Passport to Crime Reduction

This Passport to Crime Reduction is designed to introduce you to the basic principles, processes and tools of crime reduction. It provides a balanced programme of underpinning knowledge, theory and practical skills. It will equip you with basic crime reduction training that you can adapt to suit your individual situation.

This book has been written, edited and designed by staff at the Home Office Crime Reduction Centre. With special thanks to Paul Ekblom, Marcus Felson and everyone else who contributed. The Passport to Crime Reduction Logo was designed by Libby Denton, work experience student, Easingwold School.

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Passport to Crime Reduction
About this book

About this book
Welcome to the Passport to Crime Reduction. This section looks at what you will learn.

Aims and Objective s
This Passport to Crime Reduction looks at the basic techniques used in crime reduction. By the end of the book you will be able to: define crime reduction describe where we are in crime reduction identify the key elements of good practice for working in partnerships explain the process of problem solving identify the crime reduction tools to use in each stage of the process of problem solving apply the process of problem solving and the crime reduction tools having had the chance to practice them in the case study define evaluation, monitoring and good assessment describe the 7 stage evaluation model identify skills and knowledge that you can use in your own work.

Who is the book for?
This book is relevant to everyone who works in crime reduction. The skills and knowledge in this book are valuable for people new to crime reduction and a useful reminder to anyone, whatever level of experience they have in crime reduction.
Partnership groups Private Individuals

Crime Reduction Knowledge & experience
Police

Local authorities Anyone new to crime reduction

Other organisations

Voluntary Agencies

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Passport to Crime Reduction

Contents
What this book covers...............................................................4 How to use this book ................................................................5

Contents

Pa rt One - What is crime re d u c t i o n ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
W h e re we are in crime re d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 History of crime reduction.........................................................9 Legislation ...............................................................................10 Where does the Home Office fit in? .........................................15 Working in part n e r s h i p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Working with the community ..................................................22 S u m m a ry - Pa rt One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

Pa rt Two - The process of crime re d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . .2 7
Problem solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Identify the problem - Scanning ..............................................29 The details of the problem - Analysis ......................................30 Take appropriate action - Response ........................................31 Evaluation - Assessment .........................................................32 Crime reduction tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3 The Problem Analysis Triangle - PAT........................................33 SMART Objectives ...................................................................36 Routine Activity Theory - RAT ..................................................39 The Ten Principles of Crime Prevention ...................................40 Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 0 Scanning .................................................................................50 Analysis...................................................................................55 Response ................................................................................60 Assessment.............................................................................68 S u m m a ry - Pa rt Tw o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69

Pa rt Three - Evaluating crime reduction pro j e c t s . . . . . and initiatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1
What are evaluation, monitoring and assessment? . . . . . . . .7 2 Evaluation and monitoring? ....................................................72 Evaluation types & purposes ..................................................73 Levels of Evaluation ................................................................74 Project management and eva l u a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 H ow to eva l u a t e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Evaluation results ...................................................................80 S u m m a ry - Pa rt Thre e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 1

Pa rt Four - ...finally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 3
Further references...................................................................84 Your notes...............................................................................88 Evaluation form .......................................................................91 3

Passport to Crime Reduction
What this book covers

What this book cove r s
This introduction to the Passport to Crime Reduction covers how to use the book, the symbols used and how long it will take to work through it.

7 27 71 83

Pa rt One What is crime reduction?
What we mean by crime reduction, where the Home Office fits in and working in partnership. A summary can be found on page 25.

Pa rt Tw o The process of crime reduction
Defines the problem solving approach to crime reduction and explains the tools used in crime reduction. There is a case study that will give you a chance to practice using what you have learned. A summary can be found on page 69.

Pa rt Thre e Evaluating crime reduction
Defines evaluation, monitoring and good assessment. Describes the 10 Steps Method of project management. Looks at the 7 stage process for evaluation and discusses what to do with results. A summary can be found on page 81.

Pa rt Fo u r ...finally
Contains further information and an evaluation form for this Passport to Crime Reduction.

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Passport to Crime Reduction
How to use this book

H ow to use this book
This book is a flexible resource that is designed to help you learn about crime reduction. If you are new to crime reduction you will probably want to work through the book from start to finish as this will give you the whole picture. As well as containing information it also has exercises and questions to test what you have learned and help you to apply it. Each part of the Passport to Crime Reduction has a similar structure: Objectives at the beginning to tell you what you will learn. Text broken down into individual sections, each covering a single topic. Questions designed to make you think about some of the issues in the book and how they apply to you. A case study for you to work on, which gives you the opportunity to practice some of the skills you will have learned. You will find parts of it throughout the book. The case study is set in the fictional community of Allertown, but it is based on real crime problems. A summary of the key points.

This book has been designed to help you learn by: • providing information • giving you examples to review what you’ve learned • allowing you time to think how it applies to you • giving you some practice of the key points in the case study.
Obtain new information Practice the key points Apply new information
The Learning Cycle

Review what you’ve learned

If you already have some experience of crime reduction you may decide to skip some sections. You should still read the objectives at the beginning of each part and the summaries at the end of each part to make sure that you’re not missing out on anything new to you.

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Passport to Crime Reduction
Symbols used in this book

Symbols used in this book
To help you work your way round this book there are several symbols. This symbol at the beginning of a paragraph means that there is a question for you to answer. Space is provided in the book for your answers. This symbol indicates that there is part of the case study for you to complete.

This symbol appears when you have to collect information from another person or another source outside this book. This symbol indicates where there is a summary of the points you have learned.

This symbol shows where there is a suggested answer to a question or activity.

This symbol appears on case study pages.

These symbols highlight the section objective and overview.

Notes
This book has been designed with wide margins so that you have plenty of space to make notes. There are also some pages at the back of the book for your notes.

Ti m i n g
It should take you no more than three hours to work through the Passport to Crime Reduction. You don’t have to do it all in one go - you may want to take a break and return to it later. 6

an introduction to crime re d u c t i o n

This Passport to Crime Reduction is designed to introduce you to the basic principles, processes and tools of crime reduction. It provides a balanced programme of underpinning knowledge, theory and practical skills. It will equip you with basic crime reduction training that you can adapt to suit your individual situation.

ISBN 1 84473 089 1 © Home Office Crime Reduction Centre 2003 Home Office Crime Reduction Centre The Hawkhills, Easingwold, York Y061 3EG Tel: 01347 825060 Fax: 01347 825099 E-mail: crc@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk First Edition