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61

Job No.

The S t e ~ l Construction

I Sheet 1 of 4 I Rev

Steel Designers' Manual

Wind actions to BS E N 1991-1-4 Calculation of peak velocity pressure

Made by

Institute

Job Title

Subject

**Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SLS 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944
**

CALCULATION SHEET

Client

DGB

I Date I Dec2009

I

I

I

Date

I

**Calculation o f peak velocity pressure
**

This example demonstrates the calculation o,f the peak velocity pressure for the hypothetical site shown in Figure 1, on the eastern edge o,f Norwich. This example demonstrates Approaches I , 2 and 3, none of which require knowledge of the building orientation. References to expressions, tables and figures from the U K National Annex are preceded by 'NA' - all other references are to BS EN 1991-1-4

Town Terrain

Average height 8 m

24 krn closest distance to sea

N

Country Terrain

Site altitude 45rn

The site

3gure 1 Details of the site

Details o,f the site are: 4 5 m above sea level Site altitude 27m Building height Terrain category: From 0" to 180" is country terrain From 180" to 360" is town terrain the average height o,f the upwind obstruction (h,,,J is 8 m and the spacing to the upwind Obstructions (x) is 30m. Within this sector, the site is at least IOkm inside the town The closest distance from the sea is 24km, at a bearing of 30" from the site.

~

62

Worked example

Sheet 2 o f 4

Example Concept Design

I

Rev

**A.p.proach I This approach is the simplest, but the most conservative,
**

v , , , , , , ~= ~ 22.5m/s

c,lt c,lt

Vh,O

Figure NA.1

**= I +0.001A (lO/z)"z = I +0.001 ~ 4 ~5 ( 1 0 / 2 7 ) =1.037 "~
**

= Vh,.lap x

= 1.0

C,lt

NA.2b NA.1

Table NA.1 Table NA.2 4. I

v ~ , , ~= 22.5 x 1.0.?7 = 2.?..?m/s

cd,

Vh

**(the maximum from any direction)
**

L'h,O

= cscasm~c,br

v~,

= 1.0 x 1.0 x2.7.3 =2.?..?m/s = 0.61.7~~~

qh

4.10 and NA.2.18 NA.2. I I

x 10-j = 0..7.3kN/m2 qk, = 0.613 ~2.3.3~ Terrain: country, when wind blowing ,from the east Distance from the sea: 24 k m minimum height z = 27m

c,(z) =3.1

qp(z) = c d z ) qh qp(z)=.?.I xO..?.~ =I.02kN/mZ This peak velocity pressure may he used to determine ,forces on the rtructure in each orthogonal direction.

Figure NA.7

A.p.proach 2 This approach demands knowledge of the upwind terrain all around the site. Examples of two directions, 330" and 60" are shown below, and then the full details of each direction in tabular format. 3.70" 60"

v[,,o

~d,,

= 23.3m/s

(as above)

v h , ~ =23.3m/s (as above)

cdlr

= 0.82

= 0. 7.7

Table NA.1 Table NA.2

~scaro,, = 1.0

Vh

vL,

= cscasm~c,br = 19.1 m/s

L'h,O

Vh

vL,

= cs,,,,,, c,br = 17.0m/s

Vh,O

4.1

= 0.82 x 1.0 x 23.3

= 0. 7.7 x 1.0 ~ 2 3 . 3

T,,

?k,

= 0.613~~:

= 0.613 x 19.12 x lo-.' = 0.22 kN/mZ

q,, q,,

= O.613vk,'

4.10 and NA.2.18

= 0.613 x 17.p x 10"

=0.18kN/m2

Terrain: country Annex AS

Terrain: town b , =8m

x = 30m (the spacing to the ~ i wind p obstructions) 2 x h,,,, < x < 6 x ha,, ? x 8 c30 <6 x 8 16 <30 <48

Worked example

Example Concept Design Sheet 3 of 4 Rev

63

Therefore, hd,,=min(l.2h,,,, - 0 . 2 ~ ;0.6h)

**hdL, =min(l.2 x 8 - 0.2 x30; 0.6 x 27) h,,,, = min(3.6; 16.2) =3.6m
**

Distance from the sea = 42 km c,(z) = 2.94 (at z - h,,,, =23.4m) Distance inside town = IOkm = 0.88 (at z - hdri =23.4m) Distance from the sea = 25 km c,(z) = 3.10 (at z = 2 7 m ) Interpolated ,from Figure NA.7 Figure NA.8 NA.2.17

csl

= 0.57kN/m2

Bearing

Vh.()

Cdlr

(m/s)

C,'.,,,,

vh (m/s) q,, (kN/m')

0 23.33 0.78 1.0 18.20 0.20

32

30 23.33 0.73 1.0 17.03 0.18

24

60 23.33 0.73 1.0 17.03 0.18

25 3.1

**90 150 180 120 2.?.3.? 23.33 2.?.3.? 23.33 0.74 0.73 0.80 0.85 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 17.26 I 7.03 18.66 19.83 0.18 0.18 0.21 0.24
**

27 3.08 34 3.06 0.55 47 3.04 0.64 7.? 3.00 0.72

210 23.33 0.93 1.0 21.70 0.29 >I00 2.88 0.88 0.73

240 23.33 1.00 1.0 23.33 0.33 >I00 2.88 0.88 0.84

270 23.33 0.99 1.0 23.10 0.33 >I00 2.88 0.88 0.84

300 2.?.3.? 0.91 1.0 21.23 0.28

66 2.91 0.88 0.72

330 2.?.3.? 0.82 1.0 19.13 0.22

42 2.94 0.88 0.57

**Distance from seu (km)
**

CdZ)

3.07 3.1

Ce.r

q,>(z) (kN/m2) 0.61

0.56 0.56 0.57

Following Approach 2 results in a maximum peak velocity pressure of 0.84kN/mZ,compared to 1.02 k N / m 2from Approach 1. The peak velocity pressure o,f 0.84kN/m2 may he used to determine forces on the structure in each orthogonal direction. A.p.proach 3 In Approach 3, the most onerous values of any factor are taken from any direction within the chosen quadrant. Quadrants may be chosen judiciously to produce the lowest peak velocity pressure. The lowest peak velocity pressure ,found by Approach 3 will never he smaller than that from Approach 2, but is generally less than the peak velocity pressure from Approach I . Two quadrants are demonstrated in detail, and then the results presented in summary form. Assume that the quadrants are 0" to 90" inclusive, 90" to 180" inclusive, etc, and taking the quadrant from 90" to 180" as an example. With reference to the Table in Approach 2:

vh.0 =23.3m/s maximum cdlr from within the quadrant 90" to 180" = 0.85 (at 180")

CS,,,,,,

vh

= 1.0

=c~eawn cdir vh,O

Table NA.1 Table NA.2 4.1 4.10 and NA.2.18 NA.2.11

vh

~0.85 x1.0 x23.3 =19.8m/s

8l~ 0 - j =0.24kN/mZ qb =O.6I.Zvk,' qh =0.613 ~ 1 9 . x Terrain: country Closest distance from the sea within the sector 90" to 180" = 2 7 k m (at 90") height z = 2 7 m

64

Worked example

Sheet 4 of 4 Rev

Example Concept Design

c,(z) =.?.08

qp(z) = c d z ) qb q p ( z )= 3.08 x 0.24 = 0.74kN/mZ Taking the quadrant from 21O"to 300"as a second example v~,,~ = 2.7.3 m / s maximum cd,,from within the quadrant 210"to 300" = 1.0 (at 240")

c,,:,,,,,

vh

Interpolated f r o m Figure N A . 7 Na.2.17

= 1.0

= c,,,,,,,,

C,br

h,,o

Table NA.1 Table NA.2 4. I 4.10 and NA.2.18 NA.2.11 Annex A S

v,,

=1.0 x1.0 x23.3 =23.3m/s

qb =O.6I.7vk,' qb =0.613 x2.7.3' xIO:' =0.33kN/mZ Terrain: Town h,,,, = 3.6m Closest distance ,from the sea within the sector 210" to 300" = 66km (at 3000) c,(z) =2.91 (at z - h,,,, =23.4m)

cc,T = 0.88 (at z

- h,,,, = 23.4m)

qp(z) = c e ( z ) cc,l q h qp(z) = 2.91 x 0.88 x 0.33 = 0.85 k N / m z

Interpolated from Figure NA. 7 Interpolated from Figure NA.8 NA.2.17

**The summary results are shown below:
**

Sector peak velocity pressure (kN/m') 0.57 0.88 0.85 0.86

30 to 120 inclusive 120" to 210" inclusive 210" to 300" inclusive 300" to 30" inclusive

When the quadrants are chosen as above, the maximum peak velocity pressure o,f I.OOkN/m' may be used to determine forces on the structure in each orthogonal direction. Sector peak velocity pressure ( k N / m 2 ) 0.63 1.00

0" to 90" inclusive 90" to 180" inclusive 180" to 270" inclusive 270 to 0 inclusive

When the quadrants are chosen as above, the maximum peak velocity pressure of 0.88kN/m2 may be used to determine forces on the structure in each orthogonal direction. In both these examples of the application of Approach 3, the resulting maximum peak velocity pressure is less than that from Approach 1, but more than that from Approach 2. The example demonstrates the beneficial effects of judicious choice of quadrants.

128

Worked example

I

The SteEl Conmruction

**Job No. Job Title
**

Subject Client

Sheet 1 of 6 Worked Example Portal Frame Design Chapter 4 Made by Checked by GWO Date

Rev

Institute

**Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SLS 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (0 1344) 622944
**

CALCULATION SHEET

**Portal Frame Design Example: Design of portal frame using plastic analysis
**

This example introduces the design o,f a portal ,frame f o r a s i n g l e - s t o p building, using a plastic method of global analysis. The frame uses hot-rolled I-sections f o r rafters and columns. This example presents the overall ,frame geometry (including restraint position), definition of loads and selection of load combination.

12567b.wmf

Frame Geometry

G

30000

4

Spacing ofportal frames

=

7.2 m

*

~

torsional restrainl

Portal Frame Geometry

The cladding to the roof and walls is supported by purlins and side-rails as indicated. The positions and spacing of the purlins and side rails were chosen as follows: Torsional restraints are to he provided at both ends of the haunch (i.e. one at the column end and one at the rafter end). A torsional restraint is to be provided at a n intermediate position along the rafter. The spacing of the purlins and side-rails should generally he ahout 1 8 0 0 m m for lateral stability of the rafters and columns. The spacing will he less in regions where the frame members are close to their plastic moment of resistance. Uniform spacings are adopted within the above constraints.

2 nz.franzes = * 7. - torsional restraint .Worked example Portal Frame Design Sheet 2 of 6 Rev 129 p 1 5725 Spacing ofportal.

Steel grade is S.1 is 0. (ii) Upward wind pressure with minimum gravity loads. but 1. Ultimate Limit State Analvsis 5. The worst wind case might be f r o m either transverse wind or longitudinal wind.f building.2 (3) In this example the bases have been assumed to be truly pinned for simplicity. BS EN19931-1 c 1 Frame imperfections = 1/200 Taking a.3-1-1 . The value in BS EN 1990:2002 Table Al. = 1.3. Therefore the section sizes are suitable for this load combination.070 Hinge number I 2 Member Right hand column Lefi hand rafier Position (m) 5. ' a. = 1/2000 x 1. causing sagging moments at midspan of the rafter and hogging moment in the haunches.000 12.07.1: dead +snow The second-order design bending moment diagram at Ultimate Limit State is shown below. J.f axial force on the plastic moment of resistance. The following assumptions are made: (i) The sections are assumed to he Class I for the global analysis. so both must be checked. causing maximum reversal of moment compared with case (i).for simplicity. These assumptions are checked a.found f r o m the National Annex to BS E N 1990. Column plastic moment: I P E 500 has tt < 4 0 m m .041 A mechanism is not formed until the second hinge has formed at a load factor of 1..for some geometries o. Note that in portal frames with small roof slopes.0 = 1/200 It is simplest to consider the frame imperfections as equivalent horizontal forces.0 for structures supporting storage loads.898 1.0 and a. (iii) The design must also be checked for gravity plus wind as this may be the critical case . The value to be used must he .355. . = 355 N/mmz Load combination No. The column loads could be calculated by a frame analysis. the wind load may reduce the effects of roof load.a. Therefore the critical design combinations are usually: (i) Gravity loads without wind. but a simple calculation based on plan areas is suitable .for single-storey portals. (I9 = (b(.7 generally. (ii) The axial compression is assumed to be within the limit in BS EN 199.= 1.130 Worked example Portal Frame Design I Sheet 3 of 6 Rev Loads Load combinations Values for the combination are given in BS EN 1990.fter the analysis has been completed.0 x 1. .for ignoring the effect o...0 . The load factors at the formation of each hinge are as follows: Load factor Fraction of ULS 0.

7 kNm N = 168.8 kN V = 154.3 kN V= OkN M = 487 2 kNm N = 154.l kN / h ! V = 155.lkN V = 117.6 kN M = 494.1 kNm N = 155.Portal Frame Design $ Portal I I I M = 366.7 kN i l J k M = O k N m g 30 m k Sheet 4 of 6 F Worked example & Rev 131 .'3 kN V = 13.

00 and yo = 1.factors for loads are 7% = 1.3.2: dead I Sheet 5 of 6 + transverse wind Rev The load combination results in an uplift load case causing tension in the members which does not destabilise the structure.factor EC 3 C15.1. which is greater than in load case no. hut member stability must be checked because the moments are in the opposite sense to load case no.50 The collapse load factor = 6. Therefore this load case is not critical for cross-sectional resistance.2 may be omitted from this load combination.132 Worked example Portal Frame Design Load combination N0. wmf Load combination 2: Bending moment. shear and axial load .] Source: 12495. Therefore the frame imperfection .22. The partial safety .

Worked example Portal Frame Design Load combination No.factor =2.69. Source: 12496.1. The collapse load .]. wmf E Load combination 3: Bending moment. shear and axial load . Therefore this load case is not critical f o r cross-sectional resistance. 2. which is greater than in load case no.3: dead 133 I Sheet 6 of 6 + longitudinal wind Rev In this case the wind loads applied to the structure result in a net upward force (except L H Column) on the roof as in load case no. but member stability f o r this case must be checked because the moments are in the opposite sense t o load case no.

I .6m assuming that both ends of the member are pinned.18 c m = 51.0 LIK N A to SS E N 19931-1 Geometric properties: A = 66. ct/tj = 7.92 SS E N 1 99. Berks SL5 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 Compression Members Client I Made bv CALCULATION SHEET I LG DAN I Date Checked by I 2010 Date 2010 Compression members Rolled Universal Column design Problem Check the ability o.I ruble 5.+ = 20.2 275 Actual ct/tF = 7.Z0mm2. 7/ui = 1.498 Worked example The S t e ~ l Construction Job No.f a 20. c.7 x20. within limit : . The problem is as shown in the sketch below: Partial factors: 7/uo = 1.E = 20. i2 = 5.3 cm2 = 66.0.8mm.4/0.04/0. Section is not Class 4 . Subject Sheet 1 of 2 Rev Institute Silwood Park.& I42 = 0. Ascot.62.92 = 7.5mm.3-1-1.Jt. =275N/mm2 since ti I 1 6 m m Check cross-section class@cation under pure compression: Need only check that section is not Class 4 (slender) For outstand j a n g e cr/tie I 1 4 For web c. Design to BS E N 199. ti = 12.3 x 5 2 UC in grade S275 steel to withstand a design axial compressive load of 1150kN over an unsupported height of 3. within limit Actual c.3.92 = 20.4 iteel Suilding Vesign: %sign Data SS E N '0025-2 Material properties: Yield strength f ./t.04./t.2.

3-1 C1 6.80' 9 s EN '993-1-1 71 6.Worked example Rolled IJniversal Column Design Sheet 2 of 499 2 3ev 3s EN 199. = 1.3-1-1 Table L 2 Oz = 0.80 . use buckling curve 'c'.0.2) + 0.97 I I 0./-= = 0. .0.66 < 1..5[ I + 0.2 x i = QZ + .97 + 40.1. I : .97' .I .49(0.0 L = 1.3. PS EN '99.2) + I f ] = 0.3.4 Member buckling resistance: Take effective length L.0 9 s EN 1993-1-1 Z1 6.0 x3600 = 3600mm O n the assumption that minor axis jexural buckling will govern.80'1 = 0.5[ I +a(& .2. Use 203 x 203 x 52 UC in grade S275 steel It should be noted that the same answer could have been obtained directly by the use of Reference I .0.

Check the adequacy of the column. Subject PUB 809 Sheet 1 of 3 Rev Institute Silwood Park. according to BS EN 199. Ascot.f 1250 k N The problem is as shown in the sketch below: NEd NEd I 31 \ \ 1 I E 9 I I 2 I I I I I I I I Partial factors: 7/uo = 1.7-1-1.3-1-1 . Berks SL5 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 Compression Members Client I Made bv CALCULATION SHEET I LG I Date Checked by DAN I 2010 Date 2010 Compression members Pinned column with intermediate lateral restraints Problem A 254 x254 x 89 UC in grade S275 steel is t o be used as a 12.0 UK NA to BS EN 199. to carry a design axial compressive load o.0m column with p i n ends and intermediate lateral braces provided restraint against minor axis buckling at third points along the column length. 7/ui = 1.0.500 Worked example The S t e ~ l Construction Job No.

94 = 6. For major axis buckling.55 cm = 65. use buckling curve 'c'.4 Material properties: Yield strength J.2. Rii = -= 11300x265x10-~7 = 2 9 9 5 k N > 1 2 5 0 k N = N . within limit :.4 Effective lengths: L./t.94 = 20.2 x: .0 OK 9 s EN '993-1-1 71 6. c. = 11..0 x 12000 = 12000mm for buckling about the y-y axis L. = 6.5mm. i.0 L = 1.z= 1.04/0.94 Actual cr/tie = 7. Buckling reduction . tt = 17.0 x 4000 = 4000mm for buckling about the z-z axis.Section is not Class 4 Cross-section compression resistance: N .2 cm = 112mm.Jt.7.e = 20. ct/t+=6. Yuo 1.r.3mm.4/0.+= 19.! = 1./t. = 265 N / m m z since 16 > tt 2 4 0 m m Check cross-section classification under pure compression: Need only check that section is not Class 4 (slender) For outstandjange cr/tiE 5 14 9 s EN '0025-2 9 s EN '993-1-1 rable 5.Worked example Pinned Column with Intermediate Lateral Restraints SO1 I Sheet 2 of 3 3ev iteel Building yesign: yesign Data Geometric properties: A = 113 cmz = 11300mmz.& 5 42 E=& 235 - = 0. within limit Actual c.i.2 For web c. Non-dimensional slendernesses: Buckling curves.factors 3s EN '993-1-1 rable 6.0 L = 1. use buckling curve '6' For minor axis buckling.77.38.

49(0.0.31-1 CI 6.2 = 0.3.0. .86' = 0.69.47 _C XY @? 1 = @.3.5[1+0.1 : .I C16.3.5[1+ ./=1 1 1.3. Use 254 x 254 x 89 UC in grade S275 steel.21'1 = 1.86 1 .2)+ 1.31-1 C1 6.86 + 40.I .40 = 0.69'1 = 0.1.21.1.5[1+ .0 BS E N 199. +.O BS E N 199.2)+ 0.0.0. . / = 0.2) +I : ] = 0.73 _C 1.SO2 Worked example Sheet 3 of 3 Pinned Column with Intermediate Lateral Restraints @> = 0.692 X? = O? +.2)+ Rev BS EN 199.(I.0.2 I:] = 0.5[1+0.212 1.402 -1..34(1.40+41. . .1.

Cross-section is Class I BS EN 199. W. / t . page 0-66 cross-section is Class I and Mc. ~I72 limit Actual c .2.7. = 2060 cm' Yield strength f ...73 x 210 x 82 U K B when used as a beam in ( I ) S275 steel and (2) S355 steel. cross-section is Class I and Mc. = ~ 49.6.58. Berks SLS 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET I Beam example 1 Made by Beam example 1 Rolled Universal Beam using Design Tables Problem Determine the cross-section classification and moment resistance for a 5.1 of BS EN 1993-1-1: For a Class I outstand flange in compression: ct/t+& I9 For a Class 1 web in bending: Actual cI/tl" = 6. Ascot.12.92 = 7. c J t . BS EN 1993-1-1 Table 5.92 From Table 5.RII = 566 k N m Alternatively..522 Worked example The S t e ~ l Job No.92 within limit : . = 49.7-1-1 C16. Job Title Subject Client Sheet 1 of 2 Rev Construction Institute I Silwood Park..5(2) (2) Using S3SS steel From Reference 2. = 275N/mmz since ti = 13.58/0. page C-66.. from Reference 2. page B-4: cl/tr = 6. / t .2mm 1 1 6 m m E= BS EN 10025-2 6 235 - = 0.. (1) Using S27S steel From Reference 2.6/0..Kd = 731 k N m ..1 c . within = 53.

Cross-section is Class I BS EN 1993-1-1 C16./t.58/0. & = 49. / t .58. page B-4: ct/tt= 6.1 : . within limit Actual c .09.& 5 72 Actual ct/tt&= 6.6.81 = 8. /t.81 = 61.5(2) .2. = 49.0.1 of BS EN 1993-1-1: For a Class 1 outstandjange in compression: c.6/0.= 2060 cm' Yield strength J = 355 N / m m 2 since ti = 13.e 5 9 For a Class 1 web in bending: c.2mm I 16mm Sheet 2 of 2 523 Rev BS EN 10025-2 From Table 5. within limit BS EN 1993-1-1 Table 5. c. W pl.Worked example Beam example 1 Alternatively.+ / t . from Reference 2.

BS EN 10025-2 . 6 = 11.2 = 25.6 kN Initial sizing Adopting S275 steel and assuming no material is greater than 16mm thick (to be confirmed later).is 275 N/mmz.2 x 7.2 ) kN/m = 357. Berks SLS 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (0 1344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET Client Beam example 2 Laterally restrained Universal Beam Problem Select a suitable U K B in S275 steel to .The beam span is 7. The slab may be assumed capable of providing continuous lateral restraint to the beam's top .35 x l l . there is no possibility of lateral torsional buckling.function as a simply supported beam carrying a 140mm thick solid concrete slab together with an imposed load of 7.22/8 kNm Design ultimate shear force Vbd= 55.0 k N / m Permanent load (concrete slab) =2400 x9. I ) 7.524 Worked example I The S t e ~ l Construction Job No.f beam = 1.5 ~ 2 5 .0 x 3 6 = (1.5 x 7.flange. so design the beam for: i) ii) Cross-section bending resistance Shear resistance iii) Dejections Loading Assume self-weight o.0 k N / m Z .14 x 10-3 ~ 3 .2m Due to the lateral restraint from the concrete slab.2m and beams are spaced at 3.2/2 = 198. Ascot.f 2400 kg/m-' and a deflection limit of span/360. the nominal yield strength f. Job Title Sheet 1 of 3 Rev Institute Silwood Park.81 x 0.9 k N / m Variable imposed loading Design combination at U L S Design ultimate moment Mbd = 7.6 m intervals.2 k N / m + (1. 2 =55.9]) = 55. 0 +11. Assume a concrete density o.

flange thickness ti = 15..0..I .. ..Worked example Beam example 2 525 I Sheet2of3 I I Rev Assuming that the cross-section is Class 1 or 2 in bending (to be confirmed when a section is chosen): Required W. within : .2.8kNm>.3-1-5 . the shear area A.) From U K N A to BS EN 199.for class I or 2 cross-sections BS EN 1993-1-1 C16.2. of 1450 cm'. Cross-section is Class I .0.3/0. f. is given by: A.. a 457 x 1 5 2 x 6 7 U K B has a value of W.0. for all U K B and UKC./t.6 Shear resistance For a rolled 1-section. Cross-section resistance in bending is OK. 11 = 1. .49. BS EN 1993-1-1 Table 5.I (26.30 x l b m m ' =1300 cm' From section tables. Bending resistance M . 0 m m : .=357. and a self-weight less than that assumed. A .& 5 72 Actual c. loaded parallel to the web. =275 N / m m 2 is OK.0mm I 1 6 . BS EN 10025-2 Check cross-section classification From Table 5.357.t..& = 4. = 1 4 5 0 x 1 0 ' x 2 7 5 x 1 0 4 =398. With 11 = 1.7-1-1: For a Class I outstand flange in compression: ct /ti&I9 For a Class 1 web in bending: c.15/0. > q h ./t.2 within limit limit = 45.92 = 49.1 of BS EN 199..oo : .H.3.5 k N m 1. = A -2btl + (t.+ 2r)tl (but not less than qh.5 YWI M./tle Actual c.. ~ .92 = 4. .7-1-5. U K N A to BS EN 199. BS EN 199. t .5 x106/275 =1. Maximum component thickness is.= wpiyfy .

5mm c 20. Shear resistance is OK Dejections Check deflection under unfactored variable loads.0mm Actual deflection: ij--= 5 WL' 384 E I 5 x 25.526 Worked example Sheet 3 of 3 Beam example 2 Rev : .0 mm 384 x 210000 x 28900 x l o 4 : .8 x15.I Assumed deflection limit is span/360 = 7200/360 = 20. Use 457 x 152 x 67 U K B in Grade S275 steel.2 x 7200' = 14.3. . U K N A to BS EN I 99. Dejections OK : .2]) x15.I .(2 x153.0 +[2 x10.0 =4387mm2 I : .0) + (9. A. =8560 .

In this example.0mm : . Cross-section is Class I Using NCCI SN002 (Method 3 o. /t.7mm. Steel Building Design: Design Data B S EN 10025-2 Maximum component thickness is j a n g e thickness ti = 19.+ /t.I Table 5. W.Worked example 527 Rev ' ThsStesl Construction Job No. select a suitable U K B in S275 steel assuming that the member must now be designed as laterally unrestrained.I .7-1-1: For a Class 1 outstand j a n g e in compression: cr/trE I9 For a Class 1 web in bending: c. tr=19. within limit B S EN I 99.+= 46.0.89. an iterative design approach is therefore required.f Reference 7).0mm. =265 N/mmz.94 = 48. = 3680 x 1O'mm' t.8. J. lateral torsional buckling slenderness is defined as: .3.& I 7 2 Actual cr/tiE = 4. Job Title Sheet 1 of 2 Institute Silwood Park.>.19. the simplified method set out in NCCI SN002 and referred to as Method 3 in Reference 7 will be employed. It is not now possible to arrange the calculations in such a way that a direct choice of section can be made (since susceptibility to lateral torsional buckling is not yet known).89/0. Berks SLS 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET Made by Date I 2010 Date I 2010 Beam example 3 Laterally unrestrained Universal Beam Problem For the same loading and support conditions of example 2. within limit Actual c .97 cm = 49.0/0. c. Try 610 x 2 2 9 x 125 U K B Geometric properties: h =612.2mm. iL= 4.! = 3680 cm' b =229.94 From Table 5.94 =5.. Ascot.2 : .1 of BS EN 199. c+/tt= 4.6mm > 16. =11.6mm. Check cross-section classification: E=& 235 - = 0.9mm.E = 46./t.

462 . 3 9 ~ Lateral torsional buckling resistance. M hRii =xrTW. use buckling curve 'c' (a = 0.7-1 -1 C16. 0 = 0.75 and 0 = 0.5[1+0.44 x 3680 x YMl f t I . Take UV = 0. L I T = -UVxZ& - 1 fi = 0..9 x 1.4)+(0.0 = 2.75~1.2/229.1.46 1 Ol1 XIT= 1 +. for I-sections with 2-< h / b 53.'. : .49). U K NA to BS EN 1993-1-1 Buckling reduction factor xLI : 011 = 0 4 1+ ~ L (111 I .67 For the case of rolled and equibalent welded sections.64 = 1.2. Use 610 x229 x 125 U K B in Grade S275 steel.46+41.111 o) +/%I I BS EN 199.9.39-0. and 6 will also he satisfactory.7-1 -1 C16. For rolled sections./= = 0.39~)] =1.49(1. V.528 Worked example Beam example 3 ?LIT I Sheet2of2 I Rev 1 =puvxz& fi pbv = 1.44 1.39 Buckling curve selection: h / h = 612. .0 for a Class 1 or 2 section.4..3.94 Table 17.o = 424.0 .OK Since section is larger than before. 7 5 ~ 1 . & = 0.3 =0. -= 0.7 .1 :.2. .5 k N m = Mrcl 10' x 265 BS EN 199. For the present shape of bending moment diagram.3.7 k N m < 357.94 x 0.

= 3.f load at B and C (relative to the main beam's shear centre) will have no effect. Job Title Sheet 1 of 4 Institute Silwood Park. the general lateral torsional buckling aspects of the design are therefore to consider the segments AB.Kd = 431 k N m . In this example.RII > 406 k N m - 126 kN I 10 kN I I A 457 x 152 x 74 U K B is Class 1 and provides Mc. BC and C D ) have the same length ( L ( . Berks SLS 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET Made by Date Date I 2010 I 2010 Beam example 4 Universal beam supporting point loads Problem Select a suitable U K B in S275 steel to carry a pair o.0 m). the simplified method set out in N C C l SN002 and referred to as Method 3 in Reference 7 will be employed. it is clear f r o m the B M D that segment B C is critical (since it contains the most severe magnitude and distribution of bending moments). From statics.0 m A C 3. Ascot.0 m A Y Ill6 kN D + A 7 3.f point loads at the third points transferred by cross-beams as shown in the accompanying sketch. 1145k~ A & & B 3.f the unrestrained segments (AB. Given that each o.0 m X X " The cross-beams may reasonably be assumed to provide full lateral and torsional restraint at B and C. only segment B C need be considered for lateral torsional buckling. select a U K B with Mc. Thus the actual level o.f transfer o.Worked example The S t e ~ l Construction 529 Rev Job No. assume further that ends A and D are similarly restrained. BC and C D separately. Therefore. Steel Building Design: Design Data . the bending moment diagram ( B M D ) and shear force diagram (SFD) are as follows: BMD SFD 135 kN For initial trial section.

3 A.lateral torsional buckling slenderness is defined as: BS EN 10025-2 For class I or 2 sections.0mm : .6mm > 16.T O = 0. = 42.5.4) + (0.75 and Buckling reduction factor xLI : =0 U K N A to BS EN 1993-1-1 1 .0mm. 1I& = 0. t .90')] = 0.3 4 1+ a r T ( z r -n../a= + 0.9.90.90' . For rolled sections. p = 0.5[I + 0. c. BS EN 1993-1-1 C 1 6.2. use buckling curve 'c' ( a = 0. 0 = 0.6mm.66.93.. tiz .98 ~ 0 .TO)+@.0.4mm.99 For the case of rolled and equivalent welded sections.70 cm' = 16.'T] I = 0.7 (Table 6.75 x I 0.33 cm = 33..4 = 2.for I-sections. iz = 3. For the ratio of end moments t y =377/406 = 0.70 = 0.0.0. cl /ti = 3. Wz. = 16. take UV = 0.. f . = 9.92' .49(0.92 XLI = QL1 +. / t .0mm.70 x IO'mm-' I Sheet2of4 I Rev Steel Building Design: Design Data Maximum component thickness is. Conservatively .3 mm.4 : . 0 2 ~ 1 .530 Worked example Beam example 4 Try 457 x 152 x 74 U K B Geometric properties: h = 462.02 ~ A 1 Ll ~ 88.75x 0.90 Buckling curve selection: h / h = 462.4.=>== 1.3.1..92 40.x 91 .flange thickness tt = 19. Table 17. for I-sections with 2 < h / h 53. = 1.0/154.3000133.4 of Reference 7). ti = 17. h = 154. =265 N/mmz Using NCCI SN002 (Method 3 of Reference 7).49). %IT = -UVnz& I & = 0.98 (by interpolation) from Table 16.7 A L.

‘. 0 m m :.4.b =191. ’ 2..3 X I T = 1 OL1+ 1 d m = 0. ratio o.3.f end moments =377/406 = 0.Air = .l J V ~ z & = 0 .0.9mm.Zmm.3mm.9.0mm.2.23 cm = 42..1 Not OK.1.flange thickness ti = 16.30 x IO’mm’.2.BN.I Buckling reduction factor XL1: OL1= 0..1. 7 2 - J c 1 Buckling curve selection: h/b = 460.0/191. 531 I S h e e t 3 o f 4 I Rev 3’ f ~ 265 = 0. Conservatively for I-sections. lateral torsional buckling slenderness is defined as: Steel Building Design: Design Data BS EN 10025-2 For Class 1 or 2 sections.I .5[1+ 0.= 18.70 cm’ = 18. Wpi. try larger section Try 457 x I91 x 82 UKB Geometric properties: h =460. C16.= 1.f.40 For the case of rolled and equivalent welded sections.75 x 0. I i.77 + 40.0mm I 1 6 .1 - ~ A1 3000 I 42.722 = 0. For rolled sections.9..B& - ] BS EN 1993-1-1 = 0. =9.3 = 2. using NCCI SN002 (Method 3 of Reference 7).3 = o.) + . Table 17.8 . ’ = 2 L.3. =275 N / m m 2 A s above..0mm.o BS EN I 99. take UV = 0.5[1+ aLl (xLl xLl.98. 8 2 ~ l .I = 303 k N m c 406 k N m =ME() : .4) + (0.3.0. 0 = 0 .7 /-1 = 2. Section is Class I A = l o 4 cmz =10400mmz..75 and U K N A to BS EN I 99.75 x 0. : . ll&=O.70 x lo7 x ~ YA41 I .72.3. p = 0.72’)] = 0. for I-sections with 2 < h / b 53. 9 8 ~ 0 . As above.49(0.82 86. .77 Cl 6.I . use buckling curve ‘c’ (a = 0. iL= 4.0.Ll 0 = 0.t.tt=16. Maximum component thickness is.Worked example Beam example 4 Lateral torsional buckling resistance: M.70 x 16.772. =37100 cm4=371 x1O6mm4. = xLI W.81 .49). 2. 9 ~ 0 .3.

0.3.2. = 10400 (2 x 191. q =1. With q =l. Assumed dejection limit is span/360 Assumed serviceability U D L w = Actual deflection. > qhlh. also segments A B and CD..6 For a rolled I section. by inspection.0 = 474. A.3 x 9000' = 21. OK Beam is clearly satisfactory for dejection since these (approximate) calculations have used the full load and not just the imposed (variable) load. A.9 + [2 x 10. the shear area A.81 x 1830 x 10' -x Y'VI 1.5 to estimate the serviceability loads.7-1 -1 145+116 = 19.t.0 f t = 409 k N m > 406 k N m = Mro : . . and UKC. Shear resistance: BS E N 1993-1-1 C 1 6.2 mm < 25. + 2r)tt (hut not less than qh. OK BS EN 199.5~9 5 wL4 384 EI 5 x 19. : .2htt + (t.0) + (9. Assume for initial design that the point loads can be represented as a U D L and that the design loads can be factored down by 1.3 x 16.0 mm 384 x 210000 x 371 x lo6 : . Use 457 x 191 x 82 U K B in Grade S275 steel.0 mm U K N A to BS EN 199.3mmz ~ : .2. = A .1 A 457 x191 x 8 2 U K B provides sufficient resistance to lateral torsional buckling for segment BC and.O. ij---= = 3000/360 = 25.+t.21) x 16. -= 0.) U K N A to BS E N 1993-1-5 for all U K B From U K N A to B S E N 1993-1-5.. is given by: A.532 Worked example Beam example 4 Lateral torsional buckling resistance: I Sheet4of4 I Rev Mh = 275 xrT W .3 k N / m 1.7-1 -1 C1 6. Shear resistance is O K Dejections: Check deflection under unfactored variable loads. : . The beam is therefore satisfactory in bending. loaded parallel to the web.

35 x .= 1.5 x 450) = 925 k N F d = (1.5 x 40) = 91.925 ~ 2 5 + ) (1.925 ~ 2 0 0 + ) (1.35 x)= 1.2 k N / m 0.35 x 0. Berks SLS 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET Client Made by Date Date I I Plate girders Plate girder design example Design brief The plate girder shown below is . For the design loading spec@ed below. design a transversely stiffened plate girder in S275 steel.factor for variable actions Reduction factor for permanent actions BS EN 1990 x. I A 9350 1 u 11300 i 9350 D 1 30000 Plate girder span and loading 1 UDL Point loads Actions (loading) Permanent actions: gk =25 k N / m G k = 200 k N Variable actions: UDL Point loads qk =40 k N / m Qk = 450 k N Partialvfactorsvforactions Partial factor for permanent actions Partial .Worked example The S t e ~ l Construction 553 Rev Job No.925 ULS combination qf actions Design U D L Design point loads F d = (1. Ascot.50 5 =0.fully laterally restrained along its length. Job Title Sheet 1 of 10 Institute Silwood Park.

. assuming 4 0 m m <ti < 6 . Assume afEange 750 x50 =37500mm2. 1550 3900 3900 L L 5650 L 5650 L 3900 3900 L 1550 8 30000 A B C D Shear force kN w 1 _ 1 J / 11142 17453 Bending moment kNm 18909 Design shear forces.5 of the depth. BS E N 10025-2 For non-composite plate girders. slightly less than that required for a Class 3 section due to proposed transverse stiffening. 7 mm). Estimate flange area assuming Lt = 255 N/mmz (i.e. 2 h . = 1 5 m m .554 Worked example Plate girder design example I Sheet 2 of 10 I Rev Design shear-force and bending moment diagrams The shear force and bending moment diagrams corresponding to the U L S design loads are shown below. bending moments and stiffener spacing Initial sizing ofplate pirder The recommended span/depth ratio for simply supported non-composite plate girders ranges between 12 for short span girders and 20 for long span girders. Assume the web thickness t . the flange width is usually within the range of 0. The minimum web thickness for plate girders in buildings is usually t . Herein the depth is assumed to be span/l5.3 and 0. J 1 2 4 ~ to ensure a non-slender section.

3 and 0. Assume the web thickness t . .e. Herein the depth is assumed to be span/l5. The minimum web thickness for plate girders in buildings is usually t . = 1 5 m m . assuming 4 0 m m <ti < 6 . slightly less than that required for a Class 3 section due to proposed transverse stiffening. 2 h . 1550 3900 3900 L L 5650 L 5650 L 3900 3900 L 1550 8 30000 A B C D Shear force kN w 1 _ 1 J / 11142 17453 Bending moment kNm 18909 Design shear forces. Estimate flange area assuming Lt = 255 N/mmz (i.554 Worked example Plate girder design example I Sheet 2 of 10 I Rev Design shear-force and bending moment diagrams The shear force and bending moment diagrams corresponding to the U L S design loads are shown below.5 of the depth. Assume afEange 750 x50 =37500mm2. the flange width is usually within the range of 0. BS E N 10025-2 For non-composite plate girders. 7 mm). bending moments and stiffener spacing Initial sizing ofplate pirder The recommended span/depth ratio for simply supported non-composite plate girders ranges between 12 for short span girders and 20 for long span girders. J 1 2 4 ~ to ensure a non-slender section.

Check cross-section classification.6(6) . Flange: For tt = 50mm. Since h. J.92 Ignoring weld size in determination o.f plate width. the web must be checked for shear buckling. c .Worked example Plate girder design example 555 I Sheet 3 of 10 I I Rev Cross-section classtfication lnitial sizing proposed a plate girder with 750 x 5 0 m m janges and 2000 x l 5 m m web.35 tf 50 BS EN I 99.for Class 3 web in bending is 1 2 4 ~ BS EN 1993-1-1 Table 5. Flange is Class I Web: For t .> 7 ~ 2 ~ =7 2= ~66. = 2000mm = 114.56. = 15mm..63 < 133 Limiting slenderness . Cf = - 750-15 =367.I Table 5.I .2 Limiting slenderness for Class 1 jange is 9~ = 8.+ = 255 N / m m 2 BS EN 10025-2 Ignoring weld size in determination o.2 : . w t rl BS EN 1993-1-1 C16. L.35 : . Web is Class 4.3.+=275 N / m m 2 BS EN 10025-2 E = 6 235 - = 0.5 = 7.5 mm 2 9= 367.2.64 > 7.f plate width.

..: BS EN 1993-1-5 C15. < 1): k .flanges will be ignored..78 Buckling coefficient (for a / h ..83 =-=-=0.flanges buckling into the web: BS E N I 99.34(2000/1550)2 = 12.00 +5. = 18909 k N m Shear bucklinp resistance cf end (anchor) panel A B The shear resistance of panel A B will be calculated assuming a non-rigid end post. = 275 N / m m 2 .. Minimum web thickness to avoid serviceability problems: h 2000 t . The bending resistance of the janges alone MI. LN. = 4.? k N m OK MrKd = 19603 > M. a = 1550mm.00 + 5.07 BS EN I 99. with the reduced capacity compensated for by closer stiffener spacing.Hd = Ahl x (h. it may be assumed that the bending moment is resisted by the janges alone while the web is designed to carry the shear only. = 1550/2000 = 0. + t.+Iaj2 = 4.7-1 -5 C1 A.89 Web slenderness: 2000 = 1.3 ( I ) Shear resistance of web V.556 Worked example Plate girder design example I Sheet 4 of 10 I Rev Dimensions qf web and-flanges Assume stiffener spacing a > h.) = (750 x50 x 2 5 5 ) x (2000 + 50)/106 = 1960..f the.. The contribution o. as described above.0mm 250 250 OK To avoid the. = 2000mm.7-1 -5 C18(1) Bending moment resistance For sections with class 1-3flanges but a class 4 web.. h.+ 1.83 0. =152-=-=8..07 BS EN 1993-1-5 C15.08 :.3(1) BS EN 1993-1-5 c 1 5. <1.77 A.x 0.. = 2293 kN Web aspect ratio a / h ..?(.2(1) .?4(h.7) Web buckling reduction factor (for non-rigid end post): I>.V.

.08 : . J.34 + 4.53 .+).~&- - "v=o'76&= 2000 = 1.. 9 2 m 1993-1-5 Cl 5. h. = 5.3-1-5 Cl A..3-1-5 h 37. f. = 515 k N Web aspect ratio a / h .39 Web slenderness: BS EN 199. V.Worked example Plate girder design example 557 I Sheet 5 of 10 I I Rev Shear buckling resistance qf panel BC The shear panel resistance of the end panel B C is calculated assuming a rigid end post but ignoring the contribution of the flange.2(1) Shear buckling resistance of panel DE The shear resistance of panel D E is calculated assuming a rigid end post bul ignoring the contribution of the jange.?(.2(1) ..00(h.(0.34 + 4.: BS EN 1993-1-5 C15.4 x 15 x 0 .37 1.00(2000/3900)2 = 6.3(1) BS EN h.83 Buckling coefficient (for a/h. xbV = ~ 1.+2 I): k .84 Web slenderness: "f'W BS EN 1993-1-5 Cl A.Z7.60 37.Vr. 0 0 ( h . 2 1): k .7+1.7+1. la)' = 5...60) Shear resistance of web V.RII: Web buckling reduction factor (for rigid end post).34 )~ + 4. a = 3900mm. l ~=5. h . = 5. = 2000mnz. BS E N 1993-1-5 C15.00(2000/5650)2 = 5.34 + 4 .Z(I) BS EN 199.95 Buckling coefficient (for a/h..60 (0..37 = 0.3(1) Shear resistance of web BS EN OK 199. a = 3900mm.3-1 -5 C15.N = 275 N/mmz.3(1) 1 ) " 2 1. 2000 = 1.?) I"= 0'76g= Vb.4t.+ = 275 N/mm2. = 5650/2000 = 2.3(3) Web buckling reduction factor (for rigid end post): BS EN 1993-1-5 C15.4tbV&&= 37. =3900/2000 = 1.+. = 2152 kN Web aspect ratio a / h .92J584 C15.4x15~0. = 2000mnz.

l l 3 . = 28Oll. web material is available on one side of the stiffeners only. = 13 x 0. A t location A. The effective stiffener section comprises the area of the stiffeners themselves.force. = (2 x 280 x 24) + (I208 + 241 x 15) = 16920mm2 I. l l 4 . J.. such that there is no bending moment induced. It is assumed that both ends of the stiffeners are fixed laterally such that their effective length may he taken as 0. = 24mm. where such material is available. i i z Effective stiffener section at A It is assumed that the support reaction acts at the centroid o. = 280mm. I t .75h. h.94 h. Try double-sided stiffening consisting of two j u t s 280 x24mm (i.7 k N The single (double-sided) stiffener constitutes a non-rigid end post and does not therefore need to be designed to resist any tensile anchorage .W.7-1 -5 C1 9.28 x10'mm4 .1 (8) 24 f . =24mm) Check outstands: For t. as is local buckling since h 3 I t . plus an effective web width equal to 15a. =15 xO..e. = 265 N/mmz BS EN 10025-2 235 E=& - = 0.f the effective stiffener section. 0 ~ torsional buckling is avoided.94 x 24 = 294mm Since h . Effective stiffener properties: A.92 x15 =208mm (where E relates to the web material) either side o.f the stiffeners. t.2.558 Worked example Plate girder design example I Sheet 6 of 10 I Rev Design qf bearing stijfener at A The bearing stiffener at A should be designed for the compressive force due to the support reaction equal to 229. at the end of the plate girder. The effective stiffener section is shown below: BS EN I 99. 0 e which is the class 3 limit for a compressed outstand. = (24 x[15 + 2 x280]'/12) + (208 x15'/12) =380. The effective stiffener section will therefore he designed to resist an axial compression equal to the support reaction Nbd =2293 kN.

.92 x 15 = 180mm Since h .4 L. as is local buckling since h . For panels BC and CD.2. =0. l l 3 . BS EN 1993-1-1 C16. =275N/mm2 BS EN 10025-2 E= 6 235 - = 0. = 80113&t.4(2) Since 1c 0.= 13 x 0. The effective stiffener section . Try double-sided stiffening consisting o. 15 x 0. Pro. = 1 5 m m . 80mm. 0 ~which is the Class 3 limit for a compressed outstand. t.f two flats 80 x 15mm (i. buckling effects may be ignored and only cross-section checks apply.1 (8) .+=0. = rfi J F = = 88.3. h.2.R.Worked example Plate girder design example 559 I Sheet 7 of 10 Rev Stiffener cross-section resistance: N.75 x2000 = 1500mm BS EN 1993-1-5 C19. a = 3900mm.3-1 -5 Cl 9. l l 4 .for locations B and C is shown below: BS EN 199. where such material is available.2(4) Design qf intermediate transverse stijfeners at B and C The stiffeners at B and C should be designed to have a minimum stiffness and sufficient buckling resistance to withstand a compressive axial force.75h. l t .92 x 15 = 208mm (where E relates to the web material) either side of the stiffeners.92 h.e. = 1 5 m m ) Check outstands: Fort. 0 s torsional buckling is avoided. f . The effective stiffener section comprises the area of the stiffeners themselves plus an effective web width equal to 1 5 ~ t = .1. i t .i = -= 16920 Yuo 1.0 265 x = 4484 kN > 2293 kN = Nro OK Stiffener buckling resistance: a. arising from the tension field.

7 qkd = 0 for a symmetric section. . = 5. = 6.h. k. 2 1.Jajz = 5.80.7) Actual I .3(..‘ /+ 12 (2 ) x 2 0 8 ~ 1 5 ‘ / 1 2=6.2.t5: BS EN 1993-1-5 c 1 9.0. 0.82x106mma ) Actual I. .where.8z.. Vkd= 2152 kN L = kzor 0 k = - 12(1.3. I =2152-(0.t.00(h.v’) b [‘r = 190000 [ir = 190000 2000 = 10.06x106 5’ mm4 Minimum I.75h. for a 2 h.39 BS EN I 99.7 Nimm’ For a / h .: BS EN 1993-1-5 C 1 NA.. 7 5 ~ 2 0 0 0 ~ 1=5.82 x 1O6 > Required I. =0.2x2000x15x10-‘) =514 kN J I - 0. rii ~ .34 + 4.34 + 4.00(200/.7-1 -5 Annex A.8x68.560 Worked example Plate girder design example I Sheet 8 of 10 I Rev Y Y Z Effective stiffener section at B and C Check minimum stiffness: = 0 .7900)2= 6.06 x 106mm4 Douhle-sided intermediate transverse stiffeners are designed to resist a compressive axial force Pbd. = 5.3 PA* = Vb. = ( 1 5 ~ [ 1 5 + 2 ~ 8 0 ] .

\/0.O NhHd Af.4(2) 0 = 0.3.1. = (15 x 11.0.Worked example Plate girder design example 561 I Sheet 9 of 10 I I Rev Effective stiffener properties: A. t. BS EN 199. L. h.see above Figure.3.622]= 0.49. Try double-sided stiffening consisting of two j u t s 80 x 1 5 m m (i.field.62' =0. R. YWl 0.80 BS EN 1993-1-1 Cl 6.80 + .82 x 106mm4 Stiffener cross-section resistance: N .0.5[1+0.5[1+a(n.75 x 2000 = 1500mm BS EN 1993-1-5 C19.e.2 X= 1 0 + -= =-= 1 0. = ( 2 x 8 0 ~ 1 5 + ) (12 x 2 0 8 +15] ~ 1 5 =8865mmz ) I.49(0. = 15mm).77II. .2) + 1 ' 1 = 0.0 OK BS EN 1993-1-1 Cl 6.5 + 2 x 80/-'/12) + (2 x 208 x I f ' / l 2 ) = 6.2) + 0.0.force Pro arising f r o m the tension .62 .3-1 -5 Cl 9.75h.1 Design of intermediate load-bearing stiffener at D The stiffener at D should be designed to have a minimum stiffness and sufficient buckling resistance to withstand the externally applied load at D of 92 kN plus a compressive axial .o = 2438 k N > 514 k N = Pro OK Stiffener buckling resistance.4(2) For buckling of stiffeners.77~8865~275 x10~i=1881kN>514kN=Pbd 1. which has a n imperfection factor a = 0.802. as employed at B and C .1. use buckling curve 'c'. = 0. The minimum stiffness requirements are satisfied as before...+= 0. = 80mm.i = -= Yuo X275 x lo-' I .

Ja)2 = 5. k . Vbd= 1440 kN L = kzor For a/h.Hd = 1881 k N > 925 kN OK Final girder dimensions and details Based on the above calculations.84x10.4Nlmmz =1440-(0. 1550 / 30000 Final plate girder details .562 Worked example Plate girder design example I Sheet 10 of 10 I Rev For panels DE.4x2000x15x10") =-96... = 5.+2 I .8x62.84 BS EN 1993-1-5 Annex A.34 + 4.. the final plate girder dimensions and details are as below: All intermediate stiffeners 1550 J ' 3 c 13900 13900 c c 1 5650 c 5650 c 13900 13900 c c ( 1 . the compressibe axial force Pro is given by: BS EN 1993-1-5 C 1 NA.7=62.7 orbd = 0 for a symmetric section.34 + 4. a = 5650mm. The total compressive .7kN :.2. For a 2 h.force to he resisted is therefore 925 + 0 = 925 k N Buckling resistance of the stiffener (as above) NI.00(h.3 q r = k Z o b=5.Take Pro = 0.00(200/5650)2 = 5.

iz = 5.3 x 60 UKC in S275 steel member capacity tables suggest a minor axis buckling resistance Nh. =17.0mm. 7 x20.8mm.96 cm = 89..586 Worked example The S t e ~ l Construction Job No.6 m.20.2mm. Ascot.f margin to carry the moment.4 cm2 = 7640mm2.0. t .20 cm WIJl.0 U K N A to BS EN 1993-1-1 Geometric properties: h b = 205.i. Yield strength f . ~ Steel Building Design: Design Data Partial factors: 7/uo = 1. WIJl. A = 76. = 52. = 9.Hd of approximately 1400 kN will provide correct sort o. = 275 N/mmz since ti < 16mm B S EN 10025-2 Check cross-section classijkation: For a Class I outstand flange in compression ct /tie 5 9 BS EN 1993-1-1 Table 5.6mm.1. = 656 cm' = 656 x 10' mm ' . over an unsupported height of 3. Job Title Sheet 1 of 3 Rev Institute Silwood Park. Steel Building Design: Design Data Material properties.2 . = 8. / t .? = 305 cm' = 305 x l O'mm ' . 7/Ul = 1. c . = 209. : _I W t Try 2 0 . Berks SLS 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET Client Made by I Date I 2010 Beam-column example 1 Rolled Universal Column Problem Select a suitable UKC in S275 steel to carry safely a combination of 840kN in direct compression and a uniform bending moment about the minor axis of 12 kNm.4mm. i.6mm. ti =14. cl /ti = 6.

92 Actual ct/t.0 x3600 =3600mm for buckling about the y-y axis L.34) For minor axis buckling.6/205.bE 5. within limit Actual c.49(0.1/0. Major and minor axis column buckling resistances Effective lengths: L.2) = 0.& =17.!I 1 - 1 BS EN 1993-1-1 C 1 6.1.Z.0.2) +0.80 .96 + 40.66 5 1 .92 =18.. z l i z.. use buckling curve ’c’ ( a = 0. L c . so will also be Class I under the more favourable stress distribution arising from compression plus bending.5[1+a(%. - 3600189.2. within limit Cross-section is Class I under pure compression..r.5’ E=& 587 I Sheet2of3 Rev 235 - = 0.46’] = 0. = 0. + JG0.3.z=1.0 Oz = 0.2) +%.802]= 0.5[1+a(/l. l i .02 < 1.96 BS EN 199.65 + 40.0.49) Buckling reduction factors X: O. = 1. use buckling curve ‘6’ (a = 0.7-1 -1 C16. For major axis buckling.92 = 6.90 51.65 BS EN 1993-1-1 Table 6.3600152.8 A=_=’ A 1 - A.20/0../t..34(0.80 A 1 86.46’ = 0.:I = 0.0.0 = 0.8 Buckling curves: h / b =209.O ./t. L.80’ +.96’ .2) + 0.5. /-= = 0.46 86.2 X? = I OZ I 0. A.&= 6.Worked example Beam-column example 1 For a Class I web in compression c.0.0 x3600 =3600mm for buckling about the z-z axis Non-dimensional column slendernesses: fi - -=a \ 1 F = 8 6 . 8 ~ -L=- A A.70..2 .1.0 L =1.8 = 1.5[1+0.. -0.46 -0. .5[1+0.2 XY = 0.65’ + %.0 L = 1.6 =o.

Nld +k.4. =0.4 ~ 1 . I OK Minor axis bending resistance Combined axial load plus bending: To verify resistance under combined axial loading plus bending.61 and 6.44 4 BS EN 1993-1-1 Table B.O M c z ~ i j 1395 83.1.3.I C16. =2.12 = 0.7-1-1 must be satisfied.4. .bd= 0. For t y = 1.60 + 0.3.9 :.4C.6k.61 BS EN 1993-1-1 Equation 6. Adopt 20.21=0.3 of BS EN 1993-1-1.3 .M 7bd = 840 + 2. .f kiLmay be taken from Table 18.... as k.OK BS EN 1993-1-1 Equation 6. OK .6kzi.588 Worked example Beam-column example 1 I Sheet3of3 I Rev OK BS EN 199.kzz=1.62 of BS EN 199.4C. bd I = ~ RO 12 840 +1.1 BS EN 1993-1-1 C1 6.0 1892 83. both Equations 6. 0 k j Z=0.. C..6 ~ 2 .44+0. = 0..I ..34 = 0.3. RO M.Nil..zRij +kz2.'.1.62 . kzz= 2. Maximum (conservative) values o.7 x20..44-=0..9 ~ : .z = 1..0 from Table B.I .. The major axis bending term is absent in this example since M.65<1.& Ni. =2.95 < 1. . =1.7 x60 UKC .

W.= 1. yv. i.f the columns are adequately restrained against lateral displacement (i.. A = 105 cm2 = 10500mm2.6.ZOO cm' = . =21.Jt.. =4. = 9.3 cm =213mm.0. Ascot.7-1 -1 Geometric properties. t .Z. = .38cm =4..8mm.i.factors. Material properties: Yield strength J = 355 N/mmz since ti < 16mm Steel Building Design: Design Data BS E N 10025-2 . W. The ends o. Use Annex B of BS EN 1993-1-1 to determine the beam-column interaction .3 mm...0 U K N A to BS EN 199. h = 208. Berks SLS 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET I Subject Client I Beam-column example 2 I Date I 2010 Beam-column example 2 Rolled Universal Beam Problem Check the suitability of a 533 x210 x 8 2 U K B in S355 steel for use as a column in a portal frame of clear height 5. Job Title Sheet 1 of 8 Institute Silwood Park.ZOO x I 0' mm ' .6 m if the axial compression is 160kN. out of plane) and rotation.55.Worked example The S t e ~ l Construction 589 Rev Job No. h = 528. Check initially over the full column height.e.6 mm. c. ct/tt = 6. =2060 cm' =2060 x IO'mm'. the moment at the top of the column is 530kNm and the base is pinned. Bending is about the major axis.8mm.2mm. = 1..+= 49. tt = 13. Partial factors: y v ( .

E I 72 E= BS EN 199.E= 49.0.590 Worked example Beam-column example 2 Check cross-section classification: For a Class 1 outstand jange in compression cl/t.& I 9 I Sheet 2 of 8 I Rev For a Class I web in bending c. -0. within limit for pure bending Assume since compression of 160kN is very low compared with axial resistance of cross-section (A.f.21(0.81 Actual cl/tlc = 6.4 = 0.34(1.Z..6/0..+/t.1.672]=2.0.34) Buckling reduction factors BS EN 1993-1-1 Table 6.97 I I .55/0.2)+1. S [ l + ~ ( x .3/208. Major and minor axis column buckling resistances Effective lengths: L. use buckling curve 'b' ( a = 0.342]=0.34 Buckling curves: h / b = 528.57 . = 10500 x355/10' =3727kN) that section is Class I under combined loading.5[1+0. li. - 5600/213 76.Jt. within limit Actual c.8 = 2.2)+/zf]=0.2 .0 L = 1. X Y = 0. L.81 = 8.1. = 1.34' = 0..2)+~~]=0..34-0. For major axis buckling.53 > 1...5[l+0. use buckling curve 'a' (a = 0.O O2=OS[I+a(/ZL -0.0 x 5600 = 5600mm for buckling about the z-z axis Non-dimensional column slendernesses: A.81 = 61.2.21) For minor axis buckling..2 @> = o .Z.2 6 235 - = 0.0 L = 1.57 + 40.3-1-1 Table 5..05.2)+0.2 x: BS EN 1993-1-1 Cl 6.0 x5600 =5600mm for buckling about the y-y axis L.572 1 1 .15 BS EN 1993-1-1 Cl 6. = 1.67-0. + d m = 0.

.75 and A.13' = 0.67' Sheet 3 of 8 Rev X? = +d n = 2.3 XIT = 1 OL1+ / .7-1 -1 C16.9.56 x YWI f t 2060 x 10 x = 412 kNm c 530 kNm = Mbd 355 10 1.3. Member fails BS EN 199. = 1 1.1.16 +41. 16 + BS E N 1993-1-1 C 1 6. -= 0.4 of Reference 2 see also Chapter 17.49(1. For the ratio of end moments v =0.75 .3.2..0.I .= 1. 1I& = 0.1 Clearly the lateral torsional buckling resistance is insufficient.15' Column buckling resistances: BS E N 1993-1-1 C 1 6. use buckling curve 'c' ( a = 0.. I BS EN 199.7-1 -1 C16..0 .Worked example Beam-column example 2 1 O? 591 I 1 = 0. .4.162 .0.4) (0. p = 0. Conservatively for I-sections.5[1+ a1 T(xI - 1. take UV = 0.56 Lateral torsional buckling resistance: Mb = X r T W. For rolled sections.75 x I .29 5 1. 13')] = I . This may be Lmproved by adding bracing to reduce the minor axis buckling length and hence LIT. for I-sections with 2 < h / b 53.from Table 6.1 Lateral torsional buckling resistance Non-dimensional beam slendernesses is determined using the simplified approach given in NCCI SN0026and Reference 2 as follows: NCCI SN002 For Class 1 or 2 sections.1.3. Buckling reduction factor xL1: - U K N A to BS E N 1993-1-1 Or = 0.0.0 : .3.75 x1.13 .49). ")+ @ f T ] = 0. .BN.1.2.15 + 42.5[1+ 0. - For the case of rolled and equivalent welded sections.= 0.

0. For minor axis buckling.66 ..48 . Major axis buckling resistance is therefore unaltered.0 x1600 =1600mm for buckling about the z-z axis Non-dimensional column slenderness. L.5[1+0. use buckling curve 'b' (a = 0.f the member.0.. =1.0 m for the lower part.8 L.48 .482]= 0. A L. while for the lower part of the member.5[1+a(I? .2. while for major y-y axis buckling. For the upper part o.6).2 Oz= 0.0 L =1. the bending moment varies linearly from 530kNm to 379kNm (= 530 x 4/5.. while minor axis buckling resistance and L T B resistance are increased. h / b = 528.6 m from top of column I Sheet 4 of 8 I Rev For minor z-z axis buckling and lateral torsional buckling (LTB).34) Buckling reduction factor BS EN 1993-1-1 Table 6.4 Buckling curve.3.1. = 5.from 379 k N m to zero.. 76. = 0.6 m .2) +I:] = 0.2) +0.for the upper part of the member and 4. = 1. For the upper part o f the member: *530 kNm E 2 I I I I \ Minor axis column buckling resistance Effective length: L.34(0.L ~ ~ .6rn.592 Worked example Beam-column example 2 Add bracing to reduce minor axis buckling length Estimate suitable bracing location as 1.21ii -1600143. the bending moment varies linearly ..2 x: BS EN 1993-1-1 Cl 6.53 > 1. L.8 = 2.3/208.

71.> -= 2060 x Hd.0. Since xLl c 0.Rii =X. both Equations 6. = 0 . . 6 + 0 .are determined graphically from Figure 19.71.89 Figure 18.Worked example Beam-column example 2 I Oz + 593 I I . For the ratio of end moments ly=379/5.89.O Column buckling resistance: Nh.Af.~=0. .9..12 (6) .01.4 of Reference 2 . For t.12. The minor axis bending term is absent in this example since M.160kN yu7 I ...OK Combined axial load plus bending: To verify resistance under combined axial loading plus bending.66' = 0.. = = WZ. I Lateral torsional buckling resistance Non-dimensional beam slendernesses is determined using the simplified approach given in NCCI SN0026 and Reference 2 as follows: NCCI SN002 For Class I or 2 sections.61 and 6.62 of BS E N 199. Conservatively for I-sections. Values of k.C. Nh. 3604 C.04 and 1./-= 0.0.7-1-1 must be satisfied.bd = 0.89 5 1. take W = 0..66 + 40.i. M .?0 = 0. 7 1 BS EN 199.o = 731kNm >530kNm= Mr(1 :.Kd k . k = 1.o =NEo OK BS E N 1993-1-1 C 1 6.= 0. l l f i = 0..I .89 = 0.48' Sheet 5 of 8 Rev X? = . =0... ylvo 10 '355 x 10" I .3.. = 1.and kz.= 0'89x10500x355 x10-' =3332kN .34. = 1..91 (by interpolation) from Table 6. 4 ~ 0 .3 Figure 18.01x 0.. there is n o reduction for lateral torsion buckling and M h K d M .see also Chapter 17.7-1 -1 Table B. Ril f. .12 (a) For j Nro ~ - 160= 0.4.

48 51.3/208.30 +k.89= 0.04 + 0.594 Worked example Beam-column example 2 Applying the interaction equations (Equations 6.05 +0.2.61 BS E N 1993-1-1 Equation 6.I .62) of BS EN 1993-1-1: I Sheet 6 of 8 I Rev * N i J i ~ d 5.2)+l2] =0.2)+1.OK For the lower part o f the member: Minor axis column buckling resistance Effective length: L.factor @? BS EN 199.07.53 > 1. = 1.0 BS E N 1993-1-1 Cl 6.20-0.61 and 6.K d + k.62 Ni.1.65 = 0. 160 1 = -+ 3.78 c 1.0 L = 1.z li.69 c 1./-= = 0. 2.8 76. For minor axis buckling..34) Buckling reduction .2 =0.1 L. I .71 = 0....3-1-1 C16.20 Buckling curve: h / b = 528.0 :.1 - 400014.5[l+a(12 -0.. use buckling curve ‘b’ ( a = 0.34(1.38’-1. OK M I J H ~ 3604 731 ~ BS EN 199.3-1-1 Equation 6.8 = 2.20’ +.3.202] =1.2 x: BS EN 199. A.-M’ ‘(I = 160 + 0.3.3.38+41.0 x 4000 = 4000mm for buckling about the z-z axis Non-dimensional column slenderness: 2.=-=2..0 : .5[1+0..3-1-1 Table 6.38 X? = 1 O? 1 1. _C MI>.3..73 = 0.4 = 1.32 530 1.

4 ~ y .1..0 x 10‘ (4.75 .75 x 0. take UV = 0. ro = 530 x : .4) + (0. Values of k.5[l+arr(Xr.6) = 555 k N m < 379 k N m = M .= !~rrW. @IT = 0. 1I 6 = 0.12(a) 0.76 ~ 2 0 6 x 0 I0 355 ~ 1.0 = 0.from Table 6.75 x 0.49(0. For rolled sections. .81’ Lateral torsional buckling resistance: M ~ R .B~~rI 0.0. use buckling curve ‘c’ ( a = 0.3. - a.f Reference 2 see also Chapter 17.76 XLI = QL1 1 1 +d m fl = 0.62 of BS EN 1993-1-1 must be satisfied. For = 0.7-1 -1 C16.3.75 x 0.. = 1. both Equations 6.81 For the case of rolled and equivalent welded sections.2.r.0.= 0.i& 1 NCCI SN002 6 For Class 1 or 2 sections. ..01 x Table B.= 1.12. = 0.75 and - a. ~ YMI = 0.3 Figure 18.4 o.4.BN.84’ .1 Combined avial load plus bending: To verlfy resistance under combined axial loading plus bending.84 BS EN 199.60 Figure 18.81. are determined graphically from Figure 19.r(j= 0.factor xrr. The minor axis bending term is absent in this example since Mz. Conservatively for I-sections.7-1 -1 C16. for I-sections with 2 < h / b 53. OK BS EN 199.2. C.9.3 = 0. U K N A to BS E N 1993-1-1 Buckling reduction .61 and 6.12 (6) . = 1 -uvXz& 6 = 0..6 BS E N 1993-1-1 3 k .5[1+ -~r...9 x 4000/43‘ 76.0/5.812)] = 0.84 + 40. and k. For the ratio of end moments = 0.60 = 0.Worked example Beam-column example 2 Lateral torsional buckling resistance Non-dimensional beam slendernesses is determined using the simplified approach given in NCCI SN0026and Reference 2 as follows: LLl 595 I Sheet 7 of 8 I I Rev = -UV.r = 0. 1.o)+.0.49). p = 0.

as may he seen in Figure 19. .12(a). the value of k.. R ~ I I 160 kz.46<1.596 Worked example Beam-column example 2 Applying the interaction equations (Equations 6.0 3604 379 555 :.61 and 6...RO ~ M'bd Mi...1 were to he used.0 :...SC. which has a maximum value of I.04+0..76 c 1.62 *+ NI.33 x 210 x 82 U K B Note that if the maximum values of the interaction factors given in Table 19.OK BS EN 1993-1-1 Equation 6.. the member would have failed. Adopt 5.60-=0.09+0....OK : . This is mainly due to the k.41=0.67 555 = 0.OC. R<I =160 +0.. M ' b d 5 1 = -+0.62) of BS EN 1993-1-1: I Sheet 8 of 8 I Rev Nbd +k.61 BS EN 1993-1-1 Equation 6.approaches I. but for low axial loads and low major axis non-dimensional column slenderness. Nb i...99Mil R ~ I 1792 ~ 179 = 0.factor.

W.f this section to carry the applied loads.3 k N Check the adequacy o.f 9. The simplified interaction expression f r o m columns in simple construction is as follows: Partial .6mm.Worked example The S t e ~ l Construction 597 Rev Job No.8mm.. =465 cm' =465 x l 0 ' m m ' . Material properties: Yield strength J = 275 N/mmz since ti < 16mm Check cross-section classification: For a Class 1 outstand j a n g e in compression c.0 m and the steel grade is S275.. i .7..3. =992cm7=992xIO'mm'. A = 9.rO o. = 11..Jt./tp I 9 Steel Building Design: Design Data BS EN 10025-2 BS EN I 99. designed on the assumptions of simple construction).1 mm.I Table 5.. c. = 8.1 cm2 = 9. xl41 = 1.3.3-1-1 Geometric properties: h = 254. h = 254.E 5.77. ct/tt = 7.Jt.. The design axial load in the column Nbdis 125.3.92 . W.4kNm and a design minor axis bending moment M. Job Title Sheet 1 of 3 Institute Silwood Park.2 For a Class I web in compression c.+ = 2. Connection eccentricity causes a design major axis bending moment M. i .0..factors: x l 4 n = 1.2mm.3 kNm.I .33 E=& 235 - = 0. Ascot.. The column length is 5.frame (i. tt = 14. t . Berks SLS 7QN Telephone: (01344) 623345 Fax: (01344) 622944 CALCULATION SHEET I Subject Client I Beam-column example 3 Made by I Date I 2010 Beam-column example 3 Rolled Universal Column in Simple Construction Problem A 254 x254 x 73 UKC is to be assessed for use as an internal column in a simple .0 UK N A to BS EN 199.1 c m = I I I mm.310mm2. = 6.e.6 mm.48 c m = 64.bdof 2..

use buckling curve 'c' ( a = 0.80 .92 = 25.77/0.9 and c.40. = 1.892]= 1.06 .I Table 6.BN. For minor axis buckling.06 + 41.0 51.2) + 0.89 .I C16.5[1+ .factor @? BS EN I 99.I . /-= 1 1.1/254.49) Buckling reduction .0. : . within limit Actual c . take UV = 0.0.2.892 X? = 1 O? +.3.3.& = 23.2.1 .I .= 1.1 Lateral torsional buckling resistance Non-dimensional beam slendernesses is determined using the simplified approach given in NCCI SN0026 and Reference 2 as follows: NCCI SN002 For Class 1 or 2 sections.49(0.06' = 0.9 x 0..0 x5000 =5000rnm for buckling about the z-z axis Non-dimensional column slenderness: Buckling curve: h / b =254.3.89 = 0.O Column buckling resistance: BS EN 1993-1-1 Cl 6.3.6 =1.2 x: BS EN I 99.& = 7. . = 0.1.0. /t.2) + I:] = 0. within I limit Sheet2of3 I Rev Cross-section is Class I under pure compression.598 Worked example Beam-column example 3 Actual c+/t.5[1+0. Conservatively for I-sections.9& = 0.1.0.2 = 0. so will also be class I under the more favourable stress distribution arising from compression plus bending.92 = 8.z = 1.61 5 1.0 L = 1.0.3/0. Minor axis column buckling resistance Effective length: L.

3.7 k N m > 9. For rolled sections.first term (axial load) dominates for this arrangement.2. .04+0.0.812.0 :.1 Minor axis bending resistance M<.81 +0.bd: .0.80. 0 = 0.802 BS EN 1993-1-1 Cl 6. 2 75 w.I (26.88 I 1.81+ 40.5[1+all = 0 4I U K N A to BS EN 1993-1-1 (xll-Ill. Buckling reduction factor XL1: OL1= 0. the .3 kNm = Mi.. .OK :.82 X 992 X l o i -X 10 YWl 1. OK YM 0 BS EN I 99.Worked example Beam-column example 3 599 I Sheet3of3 I I Rev For the case of rolled and equivalent welded sections.2.2.75 x 0.3 = 0. for I-sectionswith h / h 52.82 XrT = OL1+ = /.0.802)]= 0. illustrating why great precision is not required with the two bending terms and justifying the use of conservative interaction factors.= Lateral torsional buckling resistance: Mb nil = X r T f.0.34).75 and All = 0.34(0.4 kNm = M .4.4) + (0.3 = 0. = 0.3.?. use buckling curve 'b' ( a = 0.0 275 x 10-O = 128 k N m > 2.81 1 1 0.Kd = w~Jizfu ~ 465 1.0 : .5 (2) Combined axial loud plus bending For a column in simple construction.0& ] + 0.I .75 x 0.) + . bd BS EN 1993-1-1 Cl 6.Adopt 254 x 254 x 73 UKC Note how the .3. OK = 22.following simplified interaction check may be performed: = 0.

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