Chapter Motion and Control System | Numerical Control | Computer Program

CHPTER 4 Numerical control machine tool (NC

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Chapter contents: 1- Basic components of the system 2- NC coordinate systems 3- Motion Control systems 4- Interpolation methods 5- Problems with Conventional NC 6- CNC 7- DNC 8- Applications of NC 9- Advantages and disadvantages of NC 10- NC Part Programming
Manual part programming Computer assisted part programming (APT, APT Automatically Programmed Tool)

2) Machine control unit.. The data represent relative positions between the workpiece and work head (e. 3) Processing equipment. 1.g.Basic components of the system 1) Program of instructions. Machine control unit Process equipment Program . cutting tool) as well as other instructions needed to operate the machine.Numerical control: It is a form of programmable automation in which the mechanical actions of a machine tool or other equipment are controlled by a program containing coded alphanumeric data.

1.Program of instructions Is the detailed step-by-step set of directions. which tell the machine tool what to do. . Additional instructions are usually included. the program of instructions is called a part program. cutting tool selection. . . and other functions. . and electronic transfer of part programs from a computer. feed rate.The program is stored formerly into punched cards. Now. the individual commands refer to positions of a cutting tool relative to the worktable on which the workpart is fixtured. such as spindle speed. punched tapes.In these applications.In machine tool applications. diskettes. these technologies have been replaced by magnetic tape. and the person who prepares the program is called a part programmer.

It includes components to interface with the processing equipment and feedback control elements. 3. and translation software to convert the NC program into a usable format for the MCU. the term computer numerical control (CNC) is used to refer to NC.2. It also includes the cutting tools. .Machine tool or other controlled process The machine tool consists of worktable. c) One or more reading devices for entering part program into memory. work fixtures. d) Control system software. the MCU consists of: a) Microcomputer b) Related control hardware that stores the part program and executes it. calculation algorithms. * Since the MCU is a computer.MCU In modern technology. spindle and the motors and controls necessary to drive them.

full shift zero. right hand rule. b and c). it is necessary to establish a standard axis system by which the relative positions can be specified. and rotary motions a. and full floating zero).NC coordinate systems • It is a standard axis system by which the position of the work head relative to the work part can be specified • In order for the programmer to make the sequence of positions and movements of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. . • 3-D coordinate system (zero point. • NC programming is based on the Cartesian coordinate system (sometimes on the polar coordinate system as well). • Zero point types (fixed zero. the positive and negative directions. • 2-D coordinate system (zero point.2. positive and negative directions for the two axes).

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y Milling Turning • NC types with respect to the number of axes. .Incremental positioning (x=4 and y=5). . Three axes NC.• The coordinate systems for the drilling and milling and turning machine tools.Absolute positioning (x=6 and y=8) and . Two axes NC. and Five axes NC Position determination. Four axes NC.

2) Straight cut system 3) Contouring system (continuous-path NC system). . also called positioning system.3-Motion Control systems 1) Point-to-point system (PTP).

Interpolation methods a) Linear interpolation ∆ Y = tan (θ/2) ∗ cutter radius.4. ∆ X = tan (α/2) ∗ cutter radius. .

3) Inside and outside tolerance. .b) Circular interpolation 1) Inside tolerance (chord). 2) Outside tolerance (tangent).

Wear compensation. 5. Length compensation.Problems with Conventional NC 1) Part programming mistakes • The mistakes can be either: syntax errors or numerical errors. Offset compensation. 2) No optimal speeds and feeds • The conventional NC cannot provide the chance to make changes in the feeds and speeds.c) • • • • Cutter size compensation. • The programmer must set the speeds and feeds at the worstcase conditions. • It cannot achieve the best sequence of processing steps. . Radius compensation.

while the soft-wire is easy to improve with out the change in hard-wire. such as piece counts. which can not easy improves. machine breakdowns and tool change. .3) Punched tape 4) Tape reader 5) Controller • The NC controller is a hard-wire. 6) Management information • The NC system cannot provide timely information on the operational performance.

6. Positioning features for setup 7. c) Extended diagnostics for individual components. Fixed cycle and programming subroutines 5. Cutter length and size compensation 8. Interpolation 6. Diagnostics a) Control start-up diagnostics. d) Tool life monitoring. e) Preventive maintenance notices. Program editing at the machine tool 4. 10. f) Programming diagnostics. Acceleration and deceleration calculations 9. Storage of more than one part programs 2. . 1. b) Malfunction and failure analysis. Various forms of program input 3.CNC 6-1 Features. Communication interface.

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