f7// Yea. ivho <iuill disdain. 90 If things that promise nothing. . yea ^vho can tell Of all his postures. that in her Fruit None can distinguish this from that. That they may find it. May Mine I not write in such a too. the Earth. nor Engine can make too. his Limetavigs. ivhen hungry : but if she be full. he goes.. Lines. dark.

in older time held forth By Types. ^ijL l^i'kl^lll '^ ^J 1 Which for its Stile. he rather 115 and loops. Is e-very where so full of all these things ^"'^ ^^ . Tea. Bis Gospel-La ws. •That 'Truths to this ' ' day in such Ma ntles be. of our souls bereanie. lOO Why. and Sheep. Shadows and Metaphors? Tet loth Will any sober man be to find fault With them. 1 05 They droivn'd the weak. and : its rays to shine. by Heifers. that I am rude: All things solid in 20 shew. The highest Wisdom. and Herbs. not solid be: All things in parables despise not we.: THE AUTHORS APOLOGY Well. ^ afraid to say that holy Writ.) yet there springs . 125 Lest things most hurtful lightly ive receive. Solidity. lest he be found for to assault stoops. ajid Phrase puts down_ all Wit. Make But truth to spangle. What of that I tro ? Some men by feigning avords as dark as mine. indeed becomes the Pen men 110 Of him that -writeth things Pi-vine to But must 1 needs ivant solidness. By Calves. his Apostles too. yet I am not fully satisfied. And things that good are. My dark o7id cloudy ivords they do but hold The Truth. who so considers 130 Christ. That I ivant solidness. seeks to find out wihat by pins . Was not Gods L aws. they ivant solidness Speak man thy mind. Allegories. and by the blood of Lambs. (what's the maxter I it is darky <what tho ? But it is feigned. And happy is he be. and grace that in them Be not too fornvard therefore to conclude. and by Rams By Birds. 'will That this your Book stand luhen soundly try'd. 135 (^Dark Figures. Metaphors make us blind. as Cabinets inclose the Gold. 1 Ihnt finds the light. The Prophets used much by Metaphors To set forth Truth. No. And God speaketh to him. because hy Metaphors 1 speak. shall plainly see.

I find Informs the Judgment. in which lay hid That Gold. Pleases the Understanding. is Sound words I know Timothy to use. Denied. all that I may. Let me add one word more. Seek the advance of Truth. although in S-wadling-clouts. Than any man that breatheth now a-days. I durst adi'enture Ten. Come. so I no abuse Put on Words. To his poor One. O man of God! 160 Art thou offended? dost thou wish I had Put forth my matter in another dress. And old Wit'es Fables he is to refuse. then I submit betters. 7 those rays and OfJi^htj_that_ turns our darkest nights tojia^s. I have leave. Truth. did I say f 170 (Example too. Things. Or that I had in things been more express? Three things let me propound. my Book 140 Tea. To those that are I. Come.FOR HIS BOOK. And find He findeth That There darker lines than in any. it too it doth fill 150 M'lth <what doth our Imagination please. 153 But yet grave Paul. this or that way: Nay. makes the Will Submit. rectifies the Mind. tends our troubles to appease. or Similitude. or be rude In handling Figure. but. the Memory Likewise.) . From that_sameJBookjhat lustre. That they ivill take my meaning in these lines 145 Far better than his Lies in Silver Shrines. and precious stones that were Worth digging for . In application. I find not that I am denied the use 165 Of this my the 7nethod. and that from them that have God better pleased by their words or ways. my as is fit. and that with greatest care. and let him knmu. Readers. in his best things there are ivorse lines too. May ive but stand before impartial men. let my Carper to his Life now look. those Pearls. him no where doth forbid The use of Parables .

And now. that excellentest are. Dialogue-ivise I fnd that men {os high as Trees) luill write doth them slight : yet no man 180 For ^writing so: Indeed if they abuse Truth. and like Fools do die. to set forth another : Use it I may then. to express my mitid. It shews too. and yet nothing smother Truths golden Beams . where the cases Doth call for one thing.: THE AUTHORS APOLOGY Thus 2. shew the profit of my Book. I find that holy Writ in many places. cursed be they. As if the lasting Crown they would attain Here also you may see the reason ivhy They Jose their labour. active be. Hath semblance with this method. before I do put up my Pen. It will direct thee to the Holy Land. who sets out for life amain. Which ivay it pleases God. ivhither he he leatrs undone: What also ivhat he does: 200 shews you ho~Ju he runs and runs. and Me. Nay. by this method may 190 Make I'll it cast forth its rays as light as day. to see. chalketh out before thine eyes The It man that seeks the everlasting Prize: goes. It also 205 If by its Counsel thou wilt ruled be. To guide our Mind and Pens for his Design i 185 And he makes base things usher in Di'vine. delightful things . 3. But yet let Better than he that taught us first to Plough. and then Commit both thee. This Book will make a Traveller of thee. 210 'will make The Blind also. . For nvho knows how. it its Directions understand: the slothful. and it unto that hand That pulls the strong down. Till he unto the Gate of Glory comes. the craft they use To that intent Truth be free To make her Sallies upon Thee. shews you ivhence he comes. If thou wtlt Yea. and. and makes weak This Book it 195 ones stand. thus to dec/are 175 Things unto thee.

Comforters. is they ivill stick like Burs. yet be far from folly ? Would' St thou read Riddles. ajid yet contains Nothing but sound. and catch no harm ? And find thyself again ^without a charm ? Would' St read thyself. and Heart together. Ifould'st thou divert thyself from Melancholy? Would' St thou be pleasant. and honest Gospel-strains. 235 And my Book. And may As may It be to the Helpless. thy Head. 9 profitable? ? and IVouIdeJt thou see a Truth nvithtn a Fable Art thou forgetful ? nvouldest thou remember From New-year's-day to the last of December Then read 215 ? my fancies. And yet By knoiv (whether thou art blest or not. and read thou knotv'st not what i' A man th Clouds. reading the same lines? lay O then come hither. lurit in such listless This Book the a Dialect. affect: 2 minds of men 20 seems a No'velty.x^X^^^-^^t^ j ^^nx^-^^^rjt . JOHN BUNYAN. 0^ . Art thou /or something rare. &f their Explanation? ? ^ 225 Or else be dronuned in thy Contemplation loi'e Dost thou picking meat? Or ivouldst thou see and hear him speak to thee ? Would' St thou be in a Dream. and iveep? 230 IVouldest thou lose thyself.FOR HIS BOOK. and yet not sleep? Or ivouldest thou in a moment laugh.

y) TfU-jL. f t>C^^I^--»---«--«--«» C-^^VO—*—O tZZu^ ^*wU^ .

^- 1 ' ' "*^' ^• and as he read. and refrained himself that his Wife and Children should not but he could not be silent long. by reason of a burden that informed that lieth hard upon me : moreo'ver. . THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS IN THE SIMILITUDE OF A DREAM. went home. RagSf standing in a certain place. except {the in . and saw him open the Book. I your dear friend. said he. e. isa. shall miserably come to ruin. where was a Den and I laid me and as I slept I dreamed a that place to sleep I dreamed.. because wherefore at length he brake his : ^^' perceive his distress that his trouble increased Wife and Children and thus he began to talk to them^ O my dear Wife. and you my sweet babes. and you the Children of my mind to his . am in myself undone. and behold I saiv a man cloathed ivith : The oaoi. luhat shall I as long as do. I lighted \ •^^ on a down in Dream. ivitb his face from his own House. I am for certain This ircrid. and a great burden upon his back. and read therein y^ 38. \OSAy\ng.^ : and not being able lamentable cry ' he brake out with a IIU Outcry. A S I walk'd through the wilderness of this world. my Wife. both myself. 64. this our City ivill be burned luith fire from Hea-ven. . '^''"' In this plight therefore he he could. 20 which fearful o'verthroiv. he wept and trembled longer to contain. bowels. certain place. a Book in his hand. luith thee. I looked. .

I perceive. : . 9. nor able to do the second. I saw upon a time. were sore amazed not for that they believed that what he had said to them was "'^y ^^ delivered. as if he would run yet he stood still. : : . 30. and asked. ^vhlch. What shall I do to be saved? ^'' I saw also that he looked this way. I looked then. . Sir. sometimes reading. yet I See not) soyne ^luay of escape can be found. . Then life is said Evangelist. and pity them and also to condole his own misery he would also walk solitarily in the Fields. crying. it drawing towards night. 21. Job 16. by the Book in my thou cry? hand.-7. So when the morning was come. Now. he told them. but they began to be Carnal Phy hardened they also thought to drive away his distemper by ^'^"^ harsh and surly carriages to him sometimes they would sou^ ' deride. he burst out. Acts 16. and they hoping that sleep might settle his brains. who lovingly : With tidings of another to Him how mount to him greets and doth show that from this below. as he had done before. will Because fear that this burden that upon my I Christian no sooner leaves the World but meets Bvansclist. : . back. Why many not willing to die? since evils? this attended with so I The Man is answered. Wherefore doest He ans\\ered. and sometimes they would quite neglect him wherefore he began to retire himself to his Chamber to pray for. he spent it in sighs and tears. and sometimes praying: and thus for some days he spent his time. and alter that to come to neb. and greatly distressed in his mind and as he read. with all haste they got him to bed but the night was as troublesome to him as the day wherefore instead of sleeping. worse and worse. but because they thought that some frenzy distemper had got into his head: therefore. and saw a Man named Evangelist ^ coming to him. 31. that I am condemned to die. that he was (as he was wont) reading in his Book. . and I iind that I am not willing to do the first. . lo He also set to talking to them again. they would know how he did. Judgement. '^"^ ''es'atfeasyei. this his Relations At true. because as I perceived he could not tell which way to go. whereby .12 He kneiu no THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. 14. sometimes they w-ould chide. when he was walking in the 20 Fields. 30 Ezck. and that way.

^ he had not run far from his own door. little time they over-took him. and ^ pet. 33be not fit to go to Prison. 10. I said the Mat. others threatned . but his Wife and u-cd. 30. and ran on crying. so shalt thou see the Gate. The Man said. and the name of the other Pliable. . why standest thou still ? He answered. Then said. Then said Evangelist. see yonder M-lcket-gate other. J •> ' The Man therefore read it. Now by this time the Man was got a good distance from °''^''"?*^. 30 they did.l"l'li. Neighbors. Wherefore : Then They That To perswade you to go back with us but he said. If this be thy condition. Keep that light in your eye. go up directly thereto. sink 13 lower than the Grave and I shall fall into lophet. if I Then he gave him a Parchment Roll. ? No. Children perceiving it. The Neighbors also came out to see him run. at which c/tnst and when thou knockest. 13. j. upon E-vangeitst said E-van- Whither must ? I fly? Then pointing with his finger over a very wide Field.' ran. isa. comnctio.f. and the thoughts of these things make me cry. Fly from the ivrath to come. Because I know not whither to go. 17. Destruction (the place also . And among those that did so. and as he neythat ' and some cried after-^^^^^'". and looking 10 very carefully. : : . Do you see yonder shining light He think I Psaim 119. You dwell. do. can by no means be so. and go along with me. J^^ ^o. and in a said said. began to cry after him to return but Luke u. 19. that the Man began to run now t'.) I see it to be and dying there. I am not fit (I am sure) to go to Judgement. some mocked. into a place that burns with Fire and Brimstone Be content good Neighbors. 7. the Man.. so he looked not behind him. him to return. and from thence to Execution.. 19. Eternal Life towards the middle of the Plain. but fled cen. are you come'? . there were two """""^ that were resolved to fetch him back by force: the name oi stock to the the one was Obstinate. Then said Evangelist. uimcamwt So I saw in my Dream. gelist. and there was written "{/tyl/fl"' ''"*•': within. said he. said. 3. in the City of where I was born. .i . Do you 7. it shall be told thee what thou shalt do. . 26 20 the Man put his fingers in his Ears. you will sink lower then the Grave. me And Sir. Mat. Life.THF PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Life. them But however they were resolved to pursue him which /o//o-u> him. sooner or later.

and safe there. where I is enough. Christian and be 'wise. because I have laid my hand to the Plough. and to spare Come away. :.headed 20 Coxcombs. 4. undefiled. to . myself. for there and hold Luke 15. and it. <who knonus ivhither such a brainsick felloiv <ivill lead you ? Go Pli. What are the things you seek. said Obstinate. Said Christian. 62. What ! behind us ! and lea've our Friends. are better than ours my heart inclines to go with my Neighbor. let us turn again. said Obstinate. incorruptible. 21. all I Ycs. are aviser in their oivn eyes than seven men that can render a Reason. What! more Fools still? be ruled by me and go back. ivill you go back <ivith us. I seek an Inheritance. Come then. If and for the truth of what is exprest therein. 1 am directed by a man whose name is Evangelist. 20. but do thou come with me Neighbor such things to be had which I Pliable. Obs. and prove my words. and it is laid up in Heaven. . 20. (for that was his name) because that is not worthy to be compared with a little of that that am go. Don't revile. 13. Pi-^/o ^^^^ Neighbor Obstinate. seeking to enjoy. There is a Company of these Craz'd. go back. 2 Cor. a point . spoke of. and our comforts Christian. you shall fare as . THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. that nvhen they take a fancy by the end. in my Book. and many 30 you believe not me. I Pet. 17. i3. if you I will go along with me. if you will. do you know the ivay to this desired place? Chr. n"tt/«//^r there are piiabie's Heb. and go home without him. Obs.14 Ohstimxie. 19. (^said Pliable) 1 begin to come 18. ao-uay <iuith your Book. read here in Heb . to be bestowed at the time appointed on them that diligently Read it so. 7ush. ' tented to fhri^tfan. Chr. said the other. II. not I. and that fadeth not aivay . and to cast in my lot 'with him : But my good Companion. 4. I intend to go along ivith this good man. 16. more Glories besides. Nay. Obs. since you lea've all the 10 World to find them ? Chr. Then : said Pliable. Neighbor Pliable. or no ? Chr. if what the good he looks after. the things back. Obs. this Book behold all is confirmed by the blood of him that made it. Luke 9. is Christian says true. seek it. No. Heb.

where us be going. . what else ? Chr. s. Well said. and 2 Tim. This is excellent . Z'X"''"' . I certainly true? Chr. Pli. 25. s. There are Crowns of Glory to be given us. go along with me. Well said .43. we shall receive instruction about the way. he would not thus lightly have given us the back. isa.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. There we shall be with Seraphims. Chr. what things are they? isa. 30 Garments that will make us shine like the Sun in the Ml«h^. and Cherubins. Christian and Pliable went talking over the Plain thus they began their discourse. and 45 17- to be given us.g_ ' ?• i?- . a«^i'"" Chr. nor sorrow For he isa. There shall be no more crying. I will read of them in my Book. i. went both together. since there is none but us ttvo here. Tit. There . •*' : '. and had even P/i^^/f. There everlasting life is an endless Kingdom to be inhabited.-iXiGod'sthins! speak of them with my Tongue: But yet since you are^Xf"*' 20 desirous to know. Now '° I saw in my Dream. chlp^^*'!'" Pli. be no Companion of such misled fantastical Fellows. that is owner of the place. And what company shall we ha've there ? Chr. 2. let Then I they will obstinate Obs. speed 15 me to a little Gate that is before us. And do you think that the ivords of your Book are Chr. Come Neighbor you are perswaded to Obstinate himself but felt how do you do? I am gladP'iabie. Pli. 2. Come then good Neighbor. that when Obstinate was gone and m/i it'. tell me no<iv further ivhat the things are. ^whither we are going ^ can better conceive of them with my Mind. and 4. Pli. and what else? Chr. said Obstinate.ran back.t. Pli. will wipe all tears from our eyes. for it was made by him that cannot lye. \!a.^f Creatures that will dazzle your eyes to look on them ^^^ also you shall meet with thousands. Yes verily. And I will go back to my place. and ten thousands that Pli. what I have felt of the Powers and Terrors of what is yet unseen. Come Neighbor Christian. Pli. and hciv to be enjoyed. s. that we may inhabit that ^"""j'"' "'• Kingdom for ever. Firmament of Heaven.

things : ff'^ell. there we shall see the Elders with their Golden Crowns there we shall see the Holy Virgins with their : : ^ioi^'it^z- Golden Harps there we were cut in pieces. 't^wixt this and our Journeys end? May I get out again 'with my life. burned : shall see in flames. 21. ' 'pii^iu. In a word. Neighbor Christian. I It is not '" do not know. did both fall suddenly into the bog. they drew near to a very Miry Slough.6 1 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. you noiu ? 3° said Christian. they bare to the Lord of the 2. Chr. that just as they had ended this talk. The Lord. ^•^' s. At that Pliable began to be offended and angerly said to his Fellow. and standing in his presence with acceptance for ever. and cloathed with Immortality with a 10 Garment. Pli. 55. Is this the happiness you have told me all this while of? If we have such ill speed at our first setting out. 22. for the love that acor. Chap. I cannot go so fast as I would. Now I saw in my Dream. have gone before us to that place none of tliem are hurtful. you shall possess the brave . Chr. I to hear of these T!u Slough . began to sink in the Mire. all well. on that side of . 14. Chap. The hearing of this is enough to ravish ones heart . and got out of the Mire. If we be truly willing to have it. Come on. Ah. place. by reason of this 20 burden that is upon my back. 4. ivhere are . Truly. because of the burden that was on his back. what may we expect. but are these things to be enjoyed? Hew shall <we get to be Sharers hereof? isa. The name of the Slough was DisHere therefore they wallowed for a time. that was in the ^jjg^ ^f ^j^g pj^jj^^ ^j^j ^j^gy ^gjj^g heedless. the Governor of that Country. Then said Pliable. Pli. . 4. 6. chap-Vs"?. ously bedaubed with the dirt and Christian. Country alone for me. let us my good Companion^ glad am mend our pace. Pli. 1. Pli. And with that he gave a desperate struggle or two. 12./ Dispond. he will bestow it upon : us freely. Rev. hath recorded that in this Book the substance of which is. Chr. drowned as in the Seas. being grievpond. Rev. 17. and holy every one walking in the sight of God. but loving. Men that by the World eaten of Beasts.

and set him upon sound pf^"^" ground.*^'^. if perhaps it might have been mended yea. steps ? I Help. and bid him go on his way. been for above this sixteen hundred years imployed about this patch of ground. I fell in here. Give me thy hand! So he gave him Help /.^"''''*"'. and he drew him out. and to my knowledge. and said.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. is the way from the City of is it that this Plat is not mended. t/^^"^. the which he did. It is the descent whither the scum and that jvhat makes doth continually run. remain so bad. His Laborers also have.. Fear followed me so hard. whos^ZuHllst. but could '. But I beheld in my Dream. and Christian saw him no more. 20 Then I wherefore. Wherefore Christian was left to tumble in the Slough of Dispond alone but still he endeavoured to struggle to that side of the Slough that was still further from his own House. I was directed this way. . and therefore it is called the Slough of Dispond: for still as the sinner is awakened about his lost condition. name was Help. by a man 10 called Evangelist who directed me also to yonder Gate.. and asked him. and settle in this place And this is the reason of the badness of this : ground.. which all of them get together. christian i« and next to the Wicket-gate. said he. : 17 the Slough which was next his own House so away he went. The Pro- fled the next way. said Christian. said he. But luhy did you not look for the Chr.""^"" Then.>?* hand. Sir. poor travellers might go thither with more security ? And he said unto me.. What he did there? Chr. by the direction of His jMajestye's Surveyors. ^ c . Help.3. that I might escape the wrath to come And as I was going . since over this place Destruction to yonder Gate.7*" not get out. : thither.'^. It is not the pleasure of the King that this place should isa. that a Man came to him. Here hath been swallowed up at least twenty million Cart : 35. stepped to him that pluckt him out. This Miry slough is such a place as cannot be mended. because of the burden that was upon his back. that and his fell in. there ariseth filth that attends conviction for sin in his soul many fears and doubts and discouraging appre- 30 hensions. Sir.

he espied One afar off come crossing over the field to meet him and their hap was to meet just as they were crossing the way of each Other. Men through thesc steps are hardly seen in Christ. the dizziness of their heads. . !•/-. Worldly-Wise. True. in my Dream. home . and then they are bemired to purpose. . having some guess of him. all fidence. that have places of the Kings (and they that can tell. This man then meeting with Christian. piiabiegot fwmt and Now I saw to is visited 0/ his %o\. placed even through the very ThtPro^"^««f^»rf™'dst of this Slough. ^''S't him and some of them called him wise Man for coming and some called him Fool. but at such time as this place doth acceptance '« much spue out its filth. and so will be. and began to But at last deride poor Christian behind his back. sat sneaking among them. others agam did mock at his Cowardliness Surely since you began to venture. of Loads. millions. lo or if they be. say. So his iSeighbors came to • ^"fe>ue7. so base to have given out for a few difficulties. but also it began to be the To=:y«-talk in some other places. Master Worldly-Wiseman therefore. and having some inkling of him.' taiiiment hy them at his return. and also hard by from whence Christian came. 20 Christian .30 man. by beholding his laborious going. that by this time Pliable was . . The Gentleman's name was Mr. solitary by himself.. for Christian's setting forth from the City of Destruction was much noised abroad. And thus much concerning Pliable. not only in the Town where he dwelt. 12. certain good and substantial Steps.. — — .tt /^i'-vt-ii his House agam. as it doth against change of Weather. there but the ground is good when they are once got in all seasons been brought from . they are the best Materials to make good ground of the place . there are by the direction of the Lawgiver. WorldlyTneltTwlxh Christian. and then they So Pliable he got more conturned their tales. a very great Town. by observing his Now as Christian was walking .. Mr. saymg.. when they have done what they can. 23. he dwelt in the Town of Carnal-Policy.) if so be it might have been mended but it is the Slough of Dispond still. I would not have been . yea at all wholesome Instructions. . for hazarding himself with baclc . notwithstanding the steps be I Sam. at tw\e Gate. step besides.8 1 THE PILGRTMS PROGRESS. Dominions .

Hunger. Perils. mind till : nor canst thou enjoy the benefits of the blessing Christian. World. as I am informed. World. Dragons. ! thou art like to meet ivith the ivay ivhich M^earisomness.womiy . for there. and the Uke. 7. for I see the dirt of the Slough of Dispond is upon thee . I am older than thou thou goest. Chr. Hear in tne. World. : . . If Wilt thou hearken it to me. I tell you. Chr. stand in need of good World. but I am so laden with this burden. Yes. Chr. ^ood ^ talk with Christian. 29 World. counsel. That is that which I seek for. Who bid thee go this <zvay to be rid of thy burdeti ? a man that appeared to me to be a very great and . . his counsel. if I give thee counsel ? for I be good. I will. that I cannot take that pleasure in them as formerly methinks. honorable person his name. World. that I may be rid of my burden. burdened manner J ."'' ^''''*' And whereas you ask me. is Evangelist.Wori(i\y unto'^J^aTnl^itd Evangelists Counsel. Naked- ness. there is not is a more Afr. Whither aivay. I am going to yonder Wicket-gate before me. felloiv. Sivord. a Chr. 20 IV hie h God hath bestoived upon thee then. I am as if I had none. Hast thou a Wife arid Children ? JO creature had. f Worldly Wiseman burdened manner indeed. : i cor. Darkness. Sir. sighs 19 and groans. that and that thou shalt •> find if thou •' Thou hast met ivith something (^as I perceive^ already. get thyself rid of thy burden for thou till ivi/t never be settled in clu »se! to Wiseman. even to be rid of this heavy burden but get it off my self I cannot nor is there a man in our Country that can take it off my shoulders therefore am I going this way. ivhither aivay after this Talk M-wixi i»/»-. Chr. began thus to enter into some Honu noiv. thy / <would then ad-vise thee then. but that Slough is the beginning of the sorroivs that do attend those that go on in that ivay. as ever I think poor ". Lions. / beshroiv him for . death. .THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. that thou ivith all speed Afy. Painfulness. as I remember. I shall be put into a way to be rid of my heavy burden. 10 dangerous and troublesome <way in the world than nuhich he hath directed thee ivtlt be ruled by his counsel. and C 2 in a avord. as I told you.

Chr. care not what can World. and if thou art tiot minded to go back to thy former habitation. Sir. Besides. thou shalt meet ivith friendship. Sir open this secret to me. burden. as indeed I would not wish thee.20 and ^vbat fiot ? THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. much safety. he hath skill to cure those that are 50 somewhat crazed in their wits with their burdens.. Why. lity) JVhy in yonder Village. ivhose name is Legality. Pray. His house is not quite a mile from this place . By reading Book and my hand. World. thou mayest be eased of thy burden. Chr. . M<' Strait Gate. to obtain they knoiv not ixjhat. and content. And <ix)hy should a man so carelessly cast aiuay himself. 1 say. whose narne is Civility.. I "t/younT chrittiaiu. but they run them (as thine I ^ perceive has done thee) ^ Upon desperate ventures. luho meddling ivith things too high for them. ^^ : ~\ _'-' / could direct thee the obtaining of ^vithout the dangers that thou in this ivay ivilt run thy 20 . for ease this way. it is ease for my heavy World. 'shouule Serious in suddenly fall into thy distractions ivhich distractions do not only unman men. by giving heed to a stranger ? Chr. readinethe BiHe. to other WoRLD. and if he should not be at home himself. methinks ^]gQ meet with in the way. ha'ving been con- firmed by many testimonies. this burden upon my back is more terrible The frame to me than I all these things which you have mentioned I : nay. (the Village named Mora- a Gentleman. lucak I thought SO it is happened unto thee as lo men. do . so be meet with deliverance from my burden. that instead of those dangers. that can do it (to speak on) as well as the old Gentleman himself: There. and the remedy is at hand. is what thou self into yea. But many dangers <ivhy ivilt thou seek it. to my knoivledge he hath done a great deal of good there dwells this way: Aye. and be helped presently. thou mayest go. desirest. since to {hadst thou but patience raiiity be/ore ^g f^g^j. and besides. Worldly does not lite Honu camest thou by this . These things are certainly true. he hath a pretty yoxmg man to his Son. thou mayest send for thy M'ife and Children . as I said. To him. seeing so fre/ers\iJ- attend especially. lyjuther I know what I would obtain . a very judicious man (and a man of a very good name) that has skill to help men off ivith such burdens as thine are from their shoulders : yea. thy burden at first ? in Chr. I ivill add.

^^^. to be sure there thou shalt by honest neighbors. it seemed so side djd the way . By that Hill you must go. fore he sweat. when he was got now hard by the : high. 19. Yes. IVorldly-fflsemans counsel and with that he saw Evangelist coming to meet him at the sight Evaneeiist also of whom he began to blush for shame. and good fashion.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Yes. Here there. one : of which thou mayest ha've at reasonable rates also cheap Provision is there and good. Evan.^sinai 20 wherefore there he stood still. lest the Hill should fall on his head:"i^^f. which is my way to this honest man's house ? Mount imv. that Christian was afraid christian to venture further. seemed heavier to him than while he was in his way. coming up to him. jwiv. is. and that ivhich ivill li-ve make thy life the more in happy. he looked upon him^^^^'^'^^g. and. 21. dear Sir. credit is. and did quake for fear. lo Chr. made Christian afraid that he should be burned. 12. very well. There came also flashes of fire out of the Hill. farther. said he ? at which Evangelist word Christian knew not what to answer: wherefore. Sir. . Then said Evatigelist'^^^'^^^''^^^Hill. What doest thou here ? Christian. and also that side of it that was next hang so much over. 16. my wisest course is to take his advice and with that he thus . Did not I direct thee the woay Chr. that Exod. dear Sir. Now was Christian somewhat at a stand. ciiristian i"y^tfom\y. Yes. So Christian turned out of his way to go to Mr. •World. his burden. World. with a severe and dreadful countenance: and thus began to "'"^ ^•"•^'f'' 30 reason with Christian. Evan. . said Christian. So Evangelist drew chris'tan nearer and nearer. wiseman-s farther spoke. \Z'onkim. and he wot not what to do. Legality's house for help but behold. at ^r^-^frelh wnk sent he stood speechless before him. ^irt not thou the ivalls of the City of man that I ? found crying ivithout the Destruction Chr. Do you see yonder high hill ? Chr. be sorry that he had taken Mr. I am the man. 2\ <where there are houses noiv stand empty. And now he began to Heb. to thee to this llllcige.ver. Also '•"»<'<iMt on his Head. and the first house you come at is his. but presently he concluded if this be true which this Gentleman hath said.^. to the little Wicket-gate 'i .

if haply I might be soon eased of my burden but when I came to this place. : beheld this Hill. So he stood trembling. 15. who perswaded me that I might. as the way. said I. he asked me whither I was going. And ivhat said he then ? Chr. not so attended with difficulties. much more shall not <we escape. Evan. Then (said Evangelist) stand still a little. (as I said) of danger: but : : how : I now know not what to do. Evan. and is I told him back. He looked like a Gentleman. 'twas ease that I sought : And said I. live by faith . and short. that I may shew thee the ivords of God. I met with a Gentleman. 30 Evang. What said that Gentleman to you? Chr. Sir. and talked much to me. I stopped for fear. Evan. I am 20 therefore going to yonder Gate to receive further direction So he said that I may get to the place of deliverance. I Evan. in the Village before me.: 22 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. and turned skill to take off these burdens out of that way into this. 1 suddenly lo told made a stand. and got me at last to yield so I came hither but when I . if ive turn aivay from him that He said moreover. Thou art the . he would shew me a better way. so soon as I had got over the Slough of Dispond. He also did thus apply them. Evangelist Christian^P/- cha^T'^^8 him that speaketh . and how it hangs over the way. Noiv the just shall ^P^^^^^^ from Heaven. i=. said he. Then Heb. lest it should fall on my head. And nuhat said he then ? Chr. and beheld things as they are. that you set me which way. What ^as he? Chr. am so loaden with the burden that on my that I cannot take pleasure in them as formerly. find a man that could take off my burden. Chr. my soul shall have (said Evangelist) See that ye refuse not if they escaped not ivho refused no pleasure in him. Uoiu is it then that thou art so quickly turned aside ? for thou art nonu out of the luay. Evan. and I told him. He asked me if I had but. will direct you to a Gentleman's house that hath So I believed him. Why. I a Family. and him. but if any man draius back. for him that spake on Earth. He bid me with speed get rid of my burden.

His labourmg to render the Cross odious to thee. and from the way thereto hath wicked man turned thee. way. His turning thee out of the way. thee of. as at 10 then did Christian again a little revive.13.13. tell Then to the it Evangelist proceeded. Then is Christian fell down : at his foot as dead. 23 that art running into this misery.: . Now there are three things in this Evangelist "" 20 mans counsel that thou must utterly abhor "de'^t'o/ Mr. The Lord life. of Morality to Church) and partly because he loveth that cai. be not faithless. for I am undone at the sight of which Evangelist caught him by the right hand. strait gate. is one Worldly-Wiseman^. and thine own consenting thereto because this is to reject the counsel of God. ' . . and feiv there be that find it. 6. Out of their way tliey go. 12. and /i/>^. woridiy1. Doctrine best. all manner of sin andMatth. crying. Woe me. thou hast began to reject and to draiv back thy foot from the ivay of peace. therefore he seeketh to prevent my ways. blasphemies shall be forgiven unto men. 7. for it saveth him from the Cross and because he is of this carnal temper. and pay for't dear For master H'OrUiy-II'iscinan can but shew A Saint the way to Bondage and to woe. When men I Christians unto carnal give ear. though right. Give more earnest heed thee. to the bringing of thee almost hate therefore his turning thee out of the to destruction. says. rightly is he so called partly. for the sake of the counsel of things that I shall was that deluded . but ''^*''' ^' °^' believing . First. for strait w Matt.14. saying. And his setting thy feet in that way that leadeth unto the administration of Death. TT2. Thou must abhor his turning thee out of the way yea. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. before Evangelist.31. 30 the gate that leadeth unto From this this little wicket-gate.woridiy. I will now shew thee who and who 'twas also to whom he sent The man that met thee. because he savoureth only the scriM^y'' Doctrine of this world (therefore he always goes to the Town Evangelist. even almost to the hazarding of thy perdition. the gate to which sent thee. and stood up first. 1 1 • : a Worldly-JViseman. saying.24. thee. and abhor thyself for hearkening to him. trembling. Strive to enter in at I /Z^^ Luke 13. Wiseman. man the counsel of the most high. 3.

and his oivn life also.21. nor ever is like to be ye cannot be justified by the Works of the Law. Gal. by turning thee from the way in which I had set thee. and also how unable that person was to deliver thee from thy burden. and children. He to whom thou wast sent for ease. and hates not his father. that made the hair of his flesh stand. Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are (written in the Book of the Laiu to do them. Heb. notwithstanding his simpering looks. Heavens for confirmation of what he had said and with that there came words and fire out of the Mountain under which poor Christian stood. and he that comes MaKh"io*^3q. that he that will save his life. Legality a cheat and for his son Ci-vility. and wife. and mother. As many as are of the works of the Law.22. I say therefore. 26. are under the curse . is the Son of the Bond-woman which now is. and is in a mystery this Mount Sinai. and INIr. that thou hast heard of this sottish man. Thirdly.25. thou canst not have eternal life. no. that that shall be thy death. and cannot help thee. After this 3© : : : Ei'angelist called aloud to the . Worldly-Wiseman is an alien. his labouring to render the it Cross odious unto thee treasures of Egypt : for thou art to prefer before the King of Glory hath told thee. how canst thou expect by them to be made free ? This Legality therefore is not able to set thee 20 free from thy burden. And for this thou must consider to whom he sent thee. and sisters . the : he cannot be my Disciple. 15. 4. but a design to beguile thee of thy Salvation. without which the truth hath said. for it is ^written. . This 10 Doctrine thou must abhor. '^yj(-}^ jjgr children.24 Secondly. he is but an hypocrite. yea. Marks. and brethren. which The Bondjjj^y j^^g^ feared will fall on thy head. Thou must abhor . No man was as yet ever rid of his burden by him. Now if she with her children are in bondage. for by the deeds of the Law no man living can be rid of his burden therefore Rlr. Thou must hate his setting of thy feet in the way that leadeth to the ministration of death. being by name Legality. j5. and is in bondage =3. The words were thus pronounced. Believe me. for a man to labour to perswade thee. 3. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. besides. Gal. shall lose it Luke 14. 10. II. there is nothing in all this noise. after him.24.

Thy : Evangelist '. flowing only from the flesh. for he has good will for only. would he went like one that was all the while treading on forbidden ground. and bid him God speed so he went on with haste. and sent back from thence ashamed? I am sorry i" ^^"^^yI have hearkened to this man's counsel. May I Open noiv enter here? nvill he ivithin to sorry me. 12. to tread in sin is very great. gave him one smile."'"„""' man .THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. still calling himself a thousand he also was greatly fools for hearkening to his counsel : ashamed to think that this Gentleman's arguments. of the Gate receive thee. Kjiock and it shall be opened unto you. Now over the Gate there was written. what think you? is there hopes? may I now go chriitian 10 back. Christian got up to the Gate. 25 and began to cry out lamentably. any man asked him. saying. Worldly-Wiseman. but may my sin be forgiven ? EvANG. Worldly-Wiseman' s counsel. take heed that thou turn not aside again. nor need he doubt That is a knocker but to enter in For God can love him. even cursing the time in which he met with Mr. till again he was got into the way which he left to follow Mr. and could by no means think himself safe. neither spake he lest : men Psaim =. thou hast forsaken yet will forbidden paths evils . Matth. Chr. more than once or twice. Then did Christian address himself to go back. he applied himself again to words and sense as follows. should have that prevalency with him to forsake the right way. said he. He 7. after he had kist him. 30 He knocked therefore^. by it thou hast committed two that is the the way good. nor if vouchsafe them an answer. So in process of time. Then for said E-vangelist to him. Sir. and forgive his sin. j . Now Christian looked for nothing but death. E'vangelist in This done. and Evangelist. though I have been then shall I jin undeserving Rebel? Not yiail I to sing his lasting praise on high. and go up to the Wicket-gate? Shall I not be abandoned ^"f^'^^^f for this. to any man by the way . s. He that will enter in must first without Stand knocking at llie Gate. thou perish from the way when his wrath is kindled but 20 a little.

there erected a strong Castlc. and them that are Th^tnt'r t^^suaisht at those that come up to this Gate Christian with him shoot Arrows . that they could not prevail. the other gave that? him a other pull . there <will. last came a grave Person to the Gate. I would therefore. in. Then said Christian. as you to go back ? Obstinate. But I that you Chr. )ua"ud sinners. little What means is The is told him. both . if haply they I may before they can enter tremble. my Wife and Children saw me at the first. that I may be delivered from the wrath to come. would tell me what I must do. Good Will. But why did he not come through'^ Chr. Satan tn- A distance from this Gate. and calling after me to return but I put my Fingers in my Ears. An Open Door is set before thee. and no man can shut it. ^^h^" Christian was stepping in. of which Beelzebub the Captain: from die thence both he. E-vangelist bid me come hither and knock. Good Will. ? said Christian. came alone? Neighbors saw their danger. (as I did . Chr. Obstinate and Pliable: But when they saw went railing back but Pliable came with me a little way.) Talk bewm a«rf° And he said. him. but am going to Mount Zion. Christian. Then in. ^*'' me am 'willing with my heart. I come from the City of Destruction. r/it Gatt know if you are Good Will. GoOD WiLL.26 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Sir. to persivade : . and lo Tpen'dto with that he opened the Gate. Gate all is the way thither. Yes. . and called after me to turn again Also some of my Neighbors 30 stood crying. Because none of my saw mine. rejoice and Gautuith So when he was got directed the Man of the Gate asked 20 Joy and trembling. Good Will. At who since I am informed that by ^willing to let I this in. Did any of them knoiu of your coming ? Chr. Here is a poor burdened sinner. But did none of them follo<w you. Sir. named Goodasked fV&o nvas there i and nvhence he came? and ivbat he ivould haue ? Chr. and so came on my way. Yes. said he . Who him thither Chr. that you. Now I begin to reap the benefits of honv is it my hazards. Good Will.

and Good Will. did he light upon you ? what. until we came fell. Wherefore getting out again. not- christian that they have done before they come hither. I Chr. but I also turned aside to go in ''^'^"tifte. "^/Z"^ . will be the death of many more 'tis well you escaped : being by it dasht in pieces. such a one as I am. if I and should also say the truth of myself. Slough of Dispond. Legality. Alas poor IMan. the way of death. would have fallen upon my head: wherefore there I was forced to stop. Legality 20 they are both of them a very cheat But did you take his : counsel ? Chr. have said the truth of Pliable. he christian went back to his own house. what a favour is this to me. 27 at the We indeed came both together. on that ^ -'^^x may side next to his own House. Then said Good Will. into the which then was we also suddenly And Neighbor Pliable discouraged. being perswaded thereto by the carnaK"^''"''*'^'^'^'' said Christian. Truly. : THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. he would have had you a sought for ease at the hands of Mr. Chr. had not E-vangelist happily met me again as I was musing in the midst of my dumps: but 'twas Gods mercy that he came to me again. is the atone. Why. mine. thought that the Mountain that stands by his house. Chr. I should possess th^fanywhcn brave Country alone for him So he went his way. it will appear there is no betterment 'twixt him and myself. that he counteth 10 it not worth running the hazards of a few difficulties to : my obtain it. he told me. Good Will. and would not adventure further. until I as far as I durst : I went to find out Mr. and I to this Gate. withstanding all We make no objections against any. for else I had never come hither. Coelestial Glory of so small esteem with him. 'Tis true. Yes.. But now I am come. That Mountain has been the death of many. that yet I am admitted entrance here. Good Will. Oh. Good Will. and I came^//J^^j'^'/„^ andyctsa He after Obstinate. than thus to stand talking with my Lord But O. Worldly-Wiseman. truly I do not know what had become of me 30 there. more fit indeed for death by that IMountain. arguments of one Mr.

Christian they in no wise are cast out. he would come at and 'blood of Christ. If he could not help him off with his burden that ]'. So he called for the Master of the House who after a little time came to Christian. who was bid by an ac. at whose Door he should knock and he would shew him excellent things.. and I will teach thee about the Way thou must go. Is there no turnings nor windings by Christian ''^bich a Stranger may lose the way ? "^^ingtis Good Will. and am going to the Mount Zion. and asked him what he would have ? Chr. Then he went on.. said Christian. . Look before thee dost thou see this . : j'-'oy- . Christ. good Christian^ come a little way with me. and his Apostles and it is as straight as a Rule can make it This is the way thou must go. that by that he was gone some distance from the Gate. It was cast up by the Patriarchs.30 quaintance of the Good-man of this House. ^}jg House of the Interpreter . suiitand Then Christian began to gird up his loins. Prophets. and I was told by the Man that stands at the Gate.bHtby himself to his journey. and to address burden of siK. He told him As to thy burden. there are many ways butt down upon lo this and they are crooked. and therefore. at the head of tnku-Jay. 001-7 : . till he came at the House of the Christian Interpreter. and wide But thus thou may'st Matth. and asked Who was there? interpretei: Chr. be content to bear it. until There is no thou comest to the place of Deliverance for there it will fall 20 fJ^!Z'e" from thy back itself. here is a Traveller. I am a Man that am come from the City of Destruction. distinguish the right from the wrong. Chr. to call here for my profit I would therefore speak with the Master of the House. at last one m'useojt'ie came to the Door.14. 28 John 6. where he knocked over and over. : . and he again bid him God speed. So the other told him. Sir. That only being straight and narrow. That Christian asked him Christian ''"further. . narrow way? THAT is the way thou must go.. . . Then Christian took his leave of his Friend. Sir.f„f was upon his back for as yet he had not got rid thereof. Then I saw in my Dream. Yes. nor could he by any means get it off without help.. 37- THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. But sald Christian. 7.

the Laiv of 'Truth ivas ivritten upon ^^^°fJre^" lips.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. and this^"^**"" was the fashion of it. // had eyes lift up to Heaven. . And whereas thou seest him with his eyes lift up to Heaven. and that a Crown hangs over that is. he is sure in the World that comes next to have Glory for his Reward. you would shew me excellent would be an help to me in my Journey. and led him into a very was full of dust. the which when he had done. mind what thou hast seen lest in thy Journey thou meet with some that pretend to lead thee right. Come in. is one of a he can beget Children. and bear well in thy thou art going. because the Man whose Picture "Vy he Chr. so 'jiZ'^. to shew thee that slighting and despising the his head things that are present. . this 29 if I called here. even as also thou seest him r/« »»«?. for the love that he hath to his Masters service. What means this Inter. such as : said Christian.And whereas thou seest 'pfJur't'. Inter. and the Law of Truth writ on his lips it is to shew thee.uith Men. whom the Lord of the Place whither ^^^^'vJrr hath authorized to be thy Guide in all difficult^"'30 places thou mayest meet with in the way: wherefore take good heed to what I have shewed thee. rutss^s. Christian saw the Picture christian of a very grave Person hang up against the Wall. \o of Books in his hand. is the only Man. the best The/ashio. that his work is to know and 20 unfold dark things to sinners. because never swept the which. the World avas behind his back. 7. isthousand Children. it stood as if it pleaded q. the Interpreter Now when he began to sweep. the called for a man to siveep. Then . but their way goes .)„„. The Man whose Picture this is. this is. and a Croiun of Gold did hayig over his head. So he commanded He is enur. down to death. his Man to light the Candle. and nurse them himself when they are born. Now. 4. i" i ^ : : .' stand as if he pleaded with Men the World as cast behind him. travel in birth with cor. I will shew thee that which will be profitable to thee. said the Interpreter. Then said the Inttrpreter. I have shewed thee this Picture first. and bid Christian follow him he had him into a private Room. the best of Books in his hand.. and bid his Man open a '•"" Door. That things. after he had reviewed a little while. way. Then he took him by large Parlour that the hand.

.2s. the first began to sweep. 30 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. fly dust began so abundantly to about. Then . RonL : this is to shew thee. that the Interpreter took him by the hand. is his Original Sin. and the soul it. I say. as thou sawest the Damsel sprinkle the Room with 20 Water. but he will I have all now But Patience pTssionw A is desire. instead of cleansing the heart (by 7. I saw morcovcr in my Dream. Bring hither the Water. What means this ? Inter. almost choaked therewith Rom. so is sin iV^ 16. and of the other is Patience. John Acts 13. put strength into. and brought him the which a Bag of Treasure. The Interpreter answered this Parlour is the heart of a Man that was never sanctified by the sweet Grace of the . which when she had done. its working) from s'^20^ doth revive. and had him into a little Room. saw that one came to Passion. and increase it in the soul. Then have all noTv. What the reason of the discoutcut of P«jj/o« The Interpreter answered. upon which it was cleansed with pleasure this is to shew thee. is the Gospel. but Patience was xery quiet. even as it doth discover and forbid it. and consequently fit for Rom. but that thou wast : . askcd. and did sprinkle Now. that Christian had almost therewith been choaked. :3. and sprinkle the Room . with Water. The Governor till : of them would have him is stay for his best things Patience is the beginning of the next year willing to wait. then. Passion seemed to be Passion will '"U'^h discontent. and poured it down at his feet . and inward Corruptions He that began to sweep at lo that have defiled the whole INIan. but doth not give power to subdue. Chr. whereas thou sawest that so soon as it. first is the Law but She that brought water. Again. even as thou sawest the Damsel lay the dust by sprinkling the Floor . 6. The name of the eldest 3° Christian . through the faith of vanquished and subdued. where sate two Heshewtd a'/rfPa^'' little Children. Law. 13. Ihen said Christian. made clean. 3. Gospel the dust.? was Passion. that the sin. Damsel that stood by. the dust did so fly about that the Room by him could not be cleansed. that when the Gospel comes in the sweet and precious influences thereof to the heart. each one in his Chair. Then said the Interpreter to r. it was swept and cleansed with pleasure. John the King of Glory to inhabit.

is of more Authority with them. and he had lavished 2i}\A„dquickiy to scorn. as Patience will have to laugh at Passion. But as thou sawest. for there is -' not first. In thy lifetime thou receivedest thy good things. Therefore Passion had not so much reason to laugh at . For the things that are .. You say Truth. because he had his good things first. Passion. and had nothing left him but Rags. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. That Proverb. 'tis not best to covet things that are now but to wait for things to come.. things that his are last. and had presently left him. Inter. Inter.'./®- Temporal. 31 he took up. And also because he will have the glory i^^J^^" . the Glory of the 72ext world will never wear out . and thou Msscod art tormented. For as here thou seest. but he that has '''^'"'^' Therefore it is said of Dives. because last must have his time Thmssthnt to come. . So he said. than 'j. Then I perceive. . until the next World. matter more fully to me. ^'""^ *"/ 30 must needs have a time to spend Portion last. Passion will ha-ve So are the all now. Chr. so will it be with all such Men at the end of this World. are Eternal. but last gives place to nothing. they cannot stay till next Tear . of the Men of that which is \o come.^. because he had his best things last iorfrst must give place to last. ivhen the other hath nothing but Rags. laughed Patience But I beheld but a while. nothing but Rags. likewise Lazarus evil things . and Luke 16. Patience. Then said Christian to the Interpreter. «'•<- y^^'^^. Then said Christian. that he had quickly lavished all away. you may add another to wit. away"" Chr. ^ Bird in the Hand r/teiiorM/y is worth two in the Bush. away. . These two Lads are Figures.. : . must have it lastingly. for their Portion of good. and that upon many accounts. Chr.ile are all the Divine Testimonies of the good of the World to *'""^come. Inter. and rejoiced therein and withal. 2. another to succeed.""^ . Now I see that Patience has the Because he stays Patience best M^isdom . ' "^. are thims first.']^^'. But noiv he is comforted. . but these are suddenly gone. in this World 10 Men of this World they must have all their good things now. Expound this The >„atter expounded. but the things that are not seen. But^f^ff^^^'J. i 20for the best things. that is. seen. . He therefore that hath his Portion it . Nay. of the Men of this World and Patience. this year that is to say. of his.

Man. door stood a great Company but durst not. Then . Gold. because things to come. and led him up toward the door of the Palace and behold^ at the of men. the souls of his People prove gracious still. at a little distance from the door. with . to extinguish and put it out. that it is is hard for the tempted to see in how this Mork of Grace maintained the soul. thou shalt So he had him about to the back also see the reason of that side of the Wall. that the Interpreter took Christian by the hand. and our fleshly appetite. notwithstanding what in the heart . the Devil can do. . is the De^nl : but in that thou seest the fire notwithstanding burn higher and hotter. This is Christ. and led him into a place where was a Fire burning against a Wall. I saw also that the Interpreter took him again by the hand. And in that thou sawest that the Man stood behind the Wall to maintain the fire . this 1 The Interpreter answered. What means this ? The Interpreter answered. 9. This fire is the work of Grace that is wrought in the heart he that casts Water upon it. and led him into a pleasant place. beautiful to behold. are such near Neighbors one to another'. of the which he did also continually cast (but Then said Christian. he saw also upon the top all thereof. maintains the work already begun by the means of which. be so . certain Persons walked. at the sight of which. : .32 though this THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. where was builded a 30 stately Palace. are such strangers one to another therefore it is. that the first of these so : suddenly fall into amity. casting much Water upon it to quench it: yet did the Fire burn lo higher and hotter.) into the fire. who continually. II. yet since things present. a Cor. and one standing by it always. with the Oil of his Grace. and carnal sense. Then said Christian. Then I saw in my Dream. and again. and that distance is so continued between the second. where he saw a Man with a Vessel of Oil in his hand. who were May we go in cloathed thither? in Then the Interpreter took him. Christian was greatly delighted said Christian. What means 20 secretly. as desirous to go in. this is to teach thee. There also sat a at a Table-side.

and his Inkhorn before him. a Book. and pressed forward into the Palace at which there was a pleasant voice heard from those that were within. again. after he had received and given many wounds to those that attempted to keep him out. / am ivhat I was not once. Set doivn my name. said Christian. even of those that walked upon the top of the . saying. M'here there sat Desfair a Man in an Iron Cage. What art thou? The Man answered. What fwast thou once? said. Come 20 in. to take the 33 Name of him that should enter therein : He saw also that in the . Now. So he went they. Palace. and was cloathed with such Garments as and said. his hands folded together and he sighed as if he What means this? would break his heart. not at all discouraged. down to the ground. who laid upon him with deadly force but the Man. I think verily I know the meaning of me go hence Nay stay (said the have shewed thee a little more. to look on. when could. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Now the Man. every Man started back for fear of the armed men Chrisiian saw a Man of a very stout countenance come up to the Man way. and rush toward the door upon the armed men. Chr. . and after So he took him by the hand that thou shalt go on thy way. Chr. Eternal Glory thou shah ivin. Then said At which the Interpreter bid to him talk with the Man. The Man Professor. this. fell to cutting and hacking most fiercely so. Acts 14. that sat there to write . Sir . also in the eyes of D . both in and flourishing Luke a 13. what hurt and mischief they Now was Christian somewhat in a maze at last. the The faUant ^^''"' which when he had done. Then said Christian the Man.. let till I : Interpreter.) nke : 30 eyes looking Christian. door- many Men in Armor to keep it being resolved to Man that would enter. 10 and put an Helmet upon his Head. . seemed very sad he sat with his cage. in. saying. I was once a mine own eyes. Come in. he saw the Man draw his Sword. he cut his way through them all. ». Then Christian smiled. stood dolo the : . and fair Man. and led him into a very dark Room.

as in this Iron Cage. Inter. . cannot get out O nonv cannot. ? said the Interpreter. and there now remains to me nothing but Man. and Profits of this World in the enjoyment of which. I have counted his Blood an unholy thing. Man. Let this . Heb. For nuhat did you bring yourself into this condition^ the Lusts. O Eternity I ! Eternity ! how shall I grapple with the misery that must meet with said in Eternity Inter. Man. faithful threatnings of certain Judgment. . i© the goodness of God gone I tempted the Devil. am noiu a I Man of Despair. Why? The Son 0/ the Blessed is "very pitiful. fair for the Coelestial City. Chr.! . others I once was. Then kept in the Iron said Christian. Inter. and 30 gnaw me like a burning worm. 6. Well. But hovj earnest thou in this condition to watch. I left off I upon the neck of my lusts . Then said Christian to the Interpreter. Is there no hope but you must be Cage of Despair Heb. and he has left me hardened my heart. Luke 19. For . Chr. himself hath shut me up in this Iron Gage nor can all the men in the World let me . I sinned against the light of the : Word. and be sober Man. that I cannot repent. Then the Interpreter to Christian. laid the reins Chr. and . Chr. 10. afresh. his Word gives me no encouragement to believe yea. 14. for such a Man as this ? Ask him. as I thought. 28. I have done despite to the Therefore I have shut myself out of all Spirit of Grace the Promises. 34 : THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. I have crucified him to myself. which shall devour me as an Adversary. dreadful threatnings. No. I have 20 have despised his Righteousness. : threatnings. But canst thou not no^jo repetit and turn ? Man. am / . I did then promise my self much delight but now every one of those things also bite me. and he is come to me I have so I have provoked God to anger. . and had then even joy at the thoughts that I should get thither. none at all. Pleasures. 6. I despised his Person. But is there no hopes . shut up in I it. but <what art thou noiu? I Man. out. and and he is I have grieved the Spirit. God hath denied me repentance .

Well. "' '^' & the Dead that were therein. they were alljud^ij"*' in flaming fire. I : Dreamed. Arise ye Dead. and cast them into the burning Lake . I watch and be sober and to pray. were exceeding glad. is fearful. ' D 2 i ''*' . a convenient distance 30 betwixt him and them. 35 and be an everlasting Chr. and led him into a 10 Chamber. 4. where there was one rising out of Bed. So I looked up in my Dream. that sat upon the Cloud. Luke 17. 10.. Judgment . he shook and trembled. ^'T''"^. It was also said to the same persons Gather my Wheat into the Garner. mans misery be remembred by caution to thee. • 4. attended with the thousands of Heaven. sa. not time for me to go on my Inter. 7. open the Book and bid the World draw near. 20 Cloud. and Coals of fire. Yet there was by reason of a fierce flame that issued out and came from before him. 12. n. And with that I saw many catch'd up and carried away into Thess. with that.. and saw the Clouds rack at an unusual rate. 3. on the Man that sat on the Cloud Gather together the Tares. and as he put on his Raiment. with hideous noises. also the Heavens were on a burning flame. that it put me into an Agony.Vs! hide themselves under the Mountains. this . the bottomless pit opened. 17. and Mai. saying.. 3. 3. just whereabout I stood out of the mouth of which there came in an abundant manner Smoke.2. and Stubble. Tarry till I shall shew thee one thing more. 13. . So he began. .g^' I heard then a voice. 21. as betwixt the Judge and the Prisoners Mai. . 26. Why doth this Man thus tremble? The Interpreter then bid him tell to Christian the reason of his so doing. 3. the Chaff. 1. came forth some of them ua. Then said Christian. that Sir. 16. ' THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. 20. upon which I heard a great sound of a Trumpet. and with that. thee. is it God help me to may shun the causes mans way now? of this misery. the Graves opened. Then I saw the Man Dan. Mawh. and come to Rev. and said This night as I was in my sleep. . the Rocks rent. . So he took Christian by the hand again. '. said Christian. and looked upward and some sought to ps"^5o. and saw also a Man sit upon a Cor. *""^''' I heard it also proclaimed to them that attended at the Bar. and then thou shalt go on thy way. and behold the Heavens grew exceeding black also it thundred and lightned in most fearful wise.

and understand Wherefore they shevjed me 'ivas. profit able Here hai'e I seen things rare and Things pleasant. Yes. was fenced on either side with a Wall. Up this way therefore did burdened Christian run. my still kept his eye up)on mind. and they put me in hope and/ear. that the highway up which 30 was to go. But iL-as it thai via de you so afra'ul of this sight thought the day of Judgement was come. the Judge had alwaj's his eye upon me. way. and upon that place stood a Cross. but *• »+• was left . and that Wall is called Salvation. and a little below in the bottom. that also the Angels gathered up several. to t/jee. but myself. Then said the Interpreter to Christian. : Upon this I awaked from zvhat I my sleep. to prick thee forward in the way thou must go. Max. O good Interpreter. and let me be In Thankful.: : 36 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. shewing indignation countenance. Well. a Sepulchre. and my Conscience Man that sat upon the me my sins also came into did accuse me on ever}" side. He ran thus till he came at a place somewhat ascending. 20 The Comforter be always thee in the way that leads So Christian went on his with thee good Christian. Hast thou considered all these things / Chr. Why the pit of Hell opened her mouth just where I stood: in my his lo Conscience too afflicted me. because of the load on his back. dreadful: things to make me stable what I have began to take in band Then let me think on them. behind. and as I thought. keep all things so in thy mind. and to address himself to his Journey. and left me behind : . Inter. to guide to the City. that they may be as a Goad in thy sides. I the Clouds. for the I also sought to hide I could not J5*^ »> Cloud. saying. Then said the Interpreter. but not without great difficulty. So I saw in my Dream. f Chr. and that I was not ready for it but this frighted me most. saw in my Dream. Then Christian began to gird up his loins. that just as I Now Christian .

4. to look and wonder . . and Presumf- Christian then seeing them lie in this case. .""' his death. which he bid him look on as he ran.^ Then was Christian glad and lightsome. and went on singing. He hath gi'ven me rest. I saw then in my Dream that he went on thus. and that he should give it in at so they went their way. and said with a nitcn God merry heart. that the sight of the Cross for it was He looked therefore. 13. the Pilijrini. Ihy sins ^lark j. 1. stript him of his Rags. How! 'tis very true. his burden loosed from off off his back. The second. The name of the one was Simple.. by his sorrs<iu . Sloth. Christian 37 came up with and fell the Cross. I They be tiuc I'eatlicrs tliat uiakc a fme Bird. Nov/ as he stood looking and zech. even until he came at a bottom. behold three shining ones came to him. till it came to the mouth of the Sepulchre. and began to tumble and so continued to do. . . -O Thus far did I come loaden ivith Nor Till could ought ease the grief that I <was in. by/'o/lVr'siait *"'"'"'• Then he stood still a while. Old things are past away. and the \. and I saw it no more. from ' ^ -U'e him. him with change of Raiment. are as that those very surprising to him. to thee: so the first said to him. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Stranjje he's anotlicr man upon my word. went to them. 3. and gave him a Roll with a Seal upon it. The third also set a mark in his forehead. and "" '"''''^' should thus ease him of his burden. I o looked again. $. Ephes. 30 three Men fast asleep with Fetters upon their heels. and cloathed zccii. even till the springs that w^ere in his head sent the waters down his cheeks. i^. my IT is sin -^ christian can sing tho' aione. where he saw. with Peace be be forgiven.-when I came hither: What a place here be the beginning of here the burden this! Must Must Must The my bliss ? fall from off my back ? it give ktm the '"^ ^'*" here the strings that bound ! to me cracks- Blest Cross blest Sepulchre ! blest rather be Man that there nvas put to shame for me. if I Who's this. lo. a little out of the way. another Sloth. and saluted his Shoulders. ail's become new.h\rdi „ . weeping. where it fell in. "'""• Presumption. and life. Then Christian the Coelestial Gate gave three leaps for joy. simpie.

and Hyp. He also told them. but climbeth up some other ivay. Chr. and ivhither do you go? Form.38 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. a Gulf that hath no bottom. / see no clanger . who thus entered with 20 them into discourse. If he that goeth about like a roaring Lion comes by. and Hyp. and the name of the other Hypocrisy. went on his way.8. s. and to climb over the wall thus to as they Chr. 34. ^jjj^ ^j^^y j^^j custom for : . The name of the one was Formalist. . ]o\\n 10. That as for that. and began to reply teeth. was by all their Countrymen counted too far 30 about and that therefore their usual way was to make a . . the same is a thief and a robber i Form. counseling of them. and proffering to help them off with their Irons. his bottom. Gentlemen. Prov. Awake therefore and come away be willing also. as I said. Why came you not in at the Qate auhich standeth at the Christian . There is no in this sort : Simple said. That to go to the Gate for entrance. he espied two Men come tumbling over the Wall. And as he was troubled thereabout. IVhence Came you. I. Chr. You are like is them that sleep on the top of a INIast. We were born in the land of Vain-glory. But the City <ivill? ivill it not be counted a Trespass against the 'violate had done. Tet a little imiTdo^i/ codofeneth more Qiwn sleep: and Presumption said. And cried. So. S/otb said. E-verj Fatt must stand upon again. and are going for praise to INIount Sion. . aud Hyp. Yet was he troubled to think that men in that danger should so little esteem the kindness of him that so freely offered to help them both by awakening of them. They told him. They said. they drew up unto him. he for what they needed not to trouble his head thereabout and could produce. perad venture he might awake them. Lord of revealed <whither ive are bound. And so they lay down to sleep and 10 Christian them. you will certainly become a prey to his With that they lookt upon him. under you. for the dead Sea I Pet. short cut of it. on the left hand of the narrow way and they made up apace to him. 7hat he that Cometh not in by the door. beginning of the ivay ? Knoiv you not that it is ^Mritten. his They that 7i^J"y%"t not by the FoRM. 23. if need were. and I will help you off with your Irons.

we If get into the way. We see not wherein thou differest from us.'Gate of the City. to cover my ' nakedness christian And as a token of his kindness to me. as it you say. I have <^'"^'^" . it was given me by the Lord of the place to hide the 3. And as for this Coat that is on my back. by an Impartial if "-ni t-^ • 1 • own Prac- And besides. and we are also in the way. That. La<W ? But. by yourselves without 20 his mercy. is. come in by yourselves without his direction. whither with. 39 a thousand rf""'-. Chr. therefore I doubt you already. 111- so long a standing. you will not be saved. and take that. thousand years. when I come to the^". it being oince. comforted since I have his Coat on my back a Coat that he gave mc ']l'°l". Testimony that would witness years. ours? Wherein now thy condition better than Chr. as he. 30 since you came not in by the door. By Laws and Ordinances. the Lord thereof will know me for good. as to Laivs and Or- dinances. thus I com. They told him. ior /"tafcoat jj- *'"'*' had nothing And besides. I walk by the Rule of my Master. it. Judge. they do them doubted not but they should as conscientiously Therefore said they. who. said Christian. made him but little answer only they bid him look to himself. in ? we are we are 10 in: thou art but in the way.""''" " but rags ° before. as we perceive. that is came in at came tumbling over the wall. which was. as we tro. Then I saw that they went on every man in his way. said they. would doubtthing legal. cai.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. I I go I . by the Lord of the way You will not be found true men at the end of the way. for more than 'Am* that they can say Chr. you walk by the You are counted thieves rude working of your fancies. ana comfort myself as I go: Surely. given thee by some of thy Neighbors. think I. . . but by the Coat that is on thy back. and shall go out . as above a less now be admitted as a That Custom. To this that these two men told Christian. in. without much conference one with another save they .'""*". shame of thy nakedness. and Hyp. what's matter which way we get the Gate . 'will your practice stand a Trial at\"^'^j"f^_ '''"" 1 of their „ TT -r^\ Form.ark freely in the day that he stript me of my rags.

The came when they saw that the Hill .. notice. fixed there in the day that my . in I token of my certain going in after it all which things doubt you want. which one of my Associates. I covet to ascend The difficulty nvill not me offend. that these two ways might meet again with that up which Christian went. these things they gave upon each other and laughed. therefore they were resolved to go in those ways (now the name of one of those ways was other two also to the foot of the Hill. mark in my forehead. Than nvrong. For I perceive the luay Come. only they looked lo Then I saw that they went on kept before. Heart . This Hill. I will tell you moreover. . 10 went on till they came to bottom of which was a Spring. Better. as I go in the way I was also bid to give it in at the Ccelestial Gate. tho' difficult. though easy. at the bottom of the Hill but the narrow way lay right up the Hill (and the name of the going up the side of the Hill. and want them because you came not : in at the Gate- To chrisUan 7uithhi. who had no more talk but in with himself. at the . of which perhaps you have Lords most intimate burden fell off my shoulders. There was also in the same place two other ways besides that which came straight from the Gate one turned 20 to the left hand. that I had then given me a Roll sealed to comfort me by reading. : . is called Difficulty. savc that Christian him no answer. though high. But was steep and high. I beheld then. pluck up. 40 moreover taken no a THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. isa. tl: to life lies lets here neither faint nor fear : 30 right luay to go. ivhere the end is ivo. lUctmtsto the Difficulty.n"'^all. by which he was refreshed. on the other side of the Hill. 49. and that there was two other ways to go and supposing also. and sometimes comfortably: that one also he would be often reading the Roll of the shining ones gave him. and then began to go up the Hill saying. and the other to the right. . and that sometimes sighingly.^ Christian now went to the Spring and drank thereof to refresh himself. that they all foot of the Hill Difficulty.

and the name of the other Destruction^ So the one Thedanstr took the way which is called Danger. which detained him in that place until it was almost night. there came loser. there came two men running against him amain the name of the one was Timorous. said City of Zion. 6. to ciiribUaii vtteti wick whom Christian said. And with that Chrissluggard. where he stumbled and fell. consider her (ways and be ivise. and awaked him saying. 6. . Thither therefore Christian got. Now when he was got up to the top of the Hill. made by the Lord a -wardo/ '^'^''"' of the Hill. and the name of the other Mistrust. I where looked then after Christian. 4 Danger. going to clambering upon hands Now . and are going back again. [ Shall they who wrong begin yet rightly end? Shall they at all have safety for their friend? No. Sirs. which led him into a wide field full of dark Mountains. Now as he was sleeping. the more danger we meet with. . 20 one to him. (whether sleeping or waking we know not) cause of the steepness of the place.' ''"''^• . and thence into a fast sleep.\. in headstrong manner they set out. wherefore we turned. Thus pleasing himself a while. for the refreshing of weary Travellers.o''o't'o/thf a great Wood and the other took directly up the way 'to Destruction. and sped him on his way. Go to the Jnt. and in his sleep his Roll 'f' "<" fell out of his hand. which led him 'm. he at last fell into a slumber. tian suddenly started up. and went apace till he came to the top of the Hill. what s the matter you run the Mistrusta«ar ""°''°"^wrong way ? Timorous answered. and rose no more. . thou P'ov. Yes. to see him go up the Hill. beabout the midway 10 to the top of the Hill. was a pleasant Arbor. the further we go. And headlong will they fall at last no doubt. That they were going to the ^ but. said Mistrust. for just before us lie a couple of Lions and in the way. no. and from his and his knees. . . Then he pull'd his Roll out of his bosom and read therein to his comfort he also now began afresh to take a review of the Coat or Garment that was given him as he stood by the Cross. and had got up that difficult place 30 he.1 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. where also he sat down to rest him. I perceived he fell from running to going.

but whither go back to mine own Country. if we we came within reach. by bringing again. of the Arbor. that had been his comfort so many times He went thus till he came again within sight in his Journey. and life everlasting beyond it. if happily he might find his Roll. somtimes he wept. and that which should have been /aki Com/<"-( Here therefore he began to his Pass into the Coelestial City. for he wanted that inJuustdto^^Yixch used to relieve him. his evil " of sleeping into his mind. on this side and on that. 'Rou-u'htrt. thinking again of what he heard from the men. midst of that should so indulge the flesh. s that I should sleep difficulty ! in the day-time I ! that I should sleep in the flesh. he the side of the Hill and then 20 asked God forgiveness for that his foolish Fact went back to look for his Roll. and knew not what to do at last he h^RoiT bethought himself that he had slept in the Arbor that is on and falling down upon his knees. he felt in his and be comchristian Then was Christian in fortcd but he felt and found it not. where he sat and slept but that sight renewed 30 Christian his sorrow the more. great distress. . afraid. ^Kev"'^ . shall fly to be safe? I Christian 'fear" " . Thus therefore he now went on foBiilk wretched Man that I am. and often times he bosom for his Roll. Then I said Christian. I Thess. that he might read therein . and Christian went on his way. as to use that rest for ease to my which the Lord of the Hill spirits of it hath erected only for the relief of the Pilgrims How many steps have I took in vain I (Thus happened to . chid himself. saying. So Mistrust and Timorous ran down the Hill.! 42 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. who can sufficiently set forth the sorrow of Christians heart ? somtimes he sighed. I will yet go forward. If You make me . Ht is fey be much perplexed. But all the way he went back. I am sure perish there. all the way as he went. ' . I must venture. That is prepared for Fire and Brimstone and I shall certainly If I can get to the Coelestial City. But lo Chr. bewailing his sinful sleep. but they would presently pull us to pieces. to be In Safety there. could not think. and knew not what to do. even afresh. To go back is nothing but death to go forward is fear of death. for being so foolish to fall asleep in that place which was erected only for a little refreshment from his Thus therefore he went back carefully looking weariness. : .

Therefore he laid it up in his bosom. the name of which was Beautiful. that he made haste and went forward. but at last (as Chris10 tian would have it) looking sorrowfully down under the Settle.2s. and this made him again recall the vanity of his sleeping to his remembrance. I Red-Sea. where for awhile he sat down and wept. that if possible he might get Lodging there. and put it mto his bosom. But v^no rou where *'^^'"' can tell how joyful this Man was. but while he was thus bewailing his unhappy miscarriage. he remembered the story that Mistrust of. Israel ioY their sin. which I needed not to have trod but once Yea now also I am like to be benighted. because of my feet. gave thanks to God for directing his eye to the place where it lay. how they were frighted with the said Christian to himself again. were sent back again by the way of the to tread those steps with sorrow. . So I saw in my Dream. and thus he again began to condole with himself Ob thou sinful sleep ! honu for thy sake am I like to be benighted in my Journey ! I must slept! : ! : ivalk without the Sun. there he espied his Roll the which he with trembling chnstiar and haste catch d up. he entered into a very narrow passage. he lift up his eyes. and it stood just by the Highway side. and if they 30 should meet with me in the dark. how should I shift them ? how should I escape being by them torn in pieces ? Thus he went on his way. the Sun went 20 down upon Christian . delight.1s. But Oh how nimbly now did he go up the rest of the Hill! Yet before he got up. ! : might have trod with How far might had it not been for this Now by this time he was come to the Arbor again. for the day is almost spent.) and I am made which I have been on my way by this time I am made to tread those steps thrice over. and behold there was a very stately Palace before him. darkness must cover the path of and I must hear sinful sleep I the noise of doleful Creatures. O that I had not sinful sleep. when he had gotten his Roll again For this Roll was the assurance of his life and acceptance at the desired Haven. Then These Beasts range in the night for their prey. my Now also and Timorous told him sight of the Lions. and with joy and tears betook himself again to his Journey. they 43 Numb. now before he had gone far.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS.

. and am going to Mount Zion. wretched man that Jrbor that stands on the Hill side nay. and he built it for the relief and security of Pilgrims. But the Porter at the Lodgc.) Then he was afraid. . frisht's When one Ronc. This House was built by the 20 Lord of the Hill. and no hurt shall come unto thee.. Gen. Then he clapt his hands. What house is this? and may I lodge here to night ? The Porter answered. But hoiv doth it happen that you come is set. ff^hat is your name : . as if he would go back. Difficult is Though he's got A Christian behind. '? Chr. 9. but they did him no harm. off of the Porter's which was about a furlong Lions in Lodge. I see the dangers that Mistrust and Timorous were driven back by. 34- were chained. Now. I am come from the City of Destruction. (The Lions Mark 13. till he came and stood before the Gate where the Porter was ^ Then said Christian to the Porter. POR. I desire. he espied two the May. . thought he. The Porter also asked whence he was. on the Hill. for they are 10 : chained and are placed there for trial of faith where it is and for discovery of those that have none keep in the midst of the Path. I I am ! I slept in the had been here sooner. and went on. POR. but because the Sun is now set. perswade to dwell in the Tents of Shem. and looking very narrowly before him as he went. My name is now Christian . another doth him seize. 44 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Is thy strength so small? fear not the Lions. Sir. but he saw not the Chains. was Graceless : I came of the Race of Japhet. my name at the whom God so late? first will 3° the Sun Chr. saying. for he thought nothing but death was before him. trembling for fear of the Lions but taking good heed to the directions of the Porter he heard them roar. to lodge here to night. whosc Name is IVatchful. perceiving that Christian made a halt. cried unto him. the Lions roar man is never lunn at ease. . if I may. Then I saw that he went on. but =7. and whither he was going ? Chr. Fear is before. but that. and thought also himself to go back after them.

my evidence. and whither he was Then 20 going. and now I am had notwithstanding that. had him in to the Family and many of them meeting him at the threshold of the house. the way. and come. and followed them into the House. and finding it not. met with in the way. for the stood in her eyes and security of Pilgrims. built by the Lord of the Hill. she asked him whence he was. and called out Prurience. Piety. for the best improvement Pilgrims . Then he bowed his head. but the water and after a little pause. and he told her. and he told her and last. I 46 been here much sooner. and Charity. and I have so much perceive. 10 the Porter rang a Bell. seen. mayest do as seemeth thee good. in my sleep I lost . and he told her. even according to the Law of the House. she likes your talk. named Discretion. she said.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. and benighted. by what I Lord of the Hill. I was forced with sorrow of heart to go back to the place where I slept my sleep. according to the Rules of the House. him. This Man is in a Journey from the City of Destruction to Mount Zion. said. It is Christian . some of them should have some particular discourse with Christian. The Porter answered. she asked his name. so he said. because. and set down. but that came without it to the brow of the Hill and then feeling for it. who after a 30 little more discourse with him. on purpose to entertain such in. how he got into What he had . bring you in to the rest of the Family. and consented together that until supper was ready. I will call So she ran to the forth two or three more of the Family. and asked why she was called. it I will call out one of the Virgins of this place. they gave him something to drink. this place was built by the relief the more a desire to lodge here tonight. he asked me if he might lodge here to night so I told him I would call for thee. after discourse had with . and She asked him also. Come in thou blessed of the Lord. this House was : . where I found it. but being weary. who will. who. So when he was come in. Then she asked him. Well. door. POR. So she smiled. at the sound of which So Watchful at the came out door of the House a grave and beautiful Damsel.

Yes. talk ivith to you of all things that have happened you in your Pilgrimage. if I abode in that place where I was. No. how the People were clad in Gold that and how there came a venturous Man. But how did it happen that you came out of your Country Chr. Christian. if •/•/ perhaps to you. ^ by chance there came a man. did not it. which else I should never have found 20 J^sion' and so set me into the way that hath led me directly to this House. and him and thus they began. but yet I am glad I . . and Prudence.. Pi. Pi. it. this night 1 r i . was as God would I have the fears of destruction. heard Pi. But did you not come by the House of the Interpreter? Chr. '•^'"y- . since ^we ha-ve been so loi'ing to receive you into our Mouse . even to me. Come good . the remembrance of which will stick by me as long as I live specially three A rehearsal thiugs. (as I was trembling How he got and weeping) whose name is Evangelist. let us. Yes.46 of time : THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. and he directed me "^ to the Wicket-Gate. to discourse with Piety rfij. Was that all that you saiu at the House of the Interpreter? Chr. Chr. maintains his how the Man had sinned himself "saZint/^ work of Grace in the heart quite out of hopes of Gods mercy and also the Dream of him that thought in his sleep the day of Judgment was come. .. and cut his . in dcspitc of Satan. and did see such things there. for when I was under know whither to go but . Pi. by a dreadful sound that was in mine ears. to luit. Charity. this ivay? It Chr. Pi. Why? Did you hear him tell his Dream ? 30 Chr. and they appointed Piety. life? and I am glad that you are What moved you I at first to betake yourself to a Pilgrims 10 HtmiChns- d^wtTout "co'lwtT'" was driven out of my Native Country. and a dreadful one it was. I thought it made my heart ake as he was telling of it. How Christ. nue may better ourselnjes thereby. he took me and had me where he shewed me a stately Palace. courses Aim. With a very good so well disposed. . . That unavoidable destruct'O" <^^d attend me. and were in it . will. to wit. Pi.

Pi. as I thought in my mind. : Pru. 'Twas a strange thing to me. to go. The things that I have told you were the best yet some other matters I saw.) Pi. Simple. but they were quickly lost even as I myself did tell them. did you not? 20 Chr. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. But. I do not know but that. .. /^cmrJet Sloth. for I never saw such a thing before yea. and I thank you for receiving of me. after all. Saw Why then I could not forbear looking) three shining ones came to testified that me : one of them my sins were forgiven this me another stript me of my rags. I might have gone back again but now I thank God I am here. Yes. cLnty'' had been mindful of that Country from ^whence I came out. in my forehead. and gave me this sealed Roll (and with that he plucked it out of his bosom. gave me broidered Coat which you see and the third set the mark which you see. as namely I saw three Men. hang bleeding upon the Tree and the very sight of him made my burden fall off my back 10 (for I groaned under a heavy burden) but then it fell down from off me. and how he was bid to come in. but with much shame and detestation Truly. (for I : Chr. but they would not believe. "*'' "' ''' . and truly if it had not been for the good Man. Then Prudence thought good to ask him a few questions. Do you you come ? not think sometimes of the Country from . And 'what saiu you ! else hi the <way? went but a little further. but that I knew I had further to go. and I saw one. with Irons upon their heels but do you think I could awake them? I also saw Formalist and Hypocrisy come tumbling over the wall. Methought those things did ravish my heart I would have stayed at that good Mans house a twelvemonth. lie asleep a little . But you saiv more than this. "thence ^'^^ ^^^^ thouehu 0/ if I Chr. as they pretended. and desired his answer to them. and . . above all. I found it hard work to get up this Hill. : out of the way as I came. and while I stood looking up. . and as hard to come by the Lions mouth. to Sion. ai]d Presumption. and win eternal Glory. 47 vay through the armed men that stood in the door to keep him out. the Porter 30 that stands at the Gate.

Do you not yet bear aivay ivith the things that then you ivere conversant nvithal? Christian wM^cai-iiai cositations. that will do jigQ when I look into the Roll that I carry in my bosom. that to this day are in me hope to be rid of all those an annoyance to me there . I would fain be where I shall die no more. said Charity to Christian. no death. 20 that will do it and when my thoughts wax warm about whither I am going. Thcu Christian wept. and there I shall dwell with such Company as I like best. I would chuse ncvcr to think of those things more but when I would be doing of that which is best. I love him. when I think what I saw at the Cross. . that will it and when I look upon my broidered Coat. Do you not find sometimes. Why.48 I might ha've THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. vanquished. had opportunity to is. dead on the Cross they say there is . For to tell you truth. and said. as if they ivere vanquished ? //tfwchiis- ^tnuir^ agaimthis /f. but now I an Heavenly. And nvhy did you not bring them along ivith you ? Chr. that is but seldom but they are to me which such things happen to me. Yes. . desire Pru. and with the Company that shall continually cry Holy. . and I am weary of 50 my inward sickness. goldcn hours. and there I things. . Have you a fayyiily ? are you Christians love to his a married man / Chr. Yes. that which is worst is 10 with me. that did hang do j^.>' Chris- Chr. as wcll as mysclf. Holy. but in . Holy. Then . that have returned. you some of . Pru. there I hope to see him alive. And vjhat is it that makes you so desirous to go to Mount Zion ? Chr. Chr. because I was by him eased of my burden. . as if those things ivere . 8. Pru. . Oh how willingly '^ ° ' ' ' . at times.. 25. ^iTaTMouiit ^'°"isa. Yes. were delighted but now all those things are j^y grjef and might I but chuse mine own things. Charity discourses him. I have a Wife and four small Children. luhich at other times are your perplexity ? Christians "hours. but greatly against my will especially my inward and camal cogitations with which all my Country-men. a better Country. . Pru. Cha. that will do it. Christies Rom' 7. Can you remember by nuhat means you find your annoyances Chr.

in They might tears. one that mocked. destruction to '? for I suppose that destruction over. Nay. my Wife was afraid of losing this World. and that with much affection. But did you not ivith your vain life. to make them averse to christian's going on Pilgrimage. was very wary of giving them occasion. for you must think that my Wife and poor Children were very dear unto me. would to I 49 utterly averse ni/eand chUdrt. Indeed to myself of cannot commend my : life . But did you tell them of your oiun scrroiv. Cha. also see in christian^. Cha. they would me I was too precise. -ivas visible enough you 1 Chr. Yes. and over. my fears in my countenance.. talked to them. Chr. and what by another. damp all that you : by ivords used by ivay of persivasion to bring them aivay luith you 30 ? I Chr.^. by any unseemly action. and they believed me not.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. and The canst my Children were given to the foolish delights of youth so «'. I think ^'^'^^. 19.^^^^^. liave done it.^ trembling under the apprehension of the Judgment that did ""^j'^^^%^-^ hang over our heads. Why. So I did.'^^"''"' E . (for their sakes) in and that I denied myself of sms'^atien te/oZ which they saw no evil. for this very thing. may soon overthrow what by argument I or perswasion he doth labour to fasten upon others for their good : Yet. my and also my. and fear of \ . tell Yea. for I many failings therein. 14. they left me to^^''^J"'^ '^'"' '>'"' wander in this manner alone. and over. but all was not sufficient to prevail wxthverycouHit20 them to come with me. Cha. Yes. but they were all of them my going on Pilgrimage. But ivhat could they say for themselves ivhy they came \ not ? j Chr. I know also that a am conscious man by his conversation. and told them also what God had shewed to me of the destruction of our City but I seemed to them as Gen. But you should have to and have endeavoured have sheiven them the danger of being behind./<• and what by one thing. '"I'"^'' Cha. Cha. this I can say. \And did you pray to God that he would bless your counsel to them? 10 Chr..

2. that he did it of pure love to his Country. that the like is not to be found from the East to the West. 113. which made me love him . that thus they sat talking together until supper was ready. and that was. that he is such a lover of poor Pilgrims. and had fought with and slain him that had the power of Death. I perceived that HE had been a great Warrior. I John 3. 8. was. and thou hast delivered thy 19. and why HE had builded that House and by what they said. had been the Dunghil. but not without great danger to himself. was about the Lord of the Hill As namely. or of doing any wrong to my Neighbor. as they said. and wherefore HE did what HE did. He had stript himself of his gloiy that he might do 30 and that they heard him say and affirm. it was my great tenderness in sinning against God. soul from I their blood. Cha. They moreover gave an instance of what they affirmed. I ^am. that they had it from his own lips. Heb. Uzek. . till Thus they discoursed together late at night. Ps. Cain hated his Brother. it 20 with the but that which put Glory of Grace into all he did. became his oiun ivorks (were evil. Children have been offended with thee for this. they 10 sat down to meat. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. The Pilgrim they laid in . Indeed. 7. and as I believe (said Christian') he did . if what they saw in me did hinder them. and after they had committed themselves to their Lord for Protection. : Now : the more. and his Brother's righteous . IS. though by nature they were Beggars born. For. saw in my Dream. and with Wine that was well refined and all their talk at the Table. and their original makts Princes of Beggars. Their talk at supper time. about what HE had done. So when they had made ready. and if thy Wife and ifthty perish. that. 3. they thereby shenv themselves to be implacable to good. they betook themselves to rest. iVhat Chris tian had to hit supper. Now the Table was furnished with fat things. this for the Poor . They said moreover. Christ That he would not dwell in the Mountain of Zion alone. Christian cUar cf thtir blood I may say. there were some of them of the loss of much blood Household that said they had seen and spoke with him since he did die on the Cross and they have attested. 14. And besides. That he had made many Pilgrims Princes.

33. nor discourse. Then they read to him some of the worthy Acts that some of his Servants had done. The next day they took him and had him into the Armory where they shewed him all manner of Furniture. as I remember my Dream. where it was shewed how willing their Lord was to receive into his favour any. the Sword out of weakness were made strong.! ! THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. obtained Promises. Here also was more fully recorded the Acts that he had done. stopped the mouths of Lions. . the ^J^-^^"'"' . where he break of day and then he av/oke and sang. they s"uJ'"a'fa shewed him first the Pedigree of the Lord of the Hill. which their . even any. both to the dread and amazement of enemies. escaped the edge of Heb. that he ivhathesau was the Son of the Ancient of Days.ot up. waxed valiant in fight. be dissolved. christian Xot'w-^. Where am I Of Jesus for Ihus 7io<iu ! is this the lo-ve and care forgi'vefi the men that Pilgrims are to pro'vide ! That I should be And So in the divell already the next door to Heaven! Morning they all r. X 3 . and after some more him that he should not depart. As of things both Ancient and Modern together with Prophecies and Pre'^*. accomplishment. As how they had subdued Kingdoms. n. whose window opened towards the name of the Chamber was Peace. quenched the violence of Fire. they told . a large upper 51 christians Sunrising slept till Chamber. . . 20 decays of Nature. And first they had him into the Study. where they shewed him Records of the christian greatest Antiquity in which. though they in time past had offered great affronts to his Person and proceedings. and came by an eternal Generation. and the comfort dictions of things that have their certain and solace of Pilgrims. 30 Here also were several other Histories of many other famous things. wrought Righteousness. and the names of many hundreds that he had taken into his service and how he had placed them in such Habitations that could neither by length of Days. of all which Christian had a view. and turned to flight the Armies of the Aliens. Then they read again in another part of the Records of the House. till they 10 had shewed him the Rarities of that place.

he bethought himself of setting forward. All Prayer. Helmet. they said it that live there will christitn make appear. Lord had provided Breast plate. Heaven Christian is They also shewed him some A>icient Thi. thou mayest see to the Gate of the Coelestial City. Trumpets. with \vh\ch. . from thence. w'ith Springs and Fountains. . And when thou comest there. so he did and behold at a great distance he saw a most pleasant Hammer . Then I saw in my Dream. to and for all the Pilgrims.igs. that on the morrow he got up to go forwards. Flowers also. let us go again and when he came there. Mountainous Country. said they.52 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. very delectable to behold. Fruits of all sorts . which they said. This done. they went to their rest again. would yet ' further add to his comfort. and bid him look South. 16. the Pitchers. said they. Vineyards. he consented and staid. and they were willing he should: but first. as Sword. and then said they. him Moses's Rod. as there be Stars in the for multitude. and it is as common. So they did '^ov. 'larT. but they desired him to stay till the next day 20 also. When the Morning was up they had him to the top of the House. for Pilgrims. (if the day be clear. with which Then they shewed lo Gideon put to flight the Armies of Midian. because they w^ere nearer the So desired Haven than the place where at present he was. They shewed him also the Jaw bone with which Samson did such mighty feats they shewed him moreover the Sling and Stone with which David slew Goliah of Gath : and the Sword also with which their Lord will kill the Man of Sin. Shield. They shewed and Nail wuth which Jael slew sisera. . and Lamps too. 33. him the Ox's goad wherewith Shamgar slew six hundred men. beautified with Woods. of the Engines with which some of his Servants had done wonderful things. the Christian shrwcdthe deUctabit isa. many excellent things. And there was here enough of this to harness out as many men for the ser\'ice of their Lord.- i_ . they into the Armory. as this Hill is. in the day They shewed him besides that he shall rise up to the prey. said they. Then he asked the name of the 30 was Immanuels Land. Christian was much delighted. and Shoes that would not wear out.) shew ygy ^^6 delcctablc Mountains. as the Shepherds Country. we will.

I Whilst Christian is among his godly friends. Yes. for he had gone but a little way before he espied a foul Fiend coming over the field to meet him his name is Apollyon. reiterating their former discourses till they came to go down the Hill. For all his griefb. Piety. So he began to go down. Yes. : I was said CZ)/vV//««. he comes from the place where bom how far do you think he may be before ? Por.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. 10 my near Neighbor. said Christian. so for it is an hard '" matter for a man down into the valley of Humiliation. He is got by this time below the Hill. ? Chr. yet he caught a slip or too ^ Then I saw in my Dream. thou art now. He being ""^fj"-^ therefore thus accoutred walketh out with his friends to the Gate. said Prudence. But now in this Valley of Humiliation poor Christian was 30 hard put to it. he is my Townsman. "/{„. are we come out to accompany thee down the Hill. and a cluster of Raisins and then he went on his way. Then did Christian begin to be afraid. or to stand his ground. Well. thee. I know him. Charity. and to catch no ."'"' said they. 53 harnessed him from head to foot with what was of proof. but Discretion. and there he asked the Porter pass by. for the kindness %"^^"^„^ dtpartins. and to cast in his mind whether to go back. Their golden mouths make him sufficient 'mends. good Porter. As Chr. would accompany him down to the foot of the Hill. Then said Christian. said he. it is dangerous 20 going down. and when they let him go. but very warily. lest christian perhaps he should meet with assaults in the way. as The vaiuy slip . and he told me it was Faithful.) gave him a loaf of Bread. So they went on together. He's clad with northern steel from top to toe. so (so to go far as I can see) it is . the Lord be with //cnu chmand add to all thy blessings much increase. it was difficult coming up. Pray did you know him POR. that these good Companions. Chr. and Prudence. that thou hast shewed to me. if he saw any Pilgrims Then I the Porter answered. (when Christian was gone down to the bottom of the Hill. asked his name. O. by the way therefore. . Then he began to go forward. . a bottle of "Wine.

Apol. Chrisfs service. I as yet serince afford. So he went on. Now the Monster was hideous to behold. and ivages I he content to to But since thou complainest of thy go back . up to Christian. Thou hast done in this. according to the Proverb. Christians •resolution on ihi approach o/ ApoUyon. 6. even to the King can I with fairness go back with thee ? let ApoUyoii undervalue. and sworn my Allegiance . and thus began to question with him. and stand his ground. and cwhither are you bound'! Chr. all that Country is and I am the Prince and God oj King ? then that thou hast ran aiuay from tl?y fVere it not that I hope thou mayest do thee no'iu at one bloiu to the me more service. But have of Princes. and 10 When he was come his mouth was as the mouth of a Lion. I am come from the City of Destruction. 13. feet like a Bear. I did as other considerate persons do. for the wages of Sin is death . I 'would strike 20 ground. life. Apol.54 Christian > THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. I have given him my faith. But he considered again. but your was hard. I do here promise gife 3° Chr. which is the my place of all evil. and ApoUyon met him. that he had no Armor for his back. Discourse betwixt Christian <2«rf Apollyon. Apol. ivhat our Country ivill thee. had I no more in mine eye than the saving of . changed a bad for a worse : but it is ordinary for those that have professed themselves his Servants. and therefore thought that to turn the back to him might give him greater advantage with ease to pierce him with his Darts therefore he resolved to venture. For thought he. no Prince that luill thus lightly lose his Subjects. and your wages such as a man could not live on. Chr. and how myself to another. and all shall be ivell. Armor/ot his back. 'twould be the best way to stand. service Roiu. he beheld him with a disdainful countenance. atid return again to me: do thou so to. my Subjects. There neither ivill ApoUyons flattery. Whence come you. lose thee. therefore when I was come Chr. and am mine going to the City of Zion. one of Apol. he was cloathed with scales like a Fish (and they are his pride) he had Wings like a Dragon. I was born indeed in your Dominions. to years. look out if perhaps I might is mend my self. for it. By Hovj is it this I perceive thou art . and out of his belly came Fire and Smoke. after a while to give him the slip.

For for present that is most glorious in their account. and not be hanged as a Traitor ApoL. is on purpose to try their love. because christians and my qvays. and thine and therefore leave off to am his Servant. "'^"' his service better than mine. to deliver 20 but as for me. Country better than perswade me further. either by ponjuer that have faithfully served me. when thou wast Apoiiyon' almost choked in the Gulf of Dispotid. Government. : destroying 10 jipollyon') to speak truth. (O thou I did as to my compliance with thee thou nuilt yet turn again. I Apol. whereas he never came yet from the"\ his way. how then can ? I go back from to this. now . and yet I am willing to pass Apoilyon and go back. wohat thou Apoiiyon goest. and I will follow him. fy and Chr. do not much expect it. thou countest/. thou didst attempt ivro«^ christian s luays to be rid of thy burden. Thou knoiuest grievous ill that for the most part. from him and at his. 30 comes in his. be •nera/u!.. his Wages. : cool blood. O Apoilyon. as all the IVorld very well knows. his Servants come to an end. Thou all. for they stay for and then they shall have it. is able to absolve me and besides. Chr. when their Prince and the Glory of the Angels. at . have I been unfaithful to him ? J^ . to 55 him . .^^ ^ Chr. Apol. and I will deliver thee. they their Glory. I count that the Prince under whose Banner now yea. Thou hast already been unfaithful in thy service to him. 'I place where he is. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. those have I so delivered. Consider again nuhen thou art in art like to meet with in the way that thou they are transgressors against me. or fraud. deliverance. his Servants. and ho<w doest thou think to receive wages of him? . Wherein. Thou didst faint at first setting out.^1^-**-''^ Apol. Hoiv many of'" 'I'fsivatic them have been put to shameful deaths ! and besides. and to pardon also what I stand. What I promised thee was in my nonage besides. whereas thou shouldest have stayed '^f^. his Company. though taken by them. if didst the same me. how any that served him out of our hands many times.'"^'" till thy Prince had taken it off: thou didst siffully sleep and lose '">" thy choice thing: thou wast also almost persivaded to go back. his I like his Service. whether they will cleave to him to the end and as for the ill end thou sayest they come to. His forbearing : present to deliver them.

Then Apollyon straddled quite over the whole breadth Christian hZ'uiiaJ" siandin^. here will I spill thy soul he threw a flaming Dart at his breast. fall . and luhen thou talkest of thy lasted for above half a day. the sight of the Lions . Apol. and with that. while Apollyon was . for I am in the King's Highway. but Christian had a 20 Shield in his hand. ' _ . and ready to forgive but besides. Chr. so that Christian began to despair of life. . : till Christian that Christian was almost quite spent. for there I suckt them in. must needs grow weaker and weaker. Apot. for I . thou art inivardlj desirous of I'ain-glorj in all that thou sayest or doest. Chr. Then said Apollyon. shalt go no further. and said. faith ami conversa- am void of fear in this matter. and so prevented the danger of that. and resisted as manfully as he This sore comb. out. even could. with which he caught it.saying. and of ivhat thou hast heard. ylpollyon beware what you do. which thou hast left I serve and honour. he chris'tiln ^^^ almost prest him to death. prepare swear by my Infernal Den. the way of Holiness. Then Apollyon to^the Apollyon espying his opportunity. Apollyon wounded him J JT in his head. but the Prince whom : and much more.. and have obtained me in pardon of ApoUyoii i« my Prince. began to gather close to Christian. up and wrestling with him. I am sure of thee nonv. thy self to I die. and seen.56 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. his hand and foot this made Christian give a little back Apollyon therefore followed his work amain. therefore take heed to your self. gave him a dreadfuF and with that. . that thou and with -that. All this is true. and Christian again took courage. Christian's Sword flew out of his hand. K/«K Chris. notwithstanding ^jj ^j^^j. lo his Person. and People : I am come out on purpose to auithstand thee. of the way. Then Apollyon broke out into a / am an Enemy to this Prince: I hate grievous rage. and I have groaned under them. for he saw 'twas time to bestir him and Apollyon as fast made at him. Q^jj-isfian could do to avoid it. been sorry for them. Then did Christian draw. throwing Darts as thick as Hail by the which. these infirmities possessed thy Country. But as God would have it. is merciful. For you must know 30 by reason of his wounds. his La-ivs.

Nay. which made him give back. thereby to make a full end of this good Man. Christian nimbly reached out his hand for his Sword. and sped him away. saying. O min^ chn^tam Enemy! ivhen I falh I shall arise. and he 'with rage That Hellish did fiercely me engage: 30 But blessed Michael helped me. through him that loved us. Great Beelzebub. Dragon. but you sec. tho' a Sword and Shield. and look upward but 'twas the dreadfullest sight that ever I saw. with some of the leaves Tree of Life. then indeed he did smile. and with that. quit the Field .s.. And with that.: THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Designed my ruin .^/. the which Christian took. he spake like a Dragon and 'comLThy on the other side. I will here give christian 20 thanks to him that hath delivered me out of the mouth of the^^^'"^^^^ Lion to him that did help me against Apollyon : and so he «'f'''t"^'-«««- more ^. Conquerors. saying. what sighs and groans brast from Christian s ""-^fciaior. I never saw him all the while give so much as one pleasant look. did.. So when the Battle was over. y. him again. Christian said. : : . till he perceived he had wounded Apollyon with his two edged Sword... gave him ".''' a deadly thrust.p. more unequal match can hardly be. saying. end He sent him harnest •ivas. and caught it. and applied to the wounds that he had received in the Battle. Combat no man can imagine. Apollyon ^*"'^* • '"' spread forth his Dragon's wings. the Captain of this Fietid. And thank and bless his holy name alivays. did quickly make him fly Therefore to him let me gi've lasting praise. Rejoice not against me.. that I o Christian saw him no In this unless he had seen and and hideous roaring Apollyon a h-if/reiamade all the time of the fight. there came to him an hand. I He A also sat down in that place to eat Bread. what yelling. 57 fetching of his last blow. and I By dint of Sivord. Christian must fight an Angel . The valiant man by handlingf Doth make him. and was healed Then of the immediately. as one that had ^''c. therefore to this out. heart. in all these things aue are more than Rom. I heard as did. made s. ?• received his mortal at wound: Christian perceiving that.

a Land that no man (but a Christian) passeth through. back . I know not but some But he met with no other affront from AfoUyon. The Valley c/ the shadtno of Death. 13. 6. a La7id lo of Desarts. Whither are you going ? Men. said Christian ? the Valley itself. Chr. said. Ps. Jer. he addressed himself to his Journey. Chr. who . for had we gone a little further. with his other Swoyd drawn tn his hand. Children of them that brought up an evil report of the saw then my Dream. good Land. Matter ! said they are going. a Land of Drought. Now at the end of this Valley. Why ? ivhafs the matter ? said Christian. Now this Valley is a very solitary place. The Prophet Jeremiah thus describes A IVilderness. Why we were almost in the Valley of the Shadow of 30 Death. Back. : Chr. quite through this Valley. They said. 10 we were going that way as you went as far as we durst and indeed we were almost past coming back. But ^what ! pitch as is as dark Men. 107. little and to drink of the Bottle that was given him a ChruitUD Ztes on kis jfourtuy •with his before so being refreshed.33. we had not been here to bring the news to thee. if either life or peace is prized by you. 58 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. for he at hand. and . it. making haste to go back to whom Christian 20 spake as follows. that when Christian was got to Shadow of Death. Seen why we also saw there the Hobgoblins. and we would have you to do so too. and Dragons of the Pit we heard also in that Valley a continual howling and yelling. : you seen. but that by good hap we looked before us. 44- 19. the Borders of the Tlu Children qfthe Spies CO back. Numb. the danger before we came ha've to it. Enemy may be the midst of it. Chr. :. . and of the shadoiv of death.. and saw Men. Satyrs. as by the sequel you shall see. as of a People under unutterable misery. But luhat have you met nuith. it Now I here Christian was worse put to in than in his fight with Apollyon. called the Valley of the Shadoiv of Death. which there sat bound in affliction and Irons : and over that Vallev . because the way to the Coelestial City lay through Sword drawn in his hand. and Christian must needs go through it. said Christian ? Men. Ps. and (where no man davelt. was another. and of Pits. there met him two Men.

10 there was on the right hand a very deep Ditch. & Men. pluckt him out. and betake himself to another weapon called All. I perceived the mouth of Hell to be. So they went on his way. I Poor man where art thou now 7 thy day is night. and had parted. Chr. . Into that Quag King David once did fall. (things that cared not for Christians Sword. Thy way to. and therefore good Christian was the more put to it. and have both there miserably perished. so far as this Valley reached. .C5. that Ditch PS. Thus he went on. The path-way was here also exceeding narrow. ns. 4. the pathway was here so dark. but still with his Sword drawn in his hand. but that this it is my ivay to the desired Haven. "' "' always spread his wings over it in a word. for when he 20 sought in the dark to shun the ditch on the one hand. About the midst of this Valley. r. I saw then in my Dream. without great carefulness he would be ready to fall into the ditch.Heaven lies by tile gates of Hell I Cheer up. he knew not where. Ihen said Christian. if even a good man falls. hold out. and it stood also hard by the wayside^: Now 30 thought Christian. Prayer. that ofttimes when he lift up his foot to set forward. he can find no bottom for his foot to stand on. Again. and I heard him here sigh bitterly: for besides the dangers mentioned above. as did Jpollyon before) that he was forced to put up his Sword.. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. or upon what he should set it next. behold on the left hand. Lord I beseech thee deliver Ps. we will not chuse for ours. «. I percei've not y^-t. : 59 hangs the discouraging Clouds of confusion death also doth job 3. for fear lest he should be assaulted. so he cried in my hearing.Eph. 15. being utterly without Order. Be thy way. into which. with thee it shall go well.1 is it into which the blind have led the blind in all Ages. had not He that is able. and Christian no doubt therein been smothered. with sparks and hideous noises. Good man be not cast down. it is every whit dreadful. thou yet art right. he was ready to tip over into the mire on the other also when he sought to escape the mire. it Jer. by iv hat you have ' sai'd. . there was a very dangerous Quag. what shall I do ? And ever and anon the flame and smoke would come out in such abundance. s.

he : . which he verily Christian }nade bethought had proceeded from his own mind. : valley of the shadoiv of death. and these dreadful noiscs were heard by him for several miles together: and coming to a place. 30 When Christian had travelled in this disconsolate condition some considerable time. 4. so they gave back. I took notice that now poor was so confounded. thought to go back. / wi// ivalk in the Lord God. I ivill fear none nvith me. . : Thus he went on a great while. Though I walk through the One . Christian *Z^a'but rora-whiu. Then again he thought he might be half lo way through the Valley. glad. and began Sometimes he had half a to muse what he had best to do. one of the wicked ones \got behind him. he thought he heard the voice of a Ps. or trodden Streets. and that for these reasons Because he gathered from thence that some in this Valley as well as himself. and came no further. ' his mind. man. ill. I would not let slip. 23. he would not have ^sug^J^' 'much before them into done it but he had not the discretion neither to stop his ears. Just when he was come over against the mouth of the burning Pit. he remembred also how he had and that the danger of already vanquished many a danger going back might be much more than for to go forward so he resolved to go on. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Yet the Fiends seemed to come nearer and nearer but when they were come even almost at him. and stept up softly to him. and rushings to and fro. yet still the flames would be reaching towards him also he heard doleful voices. saying. down like mire in the This frightful sight was seen. even to when twos 'think that he should now blaspheme him that he loved so yet could he have helped it. nor to know from whence those blasphemies came. thing Christian . where he thought he heard a company oi Fkuds comiug forward to meet him. for thou art Then was he First. that he did not know his own 20 voice and thus I perceived it. so that sometimes he thought he should be torn in pieces. as going before him. he stopt. and whisperingly jsuggested many grievous blasphemies to him.: 6o 7ny Soul. This put Christian lieve thai he spake blas' more to it than any thing that he met with before. cried out with a most strength of the vehement voice. who feared God were .

»2. yet this second part which he was yet to go. and called to him that was before. yet they were discovered to him. and so full of Pits. rising.1 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. For that he hoped (could he overtake them) to have company by and by. had he had a thousand souls. I cannot perceive it. as it was when he came the first part of the way. He discovereth deep things Job 20 out of darkness. thought though by reason of the impediment that attends . though he feared them more light because the of the day for saw them more clearly now. what hazards he had gone through in the dark. and Nets here. was. which dangers.. Secondly. according to that which is written. darkness. and Dragons of the Pit.^. job 9. and the Quag that was on the other also how narrow the way was which lay betwixt them both. yet he his deliverance from the dangers of his solitary way. that though the first part of the Valley of the Shadow of death was dangerous. that had it now been dark. 12. dark and dismal state and why not. but all afar of. and this was another you must note. even to the end of the Valley. this place. His candle shinetb on my head. though he. made them conspicuous to him. deep Holes and Shelvings down there. they had in reason been cast away but as I said. also now he saw the Hobgoblins. 6 lo.". not of desire to return. but to see. if possible. . Traps. by the light of the day. . Thirdly. "J. Pitfalls. death. and bringeth out to light the shadoio of . far Theseco>:d 30 more dangerous: for from the place where he now stood. just now the Sun was rising Then said he. Now all was Christian much affected with before. So he went on. but he knew not what to answer. : 10 into the morning. So he saw more perfectly the Ditch that was on the one hand. he looked back. -^"""^ s- ^ Now morning being come. they came not nigh.. with in that me ? For that he perceived God was with them. and by his light I go through Job 25 And about mercy this time the Sun was : to Christian . Gins. the day christian broke then said Christian. He hath turfied the shadoiv of death ^fiy^ako/day. the way was all along set so ''""s'^'-o"^full of Snares. and Satyrs. 'J^J. for after break of day. for that he also thought himself to be alone. And by and by.

and biting his nails. bones. that he can now do little more than sit in his Cave's mouth. Christian. I espied a little before me a Cave. where two Giants. Ton nuill tiever mend. and looking forward he saw Faithful l^fore him. were cruelly put to death. Snares. and catcht no hurt. and stiff in his joints. that Pagan has been lo dead many a day. and ivhile I this Vale ivas in: Pits. and Traps. Tea. intangled. O ivorld of fujonders ! (7 can say no less") That I should be preser'v'd in that distress blessed he That I have met nvith here! That hand that from it hath delivered me! Dangers in darkfiess. Did compass me. as Christian went on his way. he came to a little was cast up on purpose that Pilgrims might see before them: up there therefore Christian went. and Nets did lie 30 My path about. though he could not go after him saying. let Jesus wear the Croivn. because he cannot come at them. that at the . So I taw that Christian v/ent on his way. but I have learnt since. But by this ashes. lay there. grown so crazy. he could not tell v/hat to think. In this light therefore he I end of the Valley. Then ascent. that 'worthless silly I Might have been catch't. grinning at Pilgrims as they go by. specially because he spake to him. yet at the sight of the old Man. upon his Journey. and mangled bodies of men. even of Pilgrims that had gone this way formerly: And while I was musing what should be the reason. and set a good face on't. dwelt in old time. Then sang to the came Now saw in my Dream. &c. \vhich Now . blood. place Christian went without much danger. and Sin. and also of the many shrewd brushes that he met with in his younger days. though he be yet alive. that sat in the mouth of the Cave.62 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. and as for the other. end of this Valley lay blood. whereat I somewhat wondered. Hell. Devils. he is by reason of age. by whose Power and Tyranny the Men whose bones. ashes. Pope and Pagan. and cast down: But since I live. and so went by. till 20 more of you be burned: but he held his peace.

Though there was. he suddenly stumbled and and could not lovingly rise Then I together. (for so they called this your Pilgrimage) but did believe. I of the discourse. 30 Chr. stay. 20 you . and do still. he quickly got up with Faithful. and putting to all his strength. christian Then did Christian vain-gloriously : gotten the start of his Brother again. ho. said Christian aloud. as I said. What! Did your Neighbors Faith. that the end . Till I could stay no longer. that ive can ^ivalk as Companions in to this so pleasant Faith. to whom Christian cried again. Hoiv long did you stay in the City of Destruction. so the last nuas first. Stay. No. But Faithful answered. for there was great rA«r/a« talk presently after short time with Fire you was gone out. their Pilgrimage . glad that 1 ha've a path. and of your desperate Journey. / overtake)! Chr. they went very all on christ lan s things that had happened to them began. till I come up to you. and thus Christian ^'i^^ My honoured and nvell beloved Brother Faithful. and did no more of them but you come out escape the danger ? to yet Faith. talk so? ground. wherefore I was forced to come thus much of the way alone. Chr. Chr. Yes. saw in and had sweet discourse of in came up to help him. our am axdhteo to^ethtr.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. What. For in the heat I do not think they did firmly believe it. heard some of them deridingly speak of I you. but you did get the start of me. and did also overrun him. my Dream. and that God has so tempered spirits. have had your company quite from our Town. before you set out after me on your Pilgrimage? Faith. I had thought dear friend. that our City would in "ccui'ry "'''^''" from Heaven be burned down to the^'^'^ they camt. a great talk thereabout. I am upon my life. fell. Companion. because 10 his feet. At this Christian was somewhat moved. So-ho stay and I will be your At that Faithful looked behind him. . and the Avenger of Blood is behind me. until Faithful he '^'^'^°^Z\m" but not taking good heed to smile. 63 Ho. 'twas for a while in every body's mouth.

now seven times worse than if he had never gone out of the : Chr. How mabie ««»&rf of ^k^ne'"^" -zuhat said the Neighbors to him ? Faith. I spake not to him. 29. or else . for it happened to him. he is a Turh-Coat. and scarce will any set him on work. Did you hear no talk of Neighbor Pliable ? Faith. Well. ajid the Soiv that luas 'washed to her <walloiuing in the mire. Chr. But ivhy should they be so set against him. I think God has stirred up even his Enemies to hiss at him. but is ' ThtDog Chr. I met him once in the Streets. for writ for a ^wonder. where. as one ashamed of what he had done so . let us leave him and talk of things that more immediately concern Tell me now. Yes Christian. and make him a Proverb. 2. But who can hinder 3° Chr. but he leered away on the other side. The Dog is to turned his Vomit again. been had greatly in lo some do mock derision. said Christian. : of our City will be with Fire and Brimstone from above therefore I and have made mine escape. as you came it may I knoiv you have fnet 'with some things. and got up to the Gate without that danger only I met with . dirt. Had you no talk ivith him before you came out? Faith. Faith. because he hath forsaken the way. O. 20 Chr. They are that which will be ? my fears of him too. Chr. he fell in but he would not be known to have so done but I am sure he was soundly bedabbled with that kind of . . And City. according to the true Proverb. He hath. I heard that he followed you till he came at the Slough of Dispond. be . Hang him. I had hopes of that Man now I fear he 'will perish in the overthronv of the City. Well Neighbor Faithful. 64 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. I escaped the Slough that I perceive you fell into. as some said. at my first setting out. they jer. and that among all sorts of People He is ^"^^ despise him. 18.:. <what you have met with in the 'way ourselves. Faith. since they also despise the ivay that be forsook ? Faith.'he was '' not true to his profession. since his going back. 2 ret. 22. say.

vtov. That his work was many delights . M^ilt thou be content to d^vell me. You know what content. going to the Ccelestial City. Thank God you ha've escaped her: The abhorred of the Lord shall fall into her Ditch. she lay at me hard to turn aside with her. Difficulty. if he had any children ? He said that he had but three Daughters. that I should be his Heir at last. the lust of the eyes. You cannot think (but that you know something) what a flattering tongue she had. Faith. and luhither bound? lookest like told him. Mljy. first. I tro you did net consent to Faith. and his wages. and I went my way.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. What was his work ? and what the wages that he would give ? He told me. Then I asked. That his House was maintained luith all the dainties in the world. and he escaped her as you did. her looks then she railed on me. she did not promise you the content of a good Chr. Chr. one whose name was Wanton^ that had a mischief. and v/here he dwelt ? He said and I dwell in the Town of Deceit. . 16. Then I asked him his name was Adam Eph. or no. 'Ttvaj ive/I you escaped her Net n. No. ^^^'^"^^^ Then said the Old Man. because I would not be bewitched with job 31. and what other Servants he had So he told me. I met with a very aged I I was. Her steps take hold of hell. had seen. who asked me. Man. When I came to the foot of the Hill called : t. Faith. 5. Nay. IVhat He is asThat I was a Pilgrim. Nay. Joseph nuas hard put Gen. F i John ». for writing that I her desires I ? remembered an old 5. 20 So I shut mine eyes. 4.n. ? What House he kept. 39. I further asked him. I know not whether I did wholly escape her. c:. I asked him then.z^. The lust of the flesh. which saith. Chr. Did you meet nvith 7Jo other assault as you came? Faith. '^' to it by her. like to 65 have done me raithfui assauiudby \V anton. But 'what did she do to you ? Faith. I mean. all carnal and fleshly Chr. not to defile myself. Thoufi"*with ? an honest felloiv . and that his Servants ivere those of his own begetting. but it had like to ha-ve "' cost him his life. 10 conscience. promising me all manner of content. Prov. Chr. . for the luages that I shall gii'e thee his 30 the name.

I there lost this Roll out of my bosom. and told me that he would send such a one after me. But when I was a little 30 come to myself again. Chr. looking in his forehead as written. his deeds. Then it came burning hot into my mind. he strook me another deadly blow on the breast. that I thought he had pull'd wretched Man ! 20 part of me after himself. This made me cry. and saw one coming after me. Why. Because of my secret inclining to Adam the first and with that. but that one came by. Then I asked. for I would not come near the door of his House. to. said Christian. Now when I had got about half way up. 66 and with THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. the pride of life . I felt him take hold of my flesh. of me. I know not how to show mercy. and beat me down backward. to talk. I Man. Faith. to go with the first. Then he reviled me. and however he flattered. being overcome with sleep. So I went on my way up the Hill. I asked him wherefore he served me so? he said. and what at conclusion came the Old Man and you at last Faith. And how then'? Rom. : : but. swift as the wind so he overtook me just about the place where the Settle stands. I saw there 1*^ Man with Chr. ? live Chr. But good Brother hear me out: So soon as the overtook me. I looked behind me. he was but a word and a blow for down he knockt me. and bid him forbear. and give me such a deadly twitch back. and laid me for dead. Put off the old I talked with him. I cried him mercy but he said. if I would. Faith. he would sell me for a Slave. that should make my way bitter to my Soul. So when I came to myself again. so I lay at his foot as dead as before. how long time he would have me him ? And he told me yls long as he li-ved himself. when he got me home to So I bid him forbear his House. 7. IVell. Just there. . and that I should marry them all. Man : • .. for I found myself somewhat inclinable thought he spake very fair But . did I sit down to rest me. whatever he said. 24. and with He had doubtless made an end that knockt me down again. So I turned to go away from him but just as I turned myself to go thence.

as I also have rejected them and therefore they were to me now no more than if they had never been of my Lineage. but I ivishyou had called at the House . who would willingly Faithful ashave perswaded me to go back again with him: his reason Discontent. as Pride. before I came at it but for the Lions. it was not the first time that he has met with me. Chr. perceived the holes in his hands. neither knoiueth he ho<w to sheiu mercy to those that transgress. (for indeed they n'iscTn'tent. and came down the Hill. I know it very well. as he said. and that rightly. Did you meet nobody in the Valley of Humility ? Faith. He would burn my House over my head if I staid there. they have disowned me. He told me moreover. Yes. Chr. Well. his Laiu. for that the Valley was altogether without Honour. Arrogancy. that bid him forbear ? Faith. Chr. Yes. nrfcw/ry °^'^' none. for they ^Mould have shelved you so many 20 Rarities. He told me indeed that he saiu you go by . that as to this Valley. was. I passed by the Porter. on the side of ixihich Moses met you ? Faith. That although all these that he named Faithfuls might claim kindred of me. That Man that overtook you. But did not you see the House that stood there on the top of that Hill. F 2 . and the Lions too. . that there to go was the way to disobey . and that told me. that you nvould scarce have forgot them to the day of your death. would be very much made such a Fool of myself as to wade through 30 tliis Valley. 'Twas he that came to me when I 10 dwelt securely at home. I did not know him at first. he had quite mis-represented the . Worldly Glory. and his side then I I concluded that he was our Lord. I think they were asleep. with others. and hoiu did you ansiuer him? Faith. if I who he knew. I told him. Self-Conceit. all my Friends. I met with one Discontent. But pray tell me. Who luas that. He sfareth . according to the flesh') yet since I became a Pilgrim. were my Relations. 67 CHR. Chr. Faith. offended. I told him moreover. but as he went by. for it was about Noon and because I had so much of the day before me. So I went up the Hill.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. ivas JNIoses.

because of a ! . he did hold me to it at that rate I also about a great it many more things than here relate .68 prov. I had rather go through this Valley to the Honour that was so accounted by the wisest. (and somewhat else) but this boldfaced Shame. was a shame to sit whining and mourning under a Sermon. all. than chuse that which he esteemed most worth our affections. 15. I met with Shame. that He said also that Religion made a man grow strange to the few vices (which he called by finer names) and made him own and respect the base. Faith. or to make restitution where I had taken from any. -53. 18. 10 Chr. Chr. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. that but few of the Mighty. and a shame to come sighing and groaning home. 8. or Wise. 1. he I think bears the wrong sham^ name: the other would be said nay. 3. for before Honour is Humility. John 7. : ch. because of the same Religious Fraternity. 48. that my blood came up in my face. And ivhat did you say to him ? I could not tell what to say at the first. atid a haughty spirit before Therefore said I. great. What! why he objected against Religion itself. 3 7. he said it was a pitiful low sneaking business for a Man to mind Religion he said that a tender conscience was an unmanly thing. would thing ajr^ii^ . That it was a shame to ask my Neighbor forgiveness for petty 30 faults. He moreover objected the base and low estate and condition of those that were chiefly the Pilgrims of the times in which they lived also their ignorance. Phil. ch. for no body else knonvs <what. a shame ? Chr. 26. as. Faith. And is not this. He objected also. and that for a Man to watch over his words and ways. so as to tye up himself from that hectoring liberty that the brave spirits of the times accustom themselves unto. after a little argumentation. and to be of a voluntary fondness . I Cor. were ever of my opinion nor any of them. he put me so to it. 18. Say Yea. Met you ivith nothing else in that Valley"? Heuas. before they were 20 perswaded to be Fools. rnake me the Ridicule of the times. Yea. But of all the Men that "'"* I met with in my Pilgrimage. 16. Rich. neither. said he. would never have done. and want of understanding in to venture the loss of : all natural Science. ivhat did he say to you? Faith. Why. Ycs.

Therefore thought I. 10 best. 38. And esteemed among Men. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. for those things that he disdained. 69 Shame fetch'd it up. even this off. 30 -^^^ manifold. according to the hectoring spirits of the world but according to the Wisdom and Law of the Highest. Mark s. and continually whispering me in the ear. or the H'^ord of God is. glory. This Shame tells me what men are. Villain sp bra-vely for of as thou sayst. but it And tells me nothing what God. But indeed this Shame was a bold 20 Villain I could scarce shake him out of my company yea. that at the day of doom. and had ahnost beat me quite But at last I began to consider. I see most And so at last I got past this off importunate one. further in this business in those did I . and quit themselves like men. . seeing they that for the make themselves Fools and that the poor Kingdom of Heaven are is . my Brother. That noiv. O Be the Pilgrims. with some one or other of the infirmities that attend Religion: but at last I told him. And when had shaken him then I began to sing The trials that those to men do meet nvithal. I thought moreover. Chr. That are obedient the Hea'venly call. iHgilant. I think he has the . I thought again. we shall not be doomed to death or life. Seeing a God prefers his Religion. that all the Men in the world are against it. let the Pilgrims then. how can . seeing God prefers tender Conscience. o'vercome. and suited to the flesh. that thou didst ^withstand this all. 13. what God says is best. 'Twas but in vain to attempt expect the blessing . thou I art an Enemy to my Salvation: shall I entertain thee against my Soveraign ? Lord ? Should I I How then shall look him in the face at his coming of his now be ashamed ? Ways and Servants. man that loveth Christ richer than the greatest Man in the world that hates him Shame depart. though then. he would be haunting of me. / am glad. let lue by them 7nay and cast a^uay.. And Be come. and come again afresh else. is had in abomination ivith God. That that luhich is highly Luke 16. wisest. is . and come. or sometime taken.

him : for notivithstanding all his Bravadoes. and over. as I saw in my Dream. and the Sun rose. Chr. yea. he ivould never attempt to do as he does. I am sure it fared far had for a long season. I as if he would have crusht flew out of to me. For as he threw 20 nay he told me He was sure of me: but I cried God. but us still Prov. and something more comely at a distance than this To Man Faithful addressed himself in this the Heai^enly manner. my Sword me to my hand I pieces. especially when he got me down. ivith me. walking at a distance besides them. and deli'vered me the out of all my troubles. as soon almost as otheriuise I entred into that Valley. he promoteth the Fool. ivrong name: for he is jo bold as to follo^v us in the Streets. ^Iqvas I nx) ell for you. through that. and crusht me under him. and also through the Valley of the Shadow of Death. over. that is. there avas a tall at hand. that would have us be valiant for Truth upon the Earth. and none else. a dreadful ylpollyon: Combat with that foul Fiend thought verily he would have killed me. iMoreover. He Man. . Then entred into the Valley of almost half the way through it.70 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Whither aivay? Are you going to Country ? I Talk. and I went through that which was behind with far more ease and Shadow of Death. I thought I should have been killed there. No. Friend. But at last day brake. . not I. am going to that same place. 35. 3. Chr. I think we must cry to him for help against shame. Faith. But did you meet tiobody else in that 10 Valley? Faith. but shame shall be the promotion of Fools. and had no light for quiet. Faithful. saw a Man whose 30 name Talkative is lalkatife. that as they went on. and he heard me. (for in this placc. was room enough for them all to walk). The Wise shall I nherit Glory said Solomon. Faith. and to attempt to put us to shame before all men . Tou say true. to make us ashamed of that 'which resist is good: but if he ivas not himself let audacious. for I had Sunshine all the rest of the way. he chanced to look on one side.

. or if a man doth love to talk of Miracles. or with any other 10 their time (as they are in their travels). the insufficiency of our works. ^ . to own comfort. a Man may get knowledge-f"' course. let Faith. let us go together. to pray. and this hath been a iaJJis- trouble to me. for your saying is full and I will add. many things... to . . That Company. etc. if a God ? man hath any if in things that are wonderful) for instance. ""•'" is Faith. us ~ . I be your Companion. for by so doing. for ? Talk. or the like: also by this a Man may Man may learn what are the great promises and his consolations of the Gospel. That so indeed a thing to be worthy of the use of the tongue as are the things of the God of Hea'ven what things and mouth of men on Earth. there are but few that care thus to spend acceptable. as in the holy Scripture ? Faith. of conviction you wonderful well. Talk. Besides. to vindicate the truth. our time in discoursing of things that are profitable. as of the vanity of earthly things. That's true: but to be profited by such things in our talk should be that <which ive design. by this a man may learn by talk. . the need of Christs righteousness. or Signs. That most of is it that I said : for to talk of such things is Taikatives • profitable. Wonders. jr*f«</ Faithful and Talkative enter dis- Talk. a man doth delight to talk of the History or Mystery of things. by this a learn to refute false opinions. and so sweetly penned. then I hope lue may have your good Talk. what so I like . lamented. To talk of things that are good. Further. but chuse to be speaking of things to much rather Taikative's no profit. with you. Come on and . me is very"""'- and I am glad that For I have met with those that incline to so good a work. to speak the truth. is 7 ivell. what it is to repent. and also to instruct the ignorant. With a very good will will then. atid . What thing so pleasant. to suffer. : and the 30 benefit of things above (thus in general) but more particularly. Faith. and so profitable. to believe. .1 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. where shall he find things recorded so delightful. by this a man may learn the necessity of the New-birth. as to talk of the things of What 20 delight things pleasant ? (that is.

) he said to him. this while ! that our Town is large. (for he walked all Faith. this is true. Christian Chr. could give you an hundred Scriptures for the this. Know him Yes. only I consider to Christian. Whose son is he ? And nvhereabout all doth he dtvell in ? Chr. for a man can . YAlTn. confirmation of Faith. Talk. At this Christian modestly smiled. by . Now did Faithful begin to wonder. This man " with whom you are so taken. things more Essential. that ive shall at this time Talk. Pray ivhat is he? Chr. nvhat is that one thing. things Sacred. 72 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. live in the works of the Law. and the necessity of a work of Grace in their Soul. All and glad am I is to hear these things from you. . no man attaineth to them by human industry. or things to come home . Faith. or things Prophane things foreign. Talk. or things Evangelical . His name is Talkative. he dwelleth in our Town I wonder that you should be a stranger to him. then. found our discourse upon ? you will I will talk of things Heavenly. will beguile with this tongue of 'mt^y"^/ " '' ^'^' twenty of them that know him not. said Faithful. is God . provided that all be done to our beguiled by Talkative. Do you knoiv him then? Chr. in order to eternal life but ignorantly . O bravt M'^ell. and said. But by your lea-ve. Alas! the want of this the cause that so few understand the need of Faith. 3° Faith. He is is the son of one Sayivell. Faith. Heavenly knowledge of these. (but softly) What a Brave Companion have ave got Surely this man luill make a very excellent Pilgrim. by which a man can by no the means obtain the Kingdom of Heaven. or things at things past. or 20 things profit. ronv . ! . lo O brave Talkative.. What things Earthly . All this it I I know very well. better than he knows himself. he dwelt Prating- and he known of that are acquainted with him. or : Talkative. and stepping by himself. receive nothing except not of works : be given him from Heaven all is of Grace. gift of Faith. or only by the talk of them. Faithful Circumstantial . things Moral. Iwivi* Faithful wA<.

That he is a pretty man. His poor Family finds at. as he talketh nonv with you.^'. seems a very pretty ma ft. whose Pictures shew best at a distance but very near. for he . the brute in his kind serves is God Ro^^'f '!". Say you Chr. A it Saint so. forbid that I I should jest. I have been in his . Men that have any dealings with him. that they neither know how and so unreasonable with his to do for. Deceived so! ! Matth. God this matter. of Repentance. all that end of the Town where can hardly have a good he dwells.f of Repentance for sin 30 far better than he. of Religion to all know him it word him. of Taikatte° *«' New Birth but he knows but only to talk : ''"''^^- of them. lieth in his tongue. and have observed him both at home and abroad and 1 know what I say of him is the truth. Faith. But I am ready to think you do but jest. such a railer Servants. ivord. or conversation all he hath. and for any talk . They say and do not . Family. more unpleasing. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. and shame He is a stain . JVell. but in poiver. Chr. nor sign ^j^/^. as the ivhite of mshou^t an Egg is of savour. jAk?j /<. There is there neither Prayer. 23. or house. reproach. to deal v/ith a Turk then with him. ^s- He that the very stain.^^. 3. Remember the Proverb. and his Religion is to make a noise therenvith. is People that know him. through Thus say the common abroad. : is yea. he is. mi Proverb "''" he ^''. the 73 name of ^alkati've in Prathig-roiv : and notwithstanding his fine tongue. near home he is ugly enough your saying. I smiled) in I or that should accuse any falsely : will give you a further discovery of him This man is for any company. and of the He talketh of Prayer. I o smiled. say better ^/«. (though .'""* . you may be sure of it. for fairer dealing they t^.(. because you with him. and a Devil at home. Religion hath no place in his heart. brings to my mind what I have observed in the work of the Painter. 20 Than am I in this man greatly decei-ved. so will he talk when he is on the Ale-bench: and the more drink he hath in his crown. Chr.: . to be Faith. he is but a sorry fellow. in. or speak to 'tis him.*^''" such a churl. but the Kingdom of God is not in Faith. the more of these things he hath in his mouth. His house is as empty of Religion. That to them that have not thorough acquaintance is best abroad. Faith.

and to keep himself unspotted from the World. This Talkative. or speak to their commendations before others. and over-reach them. but because it is even so as you say. if it but a dead part is : (Carcass also. many to stumble and fall . of my own knowledge I can prove him guilty of. Saying. Faith. 1 am bound to believe you. I see that Saying and Doing are two things. -Talkative is not aware of. if God prevent not. Well. he thinks that hearing and saying will make a good Christian. that he has by his wicked life caused will . 14-46. and thus he deceiveth his ov. Well. is is the Soul. before God and This this. . talking is not sufficient to prove that fruit is indeed in the heart and life and let us assure ourselves. they can neither call him Brother nor Friend . go beyond them. For I cannot think that you speak these things of ill <iuill. Besides.26 ^^ visit the Fatherless and Wido'ws in their affliction. T/ie tivo things indeed. good men are a:shamed of him. makes them blush. i. Hearing is but as the sowing of the Seed. Chr. if they know him. ch. Pure Religion and undefiled. defraud.74 shall THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Faith.'n Soul. lo the ruin of many more. and are as diverse as are Body . I might perhaps have thought of him as at the first you did. The Soul of Religion the practick the Father. 30 James 23. I should have thought it had been a slander (a Lot that often falls from bad mens mouths upon good mens Names and Professions:) But all these things. 25. the very naming of him among them. : for as the Body without be alone. he brings up his Sons to follow his steps and if he findeth in any of them a foolish timorousness (for so he calls the first appearance of a tender conscience) he calls them and by no means will employ them in fools and blockheads much. 34. is but 3. you make your reports of men. Had I known him no more than you. and : hereafter I shall better observe this distinction. not only because you say you knoiv him. beguile. Chr. . 35. -7. have at their hands. yea and a great many 20 more as bad. For my part I am of opinion. Yea. if it be possible. and will be. dead Carcass so. They are the Soul and the czrcass ojRthcion. Besides. but also because like a Christian. had he received this report at their hands only that are enemies to Religion. that at the day of Doom men shall be judged according ^xi'^Xnd^' . my Brother.

75 It will not be said then. by their talk. and do bid you. be as if it were the IVeil. he chenueth upon the Word. and therefore he is unclean. Then Faithful stepped forward again. things that never be placed in Kingdom of Heaven among those that are the Children of Though their sound. Paul i cor. except and turn it. 20 Brass. Things ivithout ''' some men. Faith.ii. the true Gospel sense of those Texts. ^\'hy. he parteth not ivith the luay of sinners . and enter into some serious discourse about the poiver of Religion: And ask him plainly (when he has approved of it. Faith. and said to shall God touch his heart Talkative : Come. Did you belie've? but. This brings to describeth the beast that is cleafi. And truly resembleth Talkative he cheiueth the Cud. I I -ivas not so fond of as I his company at to be rid first. . Cud . in another place.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS.. 10 the Hoof. that is. or Talkers only ? and accordingly shall they be judged. ? but am as sick of it noiv. profession of Talkative will be at that day.'"'""''"^"" Talkative. and calleth I will add another thing. and consequently. and cheiveth the Cud: or that cheiueth the is not that parteth the Hoof this only. Take my advice. Things life. giving sound. The end of the World is compared to our Harvest. he seeketh knoivledge. to their fruits. but he di'videth not the Hoof. Not that any thing can be accepted that is not of but I speak this to show you how insignificant the Faith . . and you know men at Harvest regard nothing but Fruit. or Bear. but yet not the unclean. House. Tongue or voice of an Angel. Faith. sounding \\ ^' and Tinkling Cymbals that is. for ought I know. <what chear ? hoiu is it noiu ? . were you Doers.6. as he expounds them Talkative '^^' without life. He is such an one by 'which /'d- Levit. retaineth the foot of a Dog. that parteth pa^hVu^/oH. Faith.3. because he parteth Hoof. You have spoken./„'"o„"j^'^ ''^"^""" ''^'• Gospel the life : . without the true Faith and Grace of the shall . fVhat shall ive do of him Chr. but as the Hare. go to him. or Conversation. Chr. 13. yea and those great Talkers too. for that he will) whether this thing be set up in his Heart. only. my mind that of Moses. The Hare cheiveth the Cud. What nuould you have me to do ? Chr. and you shall 30 find that he will soon be sick of your Company too.

it '^t^fry"/a work of causeth there lo Faith. should rather say. He doth not lay the blessing in the Disciples . and abhormg or j 1. Where the Grace of God is in g great outcry against sin. but he cannot abhor it. and then falls to hugging and kissing it. <when she calleth it Slut and naughty Girl. I Talk. great knowledge. Knoivledge. Faith.76 777^ PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Do you know had answered. luhen it is in the heart man ? Talk. And take my answer in brief thus. difference r is there between crying out cry out against sin. a man may ofpolicy. Joseph's Mistris cried out ivith a loud voice. tbe mysteries of the Gospel. and I shall be willing to answcr you. 3** Faith. 15. you of left it thought fall we should have had noiu. I perceive. I perceive then that our talk must be about the ponver Taikative's of things . Great knowledge of Gospel Mysteries. but by I'ertue of a Godly antipathy against it : I have heard many cry out against sin in the Pulpit. 39. Great kno'. Why. what • . ye do them. First. ive ivill to it me to state the question. can abide it ivell enough in the heart. Well. When Christ said. But the second thing ivhereby you •would prove a discovery not I am only of a ivork of grace in the heart ^ Talk. 'who yet Gen. these things and if Blessed are ye.1. hold. even as the Mother cries out against her Child in her lap. It shoius itself by inclining the Soul to abhor To cry out ajratttst stn. and 20 conversation. as had been very holy . but first or last. Thank you. Well. stgn of Gract. and since : a great deal of Talk by this time. may be obtained in si^of ^"^c" " and '^^'^' ^-f ^ ^^^ have fio ? all knoivledge. let us consider of one at once: I think you . lio Talk. No ivhat is lie at the catch. if she that. Tes : He addeth. • sm ? • ^ Faith. but she ivould ivillingly. You Faith. agamst. let it be this Hoiv doth the saving grace of God discot'er itself. he work of grace in the Soul: may yet be nothing. Nay its sin. Well^ if wuith you ivill.L- This sign should have been yet no first . house. tiotivithstanding have committed uncleanness ivith him. Talk. and so consequently be all child of God. Secondly. Oh I a great deal. I. the heart. Some cry out against sin. it is also false] for. for setting things right. 'tis a very good question.

to ivhich hungerings. for see we shall not agree. propound another sign hoiv it is. is for ^without that the heart naught. at the catch again. 6.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. this Well. thus. It "^f^^f gives him conviction of sin. 119. so is his love to holiness. because his corruptions noiv. and his abused reason. or to standers To him that hath it. Well. this ivork of grace discouereth itself where Talk."''"''''' endeavours. Not that heart is can be good There resteth Knowledge ivithout knoiuledge.. but in the doing of them. Matth. ifyou avill not. the knoiuing of them. is a thifig that pleaseth and Boasters . A man Talkers may kno^ an Angel. etc. therefore in him that hath this work. if he findeth not Mark 16. is be no Christian therefore your sign not true. Indeed to and yet knoav. 77 For there like is a knonuledge that is not attended luith doing: it He is that knovveth his Masters will. and the sin of iinbelief. *'' of the defilement of his nature.) This sight and Ps. edification. yet it is but seldom that he is able to conclude that this is a work of Grace. ivhich puts a man upon doing e-ven the will of God from the heart : the first of these woill serve the Talker. and also to serve him in this World. and ^'^^^ ^ " the absolute necessity of closing ivith him for life. but the to do. whole heart. and it I shall keep thy Law. observe with . so are his desires to knoiu him more. especially (^for the soul discovereth itself. Not Faith. A luork of grace in him that hath it. 38. iv ill you gi-ve liberty. 16. so is his joy and peace. not for /^^'«/w. But though I say it discovereth itself thus unto him . Noiv according to the strength or weakness of his Faith in his Saviour. 18. not. Talk. he c^iV. me leave to do it? Talk. and knoivledge that is accompanied "j^^/""^" 10 twith the grace of faith and love. him sorroiv and shame for sin. the promise is made. in Jesus Christ. I Give me understanding. there is required a very mercy at GocCs hand by faith sense of things ivorketh in . either to One good by. and doth .^°^l^ the sake of quhich he is sure to be damned. at the ivhich he ^ofindeth hungerings and thirstings after him. 5. that vjhich pleaseth God. but <without the other the true Christian is not content. 34. yea is shall Psai. You may use your Faith. therefore knoivledge and knonvledge. my lie -. 16. 8. Knoiuledge that in the bare speculation of things. makes his mind to mis-judge in this matter . findeth moreover revealed in him the Saviour of the World. 20 I. if you I please. John 16. You rAITH.

and not 20 in Deed and Truth ? pray. and to promote holiness in the IVorld an Hypocrite or Talkative Person may do: but lo a practical Subjection in Faith.15- a life that confession. By OH experimental ansiverable to of his Faith in Christ. then give me leave to propound to you a second question. but to hear . You come now to Experience. ^""' /iv!« himself. say no more than you knoiv the God above ivill say Amen to . my Conversation. John Job 14. to wit. nu'ith sound Judgement. though you should so do. object . count not myself bound thereto. But I pray will you. yl7id noiv Sir. By .5. yet I may refuse to make you my Judge. it is 'Jq others thus disco'vered. steadiness conclude that this a I. Do you experience life the first part of this and conversation testify the same? or standeth your Religion in Word or in Tongue. 43- him. Because I sa'w you forward to talk. 10. tell me. my part is not now to object. and ^wickedness. luhat your Conscience can justify you in : For.2o. 10. 6. to the poiver of the word. and description of also. to say I am thus. a life of holiness K2. heart-holiness. this. to Conscience. why you ask me such questions ? Faith. Nay. to suppress it in his not by talk only.. but whom the Lord commendeth. "wMptuh. nor am disposed to give an answer to such questions. and because I. and also the discovery of it. to tell you. if you have ought to object. if you incline to answer me in this. Talkative Besides. a-A^ Faithful ^'"! not that you had ought else but notion. Qofi-versation-holiness in the {if he hath a Family) and by i-. I upon you to be a . i8. and doth your 2 Cor. It is it ? Faith. s. 78 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. unless you take Catechiser . confessioti Matth. knew ^tha't" because. ig. World: ivhich in the general teacheth and himself for that in secret. ivor. not he that commendeth himself is approved. but recovering Thus he replyed. inivardly to abhor his Sin. Talk. and God and to appeal to him for justification 3° : of what is I spoken : This kind of discourse I did not expect. nothing but 10. Talk. and thus. let me Another Grace. is when great all my Neighbors tell me I lye. as by Family. 2. and Love. and. before he can is Rora.k of Grace. Then Talkative at first began to blush. if not. Besides. as to this brief description of the 'work of Grace. family-holiness.zek. therefore have your second question.

he would have been but a blot in our Company besides. and vain Company-keeping. Faith. Talk. and that Religion fareth the ivorse for your ungodly f. They say You are a spot amo7ig Faithful's Christians. . and lying. as Religion it doth : a the nostrils of for they are these Talkative Fools. conversations that some already ivays. ivill stand together. whose in of this faithful dealing with men now is only in word. and grieve the Sincere. The proverb is is true ofyou. Chr. all the Truth. your words and his lusts . I 79 have heard of you. to wit. so you are Talkative a shame to all Professors. and so am clear of his blood. and Couetoustiess. That she a shame Women . as I suppose he will do. it may happen that he ivill think of it again hoavever.^^"^^p^^ peevish. could not agree he had rather leave your company. or melancholy Man. your Religion. and sivearing. not fit to be discoursed with. the . . But he is gone as I said let him go the loss ^ s<">^ ^aao is no man's but his own he has saved us the trouble of going from him for he continuing. if he perisheth. blemish Christianity. that you are a Man nvhose and that your Con-versation gi'ves this your Mouth-profession the lye. . and an Ale-House. you how it would happen.. I wish that all men would deal with such as you have done. as he is. and f"'- I told Chr. than reform his life. etc. ' have stumbled at your ivicked^^^^^^'^'''' and that more are in danger of being destroyed thereby . cannot but conclude you are some. or the company of Saints would be too hot for them. I have dealt plainly luith him. but days. You there is did well to talk so plainly to little him as you did. and to judge I so rashly as you do. and uncleanness. and that makes Religion to stink 30 many. then should they either be made more Conversation. . ivhich to all is said 10 of a Whore. so adieu.^'"^ '" Religion lies in tali. and are debauched and vain in their much admitted into the Fellowdo stumble the World. him. : Apostle says. But I am glad ive had this little discourse 'with . Then came up Christian. and said to his Brother. Since you are ready to take up reports.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. that (being so ship of the Godly) conformable to Religion. From such vjithdraijj thyself.

my remembrance and unwearied laboring for my eternal good. and with what friends. . into the ivane he goes And so will all. Tluy are glad at the sight 0/ them. and that for mine own . dearly beloved. said Evangelist. Now was he that set me the way to the come up unto them. Welcome. How last hath it ? fared with you.. and thus thtm agair. a thousand times welcome.! . the sight of thy thy ancient kindness.) continued in the way to this very day. : ! too. and my good friend said. Right glad am I. for 'twas E'vangelist Gate. said Evangelist trials. which would otherwise. have been tedious to them for now they went through lo a Wilderness. EvANG. Thus they went on talking of what they had seen by the way. Brother. How Talkative at first lifts up his Plumes Hcnv bra'vely doth he speak! hoiv he presumes To drive doivn all before him! but so soon As Faithful talks of Heart-work. and. since the time of our parting 30 . but that you have been victors. and espied one coming Oh said Faithful to his after them. poor EvANG. 20 ^welcome. 8o THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. no doubt. who comes yonder? Then Christian looked. Pilgrims ! O siveet Evangelist. difficulty His exhortation to they had arrived to that place. and so made that way easy. EvAXG. said good Faithful Ihy company. said Faithful Evangelist overtakts . Faith. Peace be with you. but he that Heart-work knows. Now when they were got almost quite out of this Wilderness. and how have you behaved your selves ? Then Christian and Faithful told him of all things that had happened to them in the way and how. and Ay. saluted them. Faithful chanced to cast his eye back. with I say. And. It is my good friend E'vangelist. my what have you met with. and for that you have (notwithstanding many weaknesses. right glad am I of this thing. like the Moon That's past the full. not that you met them. countenance brings my good Evangelist. Then. peace be to your helpers. and he knew him. hoiv desirable is it to us. to Chr.

Some there be that set out for this Crown. and also ho<iv they might resist and 10 Devil.'<'''"'/'"' thing of the truth of these testimonies upon you already. and the King will : : : G . : . Let nothing that is on this side the other world get within you and above all. My you have heard of Heaven. but told They do him ivithal. again. and believe stedfastly concerning things that are invisible. To luhich request Faithful also consented. and could tell them of things that might happen unto them . You are not yet out of the gun-shot of the Rev. if you faint not. Chr. you have all power in Heaven and Earth on your side. and desperately wicked set your faces like a flint. : overcome them. with blood but be you faithful unto death. as you see. and ^^' "* after they have gone far for it.1 : THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Let the Kingdom be always before you. cor. for that they cwell '""'''""'" kneiu that he luas a Prophet. for they are deceitful above all things. when both he that sowed. that they luouid ha've him speak farther to them for'J'J^"fJ""' 20 their help. in some sort or other. day ' '' . and they that reaped that is. 8 john *^'''' I have sowed. who will strain hard but they will kill you and be you sure that one or both of you must seal the testimony which you hold. cannot expect that you should go long on your Pilgrimage ^^j^/'Xm" 30 without them. You have not resisted unto blood. that you must through many tribulations toubieTlhZ ^'^!"''' enter into the City. and the rather. Then Christian thanked him for his exhortation. and therefore you will soon come into a Town that you will by and by see before you and in that Town you will be hardly beset with enemies. the rest of the ivay . and takes it from them ? hold fast therefore that you have. and it is an incorruptible one 4. 24. look well to your own hearts. let no man take your Crown. and the coming. in the words of the//^/«. and to the lusts thereof. EvANG. another comes in. '^''^ obtain it. and more will immediately follow for now. . You have found some. Sons. Kingdom And . 9. striving against sin. in due shall rejoice together time ye shall reap. 3. So Evangelist began as folloiveth. sake and yours is . that in every ""^' bonds and afflictions abide in you and therefore you vanity-Fair. The Crown is before so run that you may you. n. and you have reaped. 36. truth of the Gospel. . you are almost out of this Wilderness. if you hold out for.

or that cometh thither. Places. as these two honest persons are and Beelzebub. called Vanity-Fair. lo Then I saw in my Dream. And on Mount Calvary dy'd. Titles. as unto givc ^'^ . then remember your friend. is name of Vanity-Fair. Preferments. as \\'hores. not only because he will be arrived at the Coelestial City soonest.2. Gold. TheMerchandize of this Fair. Vanity.*ii'^it '7- beareth the kept. a Fair wherein should be sold of all sorts of Vanity. Lives. Masters. because the Town where all 'tis lighter than Vanity is . their way to the City lay through this loiun of Vanity. because that is there sold.-wiu better of his trcther. and Legion. Blood. and kept at the town there is a Fair kept. a faithful Creator. Even Behold Vanity Fair! the Pilt. is the Year long: fhap. and his pain perhaps great. but a thing of ancient 20 standing. no new erected business. Pearls. and quit your selves like men and commit the keeping of your souls to your God in well-doing. with their Companions. you 3 Crown of life. although will be unnatural. and shall find fulfilled what I have here related. there were Pilgrims ^Fa%f " walking to the Coelestial City. they presently saw a Town all before them. Honors. Bodies. . Town is that when they were got out of the Wilderness. Vanity It . I will shew you the original of it. Trades. Lusts. and what not. death fer. all that it should last all the year are all such Merchandize sold..rinis thei Are chain'd and stand beside so it was our I-ord pass'd here. All that cometh Vanity. perceiving by the path that the Pilgrims made. Pleasures and Delights 30 of sorts. But when you are come to the Town. As is the saying of the wise. long. Baw-ds. that This Fair is . and is also. Kingdoms. Wives. he will yet havB the better of his fellow. Husbands. 17. Souls. 82 He whose 'ther^ti'luf- THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. and the name of that isa. Servants. He that shall die there. Countries. Lands. they contrived here to set up a Fair^. ApoUyon. Precious Stones. Children. but because he will escape many miseries that the other will meet with in the rest of his Journey. 40. Silver. and Therefore at this Fair as Houses. TheAntiAlmost five thousand years agone.

so they did all the/^?/>. Thefts.„ fair. 20 through will as I said. and shewed him all 30 the Kingdoms of the A^'orld in a little time. to cheapen and buy some of chrtst his Vanities. lies just this lo^vn. False-swearers. where such and such Wares are vended So here likewise. there are the several Rows and Streets. This Fair therefore is an Ancient thing.. Streets. go to i cor. without laying out so much as one '''''"^'"''• Farthing upon these Fanities. must needs go through this The Pitthat 4!' s. Murders. Countreys and Kingdoms. with some others. and that of a blood-red colour. and^""-- where this lusty Fair is kept and he that the City.' 6. the French Row. so the Ware of Rome and her Merchandize is greatly promoted in this fair: Only our English Nation. have taken a dislike thereat. the chief . even as they entred into ^"'Xr'"" the people in the/<?/> were moved. Rows. would he but have done him Reverence as he went through the Tonvn.J through 5/"'"'r'f. Well. Jugglings. and as I think. went through this 7oaun to his own Country. Apes. and that of every kind. the way to the Coelestial City . •> o out of this when here. the German Row^. Fools. s 10.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. and the Town . Knaves. Beelzebub had him from Street to Street. if possible. Yea. And moreover. and that for nothing. (iv'z. it was Beelzebub Luke Lord of this Fair. the The streets Spanish Row'. Games. G 2 . But as in other fairs. 83 at this Fair there is at all times to be seen Cheats. that invited him to buy of his Vanities yea. because he was such a person of Honour. Here are to be seen too. must upon a Fair-day too: Yea.) where the Wares of this Fair are soonest to be found Here is the Britam Row. Now these Pilgrims. the Italian Row. would have made him Lord of the Fair. and yet not go through this Town. needs go the World. allure that Blessed One. that he might. under their proper names. Adulteries. but behold. The Prince of Princes himself. ^' . and ffjf'^' therefore left the 7oivn. and a very great Fair. as I said. and Rogues. some one : Commodity is as the chief of all the fair. where several sorts of"-''''*"^'"''" Vanities are to be sold. Now. And as in other fairs of less moment. But he had no mind to the ^Merchandize. Plays. you have the : 10 proper Places. of long standing.

to say unto them. several reasons First. 19. they called upon them to buy.20. 8. But that which did not a little amuse the Merchandizers. looking gravely upon him. there was an occasion taken to despise the men the more. and that they had given Heb. The as Raiment Pilgrims were cloathed with such kind of was diverse from the Raiment of any that Traded in that fair. Sccondly. about whom 'CtvG. and some they are Outlandish-men. ffe buy the Truth. for few could understand what they said they naturally spoke the Language of Canaan. some they ind Cause *"* "bub' were Bedlams. 23.fair was almost overturned. they would put and cry. men. and deputed some of his most trusty friends to take these men 30 into examination.So the men wcre brought to examination and they that sat upon them asked them w^hence they came. they s^&rcit^ Barbarians . At last things The fair in came to an hubbub and great stir in the fair. At that. and some calling upon others to smite them. " '^' * none occasion to thc men of the Town. Thirdly. who quickly came down. sclf OS it wcrc : in a ' Hubbub about them. so they did likewise at their Speech. and look upwards. that these Pilgrims set very light by all their Wares.84 The fair in it hubbub Thefirst 'hubLib. 23. 3. people therefore of the fair made a great Some said they were Fools. Thty are ex. and jn thc World. And as they wondred at their Apparel. gazing upon them. they cared not so much as to look upon them Ps. 2. beholding the carriages of the But they. Turn aiuay mine eyes from beholding 'vanity . signifying that their 20 Trade and Traffic was in Heaven. They are some mocking.'^' THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. : and if Fourth ^hubbub. Now was word presently brought to the Great One of the fair. : each to the other. Third cause of the hubbub. . Phil. and that for a about them. and what they did there in such an unusual Garb ? The men told them. that they were Pilgrims and Strangers l^hVthe'y are. some speaking reproachfully. 119. in so much that all order was confounded. which was the Heavenly Jerusalem . but lo they that kept the fair^ were the men of this World so that from one end of ih^fair to the other. some taunting. For. . said. was. What will ye buy? Prov. 7. One chanced mockingly. 37. and that they were going to their own Country. whither they went. nor yet to the I >4. their fingers in their ears. I The Cor. came.

and besmeared them with dirt. and kindness for injuries done. after divers words had passed on both did sides. and less prejudiced than the rest. some men in the fair that were more ob. Faithful behaved themselves yet more wisely. and there charged as being guilty of the late Hubbub that had been in the fair. or join themselves unto them. . that it won to their side (though hut '^Jil -won they beat them pitifully. countmg them as bad as the men m the Cage. and \a Journey. and intended nobody any harm that traded in their fair.'* blessing. began to check and jr^uTJi blame the baser sort for their continual abuses done by them ^/|^^"f.) they harm one to another. or else such as came to put all things into a confusion in the Jhir.y in- laughing patient. Therefore they took them and beat them. that 85 Except it was for that. and 20 telling them that they seemed confederates. than were the men that they had abused. with so much some o/the meekness and patience. lest any should further speak in their ""^""^-^''^'' But Christian and others. men were quiet. t<? tJtem. They are not ' '"" ' Tkeyanput '" ' the some still time.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. for ought they could see. There therefore they and were made the objects of any mans of the fair. at all that befel But the men being and not rendering railing for railing. the . for an example 2iViAthe/airin a terror to others. they said they would buy the Truth. Thus. behalf. and sober. and Then were these two poor men to 30 brought before their Examiners again. and that there were many men behaving themselves fell all the while very They are "^Zthorl 0/ '^I'^/J^l'^^ wisely and soberly before them. yea. some Blows. and received the ignominy and shame that was cast upon them. They therefore in angry manner let fly at them about thex agam. and then put them into the Cage. of the fair r%<-. or malice. men ' ^''^'' sport. and giving good words for bad.j. that were more worthy to be put into the Cage. thus to abuse them. or revenge. that they might be made a Spectacle to 10 lay for all they would buy. and Pillory too.The men 0/ serving.„ to the men. (the The other replied. Merchandizers. So and hanged irons upon them. and should be made That partakers of their misfortunes. let them in their when one asked them what But they were appointed to examine them did not believe them to be any other than Bedlams and Mad. The Great One them. but contrarywise ihTcage'. and led They are ud them in chains up and down the fair.




few in comparison of the rest) several of the men in the fair. This put the other party yet into a greater rage, insomuch Wherefore Thdyad. that they concluded the death of these two men. ZZt'fo",7/^^^y threatned that the Cage nor irons should serve their tAem. turn, but that they should die, for the abuse they had done, and for deluding the men of they^ir. Th^n were they remanded to the Cage again until further order should be taken with them. So they put them in, and

made their feet fast in the Stocks. Here also they called again to mind what they had heard from their faithful friend Et'angelist, and was the more confirmed in their way and sufferings, by what he told them would happen to them. They also now comforted each
other, that


^hose lot it was to suffer, that even he should have the best on't therefore each man secretly wished that he might have that preferment but committing themselves to the All-wise dispose of him that ruleth all things, with much content they abode in the condition in which they were, until they should be otherwise disposed of. They are Then a Convenient time being appointed, they brought 20 ^H/T/Lcrt^f them forth to their Tryal in order to their Condemnation.


hen the time was come, they were brought before their Encmics and arraigned; The Judge's name was X^oxA. Kategood. Their indictment was one and the same in substance, though somewhat varying in form the Contents whereof was

Their Into, and disturbers of their Trade ; that had made Commotions and Divisions in the Toivn, and had 'Won a party to their c^jon most dangerous opinions, in contempt of the Laiv of their Prince. 3° Then Faithful began to answer \ That he had only set himself against that which had set itself against him that is higher than the highest. And said he. As for disturbance, I xnake none, being myself a man of Peace the Parties that

That they ivere enemies







Faithful play the man, speak for thy God Fear not the wicked's malice nor their rod : Speak boldly man, the truth is on thy side Die for it, and to life in triumph ride.




were won to us, were won by beholding our Truth and Innocence, and they are only turned from the worse to the better. And as to the King you talk of, since he is Beelzebub, the Enemy of our Lord, I defy him and all his Angels. Then Proclamation was made, that they that had ought to say for their Lord the King against the Prisoner at the Bar, should forthwith appear and give in their evidence. So there came in three Witnesses, to wit. Envy, Superstition, and Pickthank. They were then asked, If they knew the Prisoner at 10 the Bar? and what they had to say for their Lord the King against him ? Then stood forth Envy, and said to this effect; My Lord, Envy *f^i«j. I have known this man a long time, and will attest upon my Oath before this honourable Bench, That he is Judge. Hold, give him his Oath So they sware him. Then he said. My Lord, This man, notwithstanding his plausible name, is one of the vilest men in our Country he neither regardeth Prince nor People, Law nor Custom but doth all that he can to possess all men with 20 certain of his disloyal notions, which he in the general calls And in particular, I heard Principles of Faith and Holiness. him once myself affirm. That Christianity and the Customs of our Town of Vanity, luere Diametrically opposite, and could By which saying, my Lord, he doth at once, not be reconciled.
; ;

not only condemn
of them.


our laudable doings, but us

in the


Judge. Then did the Judge say to him. Hast thou anymore
to say





could say

much more,



would not

30 be tedious to the Court. Yet if need be, when the other Gentlemen have given in their Evidence, rather than any
thing shall be wanting that will dispatch him,

will enlarge

my Testimony
they called

against him.

So he was bid stand by.


and bid him look upon the Prisoner they also asked. What he could say for their Lord the King Then they sware him, so he began. against him ? Super. My Lord, I have no great acquaintance with this superstition •/''"'''^'^man, nor do I desire to have further knowledge of him



However this I know, that he is a very pestilent fellow, from some discourse that the other day I had with him in this To'iun ; for then talking with him, I heard him say, That our Religion was naught, and such by which a man could by no means please God: which sayings of his, my Lord, your Lordship very well knows, what necessarily thence will follow, to ivit, That we still do worship in vain, are yet in our Sins, and finally shall be damned and this is that which I have

to say.

Then was

Pickthank sworn, and bid say what he knew, lo

behalf of their Lord the King against the

Prisoner at

the Bar.



Lord, and you gentlemen


This fellow



known of

a long time, and have heard

him speak

things that


ought not to be spoke. For he hath railed on our noble Prince Beelzebub, and hath spoke contemptibly of his honourable Friends, whose names are the Lord Oldman, the Lord
Carnal-delight, the




Lord Luxurious, the Lord Desire of VaitiLechery, Sir Having Greedy, with all the rest
if all

of our Nobility; and he hath said moreover, that



were of




possible, there


not one of these Noble-

men should have any longer a being in this Town. Besides, he hath not been afraid to rail on you, my Lord, who are now appointed to be his Judge, calling you an ungodly Villain, with many other such like vilifying terms, with which he hath bespattered most of the Gentry of our Town. When this Pickthank had told his tale, the Judge directed his speech to
the Prisoner at the Bar, saying,

Thou Runagate,


and Traitor, hast thou heard what these honest Gentlemen
have witnessed against thee


Faith. May I speak afenv avords in my onvn defence"? Judge. Sirrah, Sirrah, thou deservest to live no longer, but to be slain immediately upon the place yet that all men may

see our gentleness towards thee, let us see what thou hast
to say.




say then


never said ought but

answer to what Mr. En'vy hath this, That nuhat Rule, or Laws,

or Custom, or People,

ivere flat against the

Word of

God, are

diametrically opposite to Christianity.





you to 2. As to the second, to wit, INIr. Superstition, and his charge against me, I said only this, That in the ivorship of God there is required a divine Faith ; but there can be no divine Faith nvithout a divine Revelation of the ivill of God : therefore ^whatever is
thrust into the ^worship of God, that Revelation, cannot be done but by an

me of my error, make my recantation.



have said amiss in ready here before

not agreeable to divine




luhich Faith

10 luiU not be profit







Pickthank hath said,



terms, as that


said to

of this

Town, with

and the like) That the Prince the Rabblement his Attendants, by this

Gentleman named, are more fit for a being in Hell, than in and so the Lord have mercy upon me. this Town and Country Then the Judge called to the Jury (who all this while stood by, to hear and observe) Gentlemen of the Jury, you see this Thi yudic man about whom so great an uproar hath been made in this the y„ry. Town you have also heard what these worthy Gentlemen 20 have witnessed against him also you have heard his reply and confession: It lieth now in your breasts to hang him, or save his life. But yet I think meet to instruct you into our Law. There was an Act made in the days of Pharaoh the Great, Exod. za. Servant to our Prince, That lest those of a contrary Religion should multiply and grow too strong for him, their Males should be thrown into the River. There was also an Act
; :




in the

Servants, that

days of Nebuchadnezzar the Great, another of his Daa whoever would not fall down and worship his



30 was also an Act

golden Image, should be thrown into a fiery Furnace. There made in the days of Darius, That whoso, for

6. 7-9.


time, called

upon any God but him, should be

cast into

the Lions' Den.


the substance of these




has broken, not only in thought (which

not to be borne)

but also


word and deed


which must therefore needs be


to prevent mischief,

For that of Pharaoh, his Law was made upon a supposition, no Crime being yet apparent but here For the second and third, you see he a Crime apparent.

Heady. No-good. then they Buffeted him. . he deserveth to die the death. Judge. said INIr. therefore let us forthiuith bring him in 20 guilty of death . Implacable. Blind-man the Foreman. I Brave Faithful. Lyar. Enmity. Then said Mr. said Hanging is too good for him. ivould alnuays he condemning my ivay. hang him. Lo've-lust. for he Hang him. therefore he was presently coudcmned. Nor I. Anvay ivith such a felloiu from the Earth. Mr. A sorry Scrub. Malice. then prickt him with their Swords. to the place from whence he came. And so they did. Enmity. Might I have all the fVorld given me. Bravely done in word and deed . Vames!'^ for I hate the very looks of him. Mr. waiting for Faithful. Blindman. To be had from the place where he was. And first Mr. I see Then said Mr. Implacable. Lo've-lust. Cruelty. Mr. Mr. . Lyar. I could never endure him. High-mind. He is a Rogue. and Jurj-. Lets Then said dispatch him out of the rjoay. Mr. to do with him according to their Law and first they Scourged him. Mr. Mr. Now. thou 'It hve. I saw that there stood behind 30 the multitudc. and straightway was carried up through heart riseth against him. a Chariot and a couple of Horses. and afterwards unanimously concluded to bring him in guilty before the Everyone-s Judge. said Mr. AVhen they arc dead. said Mr. Malice. and Mr. I could f^ot be reconciled to him. . Ay. i© ^dia""^"" f^iearly that this man is an Heretick. Mr. High-mind. Hate-light. Thus camc Faithful to his end. Lme-loose. then they Lanced his flesh with Knives after that. who (so soon as his adversaries had dispatched him) was taken up into it. said Mr. Mr. have instead of overcoming thee. said Mr. Hate-light. Heady. Cruelty. Witnesses. My They conciudt to in guilty of The Cruel FaithfuL A Chariot te7a"e "-"ait pSfui Mr. but shewn their rage. who every one gave in his private Verdict against him among themselves. said Mr. said. Mr. No-good. and last of all they burned him to Ashes at the Stake. from age to age . Mr. said Mr. Mr. whose names were. they Stoned him with Stones. Then Went the Jury out.90 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Live-loose. disputeth against our Religion The Jury and for the Treason he hath confessed. and there to be put to the most cruel death that could be invented \ They therefore brought him out.

Are crying out under . J <5 . So . from the Town of Fair-speech. 25. that Christian for that time escaped them. words and behaviour. And as he went he sang. . Faithless ones. they overtook one that was going before them. so they said to him.ame. For though they kill'd thee. for there out of his Ashes to be a Companion with Christian. . and entering into a brotherly covenant. if '°. ivith all their -vain delij^hts. I shall be glad of your Company I must be content. Hopeful also told Christian. with sound of Trumpet. thou my Dream. that there were the This of nei-e is many more men I in the fair that would take their time and follow 'mencfihl ^^l""'" after. sing and let thy name survive. Well. having the power space. live there? By-ends. in their sufferings at the fair^ who joyned himself unto him. Pray Sir.^ Unto thy Lord: 10 ff'^hen ivith ^whoni thou shalt he blest: xianrnJaJer Faithful after his death. said Christian is there any that be good Prov. =6. 9 way to the But as for Christian. and went his way. and you to me be going this way. saying. Faithful. (but told them not his name. art yet ali-ve.«. . Sing. Sir? neymer. if you not. Chr. he had some respit.1 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. so he there remained for a^' But he that over-rules all things. What Country-man. of their rage in his own hand. By-ends loth '" . Yes. ^ and how far go you this way ? He told them. their hellish plights. and christian is was remanded back to prison. thou hast faithfully profest TktSoM. said By-ends.) From Fair-speech. Thus 20 one died to make Testimony to the Truth. . . whose name was By-ends. the nearest Coelestial Gate. told him that he would be his Companion. That he came ends. and he was going to the 30 Coelestial City. Faithful. and another rises I Now saw in alone. I am a Stranger to you. saw that quickly after they were got out of the fair./"«?. I hope. the Clouds. that Christian went not forth was one whose name was Hopeful. nvhat may I call you f By-ends. (being christian made so by the beholding of Christian and Faithful in their c^t. so wrought it about.

Sir. (from whose Ancestors that Town first took its name :) Also Mr. Chr. as many By-ends. in the Street. Mr. we have as very a Knave in our 30 my mind that this Company as dwelleth in all these parts. and the people applaud Then speech. I remember. This Toavn of Fair-speech. Are you a married man ? By-ends. I will assure you that it is. the Daughter of a vertuous Woman. I deem I have half a guess of you: Is not your name Mr. n t-. yet but m two small pomts: First. Mr. Facing-bothnvays. if a man may be . .. that she 20 knows how to carry it to all.92 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. 'Tis true. I am a Gentleman of good Quality yet my Great-Grandfather was but a Water-man. Christian stept a little a to-side to his fellow Hopeful. it. and .. you talk as if you knew something more than all the World doth. Yes. but indeed it is a Nickname that is given me by some that cannot abide me. That is not my name. methinks he should not be ashamed of his name. / they say it^s Chr. Ask him .. . . and. By-ends of Fair-speech? By-ends. Almost the whole Town and in particular. Then said Hopeful. It runs in and if it is one By-ends of Fairbe he. Chr. my Lord Fair-speech. Ycs. . So Christian came up with him again. Where Byends differs /rem others in Religion. my Lord Time-server. and rowing another and I got most of my Estate by the same occupation. Smooth-man. we never gtrivc agaiust Wind and Tide. we love much to walk with him it. . zealous when Religion goes in his Silver Slippers. By-ends. Secondly. looking one way. and if I take not my mark amiss. She was my Lady Fainings Daughter. my Turn-about. we are always most Lord : . so bold? The -wife TredJf By-ends. to tell you the Truth. Two-tongues. and is arrived at such a pitch of Breeding. and my Wife is a very vertuous Woman. and said. therefore she came of a very Honourable Family. t . and I have very rich Kindred there. Mr. saying. was my Mother's own Brother by Father's side And. ivho are your Kindred there. and the 10 Parson of our Parish. if the Sun shines. even to Prince and Peasant. we somewhat differ in Religion from those of the . Any-thing. stHctcr sort. Pray. have heard of a Wealthy place.

with reproach. ivell as avhen in his Silver in and stand by him nxihen bound Irons. nor lord it over my leave me to my liberty.-ts You shall find me a fair Company-keeper. Hold-the-World. even go by that will 30 myself. way of the times. never to . Mr.n--. Ne dc. as ive. By-ends had formerly been acquainted He has ^"^.. I said By-ends. and let me go with you. But did you never give an occasion to men to call you by this name? By-ends. men that Mr. was.^"' 7iiu . and my chance was to get thereby but if things are thus cast upon me. let me count 10 them a blessing. I perceive. since they are harmless and profitable. Money-love. in his Rags. Save-all . forsook By-ends a. unless you qvill do in luhat I . that Christian and Hopeful. he made them a very low and they also gave him a Compliment. You must not impose.THE PILGRnrS PROGRESS. By-ends. Chr. Faith By-ends. The men's names were Mr. Never. the <which. admit me your associate. and kept their distance before him. but one of them^]'^')^"^'' looking back. I fear this name belongs to you more properly than you are ^willing aue should think it doth. 93 I must be content to bear it as a reproach. as too. ! the worst that ever I did to give me this name.ia him. propound. as they Congee. came up with him. Well. Chr. Not a step further. until some overtake me my in my dream. Now I saw behold. that I had^^^Bvends got his -11 111 XI always the luck to jump m my Judgment with the present „„. I shall never desert If my I old Principles. may not go be glad of with must do as I did before you overtook me. that you luas the man that I had heard and to tell you tvhat I think. as ivell as wohen he lualketh the Streets ivith applause. whatever it was. saw three men following Mr. and Mr. thought indeed. I cannot help it.5'"" christian. Then you. / of. if you will still ^'^j„^'^„y. By-ends.«. Chr. but let not the malicious load me therefore them an occasion 1 give • . you must go against Wind and Tide. and Company. If you ivill go ivith us. as other good men have born theirs before me. is against your opinion : Tou must Chr. 20 also oivn Religion Slippers. if you will thus imagine.

them have kept such a School themselves. though all other men are against them but I am for Religion in what. I can count him but a fool. Mr. and you Sir. for they.94 . that after By-ENDS. so that they could each of North. Gripe-man. and 1 am for waiting for Wind and Tide. . are a couple r i 1 gomg on Pilgrimage. By-ends. But I pray njuhat and hoiv many. MoNY-LOVE. Save-all. ' their mode. why did they not stay that we might have had their good company. or by putting on a guise of Religion and these four Gentlemen had attained much of the art of their IMaster. Well when they had. a School-master in Lo've-gain^ which is a market town in the County of Co-veting in the This Schoolmaster taught them the art of getting. By-ends f for. violence. By-exds. good Mr. . that let a man 20 be never so godly. They are for hazarding all for God. are all going on Pilgrimage. They are for Religion. . and such men's rigidness prevails with them to judge and condemn all but themselves. We are so indeed. they thrust him quite out of their company. and do also so lightly esteem the Opinions of others. and my safety will bear it. conclude that it is duty to rush on their Journey «// weathers. HoLD-THE. and with applause. Alas.World. and I am for taking all advantages to 30 secure my life and estate. Mony-lo-ve said to Mr. for my part. when in rags. thus saluted each other. lying. and were taught by one Mr. at a clap. I hope. flattery. either by .. that are righteous over-much. Ay. with for in their minority they were schoolfellow. They of far country-men. as I said. yet if he jumps not with them in all things. By-ends' Character of the Pilgrims. but the men before us are so rigid. They are for holding their notions. That's bad But we read of some. Why they after their headstrong manner. and hold you there still. Who are they upon the lo Road before us ? For Christian and Hopeful were yet within view. By-ends. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. and so far as the times. and love so much their own notions. are . were the things wherein you differed. cousenage. and contempt but I am for him when he walks in his golden slippers in the Sun-shine. and ive.

and plump by far . but that he would have us keep them Abraham and Solomon grew rich in Religion.vith before. nor seeks his own safety. My Brethren. yet For my part I like that Religion best. for lo is who can imagine that ruled by his reason. And Job says. yet so as by being tnore studious. But that a good man shall lay up gold as dust. I see the bottom of your question. MoNY-LOVE. there needs no more words about this matter indeed. more fat. concerns a Minister himself. Suppose a man. No. Sun-shine let us . life. possessed but of a very small benefice. I think that we are all agreed in this matter. as that he can by no means come by them. a Minister. Suppose a Minister. and has in his eye a greater. or a Tradesman. 'tis best to make hay you see how the Bee lieth still all . frequently and zealously. and for our better diversion from things that are bad. by preaching more this means to attain his end. we are. going all on Pilgrimage. Tet so. that he meddled not n. and with these Gentlemen's good leave. and sometimes first. he must not be such as the have described them. God sends sometimes Rain. except. and therefore there needs no more words about it. in appearance at least. as to lose it. for he that believes neither Scripture nor 20 reason (and you see we have both on our side) neither knows his own liberty. may he not use 30 and yet be a right honest man? MoNY-LOVE. give me leave to propound unto you this question. as you see. By-ends. as it an answer. a (worthy man. he has also now an opportunity of getting of it . if they be such fools to go through the be content to take fair weather along with us. I will endeavour to shape you And first to speak to your question. winter and bestirs her then only when she can have profit with pleasure. men before us. he becomes extraordinary Zealous in some points of Religion. pg that having the liberty to keep what he has. should ha-ve an ad-vantage lie before him to get the good blessings of this life. and because the temper of the people .THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. since this God has bestowed upon us the good things of for his sake. if they be as you Save-all. that will stand with the security of God's good blessings unto us. 8fc. shall be so unwise when the Sun shines Let us be wise as Serpents.

For my part I see no reason but that this may be la\\fully done. and the 20 opportunity put into his hand to do good. be counted as one that pursues his call. to serve them. And now to the second part of the question which concerns : suppose such an one to have but a poor imploy in the world. so then here is a good wife. of them that are good. &c. by what means soever a man becomes so. be judged as covetous. that a Minister that changes a small for a great. lo complying with the temper of his people. His desire of a greater benefice is lawful (this cannot be contradicted) since he may 2. Mony-love to Mr. and all these by becoming religious. by altering of some of his principles . and more a great deal besides. 1. Nor is it unlawful to get a rich wife. That he is of a self-denying temper. and good customers. becoming religious. some of his principles. man that gets these by . 2.q to my 3. he may mend his market. which is according to the mind of God. by becoming good himself. by dissenting. perhaps get a rich wife. andyet be an honest man. his desire after that benefice 3. get it it 'tis set before him by providence so then. should not. I conclude then. 2. Besides.^ ay. By-ends question. and so makes him a better man. this argueth. For why. For why. the Tradesman you mentioned To become religious is a vertue. for my part I see no reason but a man may do this {provided he has a call. Of a sweet and winning deportment. thus made by this Mr. . and good gain. was highly applauded by them all wherefore Besides the . 4. studious. but by becoming Religious. shop. he can. a makes him more more zealous preacher. or more and far better customers to his shop. for so doing. gets that which is good. which is good.96 requires it. 3. making no question for conscience sake. 1. And so more fit for the as for his Now Ministerial function. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Therefore to become religious to get all these is a good and profitable design. since he is improved in his parts and industry thereby. or more custom . This answer. but rather. Yea makes him better improve his parts. i.

long prayers were their pretence. By-ends and them. and they stopt. 6. By-ends. If every male of us be circumcised. Mr. 20. and greater damnation was from God their Judgment. Gen. For if it be unlawful . 34. but by becoming circumcised. no man was able to contradict it. Chr. 22. Read the whole story. as they thought. 97 they concluded upon the whole.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. their answer to him would be without the remainder of that heat that was kindled betwixt Mr. How much more abominable is it to make of him and religion a stalking horse 20 to get and enjoy the world. as they supposed. 1. 2. 47. for when Hamor and Shechem had a mind to the Daughter and Cattle of Jacob. Joh. So they called after them. and because Christian and Hopeful was yet within call. And because. 3. shall not their Cattle. and saw that there was no ways for them to come at them. Hold-the-nvorld should propound the question to 10 them. Hypocrites. they joyntly agreed to assault them with the question as soon as they overtook them. So they came up to each other and after a short salutation. and bid them to answer it if they could. Luke 20. they say to their companions. that it was most wholsome and advantageous. 46. Hoid-t he-World propounded the question to Christian and his fellow. and their substance. that not Mr. to follow Christ for loaves. and stood still till they came up to them but they concluded as they went. Nor do we find any other than Heathens. and their Religion the stalking horse they made use of to come at them. as it is. Then said Christian. but old Mr. that he might be possessed of what was H . Heathens. By-ends before. he was religious for the bag. Judas the Devil was also of this Religion. 23. 21. and the rather because they had opposed JVIr. because. and every beast of theirs be ours ? Their Daughter and their Cattle were that which they sought 30 to obtain. Devils and Witches that are of this opinion. at their parting a little before. as they are circumcised. even a babe in Religion may answer ten thousand such questions. but to get widows' houses were their intent. The Hypocritical Pharisees were also of this Religion.

them. and his sentence from Peter's mouth was according. cast away. but that that man that away Religion for the world for so surely as Judas designed the world in becoming religious. stood Demas see : (^Gentleman-\ike. and went till srims'have thcy Came at a delicate Plain. where they went * with much content but that plain was but narrow. Now at the further side of that LuereATj/za plain. that he might have got money therewith. and in that Hill a Sil-verffiii"^"" Mine. for he would have had the Holy Ghost. some also . so they ] »« '". but he was lost. what will they do when they shall be rebuked by the flames of a devouring fire ? The ease Then Christian and Hopeful out. come and that a little off the road. but had not wherewith to answer Christian. 8. Then I saw in my Dream. Neither will it out of my mind. and they were slain . and could not to their dying day be their own men again.went them. 30 If .) to call said to Christian Lucre" to Passengers to who and . called Ease. 22. By-ends and his company also staggered and kept behind. will throw . same. Then they stood staring one upon another. and your reward answer. 4. so surely did he also sell Religion. broke. that Christian and Hopeful might outgo the soundness of Christian's silence among them. Devilish. what will they do with the sentence of God ? & if they are mute when dealt with by vessels of clay. Hopeful also approved of authentick such answer.98 therein . Then said Christian to his fellow. and the very Son of perdition. Acts 5. for the tively. which some of them that had formerly gone that way.u-^^^ this life. 20. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. 21. was a little Hill called Lucre. and his Master 10 takes up Religion for the world. Hypocritical and will be according to your works. as I To answer the question therefore affirmais perceive you have done. the ground being deceitful under them. had turned aside to see but going too near the brink of the pit. had been maimed there. 19. were quickly got over it. J because of the rarity of it. over Deraasa^ agaiust the Silver-Mine. Simon the witch was of this Religion too. and to accept of as both Heathenish. so there was a great Mr. If these men cannot 20 stand before the sentence of men.

But will you not come over and see ? Chr. come to if you will come.Jchri$have there been slain and be. my name is Demas.^ Hopeful to 4. I am the son of Abraham. we would stand with bold- Demas cried again. I know you. christian Thou art an Enemy to the right ways of the Lord in this Demat'" ^ '^""'*• "^ '°- way. Chr. Demas. Then said Christian. No doubt thereof. he ivill turn in thither to see. same 20 ivarrant you. you may richly provide for yourselves. turn aside hither. Let us not stir a step. What is thy name ? is it not the same by the which I have called thee ? De. Ho. and hast been already condemned for thine own turning aside. where ness before him. said Hopeful. Chr. for his principles lead him that way. Then Demas called again. by one of his Majesty's Judges and why seekest thou to bring us into the like condemnation ? Besides. he also himself would walk with them. Here is a Silver-iWJf«^.:«» thing. saying. Let us said Christian. 18. 10 sides. to those that are careless Chr. and2Kings5. 30 will there put us to shame. his 99 shew you '? Fellow. Hope. keep on our way. and some digging in it for Treasure . De. Not very dangerous. Geha%i was your Great-Grandfather. Then Chr. as to turn us out of the <vjay De.% I . many in their Pilgrimage ? De. saying. for it hindreth them in their Pilgrimage. if we at all turn aside. he blushed as he spake. and how many is Hopeful go see. have heard of this place /"*. saying. if he hath invitation as nve. Chr. Is not the place dangerous hath it not hindred hos.2o. What thing so deserving.V. Then but the still said Christian to Hopeful. Yes. that Treasure a snare to those that seek it. h 2 . and I will ZHecaiisto Christian «„. . with a little pains. 4. I^ivill Hope.: THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Chr.^^^^^1. our Lord the King will certainly hear thereof and . and a hundred to one but he dies there. Then ? Christian called to Demas. That he also was one of their fraternity and that if they would tarry a little. before now. luhen By-ends comes up.. Then Christian roundly answered. Not I. except but withal.

whether they fell into the Pit by looking over the brink thereof or whether they went down to dig.. tell and looking upon should it. THE PILGRIM!^ PROGRESS. we will do him word Thus they went their way. the other runs. Ah my brother. 14.26. I03 Matth. Assure thyself. Then sang Christian. : so these tnvo and no further go. : By-ends and Si/'ver-T)emAS both agree One calls. . hard which they were both concerned. it came opportunely to us after the invitation which Demas gave us to come over to view the Hill Lucre : and had we gone over . after which. this is a seasonable sight. . by the damps that commonly 10 arise. because of the strangeness of the form thereof. gave them occasion of this : discourse. Now Theyscfa nume>!f' I saw. but could not for a time what they make thereof. Chr. a Traitor. of these things I am not certain But this I observed. they both concluded. steps. By this time By-etids and his companions was come again that within sight. of this thy behaviour. that he may be. that just on the other side of this Plain. a Writing in an unusual hand but he being no Scholar.. that that was the Pillar of 30 Salt into which Lot's Wife was turned for looking back with a covetous heart. upon the head thereof. 20 for it seemed to them as if it had been a Woman transformed Pilgrims to a place came by the High. which sudden and amazing sight. A sharer hi his Lucre 7ake up in this Iforld. and they at the j^Q^^ first beck went over to Demas.s^^^ a devilish prank that thou usest. that they were never seen again in the way. and thou deservest no better reward.way-side. It is Jtt^fl J your Father.r/»De- when we come to the King. called to Christian (for he was learned) so he came. Byends£^«« «. or whether they were smothered in the bottom. Remember Lot's Wife. when she was going from Sodom for safety. i6. and you have trod their but Thy Father was hanged for T^A. At last Hopeful espied written above . the where stood an old Monument. at the sight of into the shape of a Pillar : here therefore they stood looking. and to see if he could pick out the meaning after a little laying of Letters together. Gen. he found the same So he read it to his fellow to be this. 19.

'"' hundred and fifty men. for ought and as thou wast inclining to do (my BroI know. as iOI he desired us. I muse at one thing. for the land of Sodom. I am sorry that I was so foolish. we see. within sight of where they lift are : for they cannot chuse but see her. This therefore provoked him the more to jealousy. 13. Chr. She only looked to . or that will cut Purses under It is Chr. and let I me I had a desire to go see. Dathan. that perished in their sin.9. sinners exceedingly. back. did also 20 become a sign. 10. Let for time to she fell what we see here. after (for we read not that she stept one foot out of the way) was turned into a pillar of Salt .. But above all. but for looking behind her. which this Woman. So Korah. specially since the Judgment which overtook her. was now. is. for our help escaped one Judgment for not by the destruction of Sodom. or example to others to beware. as to them that pick Pockets in the presence of the Judge. 30 their heart wondered at. and am made wonder that I am not now as Lot's Wife for wherein was the difference 'twixt her sin and mine. i. a spectacle for those. a thing to be is . Hope. and it argueth that grown desperate in the case and I cannot tell who to compare them to so fitly. been made ourselves like Woman. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Caution that we should shun her sin. and Abiram. True. that thty were cen. yet she was destroyed us take notice of : come as This woman is . did they but up their eyes. with the two Numb. by another . did make her an example. like the Garden of Eden heretofore. 36. she Hope. that It is said of the men of Sodom. and be ashamed that ever such a thing should be in mine o heart. to wit. how Demas and his fellows can stand so confidently yonder to look for that treasure. or a sign of what judgment will overtake such as shall not be prevented by this caution. . in his because they were sinners before the Lord eyesight and notwithstanding the kindnesses . to us both Caution and Example . and made their plague as hot as the fire that he had ver.that shall come after to behold. and she may be turned into a Pillar of Salt. shewed them. the Gallows. ther) this we had. Let Grace be adored.

yea Leaves. When they awoke. at their Journey's end) they eat and drank. they gathered again of the Fruit of the Trees. that such. John. and that too in despite of such examples that are set continually before them. Now their way lay just upon the bank of the River here therefore Christian and his Ezek. Then they sang hew these Crystal Water of the Thus they did Behold ye (To streams do glide comfort Pilgrims^ by the Highivay side. but to the contrary. They drank also of the water of the River. but what a mercy is it. 30. am not made myself this example this ministreth occasion to us to thank God. I saw then. . : . which Dai'id the King called the Ri-ver of God. "/uyi^dowH I» this Meadow they lay down and slept. yea. and always to remember Lot's Wife. 14. . to fear before him.veadinv beautified with Lilies and it was green all the year long. And it is most rationally to be concluded. Lord out of Heaven could make it. and then lay several down again to sleep. as yet. the Ri-ver of the ijuater of : life. Hope. : A River. besides Yield dainties for them : fragrant smell. that he may buy this Field. So when they were disposed to go on (for they were not. which was pleasant and enlivening to their weary Spirits besides.%2''i-3. //> down safely. that neither thou.: . days and nights. On either side of the River was also a Meadow. and departed. and other Diseases 20 'th^Tr^e""'^^^^ that are incident to those that heat their blood by Travels.'"^2 isa. that bore all manner of Fruit Trees by the and the Icaves of the Trees were good for Medicine. even such as these are. but especially I. that they went on their way to a pleasant lo River. for here they might Rev. to caution them mu^t be partakers of severest Judgments. with ^^6 Fruit of thcsc Trccs they were also much delighted and TheFritit leaves they eat to prevent Surfeits. curiously A . on the banks of this River on either side were green Trees. tell j4nd he that can E^hat pleasant Fruit. 47Companion v/alked with great delight. I02 of the THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Doubtless thou hast said the truth. their ^° The Meadoivs green. that shall sin in the sight. these Trees do yield. Will soon sell all. and drank again of the River. v&.

and their feet tender by reason of their Travels So the soul of the Pilgrims Numb. but the River and the way. mg to my wish said Christian. and were got into the Path. When thev were gone ^'"* """ ' onto/ the 20 over. At which they were not a little sorry. and it grew very dark. did not see what u you so. went after him over the Stile. as mistrusting that he had led him out of the way. but there was none to answer. Wherefore still as they went on. Now the way from the River was rough. "°p=- we now ? Then was his fellow silent. Then said Hopeful. a Meadoiv. To. But behold the night '" '""'* strangers. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. fell into a deep Pit. So they ^^^''^'. which was fafchtL on purpose there made by the Prince of those grounds to ™"'-a''<"-''catch "vain glorious fools withal and was dashed to pieces said.. being perswaded by his l^ayl^ad" fellow. came on."^^. the Calestial Gate. And now it began to and . along by the way on the other side of the fence. for a time. 30 not seeing the way before him. lets go over into By-Patkit. come /or another. doth it not go strong along by the way side ? So Hopeful. and behold a Path lay o^frZn/ta. Where rain. and a Stile to go over into it. 16.Meadoiv. But hoiv if this Path should lead . Now Christian and his fellow heard him fall. good Hopeful. they looking before them. and he went before them. there was on the left hand of the Road. that they had not joumied far. and asked him whither that way led ? . 70 their feet and withal. (and his name was Vain confdenes') so they called after him. here is the easiest going . parted. to know the matter. because of the luay. 4. said Christian. espied a INIan walking as they did. with his fall. I he tell 1 • 11111 9. 10 much discouraged. yet they durst not go out of the way. So they are Rettsoning called.' by this you may see we are right. followed. Hope. and that Meadoiv is called By -Path. they found it very easy for -^'ay. Look. If this Meadow lieth along by our way side. Then he went to the Stile to see. so that they that were behind lost the sight of him that went before. us out of the <ivay? Chr. 'Tis accord. Then said Christian to his fellow. 103 Now 1 beheld in my Dream. He therefore that went before {Fain cotifidence by name) isa. and let us go over. said the other look. they wished for better way. : 21. That's not like.."'"" """^ Wiias . chHstTan "'"^ only they heard a groaning. Now a little before them.

ai. Let the ivay that thou thine heart be toivards the High-ivay. a little shelter. very dreadful manner.}. get again Wherefore. said Hopeful. for your mind lieve too. I am sorry I have lo "oi'uading o/hisBro- way. that if there be any danger. Chr. would have spoke plainer. No. because by my means we 20 are both gone out of the way.I04 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. they had like to have been drowned nine or ten times. I did not do it of an evil intent. if you please.. time the Waters were greatly risen. I am glad I have with me a merciful Brother. with to the Stile that night. let me go first. but Oh I how they afresh Do thereby plunge thejnselves }ieTv grieves into : Who seek to f lease the Flesh. but that you are Chr. / older than Christians ivas afraid on^t at 'very first. that this shall be . than going in . jytf P-i'/^'ru/:s . I. their jer. brought thee out of the way. at last. tum But by this the way when we are in. and the 3° flood was so high. Hope.) ^ Yet they adventured to go back but it was so dark. and therefore ga've you that gentle caution. may lead you out of the ivay again. Hope. themselves undo. dangtr of frXv'rf iaci. ^yoz/ shall not go first. Then for encouragement. But we must not stand thus let's try to go back again. lighting till under . 31. (Then I thought that it is easier going out of again. they heard the voice of one saying. Chr. that in their going back. lo there the day brake but gratify the FUsh. being troubled. when we are out. the M'ay of going back was very dangerous. IV{U seei its ease. I may be first therein. all the skill they had. Hope. Oh that I had kept Who could have thought that this path should have led us out of the way 1 ? Hope. by reason of which. even ivcntest. they sat 1 down now. and lighten rose amain. in a thunder. and the water in himself. on Then Hopeful groaned my •way ! Chr. No. Be comforted my Brother for I forgfve thee. But good Brother let tne go before. Neither could they. eminent danger. and that 1 have put thee into gu(. and be- for our good. pray my Brother forgive me. saying. Good Brother be not offended.

he getteth him a grievous Crab-tree Cudgel. caught and Hopeful asleep in his grounds. because 'twas through his unadvised haste that they were drink. into a very dark Dungeon. and cast them into his Dutigeon. and goes down into the Dungeon to them and there. and it was in his grounds ^P'^'""they now were sleeping. Now there was not far from ThtysUtpin the place where they lay. " 1 . nasty and stinking to the spirit of these two men. the ''"cZutl owner whereof was Giant Despair. from Wednesday morning till The Grin"tiuw^mpri- Saturday night. wherefore he getting up in the and walking up and down in his Fields. and were brought into this distress. for they fore drove knew themselves in a fault. that he had taken a couple of Prisoners. because he was stronger than they. Then he asked her also what he had best to do further to them. is. They were from friends and Now in this place. to say. Despair had a Wife. Christian . or drop of ^'""""''• 20 therefore here acquaintance. . first falls to rateing of them as if they were dogs. . as. . they were Pilgrims. 10 way. You have this night trespassed on me. or Despair withdraws and he This done. So she asked him what they were. they fell asleep.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. . called Doubting-Castle. Here then they lay. by trampling in. or any to ask in evil <5ase. and therefore you must go along with me. Then with a Hejinds grim and surly voice he bid them awake. to turn them upon the floor. although they gave him never a word of distaste then he falls upon them. They also had but little morning early. and he told her then she 30 and whither they were bound counselled him. he should beat them. and her name was DifSo when he was gone to bed. and asked them ^'^'"'Jj j"^ whence they were ? and what they did in his grounds ? Thev carrieuhem lo Doubting J told him. without any mercy. : . X'^^wrt. to wit. Giatit Now fidence. . 105 being weary. o« Thursday Giant m such sort. and beats them fearfully. So when he arose. whence they came. Then said the Giant. and lying on my grounds. and that they had lost their castu. and put them into his Castle. . . far ps. or any light. for trespassing on his grounds. that when he arose in the morning. . ' . that they were not able to help themselves. how they did. So they were forced to go. without one bit of bread. The Giant therethem before him. he told his Wife what he had done. Christian had double sorrow. a Castle. .

(as before) to consider what to do. and the Grave is more easy for me than this Dungeon. . <w hit her for certain life.io6 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Halter. did advise him to counsel them. Thou shalt do no murther. that Job 7. said Christian. Christian under their distress. that all the Law is not in the . he goes to them in a surly manner. is to kill and soul at once. he that kills another. and death to abide. Then did the Prisoners consult between themselves. far more welcome us consider. we now is live is miserable. The next night she talking with her Husband about them further. And. said he. but hast thou forgotten the Hell. ivould be Indeed our present condition to is dreadful. and to On Friday Giant Despair COUft' sets them to kill themstives. Besides. forthwith to make an end of themselves. Shall we be ruled by the best. for my part I know not whether hand ? My soul ehooseth strangling rather than life. but that he fell into one of his fits (for he sometimes in sun-shine weather fell into fits) and lost (for a time) the use of his hand wherefore he withdrew. to live thus. or Poison For why. hath said. hand of Giant in the Grave . or to die out of Giant Hopeful comforts ? Hope. and perceiving them to be very sore with the stripes that he had given them the day before. 15. and left them. seeing it is attended with so much bitterness. the me than thus for ever But yet person . Tht Giant sometimes hat fits. my Brother. had doubtless made an end of them himself. there to condole their misery. mourn leaves them. should you chuse life. the murderers let go ? for no murderer hath eternal us consider again. and understanding that they were yet alive. So all that day they spent the time in nothing but sighs and bitter lamentations. and rushing to them. But they desired him to let them go with that he looked ugly upon them. their only way 10 would be. whether 'twas best 20 to take his counsel or no and thus they began to discourse. that since they were never like to come out of that place. no not to another man's much more then are ive forbidden to take his counsel to kill ourselves. And moreover. as before. : : crushed. either with Knife. let Lord of the Country to which we are 30 going. cannot but . he told them. him. Chr. thou talkest of ease etc. what shall we do ? the life : . So when morning was come. commit body murder upon his body but for one to kill himself. Brother. to make away themselves.

it should be worse with them than if they had never been born. but honuthe time o ever. Now Christian again christian seemed to be for doing it. and I think that Christian fell into a Swound but coming a little to himself again. alive was all for now.. at some time or other he may forget or. so T07 far as I can that understand. ha've been taken by htm. he found them alive at which he fell into a grievous rage. as followeth. terror. and let's to my part. I am resol'ved to pluck up try my utmost to get from under his it hand. Others. but he may in short time before us. they renewed their discourse about the Giant's counsel and whether yet they had best to take it or no. die or that. I I ivas a fool that I did not try to do before : . Apollyon could not crush _ thee. : . 30 Hope. . and may lose the use of his have another of his fits limbs . and endure a luhile may come may give us a happy release: but let With these words Hopeful at murderers. so they continued together (in the dark) that day. what for want of Bread and Water. made the ivorld may cause that Giant Despair may lock us in . towards evening the Giant goes down into the Dungeon again. as nvell as ive . said he. seest that I am in the : and art thou noiv nothing but fear ? Thou Dungeon ivith thee. onvn my Brother. Well. At this they trembled greatly. "'"''"'i' all that thou didst hear. and by reason of the Wounds they received when he beat them. they 20 could do little but breathe. and if e'ver that should come to pass again. to see if his Prisoners had taken his counsel but when he came there. and amazement hast thou t/nnsrs to re- already gone through. I say. But. for the heart of a man. in their sad and doleful condition. and yet ha've escaped out of his hand. My Brother. a far aveaker man by also this Giant has ivounded nature than thou art thee. and truly. or feel in the Falley of the Shadonu ^ •' former of Death. What hardship. remembrest thou not hoiv valiant Hopeful thou hast been heretofore. and told them. us not be our present did moderate the mind of his Brother. knonvs but that Who to God . that be patient. afjd me as avell as hath also cut off the Bread and Wtcter from my mouth . nor could "I'm ''•' again. he found them alive. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. that seeing they had disobeyed his counsel. and luith thee I mourn ^without the light : but let's exercise a little . or see. Despair. but Hopeful made his second reply ''''''^'^"'"' .

These. said she. and make them week comes to an end. e're a in pieces. good Christian. sayest thou so. my dear ? said the Giant. Go get you down to 20 your Den again and with that he beat them all the way thither. thou also wilt tear them themselves. the Giant goes to them again. Then thou hast done their fellows before them. the Giant. that they live in hope that some will come to relieve them. and takes them into the Castle-yard. and when Mrs. were Pilgrims as you are. as one half bosom called amazcd. and the Giant and his Wife being in bed. and continued in Prayer till almost break of day. they began to renew their discourse of their Prisoners and withal. l<^ And. bring them to an end. Now when night was come. lo8 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. she asked him concerning the Prisoners. as before. So when the morning was come. more patience. They lay therefore all day on Saturday in a lamentable case. that he could neither by his blows. have done and when I thought fit. What a fool. and shews them o« Saturday as his Wife had bidden him. I tore them in pieces 'h^woidd^ puuthem and so within ten days I will do you. I will therefore search them in the morning.^'a«v Lock in ! 1 ha-ve a Key called Promise. they chuse rather to bear all hardship than : to make away the Castle-yard to morrow. as Take them into lo them the Bones and Skulls thou hast already dispatch'd. were got to bed. avhen I may as ivell Sf. nor counsel. and they trespassed in my grounds as you tkrta^md. or that they have pick-locks about them by the means of which they hope to escape. and if they had taiien his counsel To which he replied. . . nor yet of bloody Death : 'wherefore let us (at least to avoid the shame. ^ Key in Now a little beforc it was day. Diffidence and her Husband. that becomes not a Christian <ivell to be found in) bear up (with patience as as <we can. I fear. said he. qvalk at liberty in my i •' i J bosom.. They are sturdy Rogues. and ivast neither afraid of the Chain nor Cage . said she. the old Giant wondered. : . and show of those that believe. Now night being come again. once. Well. Remember honv thou playedst the man at Vanity Fair. brake out in this passionate Speech. Doubting CeutU. . on Saturday about midnight they began to pray. And with that his Wife replied. quoth ^^' ^"^ ^ ^^"^ ^° ^^ '" ^ stinking Dungeon.

Many therefore that followed after. Then said Hopeful. Then Christian pulled it out of his bosom. Now when they were gone over the they began to Stile.'tf„l'! . made such a creaking. then. Stile. from falling into the hands of Giant Despair. oi^aLT""'' which we have spoken before. . f. but that Gate. and came to the King's high-way again. So they consented to erect there a puiar a Pillar. that it waked Giant Despair. Whose Castle's Doubting. Then they went on. Lest heedlessness makes them. for that must be 10 opened too. Key make their escape with speed. to behold the Gardens and Orchards. that leads into the Castle yard. ivhich is kept by Giant Despair. and to engrave upon the side thereof O^ier this Stile chr[sfia*n "'"^'"^ is the M'^ay to Doubting-Castle. open any Lock in Doubting Castle. as ive. good Brother pkick it out of thy at the bosom and try.They are retains. contrive with themselves what they should do at that 20 to prevent those that should come after. to fare then ive the 'Way woe ivent. and escaped the danger.: THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. so they went up to the Moun. whose bolt (as he turned the Key) gave came out. so that he could by no means go after them. and Christian and Hopeful both Then he went to the outward door . and the door flew open with ease. for trespassing. who hastily rising to pursue his Prisoners. but that did open it . and with his Key opened the door also. (who despiseth the King of the Ccelestial Country. That's good news . yet the Lock went damnable then they thrust open the Gate to ' him again. his prisoners are. and seeks to destroy his holy Pilgrims. and began to try Dungeon door. and What 'tivas to tread upo7i forbidden Lest they. they came to the Delectable Moun- T>te detect- which Mountains belong to the Lord of that Hill. and so were because they were out of his Jurisdiction. the Vineyards. for his fits took hard. safe. that fwill. This done. 109 I am persuaded. back. they sang as follows. and nvhose name's Despair. Out of 30 found ground : ^K</ let them that come after have a care. til! They went tains. read what was written. as it opened. After he went to the Iron Gate. felt his Limbs to fail.

and Fountains of water. Is the ivay safe. and said. whose names were Knowledge. I saw also in my Dream. 13. I Welcome to the delectable Mountains. they looked very lovingly TAe shep. Whence came you ? and. I Mountains delectable they now ascend. do shew their face 30 on these Mountains. being pleased therewith. These IMountains are ImmanueTs Land. The Namts of the shep- ^hc Shepherds. How got you into the way ? and. The Lord of these Mountains hath given us a charge. and faint in the ivay ? Shep. upon them . Not to be forgetful to entertain strangers : Therefore the good of the place is even before you. when they stand to talk with any by the way. and he lo laid down his life for them. Too far for any but those that indeed. (to which they made answer as in other places. Whose delectable Mountains are these 1 and ivhose be the sheep that feed upon them ? Shep. (as is common with weary Pilgrims. that when the Shepherds perceived that they were way-faring men. where and washed themselves.110 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. which to them do commend Alluring things. and things that cautious are. Is this the ivay to the Ccelestial City ? Shep. You are just in your way. 14.) they asked. and did freely eat of the Vineyards. Where Shepherds be. was on the tops of these Mountains Shepherds feeding their flocks. 2. shall get thither Chr. Safe for those for gressors shall fall therein.) as. but trans- Chr. II. also they drank. they also put questions to them. Now there Talk -with htrds'^ johmo. 1. and they are within sight of his City. and they stood by the high-way side ^ The Pilgrims therefore went to them. " say. But when the Shepherds heard their answers. and leaning upon their staves. Hos. cZnetZm. lueary Is there in this place relief for Pilgrims that are 20 Heb. and the sheep also are his. Chr. or dangerous ? is Shep. whom any it to be safe. Pilgrims are steady kept by faith and fear. Expe'- . By what means have you so persevered therein? For but few of them that begin to come hither. How far is it thither ? Shep. Chr. 9. .

.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. several men walking up and down among the Tombs that were there. and saw '"J^'^^ the bottom. Did you not see a little below these Mountains a Stile that led into a Meadow on . And they perceived that the men were blind. that you see lie Then said the Shepherds.. and because they could not get out from among them. Then said Christian. We would that you should stay here a while. Watchful. and walked Then said a while. they perceived as they thought. They said moreover. which was ^^. because they stumbled sometimes upon the Tombs. 17." very steep on the furthest side. Ill them by the hand. They told them. and the name of that is Caution . as concerning the Faith of the Resurrection of the Yes. Which when they did. or how they come too near the brink of this Mountain.<' V"""' . What meaneth Have you not heard of 20 this ? The Shepherds answered them that were made to err. they Thiy an ""«• had them first to the top of an Hill called Error. having a pleasant prospect on every side. Then 1 saw in my Dream that in the morning the Shep10 herds called up Christian and Hopeful to walk with them upon the Mountains. Then I saw that they had them to the top of another 30 Mountain. Shall we shew these Pilgrims some wonders ? So when they had concluded to do it. r'lence. at the bottom several men dashed all to pieces by a fall that they had from the top. and Sincere. are they: and they have continued to this day unburied (as you see) for an example to others to take heed how they clamber too high. Philetus. So they went forth with them. took them to their Tents. because it was very late. That they were content to stay and so they went to their rest that night. e. What means this The Shepherds then answered. Then said Christian. Body? Those They answered. and yet more to solace yourselves with the good of these delectable Mountains. and bid them look afar off. . and had and made them partake of that which was ready at present. by hearkening to Hymeneus and = Tim.'. the Shepherds one to another. and bid them look down to ntMounSo Christian and Hopeful lookt down. this dashed in pieces at the bottom of Mountain. to be acquainted with us.

and to another place. he at last did put out their eyes. What means this ? The Shepherds told them. after they had a while been kept in the Dungeon. where he has left them to wander to this very day that the saying of the wise Man might be fulfilled.. in my Dream. and bid them look in. Yes. A iy-u. they also thought that they heard there a rumbling noise as of fire. but yet said Then I saw .iy toiieu. with Alexander: and that lie and dissemble. as you do now. saying. gushing out. and smoaky. and there were taken by Giant Despair. and these men (pointing to them among the Tombs) came once on Pilgrimage. this is ^ By-way to Hell. 21. Then these said Hopeful to the Shepherds. a way that Hypocrites go in at. and saw that within it was very 20 dark. Then said the Pilgrims one to another. with Esau: such as sell their Master. . had they not ? Shep. Hope. . Hope. Some further. and led them among those lo Tombs. 112 the left THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. such as sell their Birth-right. prom that Stile there goes a path that leads Prov. which is kept by Giant Despair. e'ven every one. Yes. even till they came to that same Stile. that the Shepherds had them where was a door in the side of an Hill and they opened the door. and a cry of some tormented. How far might they go on Pilgrimage in their dayy since they notwithstanding <were thus miserably cast away ? Shep. in a bottom. and cast into Doubting-Castle where. with Judas: such as blaspheme the Gospel. / percei-ve that 59 had on them. Then tears Christian and Hopeful looked one upon another. with nothing to the Shepherds. hand of this way ? They answered. they chose to go out of it into that INIeadow. Then said Christian. directly to Doubting-Castk. and some not so far as these Mountains. and held it a long time too. namely. We had need cry to the Strong for strength. with Ananias and Sapphira his wife. They looked in therefore. that they smelt the scent of Brimstone. Then said the Shepherds. t6. And because the right way was rough in that place. a shewo of Pilgrimage as nve have now . He that • ivandereth out of the ivay of understanding shall remain in the Congregation of the dead.

things hid. and the fourth. and also some of the Glory of the place. But find some ho^zv do you think to get in at the Gate. time the Pilgrims had a desire to go forwards. Shep. a christian little on the left hand and I am going to the Coelestial City. . Then said the Shepherds one to another.. accepted the ^j^^^. and saw the same two Mountains along the High-way towards the City.^"" motion: so they had them to the top of an high Hill. from which Country TheCcntry there comes into the way in which the Pilgrims walked. and so they walked together towards the end of the Mountains. Here therefore they met with a very™""iR"°brisk Lad. a j^f^^"^'. From <vjhat parts he came Ig7iorance. Which from all other nun are kept conceaVd: Come to the Shepherds then. ranee Aa°A And awoke from my Dream. lieth the Country of Conceit. 20 When they were about to depart.^ 30 little crooked Lane. The ''"""'"" upon the Inchanted Ground. Then they essayed cielr. "3 when you have will have need to use it too. that came out of that Country and his name was So Christian asked him. on the left hand. I slept. by means of which impediment they could not look steadily The/rmto/ through the Glass yet they thought they saw something like '^"''^'^l""' the Gate. if you ivould see Things deep. one of the Shepherds tiote gave them a of the ivay. Sir. but the remembrance of that last thing that the Shepherds had shewed them made their hand shake. The skip. bid them God speed. and that mysterious be. and gave them their Glass to look. Another of them bid them beivare a third. and you it. Let us here shew to the Pilgrims the Gates of the Coelestial City.? . Chr. and ivhither he ivas going ? Ign. Ihus by the Shepherds. Now a little below these Mountains. lovingly spective Glass. and dreamed Pilgrims going down the . So I again.' THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. . called -r'""lo Clear. Ay. Secrets are re'veaVd. for you may '"'""'''* difficulty there ? I . bid thetn take heed that they sleep not hvo-/oi<i of the flatterer. The Pilgrims then to look. if they have skill to look through our Perthis By the Shepherds a desire they should . I was born in the Country that lieth off there..

admittance into the City. and therefore Ifear. Ihere is more hopes of Pr 26. since we have. When Christian saw that the man was wise in his own conceit. and then stop again for him afterwards. Ign. But thou earnest not in at the Wicket-gate. Chr. I know you be content to follow the Religion of your Countr)-. EccL 10. instead of getting I . God saith. him? or out-go him at present? and so leave him to think of what he hath heard already. think. But The ground have you to shenv at that Gate. thou ivilt have laid to thy lo charge that thou art a Thief and a Robber. 'thath"is a "Ot . that comes down 20 from our Country the next way into it. shall we talk further with ^^ a fool. It to a fool. And said moreover When he that is a fool Himtocatiry qjoalketh by the ivay. ye be utter strangers to me. that is at the head of this nvay . As other good People do. to and him lest not refuse Good Counsel Still imbrace. 3<» Let Ignorance a little 'while nonv let muse On luhat is said. his ivisdom faileth him. to say all .114 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. ho'we'ver thou may est think of thyself. he said to Hopeful whisperingly. all the World knows I cannot think that that is a great way off of our Country. said he. and fool. and see if by degrees we can do any good of him ? j_^^ Then said Ho^e/«/. P^y every man his own I Pray. . I hope all will be well. I know my Lords will. that ? may cause that the Gate should be opened to you ranSs /. And as for the Gate that you talk of. I ^viii follow the Religion of mine. that any man in all our parts doth so much as know the way to it nor need they matter whether they do or no. ^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^^ What. and I have been a good liver. ^jjbat Ign.('A. Those that rw understanding have {^Although he made them) them he It is <will not save. 12. Fast. he remain Ignorant of ivhat 's the chiefest gain. 3. and give Alms. He further added. thou earnest in hither through that same crooked Lane . Gentlemen. and have left my Country for whither I am going. pay Tithes. CriR. a fool than of him. and he saith to Heiaithio Ign. not good. I Hope. iv/xn the reckoning day shall come. a fine pleasant green Lane. as you see.

^^. (for he was loth to lose his Money. (three brothers) and they espying Little-Faith where he was. Little faith Littie-Faith lookt as white as a Clout. where they met a man whom seven Devils had bound with seven strong'^rt.. Wanto7i Professor. to down there and slept. Guilt with a great Club "siniy'lnd that was in his hand. 12. and was getting up So they came all up to him. to him at once. 45^' ^"'' ""^ : The destmc xu'm^wTy.) Mistrust ran up to him.^ Christian to his Fellow. Broad-waybecause of the Murders that are commonly done there. But he did not perfectly see his face. strook Little-Faith on the head. Sturdy Rogues. Thieves. Then he cried They got out. so called. thieves. and were carrying of him back to the door that they saw in the side of the Hill. e'ven as he is able to bear it. Then said Famt-heart. pull'd out thence a bag of Silver. as we do now. they entered into a very dark Lane. making no haste to do it.. Hopeful looked after him. this Little-Faith going on Pilgrimage. At this. and thrusting his hand into his Pocket. and with 30 to go on his Journey. So they both went on. if 115 you will. let us pass him by. and had neither power to fight pain'. and espied on his back a Paper with this InscripThen said tion. Now good Christian began to tremble. Christian 10 looked to see if he knew him. chanced •^'""'• to sit time. for he did hang his head like a Thief that is found. when they had Matt. 1 I 2 . but a good man. and*"^^*'*"" ) . and Ignorance he came after. and damnable Apostate.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. But being gone past. at that come down that Lane from Broad-way-gate three . Purse but he W'strust nor fly. Now there happened. and their names were Faint-heart Mistrust. and he thought it might be one Turn-away that dwelt in the Toww of Apostacy.. and talk to him anon. Now I call to . and Guilt. threatening Language bid him stayid. With that. Deliver thy ' J a«rf Guilt. The thing 20 was this at the entering in of this passage there comes down from Broad-way-gate a Lane called Dead-man^ s-lane . And^^^. and he dwelt in the Town of Sincere. came galloping up with speed. christian remembrance that companion which was told me of a thing that happened to a good man '^ftfj^^p^th hereabout. Now passed him a little way. The name of the man was Little-Faith.. Now the good man was just awaked from his sleep. and so did Hopeful his Companion yet as the Devils led away the man.

) '"-*' ""'• beg. scarce enough to bring him to his Journeys end Little-Faith \ was not mls-informcd) he was forced to beg as he went. That he made but of his his little use of it all the rest of the way . but they got not that: though they Thi"gshy 'cunnZ 2 Tim. by ivhich he luas to receife his admittance at the C(elestial gate 1 He'ktttnot Chr. 4 i8. 1. and do what he could. But tThis joifr.Il6 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. when at any time. and This was getting up. the story. the good For the Thieves got most of his spending Money. it }?iust needs be a comfort to him. and left this good man to shift for himself. where he lay bleeding as one that would bleed to death. (if Pet. they hearing that some were upon the Road. him. ficate. Little-faith came to himself. (for his Jewels he might not sell. 1. . and he began to be comforted therewith. That which they got not (as I said) were Jewels. also he had a little odd Money left. said. I was told. and fearing lest it should be one Great-grace that dwells in the City of Good-confidence. Hope. But did they take from him all that e^er he had? Chr. it a great part of the rest of the Journey and besides. 1 . it came into mind. No the place where his Jewels were. had neither power nor skill to hide any thing so 'twas more by good Providence than by his endeavour. to keep himself alive. used it It as might have been great comfort to him. Hope. But wPet. : All this while the Thieves stood by but at last. and that because of the dismay that he had in their taking away Money : indeed he forgot . then would . for he being dismayed with their coming upon him. he ivent (as we say) ivith many 20 a hungry belly. But is it not a <wonder they got not from him his Certi- ransack'd. they never : lo best thing's. the most part of the rest of the way. Chr. made shift to scrabble on his way. 14 his. but as. but nay. man was much afflicted for his loss. Now after a while. fell'd with that blow him flat to the ground. had he he should but they that told me the story. mist it 'Tis a wonder. that they mist of that good : not through any good cunning of thing. so those he kept still . that they got not 30 this Jenjoel from 9. they betook themselves to their heels. Little-Faith lost not his Hope.

to be robbed and wounded too. would it not have been so to any of us. or pawning some of his Jewels. his Jewels were not accounted of. IVhy Birth-right. the way as he went. as also that Caitiff did. and also betwixt their Estates. but Little faith' Jewels were not so. Thieves. and that he hardly . that he might have luherewith to relie've himself in his Journey. and that Birthivas his greatest Jeivel . and so do many ^ rtisco. and those a great grief He u fitted by both. Grief! grief. as he was ? 'Tis a wonder he did not die with that he scattered almost all Chr. had we been used as he. Thou 1 1 to this very day ) \ ' . Esau's Birth-right was typical. and if he. escaped with life. and what he lost how he was wounded.<rse by so doing. Alas . was Robbed. and that in a strange place. one upon whose head is the Shell christian For what should he pawn them ? or to^"^/**'^^^" In all that Country where he ««««''''«'' 20 whom should he sell them ? speaking. and .•'*'"' blessing. and how who they were that did it. Hope. Chr. again upon him. a grief indeed.I- poor Man ! this could not but be Ay. <why might not Littletoo i:. Esau besides. thoughts would swallow up unto htm. Telling also to in over-took him. ence betwixt Esau and Little-faith. had his Jewels been missing at the Gate of the Coelestial City. But a -wonder that his necessities did not put him upon selling. 30 right Faith do so art thou so tart my Brother f Esau sold his Heb and that for a mess of Pottage . exclude themselves from the chief |^„"'Li. Hope. the rest of the way with nothing that 10 but doleful and bitter complaints.Esau was ^'•' Esau's want lay in his fleshly . or that he over-took . poor heart ! I was all told."/^'^ *-^ faith's belly was not so.? s THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. 'tis Hope. Esau's belly was his God.tie" But you must put a differ. he had (and that he knew well enough) been excluded from an Inheritance there and that would have been worse to him than the appearance and villany of ten thousand talkest like : Chr. fresh thoughts of his loss 117 come all. ^ did sell his Birth-right indeed. .. :«. nor did he want that relief which could from thence be administred to him besides. where he was robbed. but Little.

and his 10 Soul and all. / acknonuledge it. it is with the Ass. pawn. appetite. Esau could see no further than to the point to die.ii8 Gen.. such. was upon things that were Spiritual. cannot do so. if where the flesh only bears sway (as it will in that Man where no faith is to resist) if he sells his Birth-right. and all shall be well betwixt that are of the brisker sort. or sell what they have. saving faith. will who paths with the shell upon their heads : thee and me. Why. But Little-faith was of another temper. Esaus Pot'"ere. Besides. For I am at the Esau never had/aith. is thy mistake. though but a little of it. than to sell them. as Esau did his Birth-right. and that to the Devil of Hell for it is with said he. Chr. and themselves outright to boot. 2. You read not any where that Esau had faith. . Christian. like the Croq. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. and have yielded ivhen there <u>as no remedy. his mind was on things Divine his livelihood . no not so much as a little. as aivay. 3s. are but a company of Coivards : ivould they have run else. Hope. These three fellonvs. and from above. Jer. though it was his lot to have but a little faith. and luhat good avill this Birth-right do me ? But Little-faith. and made to see and prize his Jewels more. . or mortgage. fulfilling of his Lusts. they w'ill have them whatever they cost. Here therefore. at the noise of one that ivas coming on the road ? Why did not Little-faith pluck up a greater heart f He might. methinks. I am persnvaded in heart. Little-faith^ s did not so. Therefore no marvel. but yet your severe reflection had almost made me angry. (had there been any that would have bought them) to fill his mind with empty things ? Will a man give a penny with hay ? or can you perswade the Turtle-do-ve 20 upon Carrion. But my Hopeful raiaggers.v ? 'Yhowgh. my Brother. to fill A compart his belly son hehveeii the Turtledove ctnd to live the Crow. Therefore to what end should he that is of such a temper sell his Jewels. I did but compare thee to some of the Birds run to and fro in trodden but pass by that. Hope. faithless ones. as they did. think you. -it. 24. yet they that have faith. Who in her occasions cannot be turned Little-Faith could not live ufon When their minds are set upon their Lusts. and 30 consider the matter under debate. was by his little faith kept from such extravagances. can for carnal Lusts. have stood one brush ivith them.

they are but Journeymen-Thieves. Well. and has and can. If it had been he. «-<.. but he that hath been in the Battle himself. they 10 serve under the King of the Bottomless pit who. have and then to yield. was.8. Chr. so long as he keeps them at Sword's point. hadst thou been the Man 1 . As for a great heart. 5. and therefore he went to the walls. do well enough with them: yet if they get within him. I was cloathed with Armour of proof. . and yet though I was so harnessed. some are some have little: this man was . have given my life for a penny but that. but they ran. And verily. and I found it a terrible thing. True. as God would have it. That though Great-grace is excellent good at his Weapons. they have often fled. should they <"". . if need be. and in came their INIaster. he might have had his hands full. or the other. thou art but for a brush.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Great-grace hath but appeared. many have said. concerned. and no marvel. as the saying is. ivhen they did but suppose that one Great-grace ivas in the <way. even Faint-heart. do such feats of War as he. for their sokes. These three Villains set exptrun^in upon me. Chr. '^cZlwhere Little-faith had none and I perceive by thee. '*<»« appear to thee. / ivould it had been Great-grace. "['J'/l^l^' . I found it hard work to quit myself like a man no man can tell what in that Combat attends 20 us. Mistrust. Hope. """'*"'"• between Little-faith and the King's Champion . they gave '''"^ '^""• but a call. and his voice is as the roaring Pet. all the King's Subjects are not his Champions nor can they. Is it meet to think that a little child when : should handle Goliah as Da-vid did 30 the strength of an ? or that there should be Ox in a fVren ? weak. will come in to their aid himself. but i&-\NNogrtat it so in the time of Trial. when tried. But consider again. you will put some difference rht a. some have great faith. Ay. both they and their Master. Hope.£-s the King's Champion.. I myself have been engaged as this Little-faith christian of a Lion. one of the weak. for he is But I tro. For I must tell you. That they are Cowards. they might put thee to ayei>tT second thoughts. you see. I would. as they did to him. have found 119 Chr. since this is the height of thy ^'""^^"n Stomach now they are at a distance from us. my brother. it shall Some are strong. and I beginning like a Christian to resist.

mourn.. that shall easily give demonstration of what I say. Heman. and had notable things. you know what can he do. that notwithstanding. and Hezekiah too. he laugheth at the shaking of a Spear. And when a man is down. What can a man do in : . I20 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. the thundring of the Captains. Yea once I heard he should say. go hard but they will throw up his heels. sturdiness^. shall see those Scars and Cuts there. neither belienjeth he that it is the sound of the Trumpet. ha and he smelleth the Battel afar off. let us never desire to meet with an enemy. and goeth out to He mocketh at fear. not be afraid as the Grashopper. i6. The ^'^"^^ ?/" ^''"^i ^^^^ loyeth at him cannot hold the Spear. Slingstones are 20 turned ^uith him into stubble. they had their lo Coats soundly brushed by them. (and that when he was in the Combat) We despaired even of life How did these sturdy Rogues and their Fellows make Daind groan. he is never out of hearing and if at any time they be put to the worst. and roar ? Yea. For terrible. the glory of his Nostrils . He saith among the Trumpets. Job 39. 'The Arro'W cannot make him fiie. for such . He snuallonxieth the 30 ground nvith fierceness and rage. Peter upon a time would go try what he could do but. their King is at their Whistle. meet the armed men. comes in to help them. and courage to ride him.. The quii<er rattleth against him. and is not affrighted. he paweth in the Valley. though Champions in their day. Whoso looks well upon Great-grace's face. rejoyceth in his strength. were forced to bestir them. the glittering Spear. when by these assaulted. Besides. But for such footmen as thee and I are. Ha. he might do his neck is clothed ivith Thunder. the Dart. and yet. ij. nor vaunt as if we could do better.. Darts are counted as stubble. And of him it is said. skill if a man could at every turn have Job^s will mlttuthat'is <•« Horse. that they made him at last afraid of a sorry Girl. Tieither turneth back from the Sivord. they handled him so. and the shoutings. he. . though some do say of him that he is the Prince of the Apostles. and the shield. Job 41. if possible. when we hear of others that they have been foiled. he is Job's Hcrse. nor be tickled at the thoughts of our own manhood. this case ? 'Tis true. nor the Habergeon. and Brass as rotten Wood. He esteemeth Iron as Straiv.

isa. two things become us to do first to go : : . 20 selves against us. out Harnessed. i. Abo-ve all take the Shield of Faith. Poor Little-faith! 30 JVast robb'd! Hast been among this. 15. Witness Peter. 3. and here they knew not which of"'""-^" the two to take. yield. rather for dying where he stood. For indeed. though I fear we are not got beyond all danger. 4. i6. 2. the proud helpers fall under the slain. than all men But who so foiled. s. I hope God will also deliver us from the next uncircumcised Philistine. when his in the Valley of the This made Da'vid rejoyce Shadow of Death and Moses was . He would swagger. edIi. if he will but go along with us. 33. Glad shall be. 121 commonly come by the worst when tried. shall then a Victor be over three. than to go one step without God. conZy'!^ ex. as his vain mind prompted him to say. he fears us not at Therefore he that had hath said.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. for both seemed straight before them theretill . of whom I made mention before. if meet with no more such brunts. ten thousand. 10. O my Brother. do better. but without him. Ay he would He would. and seemed withal to lie as straight as the -/ v-ay way which they should go. the Thieves? Remember Who so believes And Over gets more faith. that he that laid so lustily at Le-viaihan o could not make him all. skill. as he ? When therefore we hear that such Robberies are done on the King's High-way. and stand more for his Master. that be wanting. p^. They went then they came at a place where they savv a ivay put itself into their 'voay. I ^°^''°- for my I part have been in the fray before now.vhere^mth ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the ^wicked. 3. 'Tis good also that we desire of the King a Convoy. since the Lion and the Bear hath not as yet devoured me. 27. e. and Ignorance followed. ana . However. year/jfooor that he will go with us himself. For it was for want of I that. else scarce So they went on. and though is (through the goodness of him that alive I : best) I am as you See I yet cannot boast of my manhood. n. and to be sure to take a Shield with if us. 6. and run down by these Villains. what need we be afraid of ten thousands that shall set them- ps.

A shining lay bcwailing themselves I ha-ve kept me from the Paths of the destroyer. and let the men out. Thcu self in Said Christian to his fellow. Ouc comiug towards them. by a black man. Follow me. Thus they At last they espied in the Net.. cloathed in white. that I may set you in your . Then said he to them. But by and by. the aN^t!" ivhite robe fell off the black man's back . Follow me. They were going to the Coelestial City. for it is Prov. And as they were but "" covered with a very light Robe. that hath transformed himself into an Angel of light. in which they were both so entangled that they knew not what to do and with that. ? flatterers Prov. Concerning the ivorks of men. 29. a false Apostle. still fore here they stood Thtflatuycr to consider. for our more sure finding thereof: but therein we have also forgotten to read. . 122 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. came to them and asked them. for " thinking about the way. follow him he was going thither too. yet they followed lo him. 17. They also gave us a note of directions about the v*y. Now do I see my an error. They bewail 'tions!"'"^' Chr. but were led out of their way. who bid us. So he rent the Net. s. 29. but knew not which of these ways to take.5. Then said he with the Whip. fcor"i'i. 4- Hope.0 Sion. said the man. so we have : found it this day a Net for his feet. by the nvord of thy lips. for saith he. Did not the Shepherds bid us beware of the As is the saying of the Wise man. spreadeth 20 Vs. it is thither that Christian So they followed him in the way that but now I am going. "tliem'nitha ^ shiuiug u>hipiHhis hand. he led them They are both within the compass of a Net. and turned them so from the City that they desired to go to. . A man that flattereth his Neighbour. Why they stood there? They answered.^3. that in little time their faces were turned away from it. with a whip of small cord in his hand. and have not kept ourselves from the Here David was wiser than we Paths of the destroyer. When he was come to the place where 30 they were. '• Flatterer. then they saw where they were. before they were aware. came into the road. which by degrees turned. said they. That they were poor Pilgrims going 1. they could not get themselves out. Wherefore there they lay crying sometime. He asked them whence they came? and what they did there ? They told him. '\owdltIded. behold a man black of flesh.

which they had to follow the Flatterer. to teach 1^^°"' them the good way wherein they should walk. Then back said Christian to his fellow. Yes. he chastised them sore. which when they did. and at last came up unto them. I rebuke and chasten. Now softly after a while. Rev. saying. so he led them back to the way. He asked them why ? They said they forgot. but yet They're scourg'd to boot: Let this you see your caution off. said he. herds upon the delectable Mountains. They said. pluck out and read your note ? They answered. and take good heed to the other directions of ]'j*/^'^^j^^y the Shepherds. that go astray t They catched are in an intangling Net.:. If the Shepherds did not bid them 10 beware of the Flatterer? They answered. 3. I see him. What is the meaning of your Laughter? Atheist. way left 123 again . they perceived afar all one coming and alone. This done. He Laughs Chr. to . But we d\A Dtcdvtrs not imagine. Sion. with the Shep. and repetit. He asked. he bids them go Tkey are be zealous therefore. I laugh to see what ignorant persons you are. Where If they did you lie the last Then he asked them. his Hope. along the High-way to meet them. Yes. '20 Come hither. -Aj many as I love. So they thanked him for all his kindness.6*"g Then I saw in my Dream. moreover. he said. 'Cause they good Counsel lightly did forget "Tis true. let us take heed to ourselves now. and ""•>' went softly along the right way. toward 30 and he is Yonder is a man with coming to meet us. they rescud ivere. We are going to the Mount Sion. 25. on their way. and as he chastised them. ^' doiun . THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Thryareex. that he commanded them to lie Deut. His name was Atheist. But did you. No.-'^'"^^'^''had not of them Shepherds a note of direction for the nvay? They answered. that this fine-spoken man had been he.". you that ivalk along the ivay See ho'W the Pilgrims fare. So he drew nearer and nearer.'^"^^'*.^J^jfJ'^ night ? He asked them then. when you was at a stand. The Atheist '" " ""' and he asked them whither they were going ? Chr. Then Atheist fell into a very great Laughter. 19. a. said they. be. lest he should prove a Flatterer also.

I knoiv that he is blinded by the god of this World: Let thee and I go on. jer. Brother. true which I now see is not. Heb. Chr.124 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. said Hopeful^ of Fellows. should have taught ° . Then " ivhich this said Christian to Hopeful. 10. and have been seeking this City this twenty years: 10 but find no more of it. You . I had not But finding none.' Did we not see from the delectable Mountains the Gate of the City ? Also. man. and no He is of the Truth. Hope. Had not when come thus far to seek."'^ John :. it Chr. cease to hear him. knoiving that <we have belief of the Truth. 21. and ' the Soul. Atheist. for that I doubted of the truth of our belief myself: but to prove thee. 39. Is Bother.7. Hopefups ^"I-^er! man hath said? Hope. and As for this to fctchfrom thee a fruit of the honesty of thy heart. (and yet I should. and. which I withal Cease. /Z^rihas-^^^^ the lizements is an help against pre- man with the . my son. togdur. at home. in all this World. " causeth to err from the ivords of knoixiledge. Chr. for I have gone further than you) I am going back again. I. the saving of 3° A fruit 1 of Teart'. Received of. my 19. Chr. 13. j(- seek to refresh myself with the things that for hopes of that Christian I then cast away. When I was at home in mine own Country J heard as you now affirm. let us believe to say. But there is in the World to come. had thcrc been such a place to be found. A reman- What! no Mount 5/o«. to hear the ' will round Instruction I "ions"" Ftov. you ^f^(^i in the ears Whip overtakes us again. My Brother. and will ^Q sgejj Atheist. are wc not now to walk by Faith ? Let us go on. Chr. . believed. Why man? Do you think ive shall not be recei'ved? There is no such place as you Dream Atheist. I did not put the question to thee. take upon you so tedious a Journey Thty reason. 27. Now do I rejoyce in the hope of the Glory of God: . he it 20 is one of the Flatterers : remember what liiiid hath cost us once already for our harkning to such a Cor. rAc Atheist fontlnfin" this ivorid. 22. 5. from that hearing went out to see. his Fellow. Take heed. and yet are like to have nothing but your travel for your pains. We have both heard and believe that there is such a place ! to be found. Ecc es. than I did the first day I set out. 10. me that Lesson.

ted one drowsy. better . and had I here alone. and he. i Thes.r aivake more. ^''"""^ <^. ^'"'" When Saints do sleepy ^roiv. I do now begin to grow so drowsy that I can scarcely hold up mine eyes let us lie down here and take one Nap.>. said Christian. Chr.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. 10 Chr. us ivatch it \>Qtxi I He is tha^ik- see-^"'' 20 is true that the wise man saith. 4. atid thou shah this Tofreveut they fail >^'""' to Chr. But do you you 30 please. With all my heart. Do you mean. Hope. ive w^t^. and be sober.:r /» '^'''"•'^>unto Christian. How came I at first to look after the at the bexin- "dlllf^'"' version. them come any hither. cooiidis- begin. \i"Z"s'dro-u. Two are Hitherto hath thy Company been my mercy have a good reivard for thy labour. hear hciv these two Pilgrims talk together: let them learn of them. Thus to keep ope their drcivsy slumbering be Saints' fellovoship. that they went till they came whose Air naturally tended to make They are „'. I had by sleeping run the danger of death.^ Hoiu came you to think at first of doing as you do noiv ? Hope. Hope. that ive . 9. ' let . Christian began and said. if he came a stranger into it. should be^ware of sleeping let ivherefore let us tiot sleep as do others. And here Hopeful began to be \evy dull and heavy of sleep. Do you beivare of the but remember that one of the Shepherds bid us Inchatited ground? He meant by that. hell. Then tion. Keeps them anvake. if managed ivell. let then. Where God began with us. eyes. 6. The Dreamer's note. I acknowledge myself in a fault. good of my Soul ? . I i2(^ at man . it in luise. 5. Eccies. lest sleeping. And Tea. laughing saw then in my Dream. / will ask you a ques- ^^^ ^^ . So they turned away from the them. wherefore he said ^. Where shall ^ve begin? HOPE. we may be refreshed if sweet to the Labouring we take a Nap. ^"- course. into a certain Country. went his way. and that in spite of Chr. By no means. than one. ' ' Hope. is Chr. Why my not Brother ? sleep man .christian . . SMd the other. keeps hi7n awake. to prevent drcivsiness in us fall into good discourse."/'a>. Noiv place. said the other.


in the

Chr. Tes, that is my meaning. Hope. I continued a great while

delight of those

things which were seen and sold at our fair
believe now,

things which,


them still) drowned me in Chr. PVAat things ivere they ? Hope. All the Treasures and Riches of the World. Also

would have (had I continued perdition and destruction.




Rioting, Revelling, Drinking, Swearing,

Lying, Uncleanness, Sabbath-breaking, and what not, that



6. 21.

But I found at last, by hearing lo to' destroy the Soul. and considering of things that are Divine, which indeed I heard of you, as also of beloved Faithful, that was put to death for his Faith and good-living in Vanity-fair, That the end

Ephf s-


°f ^^^^^ things



that for these things' sake, the

wrath of God cometh upon the children of disobedience. Chr. And did you presently fall under the power of



Hopeful a/ shuts


I was not willing presently to know the evil of nor the damnation that follows upon the commission of it. {jyj. endeavoured, when my mind at first began to be shaken 20 with the word, to shut mine eyes against the light thereof.

HoPE. No,


Chr. But wihat
Reasons 0/

ivas the cause of your carrying of


thus to

the first Ivor kings of God's blessed Spirit upon you f

e/Hzht-'"^ the

HoPE. The causes were, work of God upon me.



was ignorant that



never thought that, by awakenflesh,

ings for sin,


at first begins the conversion of a sinner.

was loth to leave mine old Companions their presence and actions were so desirable unto me. 4. The hours in which convictions were upon me, were 30 such troublesome and such heart-affrighting hours, that I could not bear, no not so much as the remembrance of them upon my heart.
I it.

Sin was yet very sweet to



could not



to part with


Chr. Then as it seems, sometimes you got rid of your trouble. Hope. Yes verily, but it would come into my mind again, and then I should be as bad, nay worse, than I was before. Chr. Why, ^vhat ivas it that brought your sins to mind again. Hope. Many things, as,






meet a good man in the Streets; or, have heard any read in the Bible or, If mine Head did begin to Ake or, If I were told that some of my Neighbors were sick

did but









6. 7. 8.


toll for some that were dead; or, thought of dying myself; or, heard that sudden death happened to others,

heard the Bell





thought of myself, that



10 quickly


to Judgment.
could you at any time ivlth ease get off the guilt of it came upon you ?

Chr. And

'when by any of these ivays

Hope. No, not latterly, for then they got faster hold of my And then, if I did but think of going back to sin (though my mind was turned against it) it would be

double torment to me.

Chr. And ho<w did you do then ? Hope. I thought I must endeavour to mend




jyht,t he


I, I


sure to be damned.


Chr. A7id did you endea-vour to mend? Hope. Yes, and fled from, not only

""ngerlhake offhissuut



but smiuX




too; and betook


to Religious Duties, as Pray-:.„7«/r

bors, etc.

Reading, weeping for Sin, speaking Truth to my NeighThese things I did, with many others, too much

here to

Chr. And did you think yourself <weU then 1 Hope. Yes, for a while but at the last my trouble came tumbling upon me again, and that over the neck of aU my

Then he


Chr. Honu came that Hope. There v/ere

about, since you ivas no<vj





upon me,

Re/orma^ouid ?wt

especially such sayings as these
filthy rags. the 'works of the

All our righteousnesses are as
shall be justified,

La'w no man

fVhen you ha've done all things, say, 'we are unprofitable: with

isa. 64. 6.

many more

began to reason with my self thus: Mall my righteousnesses are filthy rags, if by the deeds of the Law, no man can be justified And if, when we have done all, we are yet unprofitable Then 'tis but a folly
the like.

From whence






His being a to


think of Hcaveii by the

further thought thus: If




runs an lool. into the Shop-keeper's debt, and after

'hat shall pay for
still in

that he shall fetch


yet his old debt stands



uncrossed, for the which the Shop-keeper


sue him, and cast him into Prison



pay the debt.

Chr. Well, and honu did ycu apply this to yourself? Hope. Why, I thought thus with myself: I have by my sins run a great way into God's Book, and that my now
will not pay off that score therefore I should under all my present amendments, But how shall lo I be freed from that damnation that I have brought myself in danger of by my former transgressions ? Chr. a 'very good application : but pray go on. Hope. Another thing that hath troubled me, even since my His espying iate amendments, is, that if I look narrowly into the best of what I do now, I still see sin, new sin, mixing itself with the i!this'bfs^t duties trou- ^gg^. pf tj^^j. J ^q^ go that uow I am forced to conclude, that bled him. notwithstanding my former fond conceits of myself and duties, I have committed sin enough in one duty to send me to Hell, though my former life had been faultless. 20 Chr. Atid <ivhat did you do then ? This made HoPE. Do I could uot tell what to do, till I brake my jtTmZdto mind to Faithful; for he and I were well acquainted: And he







^^^^ "^^'




could obtain the righteousness of a




that never had sinned, neither

mine own, nor




righteousness of the

World could

save me.

Chr. And did you thitik he spake true? Hope. Had he told me so when I was pleased and satisfied with mine own amendments, I had called him Fool for his

but now, since



my own


that cleaves to


best performance,

and the sin 30 have been forced to

be of

his opinion.

Chr. But

did you think, qvhen at first he suggested



that there <ivas such a


to be

found, of luhom


might justly

be said. That he never committed sin At
-which he


must confess the words at first sounded strangely, but after a little moi-e talk and company with him, I had full


conviction about


Chr. And
did you ask him ivhat


man this nuas, and hoiu you him ? Hope. Yes, and he told me it was the Lord Jesus, that Heb. 10. la. dwelleth on the right hand of the most High and thus, said 001^/13, 14, he, you must be justified by him, even by trusting to what he ^°p^^ hath done by himself in the days of his flesh, and suffered a more par. when he did hang on the Tree. I asked him further, ^0^ lovety o/tht *' that man's righteousness could be of that efficacy, to justify '^^'^'° another before God ? And he told me. He was the mighty
must be
justified by

10 God, and did what he did, and died the death also, not for to whom his doings, and the worthiness himself, but for me

of them should be imputed,

if I

believed on him.

Chr. And 'what did you do then ? Hope. I made my objections against my believing, for that He doubts 0/ am/tation. I thought he was not willing to save me. Chr. And what said Faithful to you then ? Hope. He bid me go to him and see. Then I said. It was presumption but he said. No for I was invited to come. Matt. n. 28. Then he gave me a Book of Jesus his inditing, to encourage ^< " *«'''"• 20 me the more freely to come. And he said concerning that Book, That every jot and tittle thereof stood firmer than Matt. 24. 33Heaven and earth. Then I asked him. What I must do when I came ? and he told me, I must entreat upon my Ps. 95. knees, with all my heart and soul, the Father to reveal him to fer^'^g^i°,ii. me. Then I asked him further, How I must make my supAnd he said, Go, and thou shalt find him Ex. 25. 22. plication to him ? upon a mercy-seat, where he sits all the year long, to give Num.'?. 89. pardon and forgiveness to them that come. I told him that "*'' * '*• I knew not what to say when I came and he bid me say to He uMdta ^"^' 30 this effect, God be merciful to me a sin7ier, and make me to knoiu





belie've in

Jesus Christ


for I

see that if his righteousness


not been, or I


not faith in that righteousness,




cast aiuay.

Lord, I have heard that thou art a merciful God, and

hast ordained that thy Son Jesus Christ should be the Sa'viour of the World; and moreo-ver, that thou art ivilling to bestoiu him

upon such a poor sinner as I am, {and I


a sinner



take therefore this opportunity,

and magnify

grace in the

Sal'vation of my soul, through thy Son Jesus Christ,



nor third. Ycs ovcr. And how ivas he re'vealed unto you? Hope. and be saved by thee ? And I heard him say. and I asked further. Yes. twice told. nor second. but with the eyes of mine understanding and thus it was. Had you not thoughts of leamng off praying? He thought Hope. 37. vileness of as Acts ^'' 16. Chr. ^him!'and *'^- '^^T ^ad. and thou . is Chr. That without the righteousness of this Christ. Then I said. If Habb. If it tarry. But Lord. I leave off. fVhat did you do then ? Hope. I thought. j-jje World could not save me and therefore thought I with ! . that is. I die . So I continued praying until the Father shewed Eph. he indeed believed in Christ. and shalt be sa-ved. He durst not HoPE. He prays. . saying. Belie-ve on the saw the Lord Jesus look down from Heaven Lord Jesus Christ. 9. And ^vhat ivas the reason you did not? prayins. I think sadder than at any one time in my life and this sadness was through a fresh sight of the greatness and . Chr. My grace is sufficient for thee. may such a great sinner as I am. nor fifth. And did you do as you nuere bidden ? HoPE. nor . And him that cometh to me. 12. Chr. all ptTyifg. 3. Chr. But Lord. luaitfor it. 3s. suddenly. jo : myself. 2. and he that believeth shall never thirst] that believing and coming was all and that he that came. a very great sinner and he answered. And withal. an hundred times. a Cor. One day I was 20 . and I of Grace. And as I was then looking for nothing but Hell. John 6. ran out in his heart and affections after salvation by Christ. and the everlasting damnation of my Soul. no. be indeed accepted of thee. and will not tarry.i Christ me 18. and -why. I am a great. my sins. I upon me.130 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Lord. I believed that that was true which had been told rne to luit. And did the Father reueal his Son to you ? Hope. on me . Chr. one John 6. and over. and over. But I replied. what is believing ? And then I saw from that saying. this it came into can but die at the throne my mind. his Son. Not at the first. because ivill surely come. 30 \He that cometh to me shall ne-ver hunger. I did not see him with my bodily eyes. nor at the sixth time neither. 30. Then the water stood in mine eyes. fourth. What why I could not tell what to do. I will in no wise cast out.19.

^^™' 1. notwithstanding all the righteousness thereof. He diedfor our sins. said he to Christian. Hope. He ever liveth to make inter. But how. and mine affections running over with love to the Name. something for the Honour and Glory of the name of the Lord Jesus. 30 I then saw in Ignorance. . That's true. cession for us. and long to do Jesus Christ. 25 He lo-ved us. Ay.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. '°' * Laiu for righteousness to every one that beliet'es. him he careth not for our Company. and washed us from our sins in his o<wn blood. 15 i. Lord.Heb. It made me greatly ashamed of the vileness of my former life. is in a state of condemnation. Young ignorance g 2 <*eain. and for satisfaction for my sins by his 10 blood that what he did in obedience to his Father's Law. and rose agaiyifor our justification. I could spill it all for the sake of the Lord Jesus. Look. that had I now a thousand the eTid of the Tim. People. can justly justify the coming sinner. my Dream. . and be thankful. and confounded me with the sense of mine own Ignorance for there never came thought into mine heart before now that shewed me so the beauty of It made me love a holy life. 3. hom: far yonder Youngster loitereth behind. and Ways of Jesus Christ. but however let us tarry for him. though he be just. And now was my heart full of joy. I warrant you he thinketh otherwise. It made me see that all the World. . and in submitting to the penalty thereof. coming after. Then I 131 said. chap. He Rev. Chr. pace with us hitherto. 4. gallons of blood in my body. From all which I gathered that I must look for '^' righteousness in his person. would not have hurt him. doth. Ay. was not for himself. is Mediator between God and us. 20 It made me see that God the Father. Yea I thought. 24. must I consider of thee in my ? i coming to thee. 7. Hope. Chr. * But tell me particularly luhat effect this had upon your spirit. Christ Jesus into the World to sa-ve sinners. but Hope. whom they had I that Hopeful looked back and left saw behind. that my faith may be came placed aright upon thee Then he He is said. mine eyes full of tears. ^hat I think he So they did. But I see it tro. but for him that will accept it for his Salvation. had he kept . This avas a Revelation of Christ to your soul indeed. Chr.

or by ivhat. Soul noiv for I am pray always full of good motions lo walk. but mine is a good one. Chr. Chr. He that trusts his own heart is a Ign. an hard matter. Come. 26. for them. and damned Souls. matter. and leave . rrov. honv do you? hoiv stands ? God and your Jgn. and therefore my hope is well grounded.132 Their talk. Wiiy. But Ign. yea a harder matter then many are aivare of. =3. But think of them. let great deal than in Company. all is Chr. for a mans heart may minister comfort to him in the hopes of that thing for <which 30 he yet has no ground to hope. Chr. told thee that thy heart tells Chr. Who Ign. Ask my Fellow Testimony is if I be a Thief tells thee so! Except the word of God beareth witness of no value. and life agree Thy heart in this together? My heart me so. Christian said to him. Then Ign. It hoav dost thou prove that? comforts me in hopes of Heaven. he betiveen Ignorances tilt said. So do many that are never like to come there: The Soul of the Sluggard desires and hath nothing. like it the better. I mmd to comfort ? me as I motions tell us. But think of them. Then said Christian to Hopeful (but softly) Bid I not up. My heart tells me so. That may be through its deceitfulness . life Ign. says. This is spoken of an evil heart.- fivhy do you stay so behind? take my pleasure in walking alone. ground that ^''" come mto my Chr. 20 art thou pers-zvaded that thou hast left all for God and Heaven ? I Ign. But my heart and agree together. That I doubt for leaving of all Ign. and desire them. Chr. he cared not /or our Compa}iy. I hopc wclI. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Chr. even unless I more a tell you. 13 4- So do the Devils I Ign. I Come anuay map . But luhy. Frov. But hoave'ver. What good Ign. Chr. come and us talk aivay the time in this solitary place. Then directing his it Speech to Ignorance. The wise man fool. think of God and Heaven. other .

It saith also. and when our thoughts of our HEARTS atid WAYS agree luith the Judgment 'ivhich the M^ord giveth of both.. Ihey are naturally r °y. The imagination of man's heart is evil from his Youth. some respecting ourselves. so it passeth a Judgment upon our WATS . there Kom. I say ivhen he doth sensibly. Pray what count you good thoughts. as agree tvith the When of of God. and that is a good life according But one thing indeed to ha've these. m 6. Ign. and some other things. and that continually. Notv then. Make Wfjy. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. $. some Christ. then arc thyself in thy 10 both good. Chr. That every imagination Gen. That man^s ^vays are Ps. but perverse. Ign. '1 No'W when a out of the good ivay. some God. and ' with heart-humiliation thus think. to God's Commandments and another thing only to think so. of the Word of his because his thoughts noiv agree ivith the judgment God. Ign. the of God saith. Ign. Therefore thou never hadst one good thought concerning But let me go on : As the Word passeth a life. 5. because according to the of ourselves. because agreeing thereto. Such Ign. 3. not good. To explain myself. Word crooked ways. the Word of God saith of persons in a natural condition. I will never believe that my heart is thus bad. then hath he good thoughts of own 'Ways. There is none Righteous. that is it is a good heart that hath good thoughts. ^here are good thoughts of diuers kinds. having sense thereof.' ^. Yes. Word of God. thoughts respecting ourselves ? What be good ir/iatare thoughts. Chr. out your meaning. does our thoughts of ourselves agree with the Word Word God ? Chr. life Ign. and a ing to God's accord- Commandments ? 10 Chr. And again. It saith. wohen lue think thus then are our thoughts good ones. 123. is none that doth good. Chr. 20 of the heart of man is only evil. . When we pass the same Judgment upon ourselves ivhich the Word passes. Judgment up07i our HEART. that they have not knonvn it. But is it 133 ? not a good heart that has good thoughts life And is not that a good that is that is according to God's Com- mandments ? Chr. fnan thus thinketh of his ways.

or actual infirmities. its and that our heart ivith all depths alivays open unto his eyes. Do you think that I am such a I fool. Let me give an ansnver to this confession of thy faith. and can . I believe that Christ died for sinners. then ive have right thoughts of God. What Ei'eyi are good thoughts concerning lUith nvhat the God? saith of him. fcr it this faith is no ivhere described in the Word. Ihou believest ivith a Fantastical Faith. as plainly renders thee to be one that 'did never see a necessity of Christ's personal righteousness that. Christ 30 makes my Duties that are Religious acceptable to his Father by virtue of his Merits and so shall I be justified. 2 Thou believest luith a False Faith. 1.. Or thus. to be short. because taketh Justificait tion from the personal righteousness of Christ. and that I shall j^^ justified bcfore God from the curse. I ? or that would come to God ? my performances ? thou think in this matter I Chr. Hoiv ! seest think thou must believe Christ. 134 Ign. that is. I believe in Christ all Ign. to justify thee 1 before God : Hoiv I then dost thou say. speak of him ivith reference to us. lo in his Also ivhen ive think that all our Righteousness stinks Nostrils. Ign. Hoiv Thei-aithof giiorancc. Ign. but hast such an opinion of thyself. . as to think God in can see no further than the best of Ign. see sin in us. believe well enough for doest thou believe} Chr. . Why. nvhen and is <ivhere ive can see none in ourselves ivhen tue think he knoivs our inmost thoughts. and that therefore he cannot abide to see us stand before him in any confidence even of all our best performances. think I must believe in in Christ for Justification. Chr. atid of <what thou doest. and applies to thy own. Chr. Chr. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. ivhen thou 20 not thy fieed of him I Thou neither seest thy original. through his gracious acceptance of my obedience to his Law. ho<iu dost Why. {as I ha've said concerning our selves') ivhen our thoughts of God do agree : Word And Word But to (when ive think of his Being and Attributes as the hath taught of ivhich I cannot noiv discourse at large. nuhen <we think that he knoivs us better than ive know ourselves.

and not as thou ignorantly imaginest. atid all the rest of you say about that matter. Hope. art of ivhat Justifying righteousness secure thy Soul through the faith of is. so art thou . but the fruit of distracted brains. yet mine I doubt : not. tvhich to is. in the day of God Almighty. which is 4. Ignorance is thy 7jame. to love his Name. ivhimsies as you. and People .^ as good as yours though I have not in my head so many ^'f""'^^' -"Utat he knovis not. even such as ivill leave thee under <wrath. but YA^ personal obedi- 10 ence to the Laiv in doing and suffering for us. 3. til HoPK. What would you ! own person has done without us lust. if we may be justified by Christ's personal righteousness from all. Why man Christ flesh. the soul being shrouded.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. under the skirt of luhich. apprehensions of Ign.^^^^^^^. That is all that he cannot is your faith. and by it presented as spotless before God. and as thy name is. I say. true faith accepteth. and of thy person for thy actions^ sake. What I You are a man for revelations I J believe that^en°'^»nce 30 ivhat both you. 135 This faith maketh not Christ . thou also art ignorant of the true effects of saving this from faith in righteousness of Christ. Ign. Ask him if ever he had Christ revealed to him from Heaven ? Ign. For true Justifying Faith puts the soul (^as sensible of its lost condition by the Lanxi) upon flyingfor refuge unto Christ's righteousness : {Which righteousness of his. to boiv and avin over the heart God in Christ. 1111 ! r 11 • J'"<S^" with ts ihe„i. For what matter how we live. when we believe it ? 20 Chr. unless God the Father reveals him to them. Justification is not an act of grace. and acquit from condemnation. Therefore this faith is deceitful. it. Ways. it is accepted. heavy lurath of Tea. is so hid in God from the natural by any man be savingly known. his Word. Ignorant thou to and as ignorant honu the God. ivhat that required at our hands. have us trust to what Christ in his This conceit would loosen ! and tolerate us to live as we list. by ivhich he maketh for thy obedience accepted nvith God. but of thy actions false.^ This righteousness. a Justifier of thy person. but not mine. . the reins of our even this thy ans'wer demojistrateth luhat I say.

30 dition whole Families. before. thou shalt knoiv Ere long the ei'il of thy doing so. Ign. Then said Christian to his companion. The talk broke tip. there are abundance in our Town in his con. it 'will certainly go ill with him at last.136 7^7. I must stay a'while behind. So I saw in my Dream. I leave to put in a : You ought I not so speak of this matter for this will boldly affirm. and so consequently fears that their state is dangerous? . convictions of sin. . Chr. stoop. (even as my good companion hath done) that no man can : Cor. therefore hear. . lest they should see. must there be in the place where he was born ? . . 20 Then Christian addressed thus himself to his fellow. II. ivhat do you think of such men ? Have they at no time. see thine own wretchedness. But if thou yet shalt slight it. ^ilt thou yet foolish be To slight good Counsel. whole Streets. the working of which faith. But noiv lue are by ourselves. Well. yea. 3. Give me slightly to Matt. (and that of Pilgrims too) and if there be so many in our parts. do not fear. Indeed the Word saith. thou art ignorant of. &c. and Ignorance he came hobbling after. Chr. "'''and faith too. poor Ignorance. how many think you. It pities me much for this poor man. (for he 10 himself is God) thou shalt be delivered from condemnation. do you go on . Be awakened then. Hope. word : - Chr. 2-. by which the soul layeth hold upon Christ (if it be right) must be wrought by the exceeding greatness of his mighty power. that they went on apace before. I perceive. I Cannot keep pace ivithyou. in time. You go SO fast. I perceive that thou and I must walk by ourselves again. Well Ignorance. ten times given thee ? And if thou yet refuse it. and fly to the Lord Jesus and by his righteousness. "^ 12. come my good Hopeful. Remember man Good Counsel taken ivell. He hath blinded their eyes. Alas. '' know Jesus Christ but by the Revelation of the Father yea. thou nvilt be The loser [Ignorance) III ^warrant thee.5 PILGRIMS PROGRESS. think you. sa-ves . which is the righteousness of God. Then they said. -i i .

if it be right: is for so says the joh 38. No verily. at their much to The good "^^"^''^ beginning to go "" Chr. and presumptuously continue themselues in the •way of their oivn hearts. Noiv the Ignorant inoiv not irAy 4 fte- 10 good. them. that fear tends right. his word. say. By its rise. for 1 37 you man. is discovered by three things. 28. The fear of the Lord the beginning of Wisdom. may dishonour God. ? Are we now almost got past the enchanted ground Chr. us return to our matter. How do they seek to stifle them ? rai. break its peace. but that I would know where we Chr. and making it 20 afraid to turn from them. 2. as things that directly tend to their They also think that these fears tend to the spoiling of their faith. Why. It driveth the soul to lay fast hold of Christ for Salva- tion. all doubt it doth. Chr. are for their '^l^/'cnvlt '""" to stifle them. (when alas for them. to the right hand. sin. How will you describe right fear ? Chr. True. It begetteth and continueth in the soul a great reverence it of God. ! . are you nveary of this discourse. Hope. I. Without word. It is caused by saving convictions for 1.^ Hope. thereon. 9. They think that those fears are wrought by the intam"''"" Devil (though indeed they are wrought of God) and thinking 2. believe you have said the truth. Enemy to speak reproachfully. and therefore they seek that such convictions that tend to put them in fear. Then I say sometimes tend to their good .THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. but they Chr. understand not that such conruictions and therefore they do desperately seek to stifle to flatter them. do you answer are the elder that question yourself. Hope. 3. and ways. '°" Pro" ch- i Hope. Rieht/ear. being naturally ignorant. or right fear. Hope. they resist overthrow. I do believe as you Men's good and to make them 10 on Pilgrimage. I grieve Hope. {as I think) they may. or cause the left. poor men that they are they have none at all) and therefore they harden their hearts against them. 10. presume they ought 3. They so. keeping to anything that tender. Well said. Nay. or to the the Spirit. 2. We have not noiv above tiuo miles further to go But let arc.

Chr. They see that these fears tend to take they Talk about one Temporary. Hope. Hope. <who ivas aforivard man in Religion ? ! then U'htrc he dwelt. ave ivi/I lea%<e at this time our Neighbor Ignorance by himself. not to fear. That he ivas resolved to go on Pilgrimage now . He told me once. l know something of this myself. Right. Well for Reasons •zvhy toivard' be very profitable. ty ones go tact. in despite of them. did you not knonv about ten years ago. and then he became a stranger to me. Lord. Lord. Well. there are in my judgment men it. he dwelt in Graceless. Now since we are talking about him. and of the once I belie've that then he had altogether without hope of him . Know him Yes. Hope. Though the Consciences of such : are awakened. I am of your mind. when the power of guilt weareth away. and therefore resist them with all their might. that which provoked them to be Religious ceaseth. Hope. but all of a sudden he greiv acquainted <with one Save-self. Truly I pitied the man. and fall upon another profitable question. but you shall still begin. Chr. and 20 that with many tears. wax presump4. With all my heart. 30 four reasons then. for (my House not being above three miles from him) he would ofttimes come to me. Chr. Chr. IVell. Hope. for before I knew myself it was so with me. and he dwelt next door to one Turn-back. // may Hope. I. a Town about two miles off of Honesty. Wherefore they naturally turn to their own course again even as we see the Dog that is sick of what yet their minds are not changed therefore : he hath eaten. one 10 Temporary in your parts. and therefore. that man ivas some sight was due thereto. Chr. but one may see it is not every one that as twe go cries. and was not luages that much aivakened of his sins.138 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. ivith him. he divelt under the same roof . towardly once. let us a little enquire into the reason of the sudden backsliding of him and such others. so long as his sickness prevails he vomits and . tuously confident. but do you begin. W^ell then. away from them their pitiful old self-holiness.







say a


Dog has a mind) but now when his sickness
being not at

not that he doth this of a free mind (if we may because it troubleth his Stomach

over, and so his

Stomach eased,
he turns

his desires



it is

his vomit,

him about and





true which




to his

oivn vomit again.





i Pet. 3. 23.

hot for heaven, by virtue only of the sense and fear of the torments of Hell, as their sense of Hell and the fears of

their guilt



cools, so their desires for

10 Salvation cool


So then

and fear is '% Happiness die, and they return to their course again. 2. Another reason is, they have slavish fears that do overmaster them. I speak now of the fears that they have of men: For the fear of men bringeth a snare. So then, though Prov. they seem to be hot for Heaven, so long as the flames of Hell are about their ears, yet when that terror is a little over, they

Heaven and comes to pas§ that when gone, their desires for Heaven and

59. sj,

betake themselves to second thoughts : namely, that 'tis good to be wise, and not to run (for they know not what) the 20 hazard of losing all ; or at least, of bringing themselves into
unavoidable and unnecessary troubles

and so they



with the world again.

The shame

that attends Religion lies also as a block in


they are proud and haughty, and Religion in their eye is low and contemptible. Therefore when they have lost their sense of Hell and wrath to come, they return again to
their former course.

Guilt, and to meditate terror, are gi-ievous to them, they not to see their misery before they come into it. Though 30 perhaps the sight of it first, if they loved that sight, might make them fly whither the righteous fly and are safe but because they do, as I hinted before, even shun the thoughts of




and terror, therefore, when once they are rid of their awakenings about the terrors and wrath of God, they harden their hearts gladly, and chuse such ways as will harden them

more and more. ChRo ton are pretty near

the business,


the bottom of all


of a change in their mind and will.




Felon that

they are but like the

standeth before the Judge; he

quakes and trembles,

and seems

repent most heartily


but the

bottom of all is the fear of the Halter, not of any detestation of the offence; as is evident, because, let but this man have his liberty,


he luill be a 'Thief



a Rogue



ivhereas, if his


changed, he auould be otherivise.



back, do you

I have shewed you the reasons of show me the manner thereof.

their going

Chr. So I ivill ivillingly. I- They draw off their thoughts, all that they may, from the lo remembrance of God, Death, and Judgment to come.

Then they

cast off

Prayer, curbing their


by degrees private Duties, as Closetwatching, sorrow for sin, and the


they shun the company of lively and




After that, they grow cold to publick Duty, as Hearing,

Reading, Godly Conference, and the

Then they

begin to pick holes, as


say, in the


of some of the Godly, and that devilishly; that they

may have

a seeming colour to throw Religion (for the sake of some infirmity they have spied in them) behind their backs.
6. Then they begin to adhere to, and associate themselves with carnal, loose, and wanton men. 7. Then they give way to carnal and wanton discourses in



and glad are they


they can see such things



that are counted honest, that they



more boldly do

through their example. 8. After this, they begin to play with little sins openly. 9. And then, being hardened, they shew themselves as they 30 are. Thus being launched again into the gulf of misery, unless a Miracle of Grace prevent it, they everlastingly perish in
isa. 6=. 4.



saw in my Dream, that by this time the Pilgrims were got over the Inchanted Ground, and entering in the Country of Beulah, whose Air was very sweet and pleasant,


II, 12.




lying directly through

there for a season.

it, they solaced themselves Yea, here they heard continually the

singing of Birds, and


saw every day the flowers appear in the In and heard the voice of the Turtle in the Land. wherefore this this Country the Sun shineth night and day was beyond the Valley of the Shadoiv of Death, and also out of the reach of Giant Despair; neither could they from this Here they were place so much as see Doubting-Castle. within sight of the City they were going to also here met
; :

them some of the Inhabitants thereof; for in this Land the shining Ones commonly walked, because it was upon 10 the Borders of Heaven. In this Land also the contract between the Bride and the Bridegroom was renewed Yea here, as the Bridegroom rejoyceth oi<er the Bride, so did their God '=* ^^Here they had no want of Corn and Wine \'er. rejoyce o'ver them. for in this place they met with abundance of what they had sought for in all their Pilgrimage. Here they heard voices
; ;




from out of the

City, loud voices


saying. Say ye to the daughVer. n.

of Zion, Behold thy Sal-vation cometh, behold, his reivard is Here all the Inhabitants of the Country called with him.

them, The holy People, The redeemed of
20 etc.

Lord, Sought

out, ver.


Land, they had more rejoicing Kingdom to which they were bound and drawing near to the City, they had yet a more perfect view thereof. It was builded of Pearls and precious Stones, also the Street thereof was paved with Gold, so that by reason of the natural glory of the City, and the reflection of the Sun-beams upon it. Christian, with desire fell sick. Hopeful also had a fit or two of the same Disease.
as they
in this



than in parts more remote from the

Wherefore here they
30 their pangs. If you




a while, crying out because of

see t?iy Belo-ved, tell

him that I



of Cunt.

s- 8.

sickness, they

little strengthened, and better able to bear their walked on their way, and came yet nearer and nearer, where were Orchards, Vineyards and Gardens, and their Gates opened into the High-way. Now as they came up to

But being a

these places, behold the Gardener stood in the way ; to whom the Pilgrims said. Whose goodly Vineyards and Gardens are




are the King's, and are planted

Deut. .3.»4.

here for his


own delights, and also for the Solace of Pilgrims. So the Gardener had them into the Vineyards, and bid them refresh themselves with Dainties. He also shewed them there the King's walks, and the Arbors where he delighted to be. And here they tarried and slept. Now I beheld in my Dream, that they talked more in their
sleep at this time, than ever they did in
all their Journey; and being in a muse thereabout, the Gardener said even to me Wherefore musest thou at the matter ? It is the nature of

the fruit of the Grapes of these Vineyards to go
sweetly, as to cause the lips of


so lo


that are asleep to speak.

21. i8.


saw that when they awoke, they addressed themselves
But, as

to go up to the City.

the reflections of the

Sun upou the City
tremely glorious,

was pure Gold) was so exthat they could not, as yet, with open face
(for the City

2 Cor.





but through an Instrument



saw, that as they went on, there

made for that purpose. met them two men, in
shone as the

Raiment that shone

like Gold, also their faces

These men asked the Pilgrims whence they came ? and they 20 them; they also asked them. Where they had lodg'd, what difficulties, and dangers, what comforts and pleasures they had met in the way ? and they told them. Then said the men that met them. You have but two difficulties more to meet with, and then you are in the City. Christian then and his Companion asked the men to go along with them, so they told them they would but, said they, you must obtain it by your own faith. So I saw in my Dream that they went on together till they came in sight of

the Gate.


saw that betwixt them and the Gate was a River, but there was no Bridge to go over, the River was very deep. At the sight therefore of this River, the Pilgrims were much stounded but the men that went with them, said, You must go through, or you cannot come at the Gate. Death is not The Pilgrims then began to enquire if there was no other unlcome to /^ ^ way to thc Gate to which they answered. Yes, but there nature, h»t>^ "ot any, save two, to wit, Enoch and Elijah, been per^./a«t,i'







and then ere a while he would rise up again half dead./thi! '?'''^'' ''"''' mitted to tread that path. Then they asked the men. J looked this way and that. said my Brother. since the foundation of the World. that he was troubled with apparitions of Hobgoblins and Evil Spirits. 51. especially Christian. you have been . all his Waves go over me. Glory. saying. and but no way could be found by them. if the Waters were all of a depth ? They said. I knew you. Ah my Christian's have compassed me about. yea sometimes he would be quite gone down. 'Twas also observed. Brother. and hearty fears that he should die in that River. I see the Gate. is cheer. For ever 30 and anon he would intimate so much by words. 'tis you they wait for. he was much in the troublesome thoughts of the sins that he had committed. No yet . so friend. both since and before he began to be a Pilgrim. and crying out to his good friend sink in deep Waters. by which they might escape the River. ^^' 15. V'nfhoirof not see the Land that flows with Milk and Honey. and shall Then Christian. andentring. ' cor. and men standing by it to receive us. The Pilgrims. said he to if I Ah Brother. I feel the bottom. the sorrows of death also here he in great he could neither remember nor orderly talk of any of those sweet refreshments that he had met with in the way of his Pilgrimage. so that : : Hopeful ever since Christian. they could not help them in that Case. until the last Trumpet shall sound. as they that stood by perceived. said he. surely was right. as you belie've in the King of the^^Jl^liy"*' place. began to dispond in his mind. M3 . But Christian would answer 'Tis you. Christian began to sink. And so have you. o ! then. Hopeful also would endeavour to comfort him. nor shall. and never obtain entrance in at the Gate here also. Hopeful he said. Be of good good.THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. my head. Hopeful therefore here had much ado to keep his Brother's head above water. it Then said the other. the Billows go over Selah. 1 . through 10 They then addressed themselves to the I Water . a great darkness and horror fell upon Christian. for said they: You Angeh hei^ shall find it deeper or shallower. And ^"'"' with that. that he could not see before him 20 measure lost his senses. he would . But all the words that he spake still tended to discover that he had horror of mind.

orid. 73. sently found ground to stand upon and so it followed that the rest of the River was but shallow. because they safely got over the River.ineets Whereforc being come up out of the River. death. 43. cheer. Jesus Christ ! and through the Rii'ers. until they were gone over. sent forth to minister for those /Af «"«««« saying. who told them. on the other side. through in these . ^ towards j paised out of this-a. Oh I see him again and he tells me. but for my sins he hath brought said Hopeful. and had such glorious Companions to attend them. whether you will call to mind that which heretofore you have received of his goodness. but the Pilgrims went up that hill <with ease. 20 Now upon the bank of the River. The talk they had with the shining Ones. though the foundation upon which the City was framed was higher than the Clouds. and 10 live upon him in your distresses. that the beauty. that Christian was in a muse to whom also Hopeful added this word. are no sign that God hath forsaken you. because they had these two men to lead them up by the Arms. being comforted. and the enemy was after that as still as Christian therefore prea stone. but are sent to try you. they saluted them fVe are ministring Spirits. you have quite forgot the Text. they saw the two shining men again. When thou passest through the ijuaters. TMe. Now you must note that the City stood upon a mighty hill. Thus they got over. sweetly talking as they went. of the wicked. they shall not overfioiu thee. Thty have also they had left their Mortal Garments behind them in the Rivcr for though they went in with them. the Gate. . a maketh thee luhole : And with that. they came out 30 ^mir^iiiy. without them. Then My is Brother. chnstian<f<Then I saw in my Dream. who there waited for them. They therefore went up through the regions of the Air. I <will be ivith thee. neither are they plagued These troubles and distresses that you go Waters. 4. was about the Glory of the place. where Ps.144 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. as tkty art Thus they went along ff^at shall be Heirs of Salvation. isa. Then they both took courage. They therefore went up here with much agility and speed. and hath left me. Christian brake out with a loud voice. There is no band In their death. 5. but their strength firm : they are not troubled as other men. . arise to help now me . Be of good 'hl"uar7^ a while like other men. and glory . it's said me into the snare.

. you shall come and when he shall sit upon the Throne of Judgyea. Also when he shall . and your walk and talk shall be every day with the King. as with him upon the wings of the wind. You must there receive the comfort of all your toil.^' ^^^^J'^\^°\ L * . said they. now. of it 145 was inexpressible. and when he shall pass ment. 2. There also you shall be cloathed with Glory and Majesty. i. said they. the innumerable company of Angels. Heb. to the Paradise of God. though with much difficulty. 57. cai 20 In that place you must wear Crowns of Gold. i xhess. because they were his and your Enemies. There you shall that are got thither before you. 2. 7. to Isaac. and to the Prophets men that isa. wherein you shall see ^^"^ 3 + the Tree of Life. you shall sit by him Sentence upon all the workers of Iniquity. see perpetual sight and Visions of the Holy One. What must we do in the holy place ? To whom it was answered. «. let them be Angels or Men. whom you desired World. and put into an equipage fit to ride out with the King of Glory. with shouting and thanksgiving. enjoy your friends again. is the Mount Sion. you also shall have a voice in that Judgment. for the former things ore passed aivay. to wit. and enjoy the . and eat of the never-fading fruits thereof and when you come there you shall have white Robes given you. ^' '•*' e. with seeing. and your ears with hearing the pleasant voice of to serve in the the mighty One. and that are now righteousness. There you shall not see again Rev. and have joy for all your sorrow you must reap what you have sown. in his walking one each resting upon their Beds. sorrow. for there you shall him as he is. 12. affliction. even all the days of Eternity. and Jacob. 21. 4.. with praise. There. i "" God hath taken away from the evil to come. the Heavenly Jerusalem. You are going now to Abraham. : THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. . because of There your eyes shall be delighted the infirmity of your flesh. jude''i4. When he shall come witfi sound of Trumpet in the Clouds. sickness. and death. The men then asked.^''. You are going r^. and sufferings for the King by the way. and there you shall with joy receive even every one that follows into the Holy Place 30 after you. such things as you saw when you were in the lower Region 10 upon the Earth. and the Spirits of Just men made perfect. There also you shall serve him continually i joims. even the fruit of all your Prayers and Tears.

made even the There came out also at this Heavens to echo with their saluted Christian and his Fellow with ten thousand : from the world and this of Trumpet. and be ever with him. and with what gladness 30 they came to meet them. and sound sound. Here also they had the City itself in view. with melodious noise. That thus provides for his when this World's done? . and we have brought them thus far on their desired Journey that they may go in and look their Redeemer in the face with joy. Clouds are their Chariots. even with joyful sound. before they came at it being swallowed up with the sight of Angels. the Marriage supper of the Lamb : time to meet them several of the Kings Trumpeters. still signify to Christian and his Brother. by mixing their Musick with looks and gestures. These are the men that have loved our Lord. again return to the City. they compassed them round on every side 20 some went before. these Trumpeters. some on the left (as 'twere to guard them through the upper Regions) continually sounding as they went. . This done. and he hath sent us to fetch them. Then the Heavenly 10 Host gave a great shout. in Heaven. saying. . and some on the right hand. These J Now. in notes on high so that the very sight was to them that could behold it. as if Heaven it self was come down to meet them. Blessed are they that are called : . cloathed in white and shining Raiment. would. behold a company of the Heavenly Host came out to meet them ^ to whom it was said by the other two shining Ones. some behind. Angels are their Guide Who would not here for him all Hazards run. with sound of Rev. 19 9. ever and anon. you shall go too. when they were in the World and that have left all for his holy Name. Trumpet. and with hearing of their melodious notes. and as they walked.: 146 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. Now while they were thus drawing towards the Gate. Thus therefore they walked on together. who with melodious noises and loud. . now look how the holy Pilgrims ride. how welcome they were into their company. Trumpeters welcomes they did with shouting. And now were these two men. . as 'twere.

Then call at I saw in . Those : therefore were carried in to the King. Palms in their hands. =5. I looked in after them and behold. be to him that sitteth upon and 30 unto them. the City shone like the Sun. . and that for ever and ever. 1 47 and they thought they heard all the Bells therein to ring. Glory. There was also that met them with Harps and Crowns. That the righteous Nation. Where are the men ? To whom isa. who when he had it read was answered. etc. Honour. and golden Harps to sing praises withal. Enter ye into the joy ofyour Lord. said. and may o enter in through the Gates into the City. i mandments. the King then commanded to open the Gate. the warm. and to the Lamb for . they were transfigured. ei>er Kcv. and Elijah. token of honor. saying. which they had received in the beginning. Blessed are they that do his comthey R" 22. that I may ha-ve riqht to the Tree of life . as they entered. 3. 20 They are standing without the Gate. "' L 2 . men bid them some from above to looked over the Gate. the Throne. Enoch. 13. there was written Letters of Gold. and that v. with Crowns on their licads. with such company. that these two men went in at and lo. that the shining the Gate the which v>'hen they did. and joyful thoughts that they had about their own dwelling there. Blessing. Now just as the Gates were opened to let in the men. Oh by what tongue or pen can their glorious joy be expressed? And thus they came up to the Gate.T[[E PILGRIMS PROGRESS. to wit. whom it was said. them. to welcome them thereto but above all. and Power. saw in my Dream. 2. for the love that they bear to the King of this place and then the Pilgrims gave in unto them each man his Certificate. I also heard the men themselves. that they sang with a loud voice. said he. These Pilgrims are come from the City of Destruction. and in them walked many men. and the Crowns in I Now the Gate . and gave them to them the Harp to praise ^\•ithal. that keepeth truth may oiter in. and they had Raiment put on that shone like Gold. my Dream. in they were come up to the Gate. the Streets also were paved with Gold. Moses. : ! Now when over it. Bells in the City Then Rang I heard in my Dream that it all the said again for joy.

I turned my head to look back. that they might go Christian and Hopeful to the City. and have him away. but he would not come down to see him. Ignorance th"'Riv?r. 30 and behold it was a Dream. So he 20 fumbled in his bosom for one. saying. as the other I saw. that . when I had seen. even from the Gates of Heaven. But he was asked by the men that lookt over the top of the Gate. to go out and take Ignorance and bind him hand and foot. and they answered one another without intermission. but commanded the two shining Ones that conducted in our Streets. and saw Ignorance come up to the River side but he soon got over. Holy. and that without half that difficulty which the other two men met with. Whence came you ? and what would you have ? He answered. is And after that. he looked up to the and then began to knock. . supposing that entrance should have been quickly administered to him. Holy. So I awoke. Ho/j. and he has ment. they shut up the Gates: which the Lord. Now while I was gazing upon all these things. taught they asked him for his Certifiand shew it to the King. FINIS. I have eat and drank in the presence of the King. as well as from the City of Destruction. Have you none ? But the man answered never a word. When writing that was above . saw that there was a way to Hell. So they told the King. 10 did ascend the Hill to come up to the Gate. only he came alone neither did any man meet him with the least encourage. 1 wished myself among them. Then in cate. and put him in there.148 THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS.'° Vain-Hope There were also of them that had wings. Then said they. and carried him through the air to the door that Then I I saw in the side of the Hill. For it happened that there was then in that place one Vain-hope a Ferry-man. he was come up to the Gate. i!rmVvc7 with his Boat helped him over: so he. and found none. Then they took him up.

Put thee into a laughter or a feud Lewve this for Boys and Fools but as for Do thou the substance of my matter see. such things to find. or Neighbor : but take heed 0/ Of By mis-interpreting . Turn up my Metaphors and do not fail There. . Reader. I 20 know not but 'twill make me dream again. 'M'o'u. be bold To throav aivay. . or similitude. look ivithin my Fail. What if my Gold be ivrapped up in Ore ? None throivs aiuay the Apple for the Core.. : : . that thou be not extream. 5 Jake heed also. 149 The Conclusion. THE END. ivill but thyself abuse mis-interpreting ei'il insues. In playing with the out-side of my Dream 10 thee Nor let my figure. thee Or to thyself. 1 5 As <will be helpful to an honest mind. but yet preserve the Gold. if thou seekest them. instead doing good. THE PILGRIMS PROGRESS. But if thou shalt cast all away as vain. What of my dross thou fndest there. for that. Put by the Curtains. J have told See if thou canst Interpret my Dream to it to me .


not premeditated. 9-34 when showed to his friends. 41-60 the author defends. . and then proceeds to defend at considerable length his adoption of the allegorical style for The pains Bunyan takes to meet and answer the objections to the character of his work evidence the distaste felt by the stricter Puritans for a form of composition so unusual in religious writing and savouring too much. Bunyan evidently expected his book to be received with disfavour by his coreligionists. vv. vv. its Bunyan describes the origin of the work. of human ingenuity and the wisdom of this world. some not. . g. 1-18 1 . 187-192 and conbook under sundry heads. 'He bigan to schake ys &\e for to smyte anon. 127-158. the adoption of varied forms of composition to attain a good end. Thus for is to -write. it might be thought. e. spontaneous. The Author s Apology. 193-236. but is really a survival of an ancient form of speech found in the Bible and Shakespeare as well as in our earlier writers. p. 25. how his difficulty was increased by the varied counsel of the setting forth of religious truth. —the . 165-176. This reduplication of prepositions it witli the infinitive now sunk into a vulgarism.' Robert of Gloucester. vv. vv. dence of his style with that of Holy Scripture. when the author first began writing he did not purpose printing. We have in this introduction . 35-40 he determined on giving it to the world. 177-186. vv. Line 2. 101-126. origin of the work. the corresponcludes by drawing out the profitableness of his vv. 61-9S . he asserts his right to use metaphors. and his friends . vv. vv.NOTES ON THE PILGRIM'S PROGRESS The First Part. and can have been little prepared for the popularity it so speedily attained. vv. vv. his doubts as to publication. and of obscurity. vv. In the poetical introduction to his allegory. to adopt the form of dialogue. by sundry illustrations. some counselled its being published. . rebuts the charges of want of solidity.

followed out for the gratification of his fancy.s 432 PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. ii. 1. an inseparable no sense of purpose. U. Version. had giown to such an extent as to threaten to eat out the book on which he was engaged. for to mitigate. still as she pulls comes. given p. In this the spinner having the wool or flax on the distaff takes hold of an end and draws give it it towards her. his Limetwigs. See the quotation in Strutt's Sports from V>>i\\. a Worser II.' 1. 31-32. a man carried a light before him with one hand.' in the form of a con- tinuous thread. from the Anglo- Saxon angel. we have the double comparative lesser: Gen. 16 'The is lesser light to rule the night. 1614. Latham. which did not assume a separate form until the allegory. His Gun. and rang a large bell.' 76. The refer- ence to various artifices used for capturing birds. 7-18. Be a baron and a bold one leave off tickling : of young heirs like trouts. or adroitly tickling them with the fingers. worser. and twisting ' it between her finger and thumb to it coherence. or low-belling. A fishing-rod with a line and hook. which was practised on dark nights. We learn from this and the following lines that the Pilgrim'' Progress in its first idea was no more than an illustrative episode in some other work of Bunyan's. sullen interval of war. English Language. a fish-hook. by groping for them beneath banks. to Lat. pallium. 419. It occurs repeatedly in Shakespeare. a cloak. but i. This is no real vulgarism. but an antiquated form very frequent in our early writers. Act. 1. A dreadful quiet felt and worser far inflection involving tion _/b^ — ' * ' Than arms. the reduplication being therefore only apparent. ' soothe. 1.' is not found in the Authorized Version. employed in an unusual sense. not real. and is used even as late as Dryden. To express this the preposiwas prefixed. is We find also in Beaumont and Fletcher. I. of not unfrequent occur- The explanation of this idiom is that the preposition to was regarded as an essential part of the infinitive of a verb. 34. We have references to both modes in Shakespeare. The allusion here to the way in which fish are sometimes caught with the hand. We is find it in this sense in the Authorized 79. In the sport of bird-baiting. London. or under stones. 59. to . and bell. light.g. and Pastimes. 28. 83. his A'ets. ' Scornful Lady. palliate. shaped like a cow-bell.' The metaphor here derived from spinning. p. We have here an example of excess of expression in a double comparative. angles. Its true sense is to cloak or cover. it PART is I In the Authorized Version of the Bible rence. with the other. iii. e.ovi% Jewel for Gentrie.

allusions in this and the following line are to the Pass- over and various Levitical sacrifices. 'was believed by some old writers to have a stone in its head. xxix. bk. xxvi. Compare with the Anglo-Saxon treowian. and called the Toadstone. 7. to trust. 102. 10. by Birds. 1. 87. i'ea. made for the Ephesian Diana mentioned in Acts xix. This word. little These were probably models of the temple at Ephesus. 1. xiv. which has now dropped out of use. in Shakespeare. or some other flat89. Lev. is found in one place in the Authorized Version in the sense of to think. S. bk. 15-32. spells. The has done injury to the cause of true scriptural symbolism.' and the German ' ' . vii). and of the Ff . is The . xvi. v. Lev. by pins and loops. 15. His companions then 'Limetwigs' are twigs its coated with birdlime. Lev.' 1. 1. pipe-call is thus alluded to by Chaucer voice of the fowler's So the bride whistel when it is closed begyled with the merry in your nette ' Testament of Love. Zoology. that he may see it and if it be a right and true stone the toad \vill leap toward it and make as though he would snatch it. 16. shrines 146. Heb. By Calves. game and prevent it taking netted the birds as they lay on the ground. p. suppose ' Doth he thank that servant because he did the things that were commanded him ? I trow not. It was distinguished by the name of the reptile. References to this and Milton writes in mode of Comus catching birds are frequent ' the very lime-twigs of his 646. 116.' To distinguish counterfeits : from the true toadstone a very sure and easy method was prescribed Hold the stone. Exod. Bt(fo7tites.. 12. and Sheep. he must pipe and : ' whistle to catch this. 19. believe.' Luke xvii. Lev. 15. 19. 1. writes iii. L 118. feet are held tenaciously by the and it becomes the prey of the fowler. 14. 4-39. A misapplied ingenuity by forcing a spiritual meaning upon every minute detail of the Mosaic 1. by Heifers. 2-9. When a bird has once settled on a lime-twig viscid birdlime. his Lies in Silver Shrines. The toad. toothed fish not unfrequent in our island. fraught with great virtues medical and magical. and by the blood of ix. : ' tra?ien. xxii. See Exod. xix.NOTES frighten the 433 flight. Pennant. Heb. 5.' writes Lupton {Abatable Things. ix. The reference is to the silver 34. Lambs. xii. i. 15. If that a Pearl may in a Toads-head dwell. What of that I tro ? I have adhered to Banyan's spelling in preference to the more usual trow.' 1. 9. Lev. ritual 117. before a toad. and Herbs. but all its fancied powers vanished on the discovery of its being nothing but the fossil tooth of the sea wolf. 19. He envieth so much that man should have that stone. ii. by Earns. xxvii. 3. 13.&c. Exod.

p. an unswept room. nor in ' . \vithin. Swadli7ig-clo7its.434 famous statue lucrative trade. II. the Valiant Man. 17. is Any rough or prickly seed-vessel or flower-head of a plant a bur or burr —especially the flower-head ' ' . 35. pp. 18-21 puts alarmed at Moimt Sinai. begins to run for his his name changed to to Christian. for is swaddling or swathing the limbs of IIat?ilei. the clods of his ground ? and doth teach him also. . is Wicket Gate. ' sea-urchin though the word is not found in Old Norse. 37 meets with Formalist and the Arbour and Hypocrisy. Graceless. as now in Italy. gets meets Mr. p. . 25-2S Interpreter shows him a picture. ii. Ilill Difilculty. the Slough of Despond. Pliable goes back. the p. fears to be over- whelmed to in the overthrow of the city. the Man in despair.' We find it so used in Jer. out. p. 1. by Goodwill. p. meets Mistrust and Timorous running away from . A clout. Sloth. . p. 1. p. water and oil thrown on a p. who him to Mr.' . pp. or piece of linen generally. overtaken p. new-born 1. persuades Pliable into accompany him. English before the fourteenth century. Passion and Patience. they will stick like Burs. Cf. dream of the last day. 38-40. and directed to the Wicket Gate. 32. pp. 33 . assisted directs by Help. 36 . Christian comes tries in up to the loses his Burden. 24. sleeps in 41 . PART sale of I the manufacture and which formed a 147. 21-25. bur. xxxviii. Legality. and let in . 13 . pp. ' PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. . Worldly Wiseman. Is. warned by Evangelist p. 11 . 12. 14 . 184. Argument. pp. him to the Interpreter's house. Doth the ploughman plough all day to sow ? doth he open and break For his God doth instruct him to discretion. The term used by Shakespeare. meets Evangelist again. of the Bur-dock. make his escape. by Obstinate they both fall and Pliable. p. the Danish borre. a dweller in the city of Destruction. He that taught us fii-st to Plough. receives gifts from Angels. pp. the Man terrified by the Cross. who arrives there. ' infants. 33-35 . 217. The A^ClU English Dictionary says the word appears to be identical. 30. vain to awaken Simple. originally a patch. 29 . or cognate with. burdock Swedish borre. climbs drops his roll. fire. xxviii. Christian. 26. came to signify a rag. knocks. 16 . and Presumption. Swadliiig-clouts were the long linen bandages formerly used in England. life. 2. arrives at the directs who him in the right road.

they reach the Delectable Mountains. they turn aside into By-Path-Meadow.51. and Faithful burnt. 58 passes through the Valley. thereon. 105-108 . the Hill Clear. p. 68. story converse with Ignorance. 109. fights with and overcomes ApoUyon. who wishes . the Delectable Mountains. 113. Mount Caution. the antiquities. pp. 69 . Lot's Wife. . p. Adam . are entertained by the Shepherds. their trial. pp. 80-82 fair. they meet Talkative. 53.. reaches the Palace Beautiful. 41. pp. they are condemned. p. and admitted. p. 59p. 109. descends into the Valley PP. alarmed at the lions. 51 . p. he passes the cave of the Giants Pope and Pagan. imprisoned. way with Hopeful as a companion. pp. 45 . 53-57. . pp. Piety. 435 it. in . pp. and cruelly treated by the Giant by the advice of his Wife Diffidence. armed and dismissed. . Faithful narrates the experiences of his journey. his dangers there. misses his Roll. they discourse together. of the robbery of Little and conversation and released p. the pleasant meadow and river. the pilgrims enter the are maltreated. is shown the armoury. pp. pp. 102 p. p. pp. p. Christian escapes and goes on his p. Evangelist meets them and warns them of the troubles they in meet with Vanity Fair. 93-97 p. Tumaway. 62 . the by-way to Hell. Vain Confidence's end. 108. 42 . pp. pp. 91 . 112. pp. 104 . pp. pp. Christian sleeps in the Chamber of Peace. Faith. they escape by the Key of Promise. they are deluded by the Flatterer. they are in danger of drowning. comes to the Valley of the Shadow of Death. 62 . 70-79 will . they refuse. pp. 46-50 the study. 52. the first. 85-90 . 121-123. Mr. p. 103 . 44. and have supper. pp. pp. Demas tempts them to the Hill Lucre. 63 they converse together. pp. 65-67 Moses. p. but is Shame. by the porter Watchful. 115-121. 97 . are seized by Giant Despair and imprisoned in Doubting Castle. 43. 91-93 . 100-102 . p. NOTES the lions. 82. and brought to trial. Discontent. F f 2 123. and chastised by an Angel. to join them. they are shown Mount Error. pp. he put to shame by Faithful's plain dealing. . p. . they meet By-ends. 90. is of Humiliation. 83. 114. pp. 98-100 p. the Spies. 42. pp. returns in grief and recovers encouraged pp. Hold-the-world's sophistry detected. meets Madame Wanton. they meet Atheist. 45 . overtakes Faithful. description of Vanity Fair. no. . 67 discourses finely. is S3-85 . discouraged by the children of . . examined by Prudence. and Charity. he takes up with other companions. but By-ends and his companions consent.

The plural is Cf. 5.' He thus indicates beyond question that this him when he was a prisoner in Bedford gaol. i.' the pilgrims in Doubting Castle allegory was conceived by : ' p. 1. Ignorance ferried over by pit. 148.' Measttre for Measure. German dialects. II.— PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. attended by Angels. 125-131 history of . ' the Gaol. The meaning o{ friend was wider in our 1. 23. approach the River. saying. second conversation with Ignorance. also Othello. 11. 2 ' .' This is the only sense of the word in the Scandinavian languages similarly in many of the High still . p. as first inserted the explanatory note on the word deti. 436 PART I the Enchanted Ground. Hopeful gives an account of his conversion. 144 they climb the Hill. yea at such times Law and Grace.y)«^«£/ is 'kinsman. 108. sight of the Gate. iv. 143 they both get safely over. . pp. 138-140. where was a Den. they enter. 147 . p. pp. Shakespeare makes Theseus say of Pyramus on the supposed death of Thisbe. 'The whole passage down to p. 2. Vain Hope. 9. it.' . p. your dear friend. pp. 12. Compare with I he b7-ake ont with a lamentable cry . and embraced those united by relationship or sexual love. they come in the country of Beulah. . though not published till some time after his The word den is used by him of the place of imprisonment of release. His earliest biographer. 17. Go get you down to your den again. which . v. conviction of sin could not tell ' and was added in the second edition.' 1. what shall I do? this Bunyan's description of his own state when under : ' Sometimes I have been so loaden with my sins that where to rest nor what to do. . 144-146 p. Christian nearly drowned. i.g.) P. 141 . 142 p. carried away to the bottomless p. . * What shall I do to be saved ? formed no part of the original work. v. In this plight. i. THE PILGRIM'S PH OGRESS. 20. the enter Temporary and conversation thereon. 1. would go near to make a man look sad. ' In the margin of the seventh edition Bunyan or. p. (The First Part. older language than now. pp. used with the sense of ' kinsfolk.' he spelt Goal. Charles Doe. states distinctly that the work was written in prison. I thought it would have taken away my senses. Midsummer Night's Dream. 131-137. 1. e. 1. and are admitted to the Heavenly City. 140 are sick of love. This passion and the death of a Atzr friend.

below the 25. Formed. to condole his oivn misery. 37. Tophet. 437 Cf. p. defiled 1. a person of a good carriage.' writes Professor Earle {Philology of the English Tongue. Samson Agonistes.' Shakespeare. i.' Bemers' translation of Froissart's Chronicles. carries oneself to another. veer. It gives additional life to the passage. The verses placed here and elsewhere (e. from Icel. 2.) at the foot of the page are those which stand rude woodcuts with which the Pilgritn's Progress began to be illustrated after the tenth edition. Henry ' V. pp.' This parenthesis was omitted in the second and 1. which. and to the great towre. vik-inn. There is hardly anything more characteristic of the English language ' than this particular faculty. And so went into the hygh strete with his penon before hym. 1. 541).' a place in Hinnom. denoted conduct. to the south-east of Jerusalem.' or tabret. E. harsh and surly carriages e. by Giant Despair ' i. ' to him. *I come not. From Toph.' manner in which one 106. 12.' So afterwards. and 'Let us condole the knight. acquired the symbolical sense of the place of abominations. 13. the 'Carriage.Y. 23.e. formerly i. from being by idols. 12. to condole thy chances. 13. wiket.' Till that I found a wicket small.' ' ' Chancer. pp. p.. chapter of cricket to xxxvi (p. at bottom. some frenzy distemper. I.' turns. Wicket-gate. P.' Milton. The similarity of the wicket in the a small doorway is self-evident. ' 4. 50). the valley of ' subsequent editions. with a French diminutive suffix. ed.g. left pilgrims in Doubting Castle were misery. 1. the ' to condole their ' Till a comparatively recent time e. g. The idiom a familiar one. ii.' still used for the deportment of the body. thoughts. Heb. So shette that I ne might in gone. g. ' a drum. Old French xviket or gvichet. 1. / am sure. 1. 1076. and polluted by the sacrifices of Baal and the fires of Moloch. A wicket is literally 'a small thing that easily M. by which substantives are transformed into adjectives by position alone. Samson.' or ' behaviour. &c. game . Goblins swift as frenzy is Troilus and C}-essida. ' Romaunt of the Rose. but the gate came and wycket was edition fast closed. 5.— NOTES P. to condole was always used transitively. 11. 17. of the strong verb vikja. 1812. Ibid. turn. the very gate and pit of hell. 1.' 1. to move.

25. 3. 28. The image is from spinning. appears as Dispair. edition. ' ' P. Version ' He placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cheriibims' Then flew one of the Seraphims unto me. 1. dispogliare. modern editions The name of the Slough was Dispona. 35. iii. his name having been previously 1. 31 of the Author's 29. and adds the English sign of the plural s. 32. 36. PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. (Antony and Cleopatra. p. that Christian was a designation adopted when he set out on his journey. 1. iv. S. Bunyan's spelling is preserved. ' : ' reply to the Porter at the House Beautiful. The conjunction of first edition. 1. disport. PART The I you ' ivill ' sink lower than the Grave. P. 11. 1. above this sixteen hutuired years. Nay. p. are meant the promises to repenting sinners contained in the Bible. 1. ' Graceless. said Christian. In nearly all Dispond is altered into Despond. 16. 24 : . 6. This is excellent. dispunge. This is the P. Why did you not look for the steps ? By the steps. where see the note. part. 36. the marginal note informs us. So also in Milton's Areopagitica ' A wise vian -will make better use of an idle pamphlet. 44. Compare the Italian disperare.' which as uniformly changed into is ' than ' in the second edition. ' spelling of the con- junction then or 'than is very uncertain in the Pilgrim^ Progress. I have adhered to Bunyan's orthography. 2 1. and Cherubins. 1. Apology for his Book. in dispirit. but now gone out of use. 9). yes.fonne. . In the second part. The period is not immaterial. as if they This last error is shared by our Authorized were singular nouns. then a fool will do of sacred Scripture. bid do thou. 14. P. 17. 'then' found ' in the earlier and later portions of the appears in the middle. In the second part. 1. We learn from his first time the name of the pilgrim is mentioned. dispetto.^ Then' and 'than' were originally identical. A. Mark the use of 'excellent' in a way then very familiar. for that 7uas his name. Giant Despair For the spiritual meaning of this allegory see 27-31. 14. which confounds the Hebrew plural -im. We have similar forms dispatch. place as a colloquialism. and the Chaldee plural -in (the latter of which appears in verse 4 of the Te Deum in the Book of Common Prayer). 1. Seraphims. In the first is edition of the first we have ' almost uniformly ' then.' as in 1.' Isaiah Gen. * capital having taken its It is very frequent in Shakespeare. 15. These words first appeared in the eighth The sentence previously commenced with come with me' 'when they take a fancy by the end. ' vi. which are sufficient to bear them up above all despondency. while ' than comparison is always then in the earlier editions of the Authorized Version of the Bible.438 1. 17.

1. and in the Taming of the Shrew. like the conversation between By-ends and his companions. having some inkling of him. to mutter.' ' Both the simple and compound forms are very In Shakespeare it occurs as a kind of mild oath. The interchange of the vowels e and in the verb corresponds with Mr. strew and straw. 19. Worldly Wiseman. He knew we have in 1. He has turned his tale' is still used in Lincoln' and probably in many other counties. first 1. having been written a few years previously.' What . Professor Skeat suspects it to be corrupted from the Danish ymte. 1. an intimaa vague and imperfect knowledge. frequent in Chaucer. but now always P. bi-schrewen. a happy afterthought of Bunyan's. The reference is to the Gospel of pardon and assurance first published by our Blessed Lord. xxi. 26.' tion. he is contradicting his former statement. a colloquialism signifying the carrying out of the object originally intended. not what to do. and to ridicule Christian. 'to murmur.' it is often spelled). after having laughed at Pliable till they were tired. Often printed their tails. appearing in the second edition. 'I Wot ' is a good old Bible word.NOTES The 439 first part of the Pilgrim'' s Progress was published in 1678. 141). Diffidence at Doubting Castle. shire. and then. Gen. Shrew. 21.' 1. with the prefix bi. more usually to the purpose. 21. Craik remarks {English that in shew and show. / beshrow him for his counsel. 29. and the narrative concerning Mrs. The meaning seems ' to be that. He ' stood still. M. of Shakespeare. was. The whole account of Christian's interview with Mr. turned their tales.22. 27. 13. hum. P. 24. in various places little made to rhyme with the sound of ^.' P. to It is the what appears have happened in the case of the still word which probably was formerly pronounced sheiu (as show.' a certainly in modern editions 'turned much more common expression. and he wot not what . So that there can be doubt that its common reverse Shakespeare's time was shroxu. 'wicked. ^ always. betnired to purpose.^. to express the idea. An inkling is a hint. I believe. mutter. The derivation of inkling is uncertain. 18. instead of first folio (Shakespeare) with ew . and since continuously proclaimed by His ministers. appears throughout the 07U as the diphthong. but apparently incorrect here. anything done completely.E. an iterative verb i\ova y7nja. 1. Beshrow is here an imprecatory expression. and its consequences. to do.iTom schrcwe. 23. adj. whether the substantive or the verb. pronunciation in of the word shrew\i. the rumour of some intelligence. 1. they began to take another view. which this thing ' wot not who hath done Phil.

I Wot to wit.' know. fifteenth centuries. stands for have. Works. Professor Skeat believes it to be allied to damp. as now. 5. Bk. 30. x. ' the men of Mortality. 27. ' root. 6. By till a printer's error we have the eighth. alteration The P. Faery Queene. In writers of the fourteenth and have was weakened to ha which was still further . I. Truly. said Christian. 28. I. vii. sate solitary under a tree in dumps musing what was best to be done. he would have had you a sought for ease. The first edition has By this time. fixed sadness. 1 P. wot not. . . 18. 1. P. ' process may be traced very early. 1. This 1. ' PART I I shall choose. 28. The word was em' . answereth to Jerusalem which is now This Agar and (Agar. Natural attrition has very generally reduced have to a in the speech of the common people. present indicative of M. and Some of our poore familye bee fallen into suche dumpes that § 8 scantelye can anye suche coumfort as my poore witte can geue them anye thynge asswage theyr sorowe. Spenser.' The subject of the * clause in that now 21.44° PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. Cf. 31. E. which gives no So in process of time.' It will be remarked that * betterment is an improperly formed word. bondage with her (Agar's own) ' children. Worldly Wiseman and the second meeting with Evangelist which ends here. For kist the second edition strangely reads kept. A confusion of is. . According to the New English Dictionary the derivation is obscure. after he had kist him.' is the first person. there is idiom. I am just as bad as he is there is no bettemess on my side.^ in all the editions 1. 24. 1. in the midst of viy dumps. Saxon Kings. and 25 : is ' in bondage with . as Edwine thus perplexed with troubled ' ' ' thoughts in the dead of the night.' P.' Sir Thomas More. sense. to 1 6. a Latin termination being affixed to an English 14.' Speed. 25. Bk. p. We find it used in serious prose. 1. To be in the dumps was not always.' being a different one from that of the clause is bondage. 1. The a in a sought The full sentence would run he would have had you (persuaded you) to have sought. I. ike Town of Morality. not Jerusalem) iv. her children in a misquotation from Gal. was made to bring the text into harmony with the long narrative of Mr. c. the Botid-'ivoman that now is. From hereto in no wise are cast out. is. reduced to a. is. 1140. 9. a ludicrous term for melancholy. witen. p. was first inserted in the second edition. Bunyan's meaning ' . 1. c. . no betterment ^twixt him and myself.' This use of a for have is of very frequent occurrence in the second part. 12. 23. 1.

the change into "nothing but rags" is not legitimately imaginable.T\A travel. The Goverjior of them their guardian or tutor. journeying. 'He hath .' Honour out of Breath. Num. Or a French brawl Nares* Glossary the {stib voce) (a kind of dance^. 10. 1. 1. either vocal or instrumental. 1. &c. This fire is the work of Grace. 30. is under tutors and — * governors until the time appointed of the 1.' He loves nothing but an Italian Two Gentlemen dump of Verona. 34. Cf. .V. Coleridge remarks. . This is beautiful. This portrait of a faithful minister of Christ has been very reasonably supposed to have been drawn from John Gifford. 28. and poured it down at his feet. To butt down upon i^of is to end in. and partly aphetic from abut. of usual images and generalized words. mentions an Elegy entitled * Dump upon A Death of the most noble Henrie Earle of Pembrooke. XX. ' Compare Bunyan's description of his own exThen hath the Tempter come upon me also with such diss. P. 1 2 The heir as long as he is a child . iii. once a major in the royal army. Gal. and to spiritual father. but afterwards minister to the Baptist congregation at Bedford of which Bunyan became a member. 14 the printers have compassed me with gall a. p. 3. iii.. toil and pain. 402. is preserved in one place in the A. a goal. Lam. is o)ie of a thousand. The 3fan whose Picture this is.'' In changed travail into travel without ' ' ' ' any authority. iv. is now always spelt travail. whom he looked up with affectionate reverence as his Children. periences : u. I.' Literary Remains.* P. — ' Coleridge. and brought him a Bag of Treasure. old spelling . . or even a poetical composition ' To their instruments Tune ' a deploring dump. travel being restricted to the labour endured in distinction is This modern. P.. 29.: — 441 NOTES ployed in a derived sense for a melancholy strain of music.' longer time and more interlinks are requisite. P. . many ways butt down upon this. 1. father. 32. it is no allegory. 14. travel in birth 'with The word when used in the sense of suffering labour.. A It is a hybrid compost Yet perhaps these very defects are practically excellences in relation to the writer and readers of the Pilgrim'' s Progress. 13. . The beholding " but a while " and 37. iii.' Then I saw that one came to Passion. adoption of French but. Partly from butt. 15. a shooting-target. to issue into a road. 403. and a man of most depraved life. or path). 1607. 'One of the not many instances of faulty allegory in the Pilgriju's Progress that is. 5 The .

Child was born in Bedford in 1638. senses 1. 11. p. 17. This was changed in the P. ' The clouds rack clear before the sun. 20. 202. The State of Francis Spira. P. which also means mist. Foiir Plays in One.' Maze is ' mental confusion. an apostate. mdsen. pray Sir do you . Underw. or cf. we read of 'a man clothed in linen with a writer's inkhorn by his side. is to be traced to M.— 442 ' PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. masa-st (where reflexive). in a tion he destroyed himself. 5.327. and saw the Clouds rack at an unusual rate. Cf Icel. reka. 448. In Ezekiel ix. to maze. p. 34. mist. 1. and became a minister. upon which the Interpreter becomes the interrogator. atid his Inkhorn before him. This is followed in by Kay. 1. means cloudy vapour. lose one's and begin to dream. ' ' I. a book which we know to have been terribly familiar to Bunyan {Grace Abounding. Many have been as hot as you for a spurt. Nor\veg. rec. Bunyan in his Tree. doubtless conLife tributed See the Relation of the Relation of the Fearful some details to this awful picture. October 15.' Ben Jonson. For fear of persecution he fell away. 'Stay. but 1 will cool this frame shall not last always. a Man in an Iron Cage. clouds 1.' Professor Skeat says -st is it is of Scandinavian 'to origin. 'bewilderment'.' The substantive reek. 35. the in the iron cage man for one being \nsited with awful compunctions of conscience.S.E. 1. P. ye rcuk too fast. § 163. § no. but I have quenched their zeal. 1734. stupefaction.' It is the recognized designation for an ' ink pot P. Inkhom is a Bible word. The verb motion of to rack is familiar in our sixteenth century writers for the when driven by the wind. 3.' 28. to M. 'to drive. vapour. and afterwards to the Pilgrim's Progress. or at least some features of the description were drawn from him. E. mdse. clouds. edition ' ' second edition. 16S4. rek. said Christian. said the Interpreter. and is connected with the idea of dimness. fit of despera- and Death of John Child. Offer. 72. Beaumont and Fletcher. A. in a maze. motion. alludes to the case of Spira almost in the here. a thing drifted'. PART I couragements as these You are very hot for mercy. 1- 38. 343). 33. "We see from Bunyan's words how well qualified he was to The substantive rack ' . Introduction was intended John Child. 2.' Grace Abounding. p. drift. The first edition has * in a muse. rek.' and occurs abundantly in our early writers.' \i. smoke. make become dizzy. — you . or ' ink glass. Barren Fig same words as the ask him. According to Mr. first 1. 15.

13. xviii.' You mind your business. my and childhood the Lord did scare and affright terrify me with fearful dreams and me with dreadful visions. and Prayer Book. whafs matter which way we get in? Coleridge remarks here. 1.S. xxv. 15 'If thy brother shall trespass against verbial saying. the A. §§ 5. as in the familiar notice. the only one in the work) the allegory degenerates into a sort of pun. said they. I believe. 27. And besides. 102 of the poetical introduction. 9. what is the matter. i Sam."' 1. See the note on 1.' French trespasser.' This word is now usually employed for passing 1. fcrt.\\e fats overflow. and entering on land which is the property of another. It is found in and the A. if we get into the way. ' . 9. ofer-stappan. and we will mind ours. 1. Every Fait must stand upon his own bottom. p. 39. that which contains. P. 18. v.' The wider Of this we have repeated instances in signification is now antiquated. \. I should be greatly afflicted troubled with the thoughts of the Day of Judgment.S.g. ' vessel. ob^^ous and only proper answer " For the you are not in the same 'way' with me though you are walking in the same road. 24. A. the Hill Difficulty. 38. This hill was anonymous in the The name. libertreten.* or employ the verb instead of the substantive. 33. which has become a household word. 298. and that both fearful night and day. a fence or boundary. we tro.' P. 28 'Forgive the trespass of thine handmaid'.' from the A. is one first edition. 'The allegory is clearly defective. from the Old will be prosecuted. 40. 1. that is. signifying. and should tremble at the thoughts of the torments of hell P. inasmuch as "the way" represents two diverse meanings: (i) the outv/ard profession of Christianity. to ' pass beyond. and (2) the inward and spiritual grace. Grace Abounding. 8.' A fat is now spelt vat. Forgive us our trespasses.' ' A pro' Everybody must look to themselves. The fats shall overflow with wine and oil' The word comes to us iii. fire. as we forgive them ^sX trespass against us'. Joel ii. In this instance (and it is. Matt.V. What's matter which way we get in ? In modern language we should introduce the definite article. No ! ' ' . ' ' ' thee." and thus supplies Formalist and Hypocrisy with an argument which Christian cannot fairly answer. or rather one to which Bunyan could not make is : his Christian return the proper answer without contradicting the allegoric image.. what matters it ? 1. 6.' Germ. e. 'The press is full. Trespass. answering both in derivation and meaning to transgress. Any person trespassing on this land This meaning is the original one. and signifies a vessel of a large size to contain liquids.— NOTES describe terrifying ' 443 'Even in dreams from his own experience. in the two senses of the word " way.

The passage before us is borrowed from Jer. 41. and the like. substantive which follows — : ' Act i. His scenery. Old French {h)erbier. word in a sentence. but we must bear in mind that Bunyan was a native of Bedfordshire. and had little idea of what they were like. meaning and main. 10. sc. such a verb is usually number. ' ' tree. on. ' With is all their strength'. A ward of grace. The final acceptance of these forms was probably brought about. Emblem 7 ' it is ' : ' Is this a time to steep Thy brains in Thy leaddfi . i. p.444 of the edition. Emblems. 25. a garden of herbs. here. awake. marginal note. 34. The syntax is here ' is logical. and had never seen mountains in his life. 360. V. a 7uide field Jull of dark Mountains. from the ninth century onwards.' Arbor. 1. and preceded by such words that.' Amain ' derived from the preposi- tion a. A somewhat obscure Ward' is used in the sense of a place of protection. phiral vtrh followed by a singular substantive after there There are a sort of men. wasteful slumbers? spirit : Up and rouze ? is this a time to sleep : Adjourn thy sanguine dreams Call in thy thoughts.' According . ' In correct edition 21. to some degree. Notes and Queries.' Quarles. at. power. Stnrt's 1. * bower. originally [li)erber. It is noteworthy that in The Merchant of Venice Shakespeare uses 3.' 1.' Professor Skeat. 1. pression. Erber became a^-ber by a change that was frequent with -er before a consonant. 4.' or the Italian arborata. and the phrase signifies a situation where God's grace guards His people. runnitig against hi7ti amain. or agricultural land.' ' — with the Latin arbor. metamorphosed into a word of grace. Anglo-French 1. by the natural tendency to connect it like a standing pool. xiii. P. Anglo-Saxon mcegn. [K)erber. 88. yet it is in accordance with historical usage. Examples of such usage are common. there was two other ways. 9th s. when it went beyond the objects familiar to him in his native county. 11. is all drawn from the Bible. 'Field' here means a stretch of open country. employed in the singular what. When a verb occurs as the second as it. once meant a place covered with grass or herbage.' ex- Ibid. a pleasant Arbor. many improvements introduced PARTI in by Bunyan the second scarcely 19. 1. as we now say ' with might and main. bk. 16 before your feet stumble upon the dark mountains. a worn-down in. The image is indefinite. and in the end took the forms arbor and arbour. whose visages do cream and mantle. on. arise. proclitic form of the Anglo-Saxon an. where. PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. strength. Cf. irrespective of the number of the it. not fenced pasture.

20. P.' from the M.S. ' schiften. is an ellipsis of 'that. bk. fact. xiii. catch" d up. his unhappy miscarriage.' 1. Miscarriage. being chiefly used as a medical and judicial term. tender the Settle. though caught is much more usual. but is not very infrequent in Shakespeare. 1.' i Hen. shift. An preterite caught has established ' ' ' ' of the Spectator (No. 'miscarriage of justice. which. IV.NOTES to 445 the New as late as the sixteenth afoot. &c. 43. Borrowed by Bunyan from Isa. his foolish Fact. io\x\exfact did never traitor. and so any failure in duty. 17. after the model of such words as ? &c. Under the bench. and in the classic pages 12. doleful Creatures. sell. John ix. survival of meaning in feat. we find a seat. factum it is {facere). In the A. 'A ' He who most tliis excells in fact of arms. the second As it stands there Cf. remove ' .' 33. it P. V. ' 30. ZTa////)' looks like a mistake but all early editions are consistent in the by hap. a deed.' begotten.VI. might find his Roll. 1. 27. base. sciftan. It is also found in Milton. V. * ' Gotten' is the old form of the past participle of the verb get. v. English Dictionary the word was apparently formed century. obsolete in the simple verb. 25. 14. 1. quoted by Richardson. example of a weak preterite where the strong itself. i. 13.' 'what the matter that you run.' in the ' ' ill-gotten. 524). 21 Their houses shall be full of all doleful creatures. used by i .E. where seems used for a kind of ledge or flat portion of the altar towards the 1. We have a 1. Thus South. 2 and Milton e. anything done. xliii. for anything that was carried or conveyed wrongly or unsuccessfully. A.^i. 1. ' . 1. the declaratory. when he had gotten his Roll again. A. 27. present reading. ii. to ' divide.' It is the only form of the past participle known A. 42.' where the Hebrew ochim means 'groaners. in which sense ..' which is now much limited in sense. an act. 124. I. : iv. which is derived ixoxnfactu/ii through Old French. if happily he ' for haply. Shakespeare This fact was infamous.' Paradise Lost. 'got' occurring only as the preterite.S.. what^s the matter you run the wrong way first This is sometimes is mistakenly read as two sentences. how should I shift the/n ? ' Shift. interrogatory. Catched is not found in the A. from the L. to divide.' 2 Ilett. or chance ' . g.. In A.. it is only found in Ezek. signifies 1.' &c. though is now ' nearly preserved in the compounds forgotten.' had formerly a much wider meaning. change. speaks of . 10.

. by which of course the Holy Scriptures are intended. &c. c. 1. Breast-plate. 13-17. but there can be no reasonable doubt that the sojourn at the ' Palace Beautiful ' was intended by him to signify references to Church-life Christian's incorporation into a of the Eucharist furnishes sufficient believers. 1. viii. 34. The records of the Palace Beautiful. Eph. Paul's catalogue of tlie Christian armour. like the Hill Difficulty. 2. xvii. x. the delectable mountains. 21 Gideon. P. Christian relative to his wife and children. 45. P. This was altered in the third and subsequent editions to * things in which . and Bishop Porteus enforces the duty of ' reflecting on our past miscarriages' 1. 1.' The and to the Sacraments in Bunyan's allegory are very few and indistinct. 8 ' the breastplate — 'the helmet of the hope of shod with the of righteousness — the faith ' ' 'The sword of the ' Spirit. II. See St. : 2-4. 50. the Man of Sin. xxxiii. i. bk. 49. v. 1. The reception of Christian at the Palace Beautiful appears to typify in Bunyan's allegory the admission of a new convert into a Christian Church. is vi. vii. 48. and Shoes that would not wear out. 2 Samson. 'the house built for the entertainment of pilgrims. i vii.. ' ness ' to warrant the belief. I. may be compared with the * Documents ' of Spenser's 'House of Holiness. ii. Sword. P. 15 . supported by several other passages. 'Thy shoes 17. 9 and Phil. and brass. The whole of this conversation between Charity and 1. 1. the name of which was Beautiful. P. . 31 . c. Shield. 20.' iv. 10. 8-15. X. Judges iv. iii. 22. lb. This. II. xv. 49. Faery Queene. He had strift himself of his 19. in the second edition. ' ' the word of ' salvation — God — the shield of i Thess. 12. 446 PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. David. in evil. also Deut. 17. . Shamgar. 50. 34. Sam. 8. 16-22 50 . The reference is to 2 Cor. lb. P.' Faery Queene. Refer for Moses' rod to Exod. they saw no edition. ii. was added P. All Prayer. 37. 1. this passage occurs. 25 shall be iron 11. Helmet. / denied mysclj of sins in which they saw no evil. the is Valley of Humiliation. Thess. 11. lb. and his partaking Bunyan's 'Palace called Beautiful' points of resemblance to Spenser's House of Holi- Church of with them. . We are here again reminded of Spenser.' The text gives the original reading of the second first which 30. Doubting Castle. . as far as p. glo?y that he might do this for the Poor. i. PART I 'a failure or miscarriage'' in resisting the assaults of Satan. a stately Palace . one of the happy expressions . for Jael. that he must have been acquainted with the Faery Qucene. which feet preparation of the gospel of peace'. 7. 51. 52. bk. 3-8.

v. 6. denoting what had been proved by a severe test and had stood the trial. in ii. We should now prefer to say.' No doubt. xiii. xi. 'Delectable' = alluring. ix. 8-10. 'passages of proof Hamlet. my minority. Two hundred loaves of bread. /'aery Queene. and bnly once found in the A. ' ' bk. and his mouth as the mouth of a lion Job xli.g. 33. iv. iti my nonage. 'I have hired myself. 15 (of leviathan.' with Abaddon regions.English. : ' ' probare. of education. 2 Sam. 'his coat is of proofs 2 Heu.' identified = 'Destruction. P. 1. but Gr. Cf. and a cluster of Raisins. 1 1 is ' The angel of the bottomless in the pit. its 447 No earlier example of Solomon's Song presents a slight resemblance in the mountain of myrrh and the hill of frankincense. a favourite type of Satan) ' His scales are his Feet like a bear was pride. xii. ' ' * their delectable things shall not profit.' iv. = ' Destroyer. i Sam. shall then and till . Rev.' a loaf of Bread. 55. The features of this description of Apollyon are. iv. 1. The Pilgrim's provision is borrowed from the O. and were as the feet of a bear. as Rev. i. and an I Chron. Rofnaunt of the Rose. Greek tonguehath his name Apollyon. 5. 2 ' His feet usual with Bunyan. T. 'targe of Shakespeare Proof is proof Cymbeline.. his na?iie is Apollyon. V. xliv. whose name in the Hebrew tongue Abaddon.' 1. and 38. is by no means rare in our earlier literature. xvi. 19. i. vi. 2. 40. 1. 53. Richard III.' To let is commonly used of things rather than persons among people 1. and Late Latin from the Latin .' With Bunyan's description of Apollyon first added in the second edition. is ' . is not imusaal in e. ' a bottle of wine.' though now of infrequent use. to 1. delightful. 9. then govern well. enticing.' personified as the prince of the infernal P. 7. derived through Middle. let 31. i hundred bunches of raisins. we may compare Spenser's description of the Dragon. a bottle of Wine. I have myself to another. except as an avowed archaism. use has been pointed out. P.e. shut up together as with a close seal. 'AttoAXvcki/.NOTES with which Bunyan has enriched our language.' Isa. VI. * I wol not long hold you all this in fable Of gardin dilectahlc' Chaucer. and an hundred of summer fruits. 54. French. c. ' 3 : That in his Jionage council under him. borrowed from the Bible. ' test. So Shakespeare. what was ofproof This phrase. 5. 9-1 1. while still under age. I.

the P. . 710 other affront frojn Afollyon. altered into ' burst ' in the second and later editions. Isa. imp or sprite. Thus Spenser. 1. 'a mischievous Hobgoblins. F. 1. was hanged and to brast the myddil and alle hise entrailis Judas weren shed abrood.' i.' In the second and which has no ante- King's Highway. gobeli7i. 1. in 'nonsense. 13. on which account it is called the king's highway. According to Professor more forcible provincial form ' strodled. 58. a7id Drag07is of the Pit. 14. to the face. — the erth trembled and the rocks braste in sonder. 'with some of the leaves of the Tree of Life. now employed except in relation to an insult or offence. out of onr hands. a free passage for the king's subjects. hostile encounter. when Duessa's beast is encountered by the Squire sword in hand adfrontd-re from adfro7item. Hob-gobli7t. 705). . who discouraged the Israelites by the report they brought back of the gigantic stature and warlike character of inhabitants. fiers disdaine. 1. c. 'Affront' here means It is derived through the French from affrontd-re. the In English law this ' ' Skeat. 'The sun withdrew his lyght. Satyrs is borrowed fiom the Bible. . Children of them that b7-ought up a/t evil report of the good Land. 13. It is of constant occurrence in Old English e. or the owner of the land (2 Inst. c. Exposicion of Daniel. g. 31. P. c. xiii. rarely ' ' ' ' The proud Duessa. Borrowed from Num. And 1. and goblin 1 ' . 1. So ' ' Chaucer uses in the first edition. 1. its —Num. viii. Faery Qiteene. 35. xxi. 1. xiii. Then there came to him an hand. barst. to be affronted Faery Queene. The reference is to the spies sent out by Moses to survey the Land of Promise. were formerly used for any hostile encounter or assault.' Wiclif. bk. is defined as Via Regis.' Both the verb and noun.' PART 'nonsuit.' —Joyce.' is formed from Hob. 2 Owls shall dwell there and satyrs shall dance . i. 18. 5. xiv. The reading of the first edition is retained. 19. brast. 48. Satyrs. full of wrathfull spight so.' I We ' have similar compounds non-power for impotence. 5. xi. straddled. 18. . though the freehold of the soil belongs to the lord of the manor. Compare with Spenser. 57.: 448 PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. Acts i. 17. word was formerly striddle frequentative of stride. archaic and dialectic preterite of the verb to written ' It is Brast is an sometimes . bk.' P. a familiar by-form of Rob = Robert. 56. subsequent editions cedent subject. In the first edition we have the less correct but 15. Inirst. our ' is altered into ' their.

V. Isa. to look with a downcast eye reference is and so to slink away like one ashamed. because the way is long. and live pursue the slayer. 29. unrenewed by divine grace. 34. the cheek. An allegorical representation of the carnal nature of man. I tro. 22. 60. bum P. 'Whosoever committeth sin This is the slave of intended by Bunyan to represent the strength of the natural desires of the heart. Qtiag (which we find more usually in the compound quagfiiire) and quake are kindred words. and the Spirit against the flesh. 17. i 27. 19. To leer (from the A. S. Epb. overrun him. 53. 1. struggle bet\veen flesh and the severity of the them and the renewed affections of the mind 'the lusting against the Spirit. 22. M. 59. xxvi.' 1. 1. wife. Cf. xxxix. Adam the first. Me Matt. hleor.' P. Sam. 1. he shall lest the avenger of the blood flee unto one of those cities. iv. face.' 449 ' where the Hebrew word signifies hairy baboons or apes.: NOTES there. sin. ones.' — Gal. a deadly twitch back. ii. the Avenger of Blood is behind me. S. c. 6. neighbour ignorantly. John viii.. ' Whoso killeth his he hated not in time past . The pasK-age that follows represents under an allegorical dress tlie the strictness of law of Moses. 34. The I to Joseph's temptation by Potiphar's Gen..' P. P. 29. he leered mien) is away. while his heart is hot. 63.' the iai presently' .. Faery Queene.' and probably refers to ' ' ' quick. a slave. xxxiv.' Deut. A. convincing of sin but making no Gg * . at the time then present. bk. outrun him. 4. the him on work. set fail to He 1. 62. We may compare with Pope and Pagan's cave Spenser's description of the Cave of Despair. 14. and slay him. 66. P. ix. presently. cwacian. 1. 1.' 'The old man which is is P. 17. 1. 3. and overtake him. 13. 1. 'Let them not 12. 4-6. the . A quotation from Thomas Stern- hold's version of Ps. 7. 65. 1 3. more than twelve legions of angels. Cf. The reference is to the Jewish ordinance of the cities of refuge. shall presently give 1. 1. xix. : whom 1. am sure. xxiii 'Yea though I walke in vaile of death Yet will I fear none ill. / will fear none ill. P. corrupt according to the lusts of deceit. 64. I. Quag is derived from the tremulous character of the ground when Allied to trodden on. ' 16. 1. to work. 1. immediately. to quake. cwdkien. E. a very dangerous Quag. 33.

Bunyan's description of the Pharisee ' He goes on boldly. 1. Sermons. was generally ambuscado in the seventeenth century. and so fell. (adopted from the French ode. 1.* 1. 1. when thou gavest thy golden one away. an old form of the preterite of to strike.' 450 promise PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. P. notwithstanding his fine tongue. bk. this is spelt bruit. or bluster. Hence it is still it came appearance. a braggadocio. P. Sirook. fears nothing. the Icelandic . a bully. The masculine suffix ado. 4.' I. marks to lead me to Him. brother never transgressed. his crown. death of Christ. the holes in his " Hath He hands and his side. although often used in a depreciatory sense. P. and calls is good: he hath his whereby he strokes himself over the himself one of God's white boys that like the Prodigal's fine things. but trusteth to himself that his state mouth full of many head. slrook. ' Thou hadst little wit in thy bald crown. 70. Pharisee and Publican. to signify clever. If ' hectoring must be looked upon as the only badges of gallantry and courage. which is feminine = Sp. I. Ambuscade. 4). pleasing in 3. The Anglo-Saxon ceorl (cf.' Richardson. for its forgiveness. Bravadoes. 'Hector the brave son of Priam appears to have gained by tradition the undesen-ed character of a vainglorious blusterer. -ada. adopted from the Spanish or Portuguese. vol. struck. 1. he is stuh a churl. xi.' says the Fool to Lear {King Lear. 1. French bravade. what can disgrace of it?' recommend the exercise of patience against the x. 35. Cf. 1. 5. his head. the brute in his kind. 16. Italian bravata. hectoring liberty. South. ' And fiercely tooke his trenchand blade in hand stroke so furious With which he P. or stroke. boasts. J. 29. i. PART I through the and the pardon of is all offences sacrifice of the 1. has not infrequently been used in English to refashion substantives which should end in -ade It. He be my Guide?" " In His feet and hands are wound-prints. And His side. brags. guileful." Dr. c. M'Neale. 68. 24. he : but a sorry fellow. blusters. from the Greek. 33. 16. -ata). serm.' 1. 67. By a curious typographical error all Sturt's In the earlier editions up to the tenth very ' correct editions' have 'the brewer. a very pretty man. is for instance. whence to hector comes to But when huffing and mean to bully. 73. In Anglo-Saxon prcvttig meant cunning. Faery 3' Qtieene.

especially Grace Abounding. P. 14.e. P. or melancholy Man. iii. Peevish now only capricious. Ecclus. c. 297-300. This brings to my mind that of Moses. 1. nor frantick among thy servants. 75.'\. Spiritual meditation ' sounding brass? creature that hath § Is it so much to be a fiddle? ' Hath not the least life in it more of God than these ? i. ' In cunning sleights and practick knavery. 316. Bunyan. . way of God's law. Shall I be proud because I am bolized. iv. had good patristic precedent for Theodoret and this quaint spiritualizing of the Levitical ordinance. i. 20. intractable. though he was probably quite ignorant of it. as we say among men. and meditation upon and holy living are both necessary. The Soul of Religion opposed to the theoretical. 27.' Frankkyne's Tale. . P. So high a cherlish wretchednesse Ageyns fraunchise and alle gentilesse.827. practical as 30. This doing things with a high hand against the Lord our God. life. Thus it This depreciatory sense was acquired very early. — himself for being out of humour.' Bunyan's He introduces it fancy was evidently caught by this allegorizing. catch. sure walking in the .' the pradick part. 9. You in lie at the catch. so unreasonable with his Servants. harsh. hold that in this combination of parting the hoof and chewing the cud the union of the moral and spiritual qualities is supposed to be sym' it. § 71.' Faery Queene. 1. ' v. 74.\. Be not a lion in thy house. 8.' 1. We find in Chaucer For ' : vilains sinful deedes make a chtirV v. You is are lying in wait to catch me my words and trip me up. ' Talkative neglected the counsel of the Son of Sirach. bk. 'A peevish fellow is one who has some reason in meaning here. 30. Just thus it is with him who has gifts but wants grace. 386. Its old meaning was wider stands for fretful. 'Impracticable' would seem to be its selfwilled. and a taking Him as it were at the This is.NOTES karl. meant a free man of the lowest class. 6740. to seek to put a trick upon God. is P. G g 2 . petulant. 76. other Fathers quoted by Bishop Wordsworth {Commentary in loc). 1.e. ' Grace Abounding. sounding Brass. viz. the of in the practick part of Thus Shakespeare speaks Henry V. a 451 man) usually came to signify boor. 11. and Tinkling Cymbals. p. or has a natural incapacity for delight. 79. cf. 1. Jerusalem Sinner Saved. Spenser uses the word a bad sense for tricky. several times. Wife of Bath's Tale. 1. p. some peevish. 36. II.

but. btiten. 1 1. all PART I Spectator. 9. poetic. and Sturbridge Fair near Cambridge. M. its world in miniature with various temptations. Lusty' = joyous. 14. II. without. who are happier than himself. 'They ' will strain hard and not be content without they kill you. except. is The sentence elliptical. 1. cause the world to stumble. 80. and dialectic variant. . 82. outside. unless. 1. 1. outside. 82. lustig. bute. Vanity Fair is the City of Destruction It is in its gala dress. aiui Legion. S. butan. will strain hard but they will E. 1. Vanity-Fair. pass away. ' . bating the allegorical details. 81.' 33. free from. this 1. and agone are all forms of the past participle of the old English verb ago. of the larger fairs of England. An adaptation of the words of Amasai kill you.e. xii. Bunyan's description of Vanity Fair in this and the following paragraphs gives a true picture. without. A. the full form agone had been contracted to ago in some dialects long before this usage became accepted.' P. bill. but. lust. a stumbling-block Richardson quotes 'This stumbles me' from Beaumont and Fletcher. 20. According to the A''ew English Dictionary. Apollyon. But is here used to mean without. 1. All from this point to p. pleasant. 1.S. 36. 10. 438. is drawn from Bunyan's own bitter experience of 19. and divided into quarters devoted to the sale of goods The particulars gleaned by Hone in his delightful 'Everyday Book' enable us to see how true Bunyan's description was to life.452 PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. for the time they lasted assumed the form and dimensions of a town. 18. 1. and therefore disturbs No. merry. Luke viii. agon. Evangelist's in the true sense of the a scandal to which trips one up. * ' ' ' — — address to the pilgrims persecution. 83. laid out in streets of the same kind.' Cheever. viz. These. 21. A. 26. P. was first added in the second edition. in its most seductive and sensual allurements. P. The reference Mark v.' and supposed to is be one of the to Scriptural appellations of the Evil One. P. Beelzebub. especially the latter. it i. except. do stumble the World. this lusty Fair. 23. to go. Ago. 30. pleasure. Chron. to David. Agone is now an archaic. such as Bartholomew Fair in Smithfield. are word. in end of the fourteenth century. ' Bunyan evidently wrote it in ignorance of the meaning of Legion. containing the interview with Evangelist. ^ve thotisand years agone. mirthful. jovial. and rows. desire Germ. peace be to your helpers. buton. Stumble was altered into puzzle a much feebler word in the second and later editions. 1.

It is not unfrequent in Shakespeare . to hinder. its original purpose being to settle any disputes that might arise between them and their customers.' Outland ' is the land external to. borrowed by Bunyan from I Cor. even bitter words. Bedlams. they seemed Barbarians each to the other. 1. 26.* where a ready justice was administered for offences This court took its name from the Fieds and travelling merchants were called . as the pedlars ' 1. 3. 10. 85. xiv. having been of a finally abolished wooden screen of . 3 . 1. Cf. in i. Collect for Fourth Sunday in Advent . So the 7nen were brought to examination. 1. madmen. among home-spun English to refined diction. more frequently as an adjective. of punishment Cf. the carriages of the men.' came to be used first for any receptacle for mad people. 13. \. S. letfly at them. strange. 12. 18. At every large fair there was a court of justice called the 'Piepowder Court. or Dustyfeet. Bedlam ' is contracted and Mary of Bethlehem out- London. 453 ' 7.' Hamlet. and then for the persons themselves. p.' one who speaks a different language from another. separate from. tion for the reception of lunatics in 1547. ' xii. ' I '11 make a ghost of him that lets me. ' Moorgate lb. It consisted two or more horizontal sliding boards. 11. Anslditder. foreign. a mode by public exposure. their behaviour. unusual. 18. I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian. ' outlandish women. committed in the fair. having been incorporated as a royal foundaBethlem.' Rom. Ps. the Language of Canaan. * I was let hitherto. foreign. P. 1. 84. a foreign land such a land. See note. Oiitlandisk-men. 4. 25. aiisldndisck. 21. i. Ixiv. 12. by Act of Parliament in 1837. raised on a platform several feet from the ground. corrupted from Bethlehem. sometimes as a substantive.NOTES P. Compare with the German Ausland. It and outlandish is anything belonging to was in constant use in this sense in the sixteenth and seventeenth Outlandish has centuries. side 1. xix.' 1. e. i. one's . Fillory. ' own country. 'Who shoot out familiar their arrows. to let them in their Jotirtuy. now the meaning of strange. to make late. very to to our forefathers. from the Sore let and hindered. a odd. See Isa. and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me. If I know not the meaning of the voice.' A. abused them. 1.' It is not probable that Bunyan had any knowledge prefer vigorous ' people who of the true classical sense of ' barbarian. This also is true to life. foreign country. In the boards there were circular holes through which the culprit's head and hands were passed. The priory of St. foreigners.' or 'Bedlam. I. as in ' Nehem. but happily unknown the present generation. to hinder them. Pottldi-eux. Ifttan. a foreigner. 32.

the jury. Thou Runagate. in order to their Condemnation. 6. i. i Hen7yIV. Hist. Every Man in his Humour. 13. 8. Eternal life. or to pick occasions for getting thanks. profit to in the eighth edition. 492. 2. 15. P. 28. might be necessary to dispatch the prisoners he would enlarge his testimony against them to any requisite degree. which by a mistake as to its derivation came to be used in the sense of a runaway (cf. and Jeffreys' behaviour to him. 1. flatterer. 'He shall hear on't. and finished every one of them in quick. 1870. P. of England. especially Judge Jeffreys. 10. The trial of Richard Baxter. ' 1.' he fed. one who has denied his faith. again. rabble being Teutonic . * I wyll not playe the runagate and goe euerywhere but I retume agayne Udal's Erasmtis. 88. Ixviii. Ps. Improperly altered to ' profitand continued in subsequent editions. p. from the Latin re. The language and deportment of the judge are a copy to the life of some of the infamous judges under Charles II and James II.' word comes through Old French and Low Latin. the witnesses. A badly. Prayer Book). A P. 86. as it still is in the speech of the lower orders. renegade. affords another almost Macaulay. The ready testimony of Envy is especially and graphic touches. 10-19. a. 87.' iii. 1. History of England^ iii. Rather than that anything should be wanting that characteristic. formerly. exact parallel. 89. are portraits life. able 1. flatterer. Rabblement. ed.' Froude. Pickthank -=&. vol. Cf. Shakespearian Grammar.' Cheever. 246. 1. his face being exposed in front of a mob.formed word. ' still remaining there is a memorandum in his own hand for " the trial and execixtion " of the Abbot of Glastonbury. he himself standing behind for the pelting of the II. P. quoted in ' Bible Word-book. Abbott. 21. it. § 90.' The to my father. and negare.' Ben Jonson. the best of On was of. PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. couples together 'smiling /2V-^///^w^5 and base newsmongers. concise. First introduced in the second edition. PART I it. We are reminded here of the 1. it. * a pickthank. used for especially in rapid speech. Middle English renegat. Nothing can be more masterly than the satire con- tained in this trial.454 mark 1. The judge. and a 27. the best on V. to deny. one who by base arts seeks to Shakespeare curry favour. Nares quotes from Fairfax ' : With pleasing tales his lord's vain ears liar. Among loose papers of Cromwell fate of the Abbot of Glastonbiiry. The report of the trial of Algernon Sidney contains the abusive language of sketched from the the Judge against Faithful almost word for word.

cheating. had to a suit on the part of a judge . 1. a secret. a very low Congee. South. for ' g. at a clap. i. .. a shrub. to carry it. purpose. Latin respectwn. Touchstone of Sincerity. Scrub. p. a Chariot and a couple of Horses. ' 7. 27. * or N. Cf. 1. commedttts.NOTES (Old Dutch rabbelen. 2.13. or N. to chatter). IF. provincial German Latin. Its has generally been compared with French ' cotisiner. 'carriage. ii.' Merchant of Venice. P.' his name M. . 2.' for 'behaviour. leave. 15. is they call him 31. respit. 30. uncertain. to jump in my Jtidgment with.' Merchant of 9. in with. 42 Ane in the North Uctred men kalde. which contains some of Bunyan's most striking genius. 455 and vient used for it P. and contemptible. 36.ioht\xa. and there is no cozenage in the night. Venice. properly a time for reviewing a matter (tempus Original sense regard. Lincolnshire. ace. to agree with. 36. 32. vol. is the low undergrowth of woods. no is still fallacy in the day. at one stroke. what may I call you e. 94. is By-ends.' 1. 1. Are there not many by-ends is ? ' riavel.' Shakespeare.' p. fifty of my followers at a clap! Shakespeare. at. O. v. It more usually spelt cozenage. P. what your name ? In is many parts of England. a looking 1.yQ. respit. 5. serm. 21. First introduced 1. only profitable for firing. F. The name has become ' so naturalized that its meanin ing almost overlooked. of inserted in the third edition. 1 1. rcibbehi. 91. Borrowed from the ascension of Elijah. 34. 12. Shakespeare we have 31. P. Hing Lear. I 1. A. respect respiciendi) . to fall Henry 1. i. ? ' i. In a little scrubbed boy. scrob. xi. 93. to play the parasite under pretext of cousinship. without any delay as the saying is.' This use is old. a bow originally a bow at taking one's Derived through Middle English and Old French from Latin . a respite. cousenage.^ P. to be emploj-ed for anything small. The whole of was first this interview between By-ends and his comflashes panions. 7-1 1. 11. 90. of respectus. Christ was to be a light to the Gentiles . 1. . *A word and a blow. A sorry Scrub. second edition. and thence comes 1." 'What! i. derivation 1. . '1 will not jump with common spirits. selfish. 3. 92. 2 Kings ii. leave to pass hence leave of absence. By-end ' is ' an object lying aside from the main one duties 1. ' mean. In some sort it jumps with my humour. e. S. Brunne Chron. 4. always used In the Nc'ij English erle in J)e Dictiottary \fe find 1330 R.

1. It was the common still belief in the * Middle Ages that the right side of the pillar of Lot's wife was the wife of Lot to be seen. cut Purses. 1. P. 19. ' He ' we have Simon the witch. ' up Demas.' a witch asking counsel at soothsayers. one of his Majesty's Judges.' Neither yields a satisfactory Dissembling would seem the more appropriate word. salt. 1. Christian roundly atiswered. when we ' find ' disserting. a JVonian transformed into the shape of a Pillar. 1. Demas hath forsaken me. The purse was anciently worn hanging at . of God's anger to after generations. xiv. frank speaking. We have in the old play of The Malcontent. Delicate had a much wider meaning formerly than now. Reme7nber Lot's Wife. because she looked behind her the cities when ch. was first introduced in the second edition. iv. 1. 1. ' PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. who however does not explicitly condemn Demas. PART in the I reading till 12. One of you is a devil. All this narrative concerning the pillar of Lot's wife concluding p.' Sir John Maundeville's Travels ix. sense. so it with her face towards Sodom. having loved this present world. 1. 102. 99.' Glossary. In the next page. 98. At the Dead Sea still stands in likeness of a salt stone. without reserve or disguise. the apostle Paul. 98. Jets and Momivients. e. quoted by Trench. I. and 1. ' A 1. From John vi. Judas the Devil. 32. 07. I will shew you a thing. turned into a pillar of bound her. 1. Witch Foxe. editions into ' wizard. iv. 100. 71. Borrowed from i Sam. ' Round ' is Marg. or else As the Judgement caught her.456 P. Select has been ignorantly altered in Sonthey's and other ' modern 1. is to female practisers of ' magical i. 24. a stalking horse. there is no variation the ninth edition. 12.' 21. 26. 24. 21. Your reproof is something too round. 27. spake of Judas Iscariot.' Henry V.' P. 70. 19. sunk into hell. i. Christian roundeth used both as an adjective and a verb for free. 101. 96. Bunyan. Barren Fig Tree. 9. Acts viii. IVitches. P. 29.' In some English counties it is still both masculine and feminine. Simon Magus. P. arts. note.' 2 Tim. ' He ' ' 1. but simply states the fact of his ' left him from worldly motives. a real or artificial horse employed by fowlers to conceal the person of the sportsman. 37. ' I have fancy'd that Lot's wife. 102.e. 10. fellow that makes religion his stalking horse. having P. 1. when stood yet looking over her shoulder. Not formerly restricted 3. left her a monument p. 1 7. 1. signifying generally that which was pleasant or agreeable. i. and enable him to get within shot of his game. a delicate Plain. dissenting. 1. p. The interpolated passage ends here. Thus in Shakespeare.

P. from there being no stiles or by-paths in our country. note p. 5. 21. xxxviii. 437. 12. Miller's Tale. a mixed metal.' in the later editions into eminent danger. bronze). the parable of the treasure hid It is difficult to in the field. ' parts of the earth ' applied to the contexture of the Cf. oi sorfaire. 1. a very dark Dungeon. English Note Book. 9. 17. pain. 33. the whole account of Mrs. 1. P. loS. sun-shine weather. 15 we have curiously wrought in the lowest P. Old French stirfait. I.' meaning. Surfeits. 34. nasty and stinking. 1. * 457 in a it was easy to cut it open crowd and steal its con- By her girdle hnng a purse of leather Tasselled with silk and perlid with latoutf {latteii.' which is the more usual epithet. when the philanthropic Howard began his tour to it. ninth and subsequent editions accident. or travel. bearing the stamp of original genius. travail. probably by ' the second edition. An American would never understand the passage about Christian and Hopeful going astray along a by-path into the grounds of Giant Despair. 1. 105. This has been changed unwarrantably imminent. excess . soon sell all. 17. 102. and tents. In Ps. past partic. 106. Worldly Wiseman are indebted to Bunyan's second thoughts for one of the most graphic parts of his work. passage. 147. The word has been used with many shades of 'full of care or pains. 1. * not formerly distinguished in spelling. both well the The two words were By-Path-Mcadoiv. being wanting. up to p. above facere. Hawthorne. and the Giant's treatment of his prisoners. 104.' 1. 1. 16. 1. See p. and By-ends' travelling companions. to make. 1. Bible Word-book. 1. cxxxix. Chaucer. curiously beatitified. super. cFiriosus. from Lat. 1. Through Old French from Lat. 17. of inspection. Sunshine ' is used adjectively in . As we in the case of Diffidence and her counsels. by reason of their Travels.NOTES the girdle. Thafs not like. 1. 22. human body. Castle The account of the imprisonment of the pilgrims in Doubting was very brief in the first edition. xiii. This part of the narrative has all the particularity of a diary. our prisons corresponded too nearly 24. 44. It is to be feared that Bunyan drew from his own painful experiences in his descripP. condole their misery. Aldis Wright. 103. . journey. P. i. likely. A century later. 'He is like to die for hunger. orig. ' tion of the pilgrims' prison. So Jerem. Matt. in which it was altered in the the words were omitted. sunshiny. to . say whether suit Bunyan meant 10. 1. 12. to augment. probable.

agreed to erect. of which the pp. 98. Peter's and gates of Doubting Castle is borrowed from the history of deliverance from prison. In the N. 1. 15. 21. to sough (as the wind). Bunyan speaks of Captain Damnation being over the Grace doubters. which I.' which gives no appropriate sense.' Richard II. i and again. 25. 7. Compare with son. 1. geswogen has the meaning of in a swoon. although all editions up to 1727 read 'sure wonders. as in i Chron. to kill body mid soul at once.' Coinns. Spenser's stanzas. they consented to erect. PART I ' Send him many years of sunshine days. we may compare 1. too.' P. 1. Wal' pole Corresp.' There can be no reasonable we shew these pilgrims some wonders. 4. ' Philippi. and that of a high nature.' Henry VI. swogan. when ' ' describing the several regiments of the army of terrible doubters sent against Mansoul. of sonus. bears. this and the following line beginning with ' Lest. which the 1. i.E. bk. to swoon swpgne. &c. \. we find >. edition 1. M. 36. Ill.' that shewn is the correct reading. ' sunshine holiday. 'Consent' has only in it modern times acquired the meaning of half unwilling acquiescence now sometimes 1. For the use of dett for a prison. 50. Lest heedlessness. The reading of the first we find 1774 H. even to have killed his own body and soul at once. srvogefi. 1. (1837)111. i. 41. P. a swoon. 5. sonum. M. Swotmd is merely another form of swoon. 31. 1. They are shewn wonders. ii. English. ch. E. F. PILGRIMS PROGRESS. he had murder in his heart murder. On Justification. 108. Bunyan writes of the jailer at Even now. to sigh (as the wind). In Milton. 'A sunshine day. Shall . E. 10. 1. ' doubt from the text of the narrative. 370. Much of the description of the opening of the doors St.'' P. No-life bore them his scutcheon was ' ' ' : : the Black Den. 107. is to acquaint with us.S. final d is also added. Used as a substantive.' P. margin. : . see note on p. iii Though the Choiseuls will not acquaint with you. ace. D. xxix. L. V Allegro. a sound. to be acquainted with us. In the Holy War. to yottr Den again. See Skeat's sound. Acts xii. iv. A. With this whole passage in suicide is urged by Despair. Principles of English Etyviology vol. a Swound.' The addition of d after an n preceded by 34. 3. the good. while the earthquake shook the prison. soun. p.. 436. ix.' His were the red colours Mr. ' of mine own proper ^^^d?. 458 Shakespeare. 959. I say. This line was omitted in the tenth and subsequent editions by a typographical error. 21. 109.* 1. in is of frequent occurrence in . * a strong accent a noise. 21.

' he i (David) scrabbled on the doors of the gate. 114. 71 {prospicere. tions. § 232. 1. to line 147 of the poetical of the preterite struck. 22. it stands scribbled 14. ciple. They are frequentatives ol scrape. § 184. Bunyan uses it In the only place where scrawled. 112. scramble being the nasalized form of the word. First added ' perspective glass is a glass to see through A ' {perspicere). P. Offor upholds sure. V. Paul's 1. frights. 171. 1. Alexander. 13. 1.' O the unthought-of imaginaP. and terrors. 367. walk faster than another. 434. ness. that is always crying out and Grace Abounding. his ' or ' spending Money. ' first edition. sure. 116. P. word we 'when he St. p. white as See note on p. 38. 2 1. Mark former is intended. lo. Timon of Athens. p. The Shepherds Perspective glass. that are effected by a thorough appliThis is the man that hath his cation of guilt yielding to desperation. ' P. P. The author's meaning appears to be that those wonders were real. dwelling among the tombs with the dead. to look forward). 115. frequent. poor heart. a * find in the in the Lumbring in the Second Part.' ' rumbling noise. a once ' common form So Dryden He like a patient angler ere let Would he strook. them play awhile upon the hook. ozit-go him. * Sam.' Astraea Redux. introduction. 32. In many cases we should call the verbal noun a parti- and the ^has become a Clout. P. ing. once a common expression an object of .& coppersmith. i. vi. 113. remarking. 2 7. 'Of naturally followed a verbal noun. 14.' Shakespeare. same connexion heard your lumbring noise.' again in his Grace Aboundit occurs in the A. 1. 8. who ' greatly withstood ' 'words. the Milton uses 'prospective glass' in // Vacation Exercise in the College. did put out their eyes. here between Littlefaith's 'spending Bunyan develops the distinction drawn money' and his 'jewels' in his for Grace Abounding. 28.' ' He i. strook. ' the people ozttwent them. 'Scrabble has been unwarrantably replaced by scramble in some later editions. 177. 395. 25.' for 1. § 334. fears. 1. 1.' 1. carrying of him back. here. 15.' Tim.: NOTES ' 459 Mr. unintelligible to us.e. cutting himself with stones. 117. of scrape. prov. E. p. scrapple. xxi. 1. iv. 8.\}a. of course. undoubted. margin.' the carrying of him back. 33. to scrabble on his way. either a telescope or a microscope . 1. in the second edition. 6. outstrip. outgoes the very heart of kindi. a 1. 9. in The full construction would be ' a-carrying.

29. heels. 1. Christian snibbeth his fellow. warrant you. S.— PART 460 PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.. snibben. the day. Snib. Elyot 34. is one who works by I believe.' Troilus and their Cressida. A 'journeyman. Aristarchus. throw up his up A metaphor taken . his heels. snubben. so he were. Latin captiv-uvi.) now denotes one of a base abject ' disposition. P. teart. to check. why ' art thou so tart. to rebuke. of high or lowe estat. Journeymen . I the day. I for commiseration. caitiff-%\2L\Q%. end of a thing. and we find in Holland's Plutarch. allied to the obsolete English We have it in Chaucer. 119.' Yi. not by the job. Paul's fellow-prisoner. before they have got themShakespeare uses the simile. These lapwings that go from under the wing of their dam with their shell on their heads run wild.' Cowper. vii. jotiris nalier. sharp. 102. 521-523. 433. the /ar^ reply. Caitiff (Richardson. that Caitiff did.sneh are other forms of the modem snub. 118. No. Vulg. * A brush a short encounter. a little tart against the Wiclivites.' Sayings concerning Travellers. one of the merits of whose Parson * it is that But it were eny persone obstinat.vied. selves free from the shell. Originally it meant no more than miserable . 9. from the A. 120. the brushes of the war. 7ipon whose head is the Shell. 2. 'To one who has got the shell on his head used as a proverbial Lapexpression for one who speaks without understanding a matter. to put down. 1. 1. 1. M. Journeywork work done by 1. 25.\i. to reprove. 37. to pinch. v.' Old Northern French ' caitif.' Fuller. 3. appears in Wiclif s version as Aristarch myne evene ' caytyff {concaptivus metis. 1.' Hatiilet. and sweetheart of affection. an object talk like 18.).^ is P. And Bishop Hall. trip See note. but smart 1.caitive. is still. 1.Thieves. captive.' Sir T. for the nones. The word is Scandinavian in origin. wings and some other birds * of the brisker sort are said to be able to move about the moment they are hatched. 28. the root-idea being to snip off the sneap. ' wolde he snybbe sharply Prologue. to nip. is still 1. severe.' What Him 1. V. have stood one brush with them. not master thieves robbing on own account.c2i'ptivt. p. P. captive. as dear heart was. Avarice doth tyrannize over her Cf. 118. E. margin. and ' p. ' ' This lapmng * runs away with the shell on his head. St. but serving under another. lb. ' very tart vinegar. I ti-o. tart: .

An example of the false theory of the origin of the 's of the possessive case. 1. 129. 125. 1. come to their aid when they whistle for him. 1. Bunyan's meaning is that religious duties may become occasions of sin. their King is 2. 1. to whisper. I still see new sin. to have a nap. Bunyan.NOTES from wrestling. instructively compared with the narrative the Grace Abounding. 19. was reported to have said. at their Whistle. the psalmist. The variation in their spiritual interpretations show how difficult they have found it. The word 'duty' has been altered day by modem editors. 124. The change occurs 1. P. 5. P. Roun. altered editions. 128. Psalm Ixxxviii. viz. Compare words of Bishop Beveridge. 12. to whisper. 1. riin. to be reported. have with much ingenuity and more audacity substituted the name of Mordecai. S. 'We. hnappian. 1. to whisper . 13. 27. to doze. grandson of the prophet Samuel. ' 461 As Young Orlando that tripped the wrestler's heel. article 1. iii. 130. P. 122. § 206. take a Nap. P. he should say.' Prayer for all conditions of i men * . secret. 359. 1. which was accepted as certainly true from Ben Jonson to Addison's time. so as to be surrounded by a net. E. A. Heiiian. one of the most obscure in the editors generally have not troubled themselves to is way M. without the slightest warrant. somewhat startled at finding Hainan transformed into one of the champions of faith. enough in one duly. See Grace Abounding. 14. is ascribed. S. 1. . M. P. 1. ready to 15.' Kings xv. The suggest any rational interpretation of it. rfmian. mystery. Private Thoughts on Religion. it name. like the Germ. in an edition by D. P. 29. 8. a sleep. rounen. 1768. not being acquainted with the to the more familiar Hainaii in the third and later The More recent editors. E. p.' 2. that it was a contraction from his. to whom the description is hardly more appropriate. are here reading Bunyan's own spiritual experience. nappen. a man black of flesh. Asa his heart. to whom printers. Familiar instances of this mistaken constniction are. 1. or round. to sleep. in may be sin. The account of Hopeful's conversion given in the subsequent conversation may be safely regarded as a description of Bunyan's It own spiritual experience. iv. / -will round you in the ears. You Like It. This incident of the Flatterer leading the Pilgrims out of the whole book. sin ' ' into * Jesus Christ his sake. My grace is sufficient for thee. 16. Jesus his inditing. A. within the compass of a Net. Southey not excepted. 19. soUen. 35.

16. a allow us. or right. faith whose seat is merely in the fantasy. The first our has been most unwarrantably altered in the modem editions into the. 28. 133. 132. II still 'It grieved him at his heart. listen. P. 1. from directum. Slend. i Prayer Book. 134. Country of Betilah. English.) delight. estone-r. 1. and in Elizabethan than in modern Ps. addirectid-re. i. *It pities Sam. as we like. § them to see her vi. cii. P. Exod. to personally. and Elijah remembered were went up by a whirlwind stone. &c. ' There are many more impersonal Gramviar. which is a phonetic development of 38. used im- 8. Ixii. derived from one member of a company of thieves appealing to another to testify 36. for into heaven. 1. to his honesty. astounded. dat. the gentle cooing of the turtle' dove. both of whom it will be * translated.' vi. XV. I had walk here. 28. S. The wind bloweth where it listeth^ John 1. 34* a Fantastical Faith. be pleasing desire. a fancy. I thank you. i.36. ' Thy servants think 14. tolerate our living as we list.' Is. Cant. 2. please. Hist en. aslun'd. F. 141. Altered in the second and later editions 1. late pop. capricious fancies. Thou shalt be called Hephzi-bah P.' &c. 1. upon her stones it pitieth ' in the dust. 38. prepared themselves. 7. 135.1. ii. lystan.' as we ' list. ' 17. (my delight is in her) and thy land Beulah (married). stunned. . straight. to the perversion of the sense. verbs in early English than in Elizabethan. walk in. (with refl. 136. 462 P. to stun.' Abbott. 1. so many whimsies. right. . 1. 12. Enoch and Elijah. connected probably with the O. tolerate us. amaze. the voice of the Turtle. It pities fne much. 144. P. 1. &c. a proverbial expression. 12. me' may be heard in Lincolnshire. rather 1. into stun'd. made themselves ready to go up. iii. they addressed ihei}iselves to go up. Fr. to read this conversation between Young Ignorance and ' the Pilgrims ' without being strongly reminded of Shakespeare's Slender in the Merry Wives of Windsor. xv. write 18. 34. 1. adresser.' Gen. 142. Compare It repenteth me.. 140. E. L. Shakespearian : 147. It is another form of astounded. 17. P. PILGRIM'S PROGRESS. E. from astound. 1. 6. * I pray you. astoned. M. P. be pleased A. PART ' I It is impossible I take my pleasure ' in 7ualking alone.' God ' took ' Enoch. permit us to live. . P. P. were much stounded. Ask my Fellow if I be a Thief. to make straight. sir. M. otir thoughts of otir hearts and ways. the enemy was after that as still as a Borrowed from the Song of Moses.' Gen. 4. 3. We should now 1.

1. 1. to read the account of Christian ' going up to the Celestial Gate after his passage through the river of death. 13. 305.NOTES 1. 67. From this place to de expressed. note. 147. 1. was first inserted in the second edition. . p. ' 463 37. ii. § 53. I cannot trust myself. vol. It will be remembered that in youth Bunyan was much devoted to bell-ringing. 147. he used to say. Arnold's admiration of this closing scene was very great. P.' Stanley's Li/e. 145. p. his P. 1.' Grace Abounding. 5. the Bells therein to ring. p. the music of which continued greatly to delight him after he had given up the practice as * vain.' Dr.





Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful