Problems on Percentages

Simple problems:
1 . Express the following as a fraction. a) 56% SOLUTION: 56/100=14/25 b) 4% SOLUTION: 4/100=1/25 c) 0.6% SOLUTION: 0.6/100=6/1000=3/500 d) 0.08% SOLUTION: 0.08/100=8/10000=1/1250

2. Express the following as decimals a) 6% SOLUTION: 6% = 6/100=0.06 b) 0.04% SOLUTION: 0.04% = 0.04/100=0.0004

3 . Express the following as rate percent. i).23/36 SOLUTION:

= (23/36*100) % = 63 8/9% ii).6 ¾ SOLUTION: 6 ¾ =27/4 (27/4 *100) % =675 % 4. Evaluate the following: 28% of 450 + 45% of 280 ? SOLUTION: =(28/100) *450 + (45/100) *280 = 28 * 45 / 5 = 252 5. 2 is what percent of 50? SOLUTION: Formula : (IS / OF ) *100 % = 2/50 *100 = 4% 6. ½ is what percent of 1/3? SOLUTION: =( ½) / (1/3) *100 % = 3/2 *100 % = 150 % 7. What percent of 2 Metric tonnes is 40 Quintals? SOLUTION: 1 metric tonne =10 Quintals So required percentage=(40/(2*10))*100% = 200% 8. Find the missing figure . i) ? % of 25 = 2.125

SOLUTION : Let x% of 25 = 2.125.then (x/100) *25 =2.125 x = 2.125 * 4 = 8.5 ii) 9% of ? =6.3 SOLUTION: Let 9 % of x = 6.3. Then 9/100 of x= 6.3 so x = 6.3 *100/7 = 70. 9. Which is the greatest in 16 2/3 %, 2/15,0.17? SOLUTION: 16 2/3 % = 50/3 % =50/3 * 1/100 =1/6 = 0.166 2 / 15 =0.133 So 0.17 is greatest number in the given series. 10.If the sales tax be reduced from 3 ½ % to 3 1/3 % , then what difference does it make to a person who purchases an article with marked price of RS 8400? SOLUTION: Required difference = 3 ½ % of 8400 – 3 1/3 % of 8400 =(7/2-10/3)% of 8400 =1/6 % of 8400 = 1/6* 1/100* 8400 = Rs 14. 11. A rejects 0.08% of the meters as defective .How many will he examine to reject 2? SOLUTION:

Let the number of meters to be examined be x. Then 0.08% of x=2. 0.08/100*x= 2 x= 2 * 100/0.08 =2 * 100 * 100/8 = 2500 12.65 % of a number is 21 less than 4/5 of that number. What is the number? SOLUTION: Let the number be x. 4/5 x- (65% of x) = 21 4/5x – 65/100 x=21 15x=2100 x=140 13. Difference of two numbers is 1660.If 7.5 % of one number is 12.5% of the other number. Find two numbers? SOLUTION: Let the two numbers be x and y. 7.5% of x=12.5% of y' So 75x=125 y 3x=5y x=5/3y. Now x-y=1660 5/3y-y=1660 2/3y=1660 y=2490 So x= 2490+1660 =4150. So the numbers are 4150 , 1660. 14. In expressing a length 81.472 KM as nearly as possible with 3 significant digits ,Find the % error? SOLUTION: Error= 81.5-81.472=0.028 So the required percentage = 0.028/81.472*100% = 0.034%

15. In an election between two persons ,75% of the voters cast their votes out of which 2% are invalid. A got 9261 which 75% of the total valid votes. Find total number of votes? SOLUTION: Let x be the total votes. valid votes are 98% of 75% of x. So 75%(98%(75% of x))) = 9261 ==> 75/100 *98 /100 * 75 100 *x = 9261 x= 1029 * 4 *100 *4 / 9 = 16800 So total no of votes = 16800 16 . A's maths test had 75 problems i.e 10 arithmetic, 30 algebra and 35 geometry problems.Although he answered 70% of arithmetic ,40% of algebra and 60 % of geometry problems correctly he didn't pass the test because he got less than 60% of the problems right. How many more questions he would have needed to answer correctly to get a 60% passing grade. SOLUTION: 70% of 10 =70/100 * 10 =7 40% of 30 = 40 / 100 * 30 = 12 60 % of 35 = 60 / 100 *35 = 21 So correctly attempted questions = 7 + 12 + 21 =40. Questions to be answered correctly for 60% grade =60% of 75 = 60/100 *75 =45. So required questions=45-40 = 5

17 . If 50% of (x – y) = 30% of (x + y) then what percent of x is y ? SOLUTION: 50/100(x-y) =30/100(x+y) ½ (x-y)= 3/10(x+y) 5x-5y=3x+3y x=4y So Required percentage =y/x*100 % =y/4y *100 % = 25%.

18 .If the price of tea is increased by 20% ,find how much percent must a householder reduce her consumption of tea so as not to increase the expenditure? SOLUTION: Reduction in consumption= R/(100+R) *100% =20/120 *100 = 16 2/3 %

19.The population of a town is 176400 . If it increases at the rate of 5% per annum ,what will be the population 2 years hence? What was it 2 years ago? SOLUTION: Population After 2 years = 176400[1+5/100]2 =176400 * 21/20 *21/20 =194481 Population 2 years ago = 176400/(1+5/100)2 = 176400 * 20/21 *20/ 21 =160000

20.1 liter of water is add to 5 liters of a 20 % solution of alcohol in water . Find the strength of alcohol in new solution?

SOLUTION: Alcohol in 5 liters = 20% of 5 =1 liter Alcohol in 6 liters of new mixture = 1liter So % of alcohol is =1/6 *100=16 2/3%

21.If A earns 33 1/3 more than B .Then B earns less than A by what percent? SOLUTION: 33 1/3 =100 / Required Percentage = (100/3)/(100 + (100/3)) *100 % = 100/400 *100 = 25 %

22.A school has only three classes which contain 40,50,60 students respectively.The pass percent of these classes are 10, 20 and 10 respectively . Then find the pass percent in the school. SOLUTION: Number of passed candidates = 10/100*40+20/100 *50+10/100 * 60 =4+10+6 =20 Total students in school = 40+50+60 =150 So required percentage = 20/150 *100 = 40 /3 =13 1/3 %

23. There are 600 boys in a hostel . Each plays either hockey or football or both .If 75% play hockey and 45 % play football ,Find how many play both? SOLUTION: n(A)=75/100 *600 =450 n(B) = 45/100 *600

= 270 n(A^B)=n(A) + n(B) – n(AUB) =450 + 270 -600 =120 So 120 boys play both the games.

24.A bag contains 600 coins of 25p denomination and 1200 coins of 50p denomination. If 12% of 25p coins and 24 % of 50p coins are removed, Find the percentage of money removed from the bag ? SOLUTION: Total money = (600 * 25/100 +1200 *50/100) =Rs 750 25p coins removed = 12/100 *600 =72 50p coins removed = 24/100 *1200 =288 So money removed =72 *1/4 +288 *1/2 = Rs 162 So required percentage=162/750 *100 =21 .6%

25. P is six times as large as Q.Find the percent that Q is less than P? SOLUTION: Given that P= 6Q So Q is less than P by 5Q. Required percentage= 5Q/P*100 % =5/6 * 100 % =83 1/3%

26.For a sphere of radius 10 cm ,the numerical value of surface area is what percent of the numerical value of its volume?

SOLUTION: Surface area = 4 *22/7 *r2 = 3/r(4/3 * 22/7 * r3) =3/r * VOLUME Where r = 10 cm So we have S= 3/10 V =3/10 *100 % of V = 30 % of V So surface area is 30 % of Volume. 27. A reduction of 21 % in the price of wheat enables a person to buy 10 .5 kg more for Rs 100.What is the reduced price per kg. SOLUTION: Let the original price = Rs x/kg Reduced price =79/100x /kg ==> 100/(79x/100)-100/x =10.5 ==> 10000/79x-100/x=10.5 ==> 10000-7900=10.5 * 79 x ==> x= 2100/10.5 *79 So required price = Rs (79/100 *2100/10.5 *79) /kg = Rs 2 per kg. 28.The length of a rectangle is increased by 60 % . By what percent would the width have to be decreased to maintain the same area? SOLUTION: Let the length =l,Breadth= b. Let the required decrease in breadth be x % then 160/100 l *(100-x)/100 b=lb 160(100-x)=100 *100 or 100-x =10000/160 =125/2 so x = 100-125/2 =75/2=37.5

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